Autopsy findings in COVID-19-related deaths: a literature review
AbstractAlthough many clinical reports have been published, little is known about the pathological post-mortem findings from people who have died of the novel coronavirus disease. The need for postmortem information is urgent to improve patient management of mild and severe illness, and treatment strategies. The present systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) standards. A systematic literature search and a critical review of the collected studies were conducted. An electronic search of PubMed, Science Direct Scopus, Google Scholar, and Excerpta Medica Data...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - October 6, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A review of deadly accidents involving fireworks in Denmark
AbstractThe aim of this study was to describe the circumstances surrounding firework-related deaths in Denmark, locate similarities and compare findings to the other known literature. Autopsy files, including police reports, located through searches in the archives of the three Danish institutes of forensic medicine were accessed. Data describing the age, gender, toxicology findings, circumstances of the accident, cause of death, autopsy findings and type of fireworks were examined. Eight cases involving firework-related deaths matched the search criteria, two of which occurred on New Year ’s Eve. An unknown number o...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 29, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Potential use of deep learning techniques for postmortem imaging
AbstractThe use of postmortem computed tomography in forensic medicine, in addition to conventional autopsy, is now a standard procedure in several countries. However, the large number of cases, the large amount of data, and the lack of postmortem radiology experts have pushed researchers to develop solutions that are able to automate diagnosis by applying deep learning techniques to postmortem computed tomography images. While deep learning techniques require a good understanding of image analysis and mathematical optimization, the goal of this review was to provide to the community of postmortem radiology experts the key...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 28, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The potential of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic methods for the detection of chlorine in human nail samples
AbstractAlthough chlorine (Cl2) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since World War I there is no known specific and reliable biomarker to indicate the presence of chlorine. We distinguished chlorinated human nails from unchlorinated ones using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. This research was carried out between October 2018 and July 2019 on two nail samples taken from 55 male and 104 female volunteers. One sample from each participant was chlorinated, while the second sample was used as a control. Spectral data were collected from chlorinated and unchlorinated (control) human...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 27, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sudden death due to tension pneumothorax associated with pulmonary tuberculosis
AbstractA man in his seventies who lived alone was found dead in his home. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) performed prior to autopsy showed right-sided tension pneumothorax. Autopsy revealed an active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesion. Macroscopic and histopathological findings showed pleural infiltration by TB lesions, suggesting that tension pneumothorax developed in association with TB infection. Routine postmortem CT performed prior to autopsy is useful in screening for TB because the presence of TB lesions can be confirmed from characteristic pulmonary findings. However, it may be difficult to identify tuberculo...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 24, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal ventriculoperitoneal shunt occlusions diagnosed at autopsy
In this report, we describe two cases of death caused by obstruction of VP shunts documented at autopsy. The first death was determined to be secondary to cerebellar edema with uncal and tonsillar herniation after posterior left VP shunt occlusion. The second was due to VP shunt occlusion resulting in diffuse cerebral edema and ventricular enlargement with compression and hemorrhage of the cerebellar tonsils and medulla. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Is the role of forensic medicine in the covid-19 pandemic underestimated?
