Sleep apnea syndrome and its association with serum vitamin D level
Conclusion: The results showed that our population suffers from hypovitaminosis D and a significant decrease in vitamin D values was observed in the group with OSAS (mean = 16 ng / ml, p = 0.017).To study the mechanisms of this deficiency, vitamin D supplementation should be studied in these patients and its effect on the symptoms, severity and biological markers of inflammation. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Selsabil, D., Wissem, A., Samira, M., Zied, M., Chiraz, A., Mohsen, K., Cheikh, R. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Positional obstructive sleep apnea in the European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA) study
Background: Positional obstructive sleep apnoea (pOSA) is an important sleep apnea phenotype. However, data on the risk factors and health impact of POSA are limited.Aims and Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for pOSA in the European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA) cohort and to analyze clinical and polysomnographic characteristics associated with POSA.Methods: A multi-centric subsample of 1084 patients from the ESADA cohort was evaluated. Positional OSA was defined as an overall apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5, supine AHI to non-supine AHI ratio of ≥2 and an AHI that normalizes (AHI
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bouloukaki, I., Pataka, A., Steiropoulos, P., Grote, L., Bonsignore, M., Hedner, J., Marrone, O., Basoglu, O., Verbraecken, J., Lombardi, C., Parati, G., Dogas, Z., Schiza, S. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

The influence of long-term CPAP therapy on metabolic variables in obstructive sleep apnea patients
Conclusions: Patients without CPAP therapy during 12 months had significantly higher glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (p
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kuczynski, W., Stolarz, A., Białasiewicz, P. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on lipid profile in patients with severe OSAS
Conclusions: Patients with severe OSAS exhibit abnormal lipid levels that improve by CPAP treatment as short as 2 months. It appears that the beneficial effect of CPAP therapy is not transient, 5 years later lipids continue to stay in the normal range. The improvements in lipid profile could be explained by the lack of intermittent hypoxia, a direct result of CPAP therapy. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Simon, B., Gabor, B., Barta, I., Paska, C., Szvatek, R., Boszormenyi Nagy, G., Vizi, E., Antus, B. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

The effect of CPAP treatment on Galectin-3 level in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea
Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in Galectin-3 level in OSA patients with and without CPAP therapy at 3 months. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Andreieva, I. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Apelin and ischemia modified albumin levels in heart failure patients with sleep disordered breathing
Apelin is an adipocytokine produced in cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelium, with an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and fluid balance. Plasma apelin levels are reduced in patients with heart failure. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA) production is stimulated by hypoxia and increases rapidly following myocardial ischemia.We aimed to assess the role of IMA and apelin in the pathogenesis of SDB related with heart failure. Consecutive 50 patients with heart failure were prospectively evaluated with full night polysomnography for the presence of SDB between April 2016 and May 2017. Cases...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Taskın Dogan, B., Bayram, N., Uyar, M. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Ischemia modified albumin in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Objective and aim: Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a newly recognized risk marker for various diseases. We evaluated possible relationship between the ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels and severity scores obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).Methods: Eighty-six patients and 83 controls were investigated by polysomnography (PSG) for OSAS. The patients were classified as a control group or as the OSAS group according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The IMA, C-reactive protein (CRP), hemogram analyses, and, Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW) were measured.Results: The IMA values were higher in the OSAS grou...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Seyhan, E. C., Düger, M., Bolatkale, M., Kansu, Z., Aynacı, E. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Hypoxia effect on the hepatic profile, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk.
Introduction: We analyse the hypoxia effect on the hepatic profile, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in patients with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) or both.Material and methods: Prospective study with control patients, COPD, OSA or overlap. A blood analysis(inflammatory and metabolic profile) was made. Anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics.Results: 223 patients: COPD 17%, OSA 51%, Overlap 17%, control 14%. 54% overlap, 49% OSA, 34% COPD and 22% control (p
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aldave Orzaiz, B., Landete Rodriguez, P., Acosta Gutierrez, C., Hernandez Olivo, M., Gonzalez Gonzalez, M., Munoz Olmedo, J. M., Friera Reyes, A., Sanchez Azofra, A., Zamora Garcia, E., Gonzalez Rodriguez, A., Soriano, J. B., Garcia Monzon, C., Ancochea B Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Recurrent heart rate rises, as a marker of sleep fragmentation, return more rapidly during CPAP withdrawal than oxygen desaturations
Introduction: The observation that oxygen desaturations do not necessarily return during CPAP withdrawal has been used to suggest that CPAP may not need to be an every night treatment. We explored the possibility that heart rate rises may return before oxygen desaturations; suggesting that sleep fragmentation may still be a problem.Methods: We analysed pulse oximetry data from 92 patients with OSA undergoing CPAP withdrawal (3 nights on CPAP followed by 4 nights off CPAP). The nightly oxygen desaturation index ≥4% (ODI) and heart rate rises>6bpm index (HRR), were assessed during CPAP withdrawal using ANOVA and Fisher...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pattenden, S., Turnbull, C., Stradling, J. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Effect of treatment of CSA/CSR on left ventricular ejection fraction in heart failure- a network meta-analysis
Conclusions: CPAP and ASV are effective in improving LVEF in patients with heart failure and CSA/CSR, whereas O2 is not. There is no difference in the effect on LVEF between CPAP and ASV. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schwarz, E. I., Scherff, F., Haile, S. R., Kohler, M. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

