The roles of medical examiners in the COVID-19 era: a comparison between the United States and Italy
AbstractItaly and the United States are two of the countries most affected by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), with more than 240,760 confirmed cases in Italy and 2,699,658 in the United States (as of July 2, 2020). The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to substantial changes in many fields of medicine, specifically in the forensic discipline. Medicolegal activities related to conducting autopsies have been largely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Postmortem examinations are generally discouraged by government regulations due to the risk of spreading the disease further through the handling and dissection of bodies from patients w...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 13, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Human DNA collection from police dogs: technique and application
AbstractPolice dogs are routinely deployed during criminal investigations under a variety of circumstances. In instances where police dogs are involved in apprehension of suspects, contact with a suspect may be observed or may occur out of the line of sight. The interactions between suspect and dog may include the dog biting the suspect, or the suspect touching or exuding bodily fluids onto the dog. In either form of contact, potentially valuable DNA may be left from the suspect on the dog. This paper describes a proof-of-concept study investigating collection of human DNA from the teeth and hair of dogs. It used controlle...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 12, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Typology of murder-suicides in Berlin according to a longitudinal study based on autopsy files
Abstract Murder-suicides are defined as the murder of at least one person and the suicide of the offender following the murder. The intention to commit suicide must be primary. In most cases, a male offender kills a female victim after a separation. The current analysis was the first analysis of the typology of murder-suicides in Berlin. We analyzed the autopsy files of the Institute for Forensic Medicine of the Charit é University Medicine Berlin and of the City Institute for Forensic Medicine Berlin. We performed descriptive and statistical analyses of cases between 2005 and 2013. We identified 17 murder-suicide...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 9, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle and fatty tissue in mixed pulmonary embolism associated with liposuction: An incidental autopsy finding
We report a rare incidental autopsy finding associated with this procedure. A 43-year-old female who underwent liposuction presented with hypotension, respiratory distress, loss of consciousness and cardiorespiratory arrest during the intraoperative period. The patient died 2  h after admission to the emergency department. Autopsy reported a massive hemoperitoneum (2.2 L) secondary to liver perforation associated with liposuction as the cause of death. Pelvic, umbilical and lumbar peritoneal perforations were also observed. The histological study showed segments of the pulmonary arteries occluded by mixed emboli of sk...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 9, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal bleeding after transfemoral coronary angiography in anorexia nervosa
We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with long-term anorexia nervosa who underwent a diagnostic left heart catheterization on suspicion of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). She was found with extended hemorrhage from the puncture site approximately 3.5  h after the procedure. Autopsy identified fatal bleeding as the cause of death. Clinical examinations, autopsy findings, and forensic follow-up examinations revealed no pre-existing conditions that could have contributed to fatal bleeding. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder with a high mortali ty rate. Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death among a...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 4, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The caul and its relation to drowning, lawyers and sorcerers
AbstractThe caul is a fragment of amniotic membrane that is occasionally observed adherent to the head and face of a newborn child. A dried caul has been in The University of Adelaide Pathology Archive for a number of years. Beliefs in the supernatural powers of these detached membranes are found in the historical traditions of a wide variety of cultures, resulting in cauls being regularly dried out and sold as talismans. It was thought that lawyers could sway opinions in court more readily if they possessed a caul, and that such a token could either be used to facilitate black magic rituals or alternatively to thwart the ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 2, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Death due to hanging: a retrospective descriptive study of the socioeconomic and demographic profiles of hanging victims in central South Africa
We report the first socioeconomic and demographic profiles of individuals who commit suicide by hanging in central South Africa, emphasizing the need for a National Suicide Prevention Program via a multidisciplinary team approach. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 25, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Unexpected fatal intramyocardial cartilaginous tumor: pathophysiology, mechanism of death and review of the literature
We report a case of an unusual presence of cartilage tissue within the myocardial wall of the left ventricle in a 10-year-old boy who died unexpectedly. This case presents an interesting, unusual and apparently asymptomatic sudden cardiac death related to a cartilaginous myocardial tumor.  Conducting system disturbance secondary to the myocardial tumor is the probable cause of death. This case is relevant not only for its singularity and originality, but also for the diverse and controversial hypotheses related to the onset of cartilaginous tissue in the myocardial wall. Early dete ction of this tumor by modern t...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 25, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Unusual (self-)injuries in a case of hanging