AbstractWe believe that forensic medicine should play a significant role in the COVID-19 pandemic. Forensic pathologists should ask and answer various questions through autopsy cases during the COVID-19 period, thus providing a significant contribution to science. Some of the potential roles of forensic medicine in this issue include: determining the exact cause of death among the deceased who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, contribution to the accuracy of mortality statistics, understanding pathological mechanisms of COVID-19, tracking the presence of the virus over time, survival of the virus after death as well as dealing wit...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Patricide and overkill: a review of the literature and case report of a murder with Capgras delusion
AbstractDespite being an infrequent crime, parental homicide has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in adult perpetrators and a history of child abuse and family violence in adolescent perpetrators. Among severe psychiatric disorders there is initial evidence that delusional misidentification might also play a role in parricide. Parricides are often committed with undue violence and may result in overkill. The authors present the case of an adult male affected by schizoaffective disorder and Capgras syndrome who committed patricide. Forensic pathologists classify such cases as overkill by multiple fatal ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Electrical weapons and rhabdomyolysis
AbstractIt has been suggested that an application of a conducted electrical weapon (CEW) might cause muscle injury such as rhabdomyolysis and an acute inflammatory response. We explored this hypothesis by testing the effects of electrical weapons on circulating markers of inflammation and muscle damage. In a prospective study, 29 volunteers received a full-trunk 5-s TASER ® X26(E) CEW exposure. Venous blood samples were taken before, 5 min after, and at 24 h following the discharge. We tested for changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), myoglobin, albumin, globulin, alb...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Greenish-blue discoloration of the brain and heart after treatment with methylene blue
AbstractGreenish-blue discoloration of the brain and heart was observed during the autopsy of a 63-year-old woman who had been treated with methylene blue for septic shock following a traffic accident. This “pistachio” or “avatar” discoloration occurs when the colorless metabolite leucomethylene blue is oxidized to methylene blue upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Other clinically documented adverse effects of methylene blue include greenish-blue urine and bluish discoloration of the skin and mucosa. In medicine, methylene blue is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase with di...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 16, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Cysticercosis and suicide – an example from a forensic collection
AbstractIn this case from 1937, the deceased was a 52-year-old female who was suffering from systemic cysticercosis, with prominent neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Given the protracted clinical course and autopsy findings it appears likely that the disease led the woman to commit suicide by ingesting lye, a corrosive substance, and the most common way to commit suicide in Belgrade at the time. The autopsy revealed many rounded transparent cysts, attached to the dura and pia-arachnoid, as well as encapsulated in the intercostal muscles, diaphragm and muscles of the arms, legs and the trunk. Solitary cysticercosis of ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 14, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Noninvasive 7  tesla MRI of fatal craniocerebral gunshots – a glance into the future of radiologic wound ballistics
AbstractCompared to computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior visualization of the soft tissue. Recently, the first 7  Tesla (7 T) MRI scanner was approved for clinical use, which will facilitate access to these ultra-high-field MRI scanners for noninvasive examinations and scientific studies on decedents. 7 T MRI has the potential to provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a characteristic that can be dir ectly exploited to improve image quality and invest in attempts to increase resolution. Therefore, evaluating the diagnostic potential of 7 T MRI for forensic ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 11, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Biological kinship in 750 year old human remains from Central Argentina with signs of interpersonal violence
This study constitutes a unique case in Argentina of kinship determination based on DNA profiles of human remains in an archaeological context of interperso nal violence. It is important to highlight the contribution made by these studies to address topics usually hidden in bioarchaeological studies, such as community organization, cultural customs and mortuary practices. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Age determination of the adult blow fly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) through quantitative pteridine fluorescence analysis
AbstractDetermination of a minimal postmortem interval via age estimation of necrophagous diptera has been restricted to the juvenile stages and the time until emergence of the adult fly, i.e. up until 2 –6 weeks depending on species and temperature. Age estimation of adult flies could extend this period by adding the age of the fly to the time needed for complete development. In this context pteridines are promising metabolites, as they accumulate in the eyes of flies with increasing age. We stu died adults of the blow flyLucilia sericata at constant temperatures of 16  °C and 25 °C up to an a...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Experimental modelling of imposed upper airway obstruction in infants and children