The efficiency of Epworth sleepness scale and Berlin questionnaire for detecting Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSA) in 100 Tunisian patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation(AF)
Conclusion: This study shows that OSA screening questionnaires perform poorly in patients with AF. So, It seems important to find other specific clinical tools for this population (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Touil, A., Ben Amar, J., Sammoud, K., Ben Halima, M., Ouali, S., Mourali, M. S., Dhahri, B., Zaibi, H., Kchouk, H., Laouini, I., Baccar, M. A., Azzabi, S., Aouina, H. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Nocturnal respiratory failure in moderate sleep apnoea as predictive factor of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities
Background: the decision to treat patients (pts) with moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is often related to the presence of symptoms or comorbidities. There is no consensus about the treatment of asymptomatic pts (Bixler E.O. et al, Eur Respir J 2016; 47: 23-26).Aims: to analyze the prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities in moderate OSA pts and any predictive factors.Methods: we conducted a retrospective study on 192 OSA pts, 172 with moderate OSA (Apnoea–Hypopnea Index, AHI, between 15 and 29) and 20 with mild OSA (AHI between 5 and 14), matched for anthropometric parameters, sex and age. Mod...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Di Lecce, V., Marra, L., Castellana, G., Carratu, P., Valerio, V. N., Santomasi, C., Resta, O. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