AbstractA 41-year-old man was found by his wife in an atypical hanging situation in their apartment. As there was a known previous psychiatric illness and a history of suicide attempts, the investigative authorities assumed this case was a suicide. However, the autopsy revealed numerous findings that are unusual for a suicidal atypical hanging, including numerous cuts on the face, the arms and the penis. According to his wife, the deceased suffered from Asperger's syndrome with auto-aggressive behavior. He had allegedly injured himself with household scissors in the days before his death and had hit himself numerous times ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 22, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Ludwig angina and sudden death
AbstractA 27-year-old man presented to hospital with neck swelling and difficulty breathing following a recent tooth extraction. He underwent uncomplicated surgical drainage of the submandibular region after which he became acutely short of breath and collapsed and was not able to be resuscitated. At autopsy the major findings were swelling of the neck due to diffuse cellulitis with edema and neutrophil infiltrates within connective tissue and marked submucosal edema of the epiglottis, glottic inlet and tonsils sufficient to cause airway obstruction. Cultures from the site of surgical intervention showed a mixed growth of ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 22, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Does herbal therapy for COVID-19 have implications for forensic practice?
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 21, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of high temperature on dental restorative materials for forensic purposes
This study aimed to observe the effects of high temperature on different restorative dental materials by detecting changes in their microstructural and elemental composition. Disk shaped samples (10  mm diameter, 2 mm depth) were prepared from 8 dental materials (compomer, glass carbomer, ormocer, giomer, zinc reinforced glass ionomer (GI), silver-alloy reinforced GI, zirconia reinforced GI, and conventional GI). Scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to characterize sample surface structures and elemental composition. The same samples were also analyzed using X-ray f...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 20, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of conventional autopsy with post-mortem magnetic resonance, computed tomography in determining the cause of unexplained death
AbstractConventional autopsy is the gold standard for identifying unexplained death but due to declines in referrals, there is an emerging role for post-mortem imaging. We evaluated whether post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) and computed tomography (PMCT) are inferior to conventional autopsy.  Deceased individuals ≥ 2 years old with unexplained death referred for coronial investigation between October 2014 to December 2016 underwent PMCT and PMMR prior to conventional autopsy. Images were reported separately and then compared to the autopsy findings by independent and blinded inve stigators. Outcom...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 19, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Microbiology in minimally invasive autopsy: best techniques to detect infection. ESGFOR (ESCMID study group of forensic and post-mortem microbiology) guidelines
AbstractThis manuscript aims to: 1) provide specific guidelines on PMM techniques in the setting of minimally invasive autopsy (MIA), both for pathologists collecting samples and for microbiologists advising pathologists and interpreting the results and 2) introduce standardization in PMM sampling at MIA. Post-mortem microbiology (PMM) is crucial to identify the causative organism in deaths due to infection. MIA including the use of post-mortem (PM) computed tomography (CT) and PM magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is increasingly carried out as a complement or replacement for the traditional PM. In this setting, mirroring ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 19, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Death due to consumption of ibogaine: case report
AbstractIbogaine is a psychotropic indole alkaloid extracted from the roots of theTabernanthe iboga shrub from the Apocynaceae family. Depending on the taken dose, it can lead to stimulant effects, euphoria, visual and auditory hallucinations, along with auditory, olfactory, and gustatory synesthesia. In addition to its historical usage in spiritual rituals of African tribes, these days iboga extract presents a prohibited, alternative drug widely used as a part of addiction treatment. Ibogaine used in opioid withdrawal is associated with serious side effects and sudden deaths. Besides its main use as an anti-addiction medi...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 12, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Coronal and sagittal suture lengths as novel measurements for sex identification in a sample from the Egyptian population
This study used the lengths of the coronal and sagittal sutures as measurements for sex estimation for the first time. Receiver operato r characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the combined coronal and sagittal sutures lengths were the best sex discriminator (AUC= 0.859), followed by the coronal suture length (AUC= 0.855), and sagittal suture length (AUC= 0.697). Moreover, regression analysis was performed for sex determi nation; the highest accuracy was obtained by an equation that included the lengths of the coronal and sagittal sutures together (76%); followed by the coronal suture length (75%); then the sagi...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 6, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The use of gelling agents to preserve burnt teeth within the dental alveoli for dental human identification – a study utilising sheep mandibles