AbstractThe interpretation of injuries to children and infants poses a number of difficulties to any medical practitioner involved in their care or tasked with the investigation their death. This includes differentiating accidental from non-accidental trauma and the consideration of medical factors making a child more prone to injury. Non-fatal but life-threatening upper airway obstruction is unfortunately a well-recognized pattern of abuse which may precede a fatal episode. In this experimental study, we aimed to model theoretical digit marks to the head using infant and young child resuscitation dummies, exposed to vario...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Targeted and minimally invasive post-mortem examination with total body computed tomography not recommended in New Zealand
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 7, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Regarding “Death due to atypical urinothorax following percutaneous nephrolithotomy”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 7, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Seat belt asphyxia as a lethal mechanism in motor vehicle crashes
AbstractA 28-year-old driver was found dead in his car after impact with a truck. At the scene he was seated in the driver ’s seat partially hanging out of the vehicle with the sash component of the seatbelt tightly pressed into his neck. At autopsy there was evidence of neck compression with bilateral conjunctival petechial hemorrhages and fracture of the right superior horn of the thyroid cartilage. Limb fractures a nd internal injuries were not associated with significant hemorrhage. There was no evidence of brain trauma. Death was, therefore due to neck compression from the seatbelt demonstrating an additional ra...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 6, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal donkey bite in children: a case report
We describe the case of a 21-month-old girl that was found dead in a farmyard next to a donkey that belonged to the family. Examination of the body showed bite marks on the right side of the neck and the upper part of the shoulder. Death was attributed to cervical trauma and spine injuries from a donkey attack. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 4, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Postmortem predation by a clowder of domestic cats
AbstractA 69-year-old man was found lying on the floor at his home address. According to the police report every room was filled with refuse and “thirty or so cats” were resident in the house. The body showed signs of extensive post mortem animal predation with opening of the chest and abdominal cavities, loss of soft tissues of the face, loss of soft tissues and organs of the neck, loss of the lungs and heart, and injuries to the liver, right kidney, stomach, transverse colon and cecum. The cause of death could not be determined from the autopsy given the absence of certain vital organs such as the heart and l...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 4, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Soil chemical markers distinguishing human and pig decomposition islands: a preliminary study
In this study, we sampled soil to 5  cm depth at distances of 0 cm and 30 cm from cadavers, as well as from control sites 90 cm distant, from five human and three pig cadavers at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER). We found that soil moisture, electrical conductivity, nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus were higher in soil directly under cadavers (0 cm), with very limited lateral spread beyond 30 cm. These patterns lasted up to 700 days, indicating that key soil nutrients might be useful markers of the location of the decomposition island for up to 2&...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 1, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Non-human bones in forensic casework: not such a trivial problem
This study used data from nine years of casework at the NSW Department of Forensic Medicine (DOFM), Sydney. It analyzed the number of non-human cases that were assessed, the types of animals represented in these bones, the bone elements found, their condition and their location when found. By 2016, over 70% of skeletal cases handled each year by the Sydney DOFM were non-human. The most common animal remains were sheep and cattle, and the skeletal elements appearing in the greatest number of cases were vertebrae, followed by femora and tibiae. Skull fragments were rare. Slightly more cases were found on the surface rather t...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Giant cell aortitis
AbstractInflammatory aortic diseases are broadly classified into three categories according to the degree of inflammation: atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis with excessive inflammation, and aortitis/periaortitis. This paper presents a case of a 39-year old man with aneurysmal dilatation of thoracic aorta and aortic valve insufficiency. The aortic wall showed thickening and wrinkled “tree bark” appearance as well as apparent scarring of the intima. Histological examination revealed intimal hyperplasia, a granulomatous/giant cell pattern in the inner tunica media, a few epithelioid macrophages, abundant chronic ly...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Post-mortem CT with macroscopic and microscopic correlation in a case of sudden death due to systemic sarcoidosis
We report a case of sudden death due to systemic sarcoidosis in a fifty-four year old male who was reportedly healthy. A computerized tomography (CT) scan was performed before the autopsy. It showed cardiomegaly with hilar and abdominal lymphadenopathy. The autopsy showed pale yellow plaque deposition on the heart surface which was infiltrating the myocardium. Histological examination of the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen showed extensive sarcoid granulomata which helped in establishing the cause of death. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The possibility of identifying brain hemorrhage in putrefied bodies with PMCT
AbstractThis paper aims to demonstrate that post-mortem CT (PMCT) can locate intracranial hemorrhages, even in decomposed cases. This is of relevance in that post-mortem decomposition is particularly damaging to the brain tissue ’s consistency, resulting in great difficulties to reliably diagnose and locate intracranial hemorrhages. We searched our case database of the last 11 years to find cases with decomposition of the body, where PMCT and an autopsy had been performed. We identified eleven cases according to these cr iteria. Postmortem interval ranged from 2 days to 2 weeks, and post-mortem radiolo...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 24, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The role of restraint in fatal excited delirium: a research synthesis and pooled analysis
AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to perform a comprehensive scientific literature review and pooled data risk factor analysis of excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) and agitated delirium (AgDS). All cases of ExDS or AgDS described individually in the literature published before April 23, 2020 were used to create a database of cases, including demographics, use of force, drug intoxication, mental illness, and survival outcome. Odds ratios were used to quantify the association between death and diagnosis (ExDS vs. AgDS) across the covariates. There were 61 articles describing 168 cases of ExDS or AgDS, of which 104 ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 21, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A comparative study of conducted electrical weapon incapacitation during a goal-directed task
AbstractConducted electrical weapons (CEW) are ubiquitous in law enforcement given their unique ability to physically incapacitate violently resisting subjects. Early use of animal models to study CEW incapacitation effectiveness (e.g. porcine model with 4-limb strain gauges) proved to be poorly predictive of human incapacitation effectiveness. In a previously published human study, we developed a methodology for the prospective assessment of the incapacitation effectiveness of CEWs in highly motivated human subjects. Here we use this methodology in Part 1 to compare the incapacitation effectiveness of the newly released A...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Wildlife crime in Croatia
AbstractThis paper presents data about wildlife crime in Croatia. The data were gathered from qualitative interviews and personal communications with individuals involved in wildlife crime-related research, and/or prevention and detection work or recreation. The results show that poaching is a recognized problem. There is a variety of commonly poached mammals, fish and bird species. We conclude that evidence about wildlife crime should be collated drawing on forensic techniques. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fire exposure after lethal hypothermia
AbstractA 49-year-old woman was found dead in her apartment after a fire began in her building. During the forensic autopsy, 3rd to 4th degree burns were found on the woman ’s body, but there were no indications that she was alive when the fire started. Interestingly, hemorrhagic gastric mucosa erosions, as well as bloody contents in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, were observed. However, the source of the bleeding could not be found. The cause of death was t herefore determined to be hypothermia with postmortem fire exposure. The cause of the hypothermia could possibly have been high internal blood loss. The...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Signet-ring cell appearance of atrophic fat cells
AbstractCells with ‘signet-ring’ appearance were found at post-mortem examination of a man with a history of chronic illness, weight loss and multiple regions of ‘bowel thickening’ during life. Due to the decedent’s history, the finding raised the possibility of disseminated signet-ring adenocarcinoma. Howev er, the vacuoles did not stain for mucin and the cells did not stain for keratin. The cells did stain for calretinin and so a diagnosis of signet ring mesothelioma was considered. However, it was suggested that the cells with a cytoplasmic vacuole displacing the nucleus to one side produci...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 12, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

An unusual patterned injury from homicidal craniocerebral impalement with a metal chair leg
AbstractA 26-year-old young man died shortly after he had suffered craniocerebral impalement from a metal chair leg during an affray at an airport bar. At autopsy a 25  mm diameter circular wound was present in the left parietal region with protruding brain tissue. Death was due to craniocerebral trauma from a penetrating injury to the head. Examination of the chair used in the assault showed a metal chair with smeared blood on the front right leg that matched th e blood group of the decedent. The fatal wound had been inflicted by the assailant with the victim leaning forward while kneeling on the floor. The assault h...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 7, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suffocation by massive blood aspiration due to intraoral gun-shot injury –the oldest museum specimen in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade
AbstractThe forensic museum specimen presented in this paper is the oldest specimen in the collection of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade. It comprises a jar containing six cervical vertebras connected to a small amount of dry connective tissue. During the autopsy, the cervical part of the spine was completely opened posteriorly: the base of the odontoid process of the axis was crushed, but the transverse and posterior longitudinal ligaments and the spinal cord were intact. Attached to the specimen, there is a partly cored piece of lead which looks like a severely deformed handgun projectile, approximately 12...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 7, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Autopsy or anatomical dissection: evidence of a craniotomy in a 17th –eighteenth century burial site (Ravenna, Italy)
We report the case of a middle-aged female skeleton from the cemetery of the church of San Biagio (Ravenna, Italy), dating back to the 17th –19th centuries, that shows signs of a complete craniotomy. In an attempt to clarify the reason for this practice, we analyzed all pathological and non-pathological markers on the skeleton. We carried out anthropological analyses and osteometric measurements to determine the biological profile and the cranial capacity of the individual. Paleopathological investigation and analyses of traumatic injury patterns were carried out using both a morphological and a microscopic approach....
