Late Breaking Abstract - An Electronic Nose as a screening tool for childhood Tuberculosis
Conclusions: The E-nose has a better sensitivity and a better negative predictive value than a TST or a culture result. The E-noseis a potentially effective screening tool for identifying children that may need further studies. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Quesada, L., Poli De Frias, S., Di Toro, G., Salas, E., Gutierrez, A., Bello, J., Tovar, I., Espana, M., Perez, H., Villalba, J., Villalon, M., De Waard, J. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Ability of genotypical method to make assesment of tuberculosis infection hotbed
Conclusions: Culture test on the L-J media is more specific and allows to detect additionally more than 10% of TB patients, the result of correlation analysis gives an opportunity to recommend the use of the data of genotyping test Xpert MBT/RIF with indication of quantitative characteristics for prediction of level of bacterial excrection, early assessment of the danger of the hotbed of TB infection for planning of epidemiological surveillance and infection control. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hovardovska, O., Schevchenko, O., Ovcharenko, I. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

A case series of pyrazinamide mono-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis using whole genome sequencing for diagnosis and cluster linkage.
Conclusion: We have described a series of patients with PZAMR-MTB, of which most are young adults, with a high rate of substance misuse, and no prior TB therapy. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of WGS in providing rapid sensitivity and cluster data and case linkage useful in clinical practice. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Braganza Menezes, D., Lugg, S., Hawthorne, G., Robinson, E., Dedicoat, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Construing the role of Proteasome Accessory Factor-C in fluoroquinolone resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusion: The differential regulation of pafC gene was observed by quantitative real time PCR at RNA level and at protein level by immuno blotting using antibody against PafC. The clones overesxpressing PafC were subjected to comparative profiling of first line and second line anti-TB drugs. The data showed that PafC might have a probable role in drug efflux. The detailed results of the study will be discussed during the meeting.Future prospective: Validating the data by quantifying and comparing the pafC mRNA expression in the clinical isolates of sensitive as well as resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Narain, A., Dhamija, E., Srivastava, K., Srivastava, K. K., Kant, S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Variability of primary resistant M.tuberculosis strains in TB service institutions
Conclusions: The presence of changes of MTB strains in nosocomial conditions suggests that hospitalization in the TB department facilities is a kind of exogenous risk of tuberculosis superinfection caused by more virulent pathogens with drug resistance. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rogozhin, A., Poteiko, P., Konstantynoska, O., Liashenko, O., Solodiankin, O. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Use of line probe assays for the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hospital for respiratory diseases "St. Sofia", Sofia, Bulgaria
Conclusion: Increased laboratory capacity should use LPAs, considered as good screening tests; because LPAs are applicable only for R and H, they need to be used in parallel with phenotypic DST for accurate DR-TB diagnosis. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Milanov, V., Velizarova, S., Spasova, A., Gabrovska, N., Dimitrova-Milanova, T., Mihaylova, G., Nachkova, M., Kostadinov, D. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Adverse effects of chemotherapy in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with alcohol abuse and without one
Current treatment regimens for the patients with MDR-TB include 5-6 and more drugs. 366 patients with MDR-TB were examined in GRCC "Phthsiatry":203 patients with alcohol abuse - 1-st group and 163 without alcohol abuse - 2-nd group. According to the method of chemotherapy groups didn't differ. Adverse effects (AE) occured in 170 patients (83.7%)in the 1st group, in the 2nd one - 118 (72.4%), the difference was significant, p
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aleksa, A., Gelberg, I., Wolf, S., Artsukevich, J., Tsiunchyk, A., Masilevich, A., Shejfer, Y. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Use of shortened chemotherapy regimens in treatment of adolescents with MDR/XDR TB
Conclusion: The suggested criteria enabled to administer shortened CR to adolescents with MDR/XDR TB. Treatment effectiveness was confirmed by lack of relapses one year after treatment completion. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Viechelli, E. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Community based therapy for children with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar, Paksitan
