A preliminary study of carrion insects in Greece and their attraction to three animal baits: a forensic entomology perspective
This study reinforced the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of medical, parasitological and forensically important taxa. Overall, beef liver attracted the most insects with Diptera preferring beef liver and Coleoptera preferring chicken stomach. Furthermore, this study revealed that baits of one animal tissue did not attract all species but in combination a much better understanding of this biodiversity was achieved. Finally, from a forensic entomology perspective this study highlights the lack of understanding of the value of entomological data related to case work in Greece. (Source: ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - March 2, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Air bubble artifact: why postmortem brain MRI should always be combined with postmortem CT
AbstractForensic pathology increasingly uses postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI), particularly in pediatric cases. It should be noted that each (sudden and unexpected) death of an infant or child should have a forensic approach as well. Current postmortem imaging protocols do not focus adequately on forensic queries. First, it is important to demonstrate or rule out bleeding, especially in the brain. Thus, when incorporating PMMRI, a blood sensitive sequence (T2* and/or susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)) should always be included. Secondly, as intracranial air might mimic small focal intracerebral hemorrhages...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - March 1, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Death on New Year ’s Eve caused by illegal fireworks—a firework shell
AbstractDuring the turn of the year, injuries caused by fireworks occur in Germany every year. According to the professional associations, the Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin, for example, treats an average of 50 injuries caused by fireworks on New Year ’s Eve. Patients come with burns, soft tissue injuries, or fractures; eyes and hands are particularly frequently affected. Again and again, there are also very serious or even fatal injuries. The background is usually the improper or illegal use of larger fireworks. Smaller fireworks such as spark lers, bangers, or smaller rockets are available in Germany in most supermarkets, a...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - March 1, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Infant death while breast feeding —another of Casper’s insights
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - March 1, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Commentary on “Pulmonary barotrauma in SCUBA diving‐related fatalities: a histological and histomorphometric analysis”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - March 1, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Advancement and the existing landscape of forensic medicine in Africa: A comparison with developed countries
This article explores the development and challenges of forensic medicine in Africa, comparing it to developed countries. It addresses limited resources, funding, and a shortage of trained professionals. The growth of forensic investigation capabilities and the challenges of funding and technology access are discussed. Training and education have improved, but disparities remain. Partnerships with developed countries and international organizations are crucial to bridge the gap. A comprehensive legal framework is important, but disparities exist among African countries. Harmonizing forensic laws would enhance cooperation. ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 28, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suicidal wrist bites
AbstractWrist injuries are not uncommon in forensic routine and are usually found in the context of suicides or as a result of psychiatric illnesses, e.g., borderline disorders. Sharp objects (knives, broken glass, etc.) are usually used. In the case reported here, a paranoid-schizophrenic man not only injured himself with razor blades on both wrists, but he also inflicted extensive wrist bite injuries using his dental prosthesis. In addition to the severance of flexor tendons, venous vessels and the left radial artery were torn with subsequent blood loss. At the time of death, there was also acute exposure to methadone an...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 28, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The death of Rasputin —A forensic evaluation
AbstractGrigori Yefimovich Rasputin, a confidant of Tsar Nicholas and his wife, was murdered by Prince Yussupov and his co-conspirators in the cellar of the prince ’s Moika Palace in St Petersburg, Russia, on the evening of December 30th, 1916 (December 17th in the Russian calendar). The narrative of his death is largely based on Prince Yussupov’s published memoirs and has Rasputin being poisoned with cyanide, shot, bludgeoned, and finally drowned. A revie w of the available forensic material, however, shows a photograph with a contact gunshot wound to Rasputin’s forehead. This would indicate that he was dead prior t...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 22, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A comparison between the enzymatic oxidation method and headspace gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector in the determination of postmortem blood ethanol
This study uses headspace gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (HS-GC/FID) to assess the interference of lactate and LDH levels on BAC in 110 autopsied blood samples determined by the enzymatic oxidation method. The results showed that lactate and LDH levels in postmortem blood were higher than in normal blood. There was a weak correlation between the lactate levels and BAC difference (r = 0.23,p <  0.05) and a strong correlation between LDH levels and BAC difference (r = 0.67,p <  0.001). The differentiation of BAC between the enzymatic oxidation method and HS-GC/FID was significant (p...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 20, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Identification of the efficacy of parentage testing based on bi-allelic autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers in Taiwanese population
This study aimed to develop SNP markers for parentage testing in the Taiwanese population and compare their accuracy with STRs. The TPMv1 SNP microarray (714,457 SNPs) was used to screen 180,000 Taiwanese individuals and analyze the SNP data using PLINK. After quality control, allelic distribution, and MAF considerations, a set of SNPs with significant inheritance information was selected. Parentage testing was conducted on 355 single parent-child pairs using both STRs and SNPs, employing three kinship algorithms: identity by descent, kinship-based inference for genome-wide association studies, and the combined paternity i...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 12, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Regarding “Lichtenberg figures-morphological findings”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 9, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Study of secondary dentine deposition in central incisors as an age estimation method for adults
AbstractThis work aimed to assess the pulp/tooth area ratio ’s utility in the upper central incisors using orthopantomograms. A convenience sample of 801 adult patient orthopantomograms was studied. Image J® software was used to measure the pulp/tooth area ratio, and a regression model was developed. Our results conclude that the methodology assessing upper incisors ’ pulp/tooth area ratio using orthopantomograms can lead to age overestimation and statistically significant differences between chronological and estimated age. For those over 50, no correlation between pulp/tooth area ratio and chronological age was foun...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 9, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

On the forensic relevance of tattoos: distinguishing black inks with energy dispersive spectroscopy and backscattered scanning electron microscopy
ConclusionEDS and SEM were efficient to distinguish black tattoo inks. These are our preliminary outcomes on the use of EDS and SEM to analyze black tattoo inks. Thus, careful interpretation is necessary to avoid rash applications in human identification practice. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 7, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A rare case of type II tri-allelic inheritance at vWA, SE33, D8S1179, and D13S317 loci demonstrated by STR analysis in paternity testing
AbstractShort tandem repeat (STR) typing has been regularly used in paternity disputes and forensic human identification linked caseworks. Occasionally, forensic scientists come across aberrant allele patterns during STR typing because of mutations, genetic variations, and other abnormalities. The tri-allelic pattern of STR is rare, particularly, the case where this pattern exists at 4 loci. Here, we report the type II tri-allelic patterns observed at vWA, SE33, D8S1179, and D13S317 loci in the product of conception (POC) sample during the course of our regular paternity case investigation. The DNA extracted from the blood...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 6, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research