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 7, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Academic referencing – a dying art
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 31, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Regarding “suicide by inhalation of butane gas through a homemade adaptation of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) facemask”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 31, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Death scene investigation and autopsy proceedings in identifying the victims of the terror attack on the Breitscheidplatz in Berlin 19 th December 2016
We describe and discuss the forensic mission after the terrorist attack on the Breitscheidplatz in Berlin on 19th December 2016, focusing on co-operation with police authorities, and the injury patterns of the deceased. Even after massive blunt trauma, severe injury patterns are often unrecognizable by visual inspection of the body ( “Casper’s sign”), which could instill false security among rescuers or, as happened on the Breitscheidplatz, may lead to distress or even trauma in rescue personnel when obviously primarily uninjured patients die suddenly. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 30, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Hippocampal abnormalities and seizures: a 16-year single center review of sudden unexpected death in childhood, sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and SIDS
AbstractSudden Unexpected Death in Childhood (SUDC) is the unexplained death of children aged between 1 and 18  years old. Hippocampal abnormalities have previously been described in Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) and it is possible that SUDC shares similar pathogenic mechanisms with SUDEP. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of hippocampal abnormalities, history of seizures and demographic features in our caseload of SUDC, SUDEP and SIDS cases. A review of post-mortem reports from 2003 to 2018 was carried out to identify cases of SUDC, SUDEP and SIDS. Histological evidence of hippocampal abnormalitie...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 24, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Revisit of gastromalacia: a report of three cases and review of the literature
AbstractGastromalacia, a postmortem dissolution of the stomach, is caused by endogenous enzymes resulting in thinning and softening of the stomach wall with focal perforation. Thus, identifying gastromalacia and differentiating it from other causes of gastric perforation is essential to avoid misdiagnosis. Herein, three cases of gastromalacia are described. The victims died due to hyperthermia, leukemia complicated by cerebral hemorrhage, and asphyxia due to inhaled vomitus, respectively. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance in three cases indicated gastromalacia, although multiple factors confused the diagnosis. Fur...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 23, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Spontaneous iliac vein rupture in the setting of a long dwelling intravenous vena cava filter
We report an unusual case in which a patient had an inferior venous cava filter in place for two years before experiencing spont aneous rupture of the left iliac vein. There was no evidence of filter migration or inferior venous cava perforation. Spontaneous iliac vein ruptures are rare, with fewer than 50 reported cases, and are not typically seen with a long-dwelling IVC. This case describes a unique complication of retriev able filters and highlights the importance of retrieving filters as soon as the acute danger of pulmonary embolism has resolved. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 15, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Degradation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA after γ-irradiation and its effect on forensic genotyping
This study present s a novel approach for the assessment of nuDNA versus mtDNA damage from a comparison of genotype and quantity data, while exploring likely mechanisms for differential damage after high doses of γ-irradiation. Liquid (hydrated) and dried (dehydrated) whole blood samples were exposed to high doses of γ-radiation (1–50 kilogray, kGy). The GlobalFiler PCR Amplification Kit was used to evaluate short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping efficacy and nuDNA degradation; a comparison was made to mtDNA degradation measured using real-time PCR assays. Each assay was normalized before comparison by calc...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 11, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical forensic height measurements on injured people using a multi camera device for 3D documentation
AbstractDocumenting the existence, size, position and shape of injuries is an important part of medical forensic examinations. In the photography of an injury, the documentation is limited to an approximation of size and position of the injury based on a ruler included in the image. The documentation of injuries can be improved with photogrammetry, which allows the creation of scaled 3D models of an injury that can be used to not only document and visualize the injury but also to match the injury with an injury-causing object. In this paper, the multicamera device “Botscan” was used to perform 3D whole-body doc...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 11, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The brutal events on Houtman Abrolhos following the wreck of the Batavia in 1629
AbstractThe flagship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), theBatavia, was wrecked on the morning of the 4th of June 1629 on an isolated reef of the Houtman Abrolhos islands off the coast of Western Australia. The majority of crew and passengers (180 –250, including 30 women and children) were able to reach an island which they called Batavia’s Graveyard (now known as Beacon Island). After the commander, Francisco Pelsaert, sailed to Batavia for help, Jeronimus Cornelisz took control. Over the next several months his men raped and murdered a t least 125 captive shipwrecked passengers and crew. Upon Pelsaert&rs...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 9, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Is it time for targeted and minimally invasive post-mortem examination using total body computed tomography in a medicolegal autopsy?