The importance of RDW in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Conclusion: RDW was important during follow-up in severe OSAS, and in the presence of hypertension (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Beyhan Sagmen, S., Torun Parmaksiz, E., Kiral, N., Salepci, B., Comert, S. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Sleep disorder level in stroke patients and related factors
Objectives: Our purpose in this study is to investigate sleep disorders and related factors in chronic stroke patients.Material and Methods: 42 males and females over 45 years of age who were admitted to participate in the study who had the first stroke history, and 3 months after the illness were included. Full polysomnography (PSG) was applied to all cases in the sleep laboratory overnight to evaluate sleep as objective. Stroke patients were assessed by modified Ranking Scale (MRS), National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIH), Functional Independence Scale (FIM), Functional Ambulance Scale (FAS), Barthel Index and th...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Parlak, S., Yılmaz, H., Bekci, T. T., Parlak, L. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Thrombolysis and evolution of sleep apnea in ischemic stroke
Background: Prevalence of sleep apnea decreases post-stroke but the impact of thrombolysis on evolution of sleep apnea is unknown.Aims and objectives: We studied the change in prevalence and severity of sleep apnea (AHI≥5/h) among ischemic stroke patients with (THR) or without thrombolysis (NTHR) during 6 months post-stroke in Northern Finland.Methods: We prospectively studied 204 ischemic stroke patients. At month six eligible were 177 patients (98 THR/79 NTHR). A cardiorespiratory sleep study was done during the first 48 hours after symptom onset and at month six.Results: Male’s comprised 67.3% THR vs. 58.2% NTH...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Huhtakangas, J., Saaresranta, T., Huhtakangas, J. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Inverse relationship between objective snoring time and the prevalenc of plaque in women
We examined the association between objective snoring time and carotid atherosclerosis determined by intima-to-media thinckness (IMT) and the presence of plaque in a population-based cohort of Korean adults. Three hundred and forty men and 373 women underwent a home-based sleep study using a portable sleep monitoring device (T3TM). We measured snoring objectively using a built-in microphone and calculated snoring time across the night by dividing total duration of 3 or more consecutive snore events by total sleep time. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), the number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep, was used to in...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, J., Pack, A., Riegel, B., Lee, S. K., Shin, C. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Correlations between severity of obstructive sleep apnoea and systolic pulmonary artery pressure: preliminary results
Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common nocturnal respiratory disorder and its role as a risk factor for the development of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is well known. It was already demonstrated that systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs) in obese patients with OSA is higher than in obese patients without OSA (Carratù P. et al, Sleep Breath 2016; 20: 613-619).Aims: to evaluate correlations between nocturnal cardiorespiratory indices, as Apnoea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI) and Total Sleep Time with oxyhemoglobin saturation below 90% (TST90), and PAPs in obese patients affect...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marra, L., Cicco, S., Castellana, G., Di Lecce, V., Carratu, P., Ranieri, G., Vacca, A., Resta, O. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction among obstructive sleep apnea patients
Conclusion: The prevalence of LV diastolic dysnfunction in OSA patients was 15.6%. Elevated NT-proBNP level (>125 pg/ml) was a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of LV diastolic dysfunction among OSA patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yong, M. C., Foo, D. H. P., Kho, S. S., Chan, S. K., Fong, A. Y. Y., Tie, S. T. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular events in a Chinese cohort
Conclusion: OSA per se, independent of obesity, did not predict CV outcomes of coronary heart disease and heart failure. Further investigation of the modifying effects of OSA treatment on this outcome is needed. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Xu, P., Fong, D., Hui, C., Lui, M., Lam, D., Ip, M. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Systematic coronary risk evaluation among obstructive sleep apnea patients
Conclusions: Most OSA patients have at least a high SCORE and it correlates not only with objective parameters like AHI and ODI but also with subjective assessment of disease severity measured by CGI-S. The most important factors affecting the 10-year risk of death for cardiovascular reasons are age and smoking. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kania, A., Bochenek, G., Nastalek, P., Celejewska-Wojcik, N., Pabjanczyk, J., Regulski, K., Opalinski, A., Mrzyglod, B., Glowacki, M., Sladek, K. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

The impact of obstructive sleep apnea in case of acute coronary syndrome
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a well-known cardio-vascular risk factor. However, there is no currently prominent screening strategy for its diagnosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of the OSA and its impact in the case of ACS.Methods: Between January 1st to June 30th, we prospectively evaluated for OSA 53 patients with ACS (first myocardial infarction). Each patient underwent a polysomnography, 8 weeks after the ACS.Results: mean age 59.5±9.6 years, 81.1% male, BMI at 28.5±4.2 Kg/m², neck circumference 42.5±12.6 c...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Calcaianu, G., Virot, E., Bresson, D., Calcaianu, M., Iamandi, C., Debieuvre, D. Tags: Sleep and control of breathing Source Type: research