Background: Multidrug Resistance TB (MDR-TB) is a growing threat to TB control programme. Its treatment in children is challenging, yet most developing countries do not specifically address pediatric MDR-TB.Methods: A prospective study conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of country Pakistan. Analysis of data for 160 children
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Javaid, A., Khan, M. A., Khan, M. A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

MDR-TB treatment efficacy by results of Xpert MTB/RIF assayin the Stavropol region of the Russian Federation
Aim: to compare the treatment efficacy in patients with MDR tuberculosis (TB) detected by Xpert/MTB/RIF assay and conventional method.Materials and Methods: 171 new MDR TB patients were divided into 2 groups: 1-st - were included 104 patients which treated by the result of molecular-genetic test in the Regional TB Hospital, Stavropol in 2014-2016; 2-nd - 67 patients were treated by the cultural method results. in 2010-2013. until the implementation of Xpert/MTB/RIF test in Stavropol region of Russian Federation. Tne duration from the obtaining of Xpert/MTB/RIF results till the initiation of the MDR TB therapy in average wa...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Komissarova, O., Abdullaev, R., Chumakova, Y., Odinets, V. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Accompanying therapy of patients with extensive drug-resistant (xdr) lung tuberculosis
Treatment of patients with XDR TB is difficult due to frequent development of adverse reactions. The aim of the study is to assess the tolerability of the V chemotherapy regimen (CR) including Bedaquiline (Sirturo®) in patients with pulmonary TB with XDR in the prescription of cytoflavin (Cytoflavin®) as maintenance therapy.86 patients with TB with XDR were under observation, the main group (n=42 people) and the comparison group (n=44). Before treatment, sputum was examined using BACTEC and MGM, ALT, AST, bilirubin, creatinine, ECG. The biochemical parameters of blood and ECG were within the normal range. All patie...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shovkun, L., Kudlay, D., Nikolenko, N., Franchuk, I. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Nature, Magnitude and Risk Factors of Adverse Drug Reactions in Multidrug Resistant TB Patients in Eritrea
Conclusion: Serious ADRs related to second-line anti-TB drugs were highly prevalent, rarely fatal and resulted in treatment interruptions in several patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Russom, M., Verhamme, K., Karimi, L., Ahmed, H. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Evaluation of 123 Cases with MDR TB (Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis) Treatment
Conclusions: initiation effective correct treatment regimen, completion treatment are important for TB control program. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Babalık, A., Rumeysa Hazine, A., Erdal Donmez, G., Akkan, O., Kutluhan, F., Balıkcı, A., Catmabacak, G., Koksalan, K., Kuyucu, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Spreading of resistance to group A anti-tuberculosis drugs among TB patients in Astana city
Introduction: Passion for multi-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has overshadowed the equally serious problem of resistance to other group A anti-TB drugs (on WHO classification) which creates complications in the TB treatment.Aim: To study the spreading of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) resistance to group A anti-TB drugs among patients with tuberculosis in Astana city.Methods: There were 1090 patients admitted for inpatient treatment, 389 of them were culture positive and 365 (93/8%) were examined by drug sensitivity test (DST). DST was performed by MGIT 960 system and Hain-test and resistance against isoniazid (H), rifampi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Balasaniantc, G., Rakisheva, Z., Zepke, A., Akisheva, A., Solovjeva, N. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

To evaluate the outcome of tuberculosis at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi-Pakistan
Conclusion: The cure rate of PTB and EPTB in our cohort of patient was satisfactory but the high lost to follow up patients are the major concern and require an intense case follow up strategies. Moreover the drug resistance specially the growing XDR and pre XDR are alarming and need early diagnosis and management. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zubair, S. M., Gohar, M., Shahzad, T., Yaseen, A., Irfan, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Bedaquiline in treatment of TB/HIV co-infection patients with extremely-drug resistance of MBT
Conclusion: The study showed that Bq is effective in chemotherapy of TB/HIV patients with XDR MBT. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Balasaniantc, G. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Bedaquiline in the treatment of patients with co-infection HIV/tuberculosis
Conclusions: Bedaquiline is effective and safe in patient with HIV/TB co-infection, include combination with antiretroviral therapy, even in prolonged courses (more 24 weeks). (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Galstyan, A., Borisov, S. E., Sinitsin, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Experience in the use of Bedakville in the therapy of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV infection.