This study explores the stabilization of burnt teeth utilizing gelatin and agar solutions as alternatives to wheatpaste. Like wheatpaste solution, these materials are inexpensive, simple to use and are free from petrochemicals. Anterior sections of sheep mandibles were incinerated and subsequently solutions of agar, gelatin or wheatpaste were applied. The jaw fragments were then subjected to vibration and the number of teeth retained within the bone was recorded and compared to untreated incinerated jaw fragments.  Although agar solution demonstrated serious handling issues, gelatin solution provided stabilization equ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 6, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Tattoo visualization using cross-polarized lighting and infrared photography
We describe the case of a 35-year-old male found submerged underwater by police after swimming at a pier. The decedent was last seen earlier that day. Signs of immersion including sodden hands, feet, and clothing, wet sand on the torso and legs, and heavy edematous legs were observed. The post-mortem blood alcohol concentration was 427  mg/100 mL; signs of recent traumatic injury were not present. The immediate cause of death was drowning as a consequence of ethanol intoxication. When pulled from the water, the decedent’s shoulder tattoo was not visible. Cross-polarized lighting and infrared photography vis...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 6, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

COVID-19 in the autopsy room –requirements, safety, recommendations and pathological findings
AbstractModern technologies enable the exchange of information about the expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the continually increasing number of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases almost in real time. The gravity of a current epidemiological situation is represented by the mortality rates, which are scrupulously updated daily. Performing autopsies on patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is of high importance since these might not only improve clinical management but also reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection expansion. The following paper aim...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 4, 2021 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Study of backspatter using high-speed video of experimental gunshots
AbstractBackspatter is biological material that is ejected from the entry wound against the line of fire. This phenomenon was also observed in wound ballistic simulations using so called"reference cubes" (12  cm edge length, 10% gelatin, 4 °C, paint pad beneath the cover). High-speed video records from 102 experimental shots to these target models using full metal jacketed bullets in the calibers .32 auto, .38 special, 9 mm Luger and .357 Magnum were analyzed for chronology, morphological appearance and velocity of fluid ejection. Generally, a short tail splashing of surface material occurred w...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 14, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Can post-mortem coronary artery calcium scores aid diagnosis in young sudden death?
This study sought to explore the feasibility and utility of post-mortem coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in identifying patients with ischemic heart disease as cause of sudden death. 100 deceased patients aged 18 –50 years underwent post-mortem examination in the setting of sudden death. At post-mortem, fifty cases were determined to have ischemic heart disease, and fifty had death attributed to trauma or unascertained causes. The CAC score was calculated in a blinded manner from post-mortem CTs performed on all cases. CAC scores were assessable in 97 non-decomposed cases (feasibility 97%). The median CAC s...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 14, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Emergence of Cumyl-PEGACLONE-related fatalities in the Northern Territory of Australia
AbstractSuspected unnatural or unexpected deaths in the Northern Territory of Australia are reportable to the coroner, and investigation of such cases typically includes a post-mortem examination with comprehensive toxicological screening. An autopsy case series of five Cumyl-PEGACLONE-related fatalities over a recent eighteen-month period is presented.  Databases of the Northern Territory coroner’s office and the Royal Darwin Hospital Forensic Pathology Unit were searched to identify deaths related to synthetic cannabis use between July 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020. Toxicological analysis was performed at Fore...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: The effect of temperature on development of Sarconesia chlorogaster , a blowfly of forensic importance
We have noticed an error in our article. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 13, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A fatal case after an intravenous injection of levamisole
AbstractLevamisole is a drug originally prescribed as an antihelmintic. Because of the occurrence of severe cases of agranulocytosis and leukoencephalitis it was removed from the French market in 1998 for human use, while it remains available for veterinary use. Nowadays in France its only use in humans is regulated by authorization for temporary use for its immunomodulatory properties in the treatment of nephritic syndrome.A 52-year-old man was found dead at his farm. Injection points were observed on his arm and a syringe containing a dark orange-brown liquid was found near the body. At his home, the discovery of a lette...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 12, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of the efficiency of Isohelix ™ and Rayon swabs for recovery of DNA from metal surfaces