Involvement of laminin beta-2 subunit in lung smooth muscle contraction and remodelling
Smooth muscle (SM) displays a contractile phenotype when express laminin alpha (a) 2 and beta (b) 1 subunits. Laminin b-2 subunit is the most common chain in laminin trimer formation and is highly expressed in lung SM, mainly during development; however, the function of laminin b-2 subunit in mature SM is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the role of laminin b-2 subunit in airway and intrapulmonary artery (IA) SM of ovalbumin sensitized adult guinea pigs (GP) that exhibit broncho-obstruction after 3 (acute) or 12 (chronic) allergen challenges (R: responders; n=6), and in sensitized GP that never displays such responses...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pacheco, I., Bazan-Perkins, B., Ramos-Ramirez, P. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Ozone induced acute and chronic alterations in the lung in mice: a combined digital imaging and functional analysis.
In conclusion, the digital imaging approach provides reliable quantitative analysis of pulmonary structural changes which, in combination with functional approaches, allows a comprehensive analysis of the effects of ozone on lung tissue. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jule, Y., Michaudel, C., Fauconnier, L., Togbe, D., Riffel, B. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Deciphering molecular mechanisms of cathepsin S resistance to major chemical oxidants of cigarette smoke
Conclusion: The late formation of sulfinic acid provides a mechanistic rational to the unexpected stability of CatS and supports that CatS may play a deleterious role by sustaining its elastinolytic activity. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wartenberg, M., Andrault, P.-M., Saidi, A., Nadal-Desbarats, L., Lecaille, F., Lalmanach, G. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

The effect of airway pressure release ventilation on circulation and respiration in post-operation of cardiac surgery patients.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) on hemodynamic and respiration in post-operation of cardiac surgery patients.Methods: Thirty-nine patients who were 18 years age or older post-operation of cardiopulmonary bypass patients, between November 2016 and February 2017, were prospectively enrolled, randomized divided into two groups, 19 patients with PCV and 20 patients with APRV. PCV group continued to conventional setting. APRV group was set with a PEEPHigh according to the plateau pressure; Time at PHigh (THigh) was set about> 90% respiratory...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ge, H. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Morphological characteristics and mechanism of a rat model of reexpansion pulmonary edema
Conclusions: RPE occurred almost immediately after lung reexpansion. Pores developed in type I pneumocytes in alveolar epithelium. These pores, together with overt fissures in alveolar walls, allowed leakage of plasma components into alveoli. These findings appear to be important features of RPE development. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Otani, S., Yashiro, T., Endo, S. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Changes in the enterobacterial flora and the hydrogen gas-producing ability of the enterobacterial flora in a mouse model of acute lung injury
Aims: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the changes in the enterobacterial flora and evaluate the hydrogen gas-producing ability of the enterobacterial flora in a mouse model of severe acute lung injury (ALI mouse model).Methods: The ALI mouse model was prepared by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after activation of natural killer cells with α-galactosylceramide. The exhaled hydrogen concentrations of the mice were measured. The oxidative stress of the lung was evaluated by measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. At the same time, feces were collected from the cecum of the mice and the hydro...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yoshizawa, R., Ito, S., Kobayashi, K., Kokubo, K., Kobayashi, H. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Prognostic role of matrix metalloproteinase system / inhibitors in assessing the nature of reparative changes in infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (ITL).
Conclusion: The combination of MMP / inhibitors with VILT in the IFT is most informative to make the prognosis for lung tissue changes during and after IFT. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Esmedlyaeva, D., Gavrilov, P., Alexeeva, N., Dyakova, M., Kiryukhina, L., Sokolovich, E. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Enhanced endothelial barrier protective and anti-inflammatory effects by synthetic iloprost-conjugated phospholipid.
In conclusion, this study describes a novel synthetic phospholipid with barrier-enhancing and anti-inflammatory properties superior to existing prostacyclin analogs, which may be used as a prototype for future development of more efficient treatment for ALI and other vascular leak syndromes. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Birukov, K., Oskolkova, O., Li, Y., Zhang, C.-O., Gawlak, G., Ke, Y., Birukova, A. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure-like cyclic stretching on the production of interleukin-6 protein in normal human pulmonary artery endothelial cells
Background and Aim: Excessive cyclic stretching is one of the main causes of ventilator-induced lung injury. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been used to reduce lung injury. However, the direct effects of mechanical stretching on the cells have not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine whether excessive mechanical stretching combined with PEEP-like stretching can suppress the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.Methods: The cells were stretched by a Flexcell FX-4000TTM Tension System. The cyclic stretches used were 2 elongation patterns (0% to...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kozue, K., Inaoka, H., Kokubo, K., Kobayashi, H. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