Conclusions: The use of Bedaklivin in patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV infection increases the effectiveness of therapy to stop bacterial release in a shorter time to 2m months. The incidence of adverse reactions in this group of patients does not differ significantly from the control group. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chernokhaeva, I., Ershova, E., Pavlova, M., Starshinova, A., Sapozhnikova, N. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Determination of CD4, CD8 and IL-8 levels in serum and BAL fluid of patients with pulmonary anthracosis
Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in CD4/C8 levels in serum and BAL fluid may play an important role in the diagnosis or prognosis of anthracosis. In addition, due to the strong association of anthracosis and pulmonary tuberculosis, TB should be considered in patients with anthracosis, which in turn can lead to the early diagnosis and treatment of the patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Abedini, A., Ramazanpour, M., Mortaz, E., Jamaati, H., Taghavi, K., Razavi, F., Kiani, A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Capacities of blood serum lipoarabinomannan in the diagnosis of tuberculosis at a late stage of HIV infection
Introduction: Performance of the immunological TB diagnosis at the advanced stage of HIV-infection depends on the severity of immunodeficiency. A new approach in TB diagnosis has become available – that is identification of the secreted antigens of mycobacteria in blood serum or in urine. It is based on one of the main structural components of the mycobacterial cell walls - lipoarabinomannan (LAM).Purpose of the Study: To assess the diagnostic significance of the blood serum LAM in TB diagnostics in patients with advanced HIV-infection.Materials and Methods: 106 patients at the advanced stage of HIV-infection were ev...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dudchenko, A., Averbakh, M., Karpina, N., Ergeshov, A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Characteristics of IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 serum level among active, latent, and contact with tuberculosis patients
Conclusion: serum level of IL-12p70 is much lower than IL-12p40 in active TB patients, latent TB and contacts with negative IGRA test. Serum level of IL-12p40 is highest in active TB patients, especially among subjects aged>36 years and without DM. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Muis, E., Tabri, N. A., Djaharuddin, I., Purnamasari, A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Immunological differences between lung tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection
Introduction: Implementation in practice of new highly informative immunologic tests allowed diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Nevertheless nowadays no reliable immunologic criteria exist to distinguish active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection.Materials and Methods: Within 2015-2017 we examined 50 subjects with lung TB with bacterial excretion (I group) and 15 subjects with latent TB infection (II group). Diagnostic complex evaluation of immune complexes stimulated by specific antigen ESAT-6/SFP-10 comprising of IgE, IgG3, IgG1, IgG1 + IgG3, IgG1 + IgE (by method of dynamic light dispersion). Statist...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Starshinova, A., Istomina, E., Zinchenko, U., Denisova, N., Nazarenko, M., Filatov, M., Burdakov, V., Landa, S., Yablonskiy, P. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Effect of polymorphism of Toll-like receptor genes on the duration of pulmonary tuberculosis
The aim of the study was to examine the impact of genetic polymorphism of the genes TLR2 (Arg753Gln), TLR3 (Phe412Leu), TLR4 (Asp299Gly), TLR6 (Ser249Pro) on the duration of tuberculosis. The material for the study was DNA. Statistical processing was carried out using the program "Statistica 10". The risk of events was assessed by the odds ratio (OR). The study was conducted in Chita Regional pulmonology center. 120 patients with respiratory tuberculosis and 30 healthy recipients were examined. The average age of the subjects was 44.1+0.3 years. Depending on the duration of the disease, 3 groups of patients were ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bayke, E., Bogodukhova, E. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Assessment of differential activity of reactive radicals in cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Conclusion: There is differential regulation in the cells with respect to SOA production. While production of NO is not tissue specific. There is variation with respect to the susceptibility of the two cell lines to MTB infection. Initial line of defense was unable to control the infection of MTB despite increase in production of SOA and NO. It shows MTB induces more or less similar patho-immunogenesis irrespective of the tissue specificity. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vaidya, S., Sawant, S., Maniar, J. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

The study of differential gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Conclusion: Pattern of tissue destruction depends upon strain causing infection. Intracellular growth was a characteristic virulent property of strain. Expression of MMP-9 gene was the only gene dependent on growth of bacteria. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vaidya, S., Maniar, J. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Features of development of TB infection caused by different doses of MBT
Accoding to the literature data, tuberculosis in mice develops within 2-4 weeks after infection with large doses of the pathogen (about 1 million per ml). Perhaps a smaller dose of MBT causes the human TB.The aim is to study the features of the development of tuberculosis after infection with a smaller dose of MBT.We were made and use 2 suspensions with concentration of MBT of 10-20 and 100-200 colony-forming units (cfu) per 0.1 ml. These concentrations were used to infect 2 groups of guinea pigs (age 3 weeks) by subcutaneous injection into the inguinal region. the fist group (n=12) was infected with a dose 10-20 cfu in 0....
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eremeeva, N., Tyulkova, T., Lavrechuk, L., Belousova, K., Umpeleva, T., Vakhrusheva, D. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Cytokines/chemokines gene expression in the lungs of fibrous-cavernous TB patients.