ConclusionThese results demonstrate that DNA samples deposited on metal surfaces can be more efficiently recovered using Isohelix ™ swabs wetted with isopropyl alcohol than Rayon swabs wetted with sterile water, although recovery is affected by the substrate type. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 12, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Potential use of deep learning techniques for postmortem imaging —moving beyond postmortem radiology
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 11, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Rarely fatal bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema after inserting a chest tube for unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax: a case report
We describe a case of a 32-year-old man who died due to bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema (RPE) following the insertion a chest tube for unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. Fifteen minutes after inserting the chest tube, the patient with right spontaneous pneumothorax was diagnosed with right re-expansion edema by chest radiograph. Although multiple treatments were administered, the patient died. However, the findings from autopsy showed bilateral RPE existed in the decedent but not unilateral RPE. Autopsy, microscopic examination, and clinical records concluded that the cause of death was acute cardiac and respirato...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The optimal post-eclosion interval while estimating the post-mortem interval based on an empty puparium
In this study, the estimation of PMI (or minimum PMI) for empty puparia ofProtophormia terraenovae Rob.-Desv. (Calliphoridae) andStearibia nigriceps Meig. (Piophilidae) was simulated, to gain insight into the changes in estimates, when different PEIs and different temperature conditions were assumed. The simulations showed that the PEI (in a range of 0 –90 days) had no effect on the PMI (or minimum PMI) when the puparium was collected in winter or early spring (December–April). In late spring, summer, or autumn (May–November) the PMI (or minimum PMI) increased with the PEI. The increase in PMI was la...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 9, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded healthy tissue after 30  years of storage can be used for forensic studies
AbstractTissue formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is a standard method for long-term preservation and morphological and molecular analysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of storage time on the integrity of DNA isolated from three different healthy FFPE tissues. DNA was isolated from FFPE heart, liver and brain tissues obtained from autopsy and archived from 1988 to 2017 using two different methods of DNA isolation: phenol –chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) and PureLink Genomic DNA Kit. The quantification and purity of DNA was measured spectrophotometrically at 260 nm and 280 nm...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 7, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of human DNA recovered from Cimex hemipterus (F.) (Hemiptera:Cimicidae)
In this study, genomic DNA was recovered from both male and female bed bugs at every time interval tested (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 30, and 45  days post blood meal). The total DNA concentrations recovered from male bed bugs ranged from 12.93 to 65.97 ng/µL, while the total DNA concentrations from female bed bugs ranged from 8.93 to 44.53 ng/µL. However, based on the results from the BLAST search and PCR products, human DNA could be d etected from female bed bugs at 0, 3, 5, 14, and 30 days post blood meal using the D18S51 marker. Concentrations of PCR products of the D18S51 locus from male bed bu...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 6, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sexual assault examination and COVID-19: risk reduction strategies in conducting forensic medical examinations of a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 positive patient in Melbourne hospital hot zones
AbstractThe rapidly evolving context of the COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated profound modifications to the provision of health care services on a global scale. The concomitant requirements of lockdowns and social isolation has had marked ramifications for vulnerable individuals at risk of violence. This ripple effect of the pandemic has been observed globally. It is crucial that clinical forensic medical units continue to provide quality and timely essential services to those affected by interpersonal violence. As such, processes in this field must be modified as COVID-19 cases present and knowledge about the disease cha...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 5, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Classic but unexpected: a case of Jefferson fracture
AbstractA man was found lying dead next to a ladder, with only a laceration surrounded by an abrasion visible upon external examination. No skull fractures were palpable. A CT scan and MRI showed a Jefferson fracture of the atlas, associated to a posterior displacement of the skull, a fracture of the dens of the axis, and fractures of the bodies of C5 and C6. Jefferson fractures typically result from a blow to the apex of the skull. In such cases, forensic pathologists should suspect the existence of a Jefferson fracture, particularly when no severe injuries are visible externally. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 5, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The ongoing loss of historical material from institutions