The severity of ventilator-induced lung injury is regulated by the clock gene Bmal1 in myeloid cells
In this study, we are exploring the role of the core clock component BMAL1 in myeloid cells for VILI.Mice with a myeloid specific knock down of Bmal1 (LyzMCre-Bmal1-/-) and LyzMCre mice as controls were subjected to high tidal volume MV for 4 hours at circadian time (CT) 0 or CT12 to induce VILI. Lung injury was quantified measuring compliance, pulmonary permeability, neutrophil recruitment, and markers of pulmonary inflammation. Neutrophil inflammatory response was analyzed in vitro in myeloid cells from bone marrow of WT and Bmal1-deficient animals, isolated at dawn ZT0 (Zeitgeber time 0) and dusk (ZT12). After stimulati...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Felten, M., Teixeira-Alves, L. G., Letsiou, E., Müller-Redetzky, H., Kramer, A., Maier, B., Witzenrath, M. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

A major inflammatory cytokine TNF-a inhibits the ventilatory response to hypoxia
It is known that the systemic level of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine increases in many respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD and sleep apnea. The lung ventilation changes and the pathological types of breathing are typical in these diseases. By the reason, the increasing cytokine level research is actual.The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that elevation of major pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α systemic level may decrease the ventilatory response to hypoxia.The experiments were performed in tracheostomized anaesthetized rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response was measured by using rebr...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Klinnikova, A., Danilova, G., Alexandrova, N. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

The morphological change in the diaphragma and soleus on rats after mechanical ventilation.
Objective: To investigate the morphological change of diaphragm and soleus on the rats after mechanical ventilation (MV), and the role of autophagy pathway in the mechanical ventilation-induced muscle dysfunction.Methods: Sixteen male rats were divided into control and MV group. The diaphragm and soleus were harvested after 18h of MV. The morphological change and the cross section area(CSA) of both muscle fibers was observed by immunofluorescence analysis and transmission electron microscope.Results: under light microscope, the CSA of the diaphragm from MV subjects were smaller than control, which was not found in soleus. ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zhu, X. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Mechanical Preconditioning of Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Ventilation Induced Lung Injury in Rats
Conclusion: These results suggest that lung MSCs cultured under realistic mechanical features of the lung could improve their therapeutic potential in ALI. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Almendros, I., Nonaka, P. N., Falcones, B., Farre, R., Navajas, D. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Alveolar Tidal Flooding - a New Mechanism of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury?
While mechanical ventilation is a mainstay of therapy for the ARDS, it can simultaneously trigger ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). Optimization of ventilation strategies, necessitate a better understanding of alveolar dynamics and the mechanisms of alveolar injury in the mechanically ventilated and edematous lung. To this end, we visualized alveolar dynamics directly in a murine model of alveolar edema by intravital microscopy.Alveolar edema was modeled in anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice by PBS instillation (13 mL/kg BW) into the right lung. The fluid-instilled right lung was directly imaged via a thoracic window by d...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grune, J., Kuebler, W. M., Tabuchi, A. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Impact of systemic erythropoietin deficiency on the lung of mice exposed to hypoxia
Conclusions: Our study shows a distinct expression of stress-induced markers in the lung of EPO-deficient mice that is worsened after hypoxic exposure. These results led us to suggest that EPO might also have protective effect against lung injury.* Senior authors contributed equally (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liasmine, H., Yegen, C.-H., Marchant, D., Planes, C., Voituron*, N., Boncoeur*, E. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion is altered in obese female mice
Conclusion: Obesity worsen the development of ALI induced by intestinal I/R in female mice. Grants: FAPESP/KCL 51330-2 and 50550-4. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Riffo-Vasquez, Y., Fantozzi, E., Rodrigues-Garbin, S., Ricardo-Da Silva, F., Oliveira-Filho, R., Spina, D., Tavares-De-Lima, W. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Effect of morphine sulphate on histopathologic changes in lung tissue after ischemia reperfusion injury
Conclusion: It has been determined that administration of morphine sulphate in the prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury is a more effective method than ischemic postconditioning. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Duzgun, N., Esme, H., Karabaglı, P., Iyisoy, M. S., Duran, M. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