Conclusions: In the present study, we demonstrated that cells in caverna wall expressed lower levels of neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1/CXCL2 as compared with the cells in surrounding lung tissue. Thus M. tuberculosis inside the cavity was protected from neutrophilic influx. Our data emphasize the role of neutrophil-derived inflammation in post primary lung TB.This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (grant 16-15-10242). (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shepelkova, G., Evstifeev, V., Yeremeev, V., Ergeshova, A., Bagirov, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis reside only inside phagosomes in alveolar macrophages of tuberculosis patients
M. tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is spread through aerosols and taken up by alveolar macrophages, where pathogen is internalized in phagosomes for survival and persistence. It had been recently reported that Mtb vacuole-to-cytosol escape is required for Mtb replication and dissemination in TB disease progress. We isolated alveolar macrophages from the resected lungs of patients with pulmonary TB and found the large number of viable cells with Mtb as single and in colonies, including with cord morphology (Ufimtseva, E. et al. PLOS ONE 2018; 13:e0191918).For detecting the location of Mtb in TB...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ufimtseva, E., Eremeeva2, N., Vakhrusheva2, D., Skornyakov2, S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis blocks phagolysosome maturation in alveolar macrophages of tuberculosis patients
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne dangerous disease caused by M. tuberculosis (Mtb) and characterized by a tight interplay between Mtb and host cells. Instead of being eliminated, Mtb demonstrates the remarkable ability to survive, replicate, and persist in human lungs on a long time. Studies of the mechanisms of Mtb survival within alveolar macrophages during TB infection are extremely important for the development of new vaccines and methods for TB treatment.Previously, we established the intravacuolar location of Mtb with different virulence, as single and in colonies, in alveolar macrophages of patients with pulmonary T...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ufimtseva, E., Eremeeva2, N., Vakhrusheva2, D., Skornyakov2, S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

High-resolution quantitative proteomics applied to the discovery of biomarkers of innate immune response in tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Roughly one third of the world's population carries MTB in a dormant form. TB is responsible for the death of more than 1.8 million people each year. EMI-TB (Eliciting mucosal immunity in TB) is an EU Horizon2020 funded action focused on selecting and developing a novel vaccine candidate for TB. Our specific aim (CSIC, Vigo, Spain) is to establish a panel of protein biomarkers representative of those individuals that had been in contact with a patient with microbiological confirmed pulmonary TB but did not get infected. Samples (serum, saliva an...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mateos Martin, J., Gonzalez-Fernandez, A., Anibarro, L., Pallares, A., Reljic, R., Gallardo, J. M., Medina, I., Carrera, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Production, purification and validation of anti-tuberculosis IgY for diagnostic purposes
Developing new TB diagnostics is a research priority because traditional methods suffer from low sensitivity or being time-consuming. To introduce an applicable diagnostic reagent for TB, this study was designed for production, purification and validation of anti-TB IgY. Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) have added advantages of being economical and ethical compared to their mammals analogues. White leghorn laying chickens were immunized intramuscularly with formalin-inactivated cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Eggs were collected before immunization and at different time intervals after immunization. IgY an...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aryan, E., Kouhi-Noghondar, M., Sankian, M., Arian, A.-A., Meshkat, Z. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Transcriptional Signature Identifies Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Human Tuberculosis Infection
Conclusion: We observed evidence of a dynamic change in the signature of some TB contacts that could be categorised into three patterns of longitudinal expression that may reflect early immunological events following TB exposure. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Verma, R., Singhania, A., Graham, C., Lee, J., Woltmann, G., O'Garra, A., Haldar, P. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in serum of post primary TB patients.