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - November 3, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Regarding “A technical report from the Italian SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Postmortem sampling and autopsy investigation in cases of suspected or probable COVID-19”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - October 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Response to the letter by Meng-jun Zhan et al. regarding the paper “A technical report from the Italian SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Postmortem sampling and autopsy investigation in cases of suspected or probable COVID-19”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - October 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - October 26, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

An unusual case of hypothermia and paradoxical undressing
AbstractThe case presented is that of an elderly woman found in her home, confused and with multiple body injuries. A forensic assessment was conducted based on the preliminary information that she was found with her pants pulled down to her ankles, an electrical cord laying across her neck, reported genital bruising, and that the back door of her home was open. Police initially treated the matter as a home invasion with physical and sexual assault but this was later considered incorrect. This case highlights that not all women found in a state of partial undress have been sexually assaulted, that initial information shoul...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - October 14, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Autopsy findings in COVID-19-related deaths: a literature review
AbstractAlthough many clinical reports have been published, little is known about the pathological post-mortem findings from people who have died of the novel coronavirus disease. The need for postmortem information is urgent to improve patient management of mild and severe illness, and treatment strategies. The present systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) standards. A systematic literature search and a critical review of the collected studies were conducted. An electronic search of PubMed, Science Direct Scopus, Google Scholar, and Excerpta Medica Data...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - October 6, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A review of deadly accidents involving fireworks in Denmark
AbstractThe aim of this study was to describe the circumstances surrounding firework-related deaths in Denmark, locate similarities and compare findings to the other known literature. Autopsy files, including police reports, located through searches in the archives of the three Danish institutes of forensic medicine were accessed. Data describing the age, gender, toxicology findings, circumstances of the accident, cause of death, autopsy findings and type of fireworks were examined. Eight cases involving firework-related deaths matched the search criteria, two of which occurred on New Year ’s Eve. An unknown number o...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 29, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Potential use of deep learning techniques for postmortem imaging
AbstractThe use of postmortem computed tomography in forensic medicine, in addition to conventional autopsy, is now a standard procedure in several countries. However, the large number of cases, the large amount of data, and the lack of postmortem radiology experts have pushed researchers to develop solutions that are able to automate diagnosis by applying deep learning techniques to postmortem computed tomography images. While deep learning techniques require a good understanding of image analysis and mathematical optimization, the goal of this review was to provide to the community of postmortem radiology experts the key...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 28, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The potential of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic methods for the detection of chlorine in human nail samples
AbstractAlthough chlorine (Cl2) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since World War I there is no known specific and reliable biomarker to indicate the presence of chlorine. We distinguished chlorinated human nails from unchlorinated ones using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. This research was carried out between October 2018 and July 2019 on two nail samples taken from 55 male and 104 female volunteers. One sample from each participant was chlorinated, while the second sample was used as a control. Spectral data were collected from chlorinated and unchlorinated (control) human...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 27, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sudden death due to tension pneumothorax associated with pulmonary tuberculosis
AbstractA man in his seventies who lived alone was found dead in his home. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) performed prior to autopsy showed right-sided tension pneumothorax. Autopsy revealed an active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesion. Macroscopic and histopathological findings showed pleural infiltration by TB lesions, suggesting that tension pneumothorax developed in association with TB infection. Routine postmortem CT performed prior to autopsy is useful in screening for TB because the presence of TB lesions can be confirmed from characteristic pulmonary findings. However, it may be difficult to identify tuberculo...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 24, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal ventriculoperitoneal shunt occlusions diagnosed at autopsy
In this report, we describe two cases of death caused by obstruction of VP shunts documented at autopsy. The first death was determined to be secondary to cerebellar edema with uncal and tonsillar herniation after posterior left VP shunt occlusion. The second was due to VP shunt occlusion resulting in diffuse cerebral edema and ventricular enlargement with compression and hemorrhage of the cerebellar tonsils and medulla. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Is the role of forensic medicine in the covid-19 pandemic underestimated?