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 9, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Airway compromise and thyroglossal duct cysts in adulthood
AbstractA 61-year-old man died suddenly after a brief history of shortness of breath and hemoptysis. At autopsy he had lobar pneumonia involving the right upper and left lower lobes of the lung. Significantly there was also a 30  × 20 mm (in cross-section) thyroglossal duct cyst compressing the upper airway. Death was attributed to respiratory failure due to the combined effects of lobar pneumonia (cultures positive forStreptococcus pneumoniae) and airway narrowing from a thyroglossal duct cyst. Although such cysts are usually found in childhood they may on occasion be diagnosed in adults. Despite being...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sometimes human hair can become fair over time as the result of a long post mortem period
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Determining a sampling regime for PCR detection of respiratory tract viral infection at coronial post-mortem examinations
This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012 –2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens. From 97 cases with all four samples, there were 24 with at least one positive result for viral infecti on. Some cases had multiple positive results and a total of 27 respiratory tract viruses were identified, of which rhinovirus, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Seventeen of the 27 viral inf...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 22, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suicidal tandem bullets to the heart with subsequent embolization – a case report
AbstractA tandem bullet phenomenon is a rare situation in which two bullets travel nose-to-base towards the target. In terminal ballistics, a classic feature of the tandem bullet phenomenon is the presence of a single entrance wound with two or more bullets inside the body. During the autopsy, the phenomenon may result in confusion, especially related to the dynamics of the shooting. The present study reports a case of suicide by tandem bullets to the heart with subsequent bullet embolization into the aorta. A 40-year-old Caucasian woman, with a previous history of suicide, shot herself in the chest with a 0.32 revolver. D...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 14, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Incidence of the diagnosis of factitious disorders – Nationwide comparison study between Germany and Norway
AbstractFactitious disorders (FD) like Munchausen syndrome are well known to most physicians, yet the corresponding ICD-10 diagnosis F68.1 remains severely under-assigned and often misdiagnosed. To approach this problem, we conducted a nationwide inquiry for Germany and Norway as well as a comparison between these two countries regarding the incidence of diagnosis of FD. The assignment rates of F68.1 in somatic hospitals from 2008 to 2016 were analyzed based on the Diagnosis Related Groups statistic from the German Federal Statistical Office and the data provided from the Norwegian Patient Registry. The Norwegian data also...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Management of the dead during COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia
AbstractThe emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans, is affecting all countries of the world and has become a global health concern. Since the virus was first identified in December 2019, the number of deaths have been propagating exponentially, causing countries across the world, including Malaysia, to increase emergency measures to combat the virus. Due to the fact that the COVID-19 pandemic does not discriminate its victims, it is of paramount importance to construct a plan for management of the dead for all suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases, includin...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal craniofacial circular-saw-related injury: a rare case of accidental death
AbstractFatal injuries caused by circular saws are rare and mainly self-inflicted. To the best of our knowledge this is the first recorded case of accidental death of a woman caused by an injury to the head region inflicted by a saw blade. The autopsy showed a 35  cm long wound, stretching from the right half of the jaw along the right side of the face and the right temporal region up to the parietal region. The cut went through the right hemisphere of the brain in the temporal and parietal lobe regions, damaging the sagittal sinus. Air embolism was conside red to be the cause of death. Fatalities involving power tool...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 8, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research