Conclusions: These changes concern, first of all, microRNAs, involved in the regulation of specific inflammation and the formation of fibrosis in lungs. Our data form the basis for the development of a set of biomarkers for post primary TB, and also create prerequisites for the development of fundamentally new methods of antiTB therapy.This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (grant 16-15-10242). (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yeremeev, V., Evstifeev, V., Shepelkova, G., Ergeshova, A., Bagirov, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Evaluation of new biomarkers for laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis
In this study, detection of ATP synthase subunit c (atpE) and molybdoprotein biosynthesis (moeX) genes was evaluated using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP primers were designed by PrimerExplorer V5 online program. The atpE-LAMP could specifically detect all 28 mycobacterial reference species with no false-positive result for 14 non-mycobacterial species evaluated in this study. Only members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex gave a positive result by the moeX-LAMP. The analytical sensitivity of each LAMP assay was assessed using a 10-fold serial dilution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv purified D...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aryan, E., Sayadi, M., Meshkat, Z., Neshani, A., Safdari, H. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Clinical profile and outcome of patients with sputum positive Acinetobacter baumanni infection
Conclusions: Comprehensive infection control protocols, including active surveillance, may be useful in the setting of A. baumanni infections. Absence of community acquired infections may be due to the tropical climate with high humidity and temperature. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sukumaran, P., Thomas, B., Babu, S., Oommen, S. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Whole-blood test for the diagnosis of lung Cystic Echinococcosis
Conclusions: These results, if confirmed in a larger cohort, suggest that the whole-blood test may be useful for the diagnosis and staging of lung CE. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Petrone, L., Vanini, V., Schinina, V., Busi Rizzi, E., Pozio, E., Cardillo, G., Di Martino, M., Teggi, A., Goletti, D. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Low respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in ALS patients. A regional referring centre experience
Conclusions: Our data showed higher prevalence of LL localization (50%)in a population of hospitalized ALS patients with LRTI. Interestingly, the above was not linked to swallowing related symptoms or tracheotomy. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Buonamico, E., Pierucci, P., Intiglietta, P., Cassano, G., Carratu, P., Dragonieri, S., Resta, O. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Pulmonary actinomycosis in Brazil: a retrospective case series
We present a retrospective case series of 09 subjects diagnosed with pulmonary actinomycosis between February 2007 and November 2017 on a Brazilian center. Data were collected from review of medical records, microbiological exams and computed tomography (CT).The majority of patients were men (66%) and middle-aged (median age 45 years). Almost a half (4/9 - 44%) had a history of pulmonary comorbidities (bronchiectasis, asthma, tuberculosis). The most common symptoms were cough (8/9 - 88%), sputum production (7/9 - 77%) and hemoptysis (5/9 - 55%). Consolidation was the most common chest CT finding (7/9 - 77%), followed by br...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Beder, T., Sales, R. K., Oliveira, E. P., Costa, F. M., Colares, P. F. B., Costa, A. N. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Additional diagnostic value of chest CT in patients with suspected pneumonia.
Introduction: The Japanese Respiratory Society Guidelines for the Management of Pneumonia in Adults recommend chest CT when: differentiating from other diseases; the accurate location of complications is required for invasive procedures; the patient has underlying lung diseases making pneumonia diagnosis difficult. However, there is little evidence.Aims: To investigate the additional diagnostic value of chest CT in patients with suspected pneumonia by chest X-ray.Methods: Consecutive hospitalized pneumonia cases from April 2016 to March 2017 were retrospectively investigated. Patients with suspected pneumonia by chest X-ra...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sueyasu, T., Tobino, K., Okahisa, M., Murakami, K., Goto, Y., Munechika, M., Yoshimine, K., Nishizawa, S. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Mycobacterium kansasii lung infections compared to other nontuberculous mycobacteria
Conclusions: There are relevant differences between M. Kansasii lung infections and those caused by other NTMs:1. They appear to occur more in male smokers, in the fifth decade and with a history of neoplasia 2. They are associated with cavitation, unilaterality and upper lobe predominance 3. Sputum conversion and radiological resolution rates are higher (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pedrero Tejada, S., Tabernero Huguet, E., Ortiz De Urbina Antia, B., Salinas Garrido, I., Gonzalez Quero, B., Arana Arri, E., Urra Zalbidegoitia, E., Zalacain Jorge, R. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Epidemiology and outcome of ventilator associated pneumonia in an tertiary care ICU of India.
Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of MDR organism in our study. Most common pathogens were Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. VAP rates in our study was low when compared to other recent Indian data, however mortality rates were high. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ghosh, S., Dhamija, A., Dhar, D., Basu, A., Goel, N. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Predictive factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in a MRSA screening protocol.
Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogenic microorganism in hospitals in many parts of the world, including Portugal. Our hospital has started in 2015 a screening protocol for MRSA.Objectives: To identify factors that can be useful in predicting the MRSA infection.Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the data of patients hospitalized during one year in the department of Pulmonology. Regression models were conducted.Results: A total of 396 patients were enrolled in this study, including 14 (3.54%) with MRSA infection. The average patient age was 66.5&pl...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Reis, D., Costa Silva, M., Ribeiro, C., Silva, E., Dias, M., Pires Coutinho, D., Shiang, T., Abreu, G., Sanches, I., Vanzeller, M. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Predictors for length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired Pneumonia.