The protective effects of paricalcitol on renal ischemia reperfusion induced lung injury
This study was designed to evaluate whether paricalcitol may protect lung injury following renal I/R injury via its antioxidant properties.Methods: Rats (n=7 per group) were divided into four groups; control, paricalcitol, I/R, and paricalcitol+I/R. Rats were received daily intraperitoneal injection of paricalcitol (0.3 μg/kg) for 5 days in paricalcitol and paricalcitol+I/R groups. On day six, rats were subjected to I/R injury (60 minutes of left renal artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion) after right nephrectomy. Renal function tests, oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and lung histology of both grou...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yilmaz, S., Yilmaz, Z., Kadiroglu, A. K., Bahadır, V., Kaplan, I., Ketani, A., Yilmaz, E. D., Yilmaz, K., Yilmaz, M. E. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Local depletion of the recruitment of macrophages reduces acute lung injury in rats
Acute lung injury(ALI) is a respiratory failure caused by a response of the lung against local or systemic injury. In the early stages C-C chemokine ligand-2(CCL2) is upregulated and classically activated chemokine receptor 2(CCR2+)monocytes/macrophages are recruited to the lung. Monocytes/macrophages infiltration into the alveoli enhances tissue inflammation.Aim: To inhibit the recruitment of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages into the lung by the administration of CCR2 antagonist or an anti-CCL2 antibody.Methods: Lung injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intratracheal instillation (it) of HCl (0.1mol/L), followed 2h lat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Guillamat-Prats, R., Camprubi-Rimblas, M., Tantinya, N., Artigas, A. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

CXCL5-dependent neutrophil recruitment harms lung barrier function in acute lung injury
Conclusions: Our results confirm the non-redundancy of CXCR2 ligands and highlight the importance of CXCL5 in neutrophil recruitment and development of lung barrier failure in acute lung injury. Targeting CXCL5 may possibly provide a therapeutic perspective in pneumonia and mechanical ventilation. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berger, S., Wienhold, S.-M., Goekeri, C., Behrendt, U., Müller-Redetzky, H., Dietert, K., Gurtner, C., Gruber, A. D., Witzenrath, M., Nouailles, G. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise inhibits acute lung injury: from mouse to human evidence
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as hypoxemic respiratory failure with intense pulmonary inflammation, involving hyperactivation of endothelial cells and neutrophils. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic exercise (AE), this study investigated whether AE performed daily for 5 weeks would inhibit extra-pulmonary LPS-induced ARDS. C57Bl/6 mice were distributed into Control, Exercise, LPS and Exercise+LPS groups. AE was performed on a treadmill for 5x/week for four weeks before LPS administration. 24hours after the final AE physical test, animals received 100ug of LPS intra-peritoneally. In addit...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Albertini, R., Rigonato-Oliveira, N. C., Mackenzie, B., Bachi, A. L., Oliveira-Junior, M., Santos-Dias, A., Andrade-Sousa, A., Delle, H., Damaceno-Rodrigues, N., Dulley, L., Benetti, M., Malfitano, C., De Angelis, K., Ligeiro De Oliveira, A. P., Abbasi, A Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Osteopontin protects against lung injury caused by extracellular histones
Extracellular histones are present in the airways because of cell death occurring during inflammation. They promote inflammation and cause tissue damage due to their cationic nature. The anionic phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is expressed at high levels during airway inflammation and may neutralize the harmful activities of extracellular histones. During histone-induced acute lung injury, OPN–/– mice showed increased inflammation, extensive tissue injury, and high mortality compared to wild-type mice. In lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury, wild-type mice showed less inflammation and tissue inju...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kasetty, G., Papareddy, P., Bhongir, R. K., Ali, M., Mori, M., Wygrecka, M., Erjefält, J. S., Palmberg, L., Hultgardh, A., Herwald, H., Egesten, A. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