AbstractWe believe that forensic medicine should play a significant role in the COVID-19 pandemic. Forensic pathologists should ask and answer various questions through autopsy cases during the COVID-19 period, thus providing a significant contribution to science. Some of the potential roles of forensic medicine in this issue include: determining the exact cause of death among the deceased who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, contribution to the accuracy of mortality statistics, understanding pathological mechanisms of COVID-19, tracking the presence of the virus over time, survival of the virus after death as well as dealing wit...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 20, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Patricide and overkill: a review of the literature and case report of a murder with Capgras delusion
AbstractDespite being an infrequent crime, parental homicide has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in adult perpetrators and a history of child abuse and family violence in adolescent perpetrators. Among severe psychiatric disorders there is initial evidence that delusional misidentification might also play a role in parricide. Parricides are often committed with undue violence and may result in overkill. The authors present the case of an adult male affected by schizoaffective disorder and Capgras syndrome who committed patricide. Forensic pathologists classify such cases as overkill by multiple fatal ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Electrical weapons and rhabdomyolysis
AbstractIt has been suggested that an application of a conducted electrical weapon (CEW) might cause muscle injury such as rhabdomyolysis and an acute inflammatory response. We explored this hypothesis by testing the effects of electrical weapons on circulating markers of inflammation and muscle damage. In a prospective study, 29 volunteers received a full-trunk 5-s TASER ® X26(E) CEW exposure. Venous blood samples were taken before, 5 min after, and at 24 h following the discharge. We tested for changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), myoglobin, albumin, globulin, alb...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 17, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Greenish-blue discoloration of the brain and heart after treatment with methylene blue
AbstractGreenish-blue discoloration of the brain and heart was observed during the autopsy of a 63-year-old woman who had been treated with methylene blue for septic shock following a traffic accident. This “pistachio” or “avatar” discoloration occurs when the colorless metabolite leucomethylene blue is oxidized to methylene blue upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Other clinically documented adverse effects of methylene blue include greenish-blue urine and bluish discoloration of the skin and mucosa. In medicine, methylene blue is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase with di...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 16, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Cysticercosis and suicide – an example from a forensic collection
AbstractIn this case from 1937, the deceased was a 52-year-old female who was suffering from systemic cysticercosis, with prominent neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Given the protracted clinical course and autopsy findings it appears likely that the disease led the woman to commit suicide by ingesting lye, a corrosive substance, and the most common way to commit suicide in Belgrade at the time. The autopsy revealed many rounded transparent cysts, attached to the dura and pia-arachnoid, as well as encapsulated in the intercostal muscles, diaphragm and muscles of the arms, legs and the trunk. Solitary cysticercosis of ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 14, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Noninvasive 7  tesla MRI of fatal craniocerebral gunshots – a glance into the future of radiologic wound ballistics
AbstractCompared to computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior visualization of the soft tissue. Recently, the first 7  Tesla (7 T) MRI scanner was approved for clinical use, which will facilitate access to these ultra-high-field MRI scanners for noninvasive examinations and scientific studies on decedents. 7 T MRI has the potential to provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a characteristic that can be dir ectly exploited to improve image quality and invest in attempts to increase resolution. Therefore, evaluating the diagnostic potential of 7 T MRI for forensic ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 11, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Biological kinship in 750 year old human remains from Central Argentina with signs of interpersonal violence
This study constitutes a unique case in Argentina of kinship determination based on DNA profiles of human remains in an archaeological context of interperso nal violence. It is important to highlight the contribution made by these studies to address topics usually hidden in bioarchaeological studies, such as community organization, cultural customs and mortuary practices. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - September 10, 2020 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research