Introduction: Length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is variable and directly related to medical costs. Accurate estimation of LOS on admission and during follow-up may result in earlier and more efficient discharge strategies.Objective: Assess predictors for LOS in patients with CAP.Methods: Retrospective study including patients hospitalized in pulmonary department for CAP. We calculated the correlation between LOS and different possible predictors.Results: The mean LOS in the 80 included CAP patients was 16 days. There is no significant correlation between older age and comorbi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rouis, H., Kwas, H., Zendah, I., Khouaja, I., Kchouk, H., Khattab, A., Ghedira, H. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Features of hospital-acquired pneumonia in gerontological patients of the Altai Regional Clinical Hospital.
Objective: to identify the features of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in gerontological patients.Materials and Methods: 5907 patients were followed up during the period from 2015 to 2017, 84.9% (5013) of whem were 60-98 years, the duration of hospitalization was 40109 days. Diagnostic criteria HAP were the onset of the disease after 3 days of admission; clinical and laboratory and functional tests, chest radiographs in 2 projections were conducted.Results: According to generally accepted criteria, HAP was found in 45 (0,76%) patients, the incidence was 18.2 days per 1000 person-days of hospitalization. HAP occurred duri...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Klester, E., Klester, K., Balitskaya, A., Berdyugina, A., Elykomov, V., Zateev, A., Babushkin, I. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Microbiology of pleural infection according to setting
Conclusion: There are considerable differences of bacteriology pattern between CA and HA pleural infections. Streptococcal infection is the most common in CA, while Staph. aureus and enteric bacteria are more common in the hospital setting. CAHAGram +ve65%51%Gram –ve17.1%37.5%Anaerobes17.7%11%Commonest 4 bacterial groupsViridans Streptococci(32.4%)Staph aureus (37.8)Pneumococci (21.7%)Enterobacteriaceae (27.5)Staph. aureus (18.3%)Enterococci (10%)Enterobacteriaceae (16.5%)Viridans Streptococci (9.8%)Methicillin sensitive vs. resistant Staph. aureus67 vs. 33%42 vs. 58%In hospital mortality0-17%47-66% (Source: European...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hassan, M., Cargill, T., Bedawi, E., Corcoran, J., Harriss, E., Asciak, R., Mercer, R., Hallifax, R., Rahman, N. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of reduced dose intrapleural alteplase and DNAase for pleural infection
Conclusions: Our data suggest that 2.5mg alteplase and 5mg DNase is safe and effective even in high risk patients. A larger prospective study will be needed to confirm this. 90% of patients received 3 doses or less.References:1) Popowicz N et al. Dose De-escalation of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy for Pleural Infection. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Jun;14(6):929-936. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ip, H., West, A., Wallace, D., Noorzad, F., Ahmed, L. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Clinical analysis of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii disease
Conclusions: Because many patients with pulmonary M.kansasii disease have recently shown various radiological findings without cavities, we think it is better to perform a bronchoscopic examination to make an accurate diagnosis and do smear and culture examinations for acid-fast bacilli. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kobashi, Y., Shirai, R., Kato, S., Oka, M. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Outcomes of Fibrinolytic therapy for acute empyema.
Conclusions: Fibrinolytic therapy is effective and convenient. This procedure might be one of the useful treatment for acute empyema. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Koizumi, T., Moriyama, H., Hirono, T., Ohdaira, T., Watanabe, T. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Paragonimus westermani infection manifested as pulmonary cavity and adrenal gland mass: case report
We report a case of Paragonimus westermani infection simultaneously affecting two separate organs that presented as both a pulmonary cavity and adrenal mass in an immunocompromised host.A 65-year-old male with a previous kidney transplant visited our clinic because of hemoptysis. Forty-three months earlier, bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was diagnosed and treated with oxygen supplementation and right chest tube insertion. At that time, there was no demonstrable cavitary lesion in either lung and no mass in the adrenal glands (Fig. 1A, 1B). Computed tomography (CT) of the chest when the patient presented with hemoptysis...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, H. J., Kwon, Y.-S. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Analysis of causes of death and mortality risk factors in elderly patients hospitalized due to pneumonia
Conclusions: It is insufficient to categorize pneumonia in elderly patients as simply an infectious disease. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Suzuki, Y., Sakuma, N., Kohno, M., Sakai, T., Tojima, H. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research