The role of prostaglandins in the realization of respiratory effects of interleukin-1ss in case of hypercapnia.
Was shown that the cerebral level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increasing causes neuronal activation in the respiratory-dependent areas of the brainstem. Moreover, the direct action of IL-1β on the cerebral neuronal respiratory neurons in vitro does not change their activity. This suggests that the central respiratory effects of IL-1β are based on an indirect mechanism associated with the secondary messenger system activation. The role of such mediators can be performed by prostaglandins.The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the IL-1β respiratory effects basis is the action o...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Danilova, G. A., Aleksandrova, N. P. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Effects of ASA and DHA therapy on malaria associated ARDS
Conclusion: Although ASA treatment do not lead to any deleterious effects in lung mechanics it may be not recommended in endemic areas, since it might me related to increased mortality rate even combined with anti-malarial treatment. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oliveira, H., Batista, C., Lima, M., Amorim, E., Silva, A., Maron-Gutierrez, T., Castro-Faria-Neto, H. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

The effect of combined therapy using rosuvastatin and dihydroarteminin in a pulmonary malaria mouse model.
Malaria can progress to malaria-associated ARDS (MA-ARDS), with a mortality rate of up to 80%. Since it is caused by sequestration of parasitized cells in the lung and a deregulated host immune response, the use of an antimalarial drug associated with an anti-inflammatory compound could improve MA-ARDS outcomes. We evaluated the effects of Rosuvastatin (ROSU), a statin with immunomodulatory properties largely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and its association with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in an experimental model. C57/BL6 mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65, treated with ROSU(3mg/Kg), DHA(20mg/K...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Batista, C., DAnunciacao De Oliveira, H., Garcia-Darze, A. M., Lima, M., Amorim, E., Silva, A., Caire Castro-Faria-Neto, H., Maron-Gutierrez, T. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals mitochondrial 'damage'-associated molecular patterns are involved in pulmonary inflammation in Lypopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury
Conclusions: BALF and serum MTDs levels in ARDS patients was increased.MTDs may be involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS by amplifying infammation via TNF signaling pathway. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuan, Z., Wang, T., Wen, F. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

CD101 eosinophil serves as an early response to suppress endotoxin-induced acute lung injury
Conclusion: Eosinophil is a protective aspect in acute lung injury; therefore loss of eosinophil might lead to exacerbated inflammation and worse living status. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zhu, C., Zhou, L., Weng, Q., Chen, Z., Ying, S., Shen, H., Li, W. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Monosodium urate crystals exacerbate acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide.
Uric acid (UA) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) released from injured or infected cells. Beyond maximal solubility, UA precipitates and forms monosodium urate (MSU) crystals which can activate the innate immune system. UA levels are increased in several respiratory diseases including ARDS, pulmonary hypertension or COPD. The aim of this study was to analyse whether MSU crystals are able to induce pulmonary inflammation on their own or might exacerbate the lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Rats received an intratracheal instillation of saline solution (Ctrl), LPS (300 μg/Kg), MSU (10mg/Kg) or...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moreno, L., Morales-Cano, D., Esquivel-Ruiz, S., Martinez-Ramas, A., Barreira, B., Callejo-Arranz, M., Mondejar-Parreno, G., Cogolludo, A., Perez-Vizcaino, F. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research

Anti - IL17 treatment control responses in lung injury induced by elastase
Aims: IL17 may be the target for treatment of pulmonary diseases.Objectives: To evaluate effects of anti-IL17 in a model of lung injury induced by elastase. Methods: we studied respiratory system resistance (Rrs), respiratory system elastance (Ers), airway resistance (Raw), pulmonary parenchyma resistance (Gtis), pulmonary parenchyma elastance (Htis), exhaled nitric oxide (NOex), total cell count of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (FLBA), positive cells for MMP9, MMP12, INOS, NFkb, IL17, collagen and elastic fibers in airways and alveolar septa, and mean linear intercept (Lm) in 32 male C57Bl6 mice divided into four groups: S...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fukuzaki, S., Garrido, A. C., Righetti, R. F., Santos, T. M., Camargo, L. N., Aristoteles, L. R. C. R. B., Souza, F. C. R., Saraiva-Romanholo, B. M., Leick, E. A., Prado, C. M., Martins, M. A., Tiberio, I. F. L. C. Tags: Mechanisms of Lung Injury and Repair Source Type: research