Biomarker-assisted characterisation of non-type 2 disease in young asthmatics
Background: Asthma with atopy is often characterised by type-2 inflammation. Less progress has been made in defining non-type-2 asthma, and few biomarkers have been described for this endotype.Objective: Our aim was to explore clinically useful biomarkers in non-type 2 asthma.Methods: Three groups of sex and age-matched subjects (10-35 years old) were created with regard to history of asthma and atopy. Blood was analysed using the multi-allergen tests Phadiatop and fx5 (ImmunoCAP), a multiplex immunoassay comprising 92 inflammation-related proteins (Proseek Inflammation), and an ELISA for human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL). ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tsolakis, N., Malinovschi, A., Janson, C., Alvin, K. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Serum levels of IL-5, IL-6 and IL-8 in moderate and severe asthma clusters
Introduction: Different approaches have been developed for better definition of asthma phenotypes, that would have benefits from target treatment. The use of complex data is step to better understanding of asthma.Aim: To identify distinct asthma clusters based on pre-selected clinical, functional and inflammatory variables and to compare the serum levels of IL-5, IL-6 and IL-8 between them.Methods: Adult patients with moderate and severe asthma were included (n=70). Data about onset, exacerbations, symptoms, control, comorbididty, adhearence, smoking, allergy, lung function, absolute blood cells count, IgE, C-reactive prot...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dimitrova, D., Youroukova, V., Velikova, T., Tumangelova-Yuzeir, K. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Ordinal scales are not accurate to assess and measure respiratory rates in children
Conclusion: An ordinal scale may be of use where a standard visual count is not practicable, however the level of agreement found between healthcare professionals is unlikely to be high enough for this method of respiratory rate assessment to be taken and used regularly in clinical practice. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daw, W., Kingshott, R., Elphick, H. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

FEV1/FEV3 ratio as an alternative to fixed ratio of FEV1/FVC
Introduction: The quality of spirometric performance tends to decrease with age, often leading to unsatisfactory results. Forced vital capacity measurement (FVC) is especially difficult in the elderly, what may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. Forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds (FEV3) seems to be easier to obtain, and we hypothesized that FEV1/FEV3 ratio would be an alternative to FEV1/FVC in diagnosis of airflow limitation.Methods: Technically valid spirometry results of patients aged>65 years old were retrospectively analysed. We used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to assess the accuracy of FEV1/FEV3 in compa...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bialas, A., Kornicki, K., Ciebiada, M., Joanna, M. - D., Piotrowski, W., Antczak, A., Gorski, P. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Comparison between Impulse oscillometry and Resmon Pro and the use of inspiratory parameters
Conclusion: Both systems showed similar results, but with different abilities to detect airway obstruction. Although less variation, the use of inspiratory resistance and reactance needs to be further investigated. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jarenbäck, L., Bjermer, L., Tufvesson, E. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

129Xenon-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to understand particle exhalation from the human lung
Conclusion: 129Xe-MRI adds to our understanding of particle emission from the human lung, but the relevant driving factors for particle emission need to be further unraveled in order to conclusively understand the processes that affect particle emission from the human lung. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Holz, O., Kern, A., Biller, H., Olin, A.-C., Vogel-Claussen, J., Hohlfeld, J. M. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of small airways assessment by lung function tests in asthma
Background: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which affects the whole respiratory tract. Considered as a « quiet zone » for a long time, distal airways seem to be significantly involved in recent asthma studies.Methods: 62 mild-to-severe stable asthmatic patients were evaluated. Distal airways were assessed by median expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), plethysmographic lung volumes, and impulse oscillometry (IOS) measuring resistance at 5Hz (R5), resistance difference between 5 and 20Hz (R5-R20), reactance at 5Hz (X5), resonant frequency and reactance area (AX). We analyzed the relationships between these parame...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Depoortere, C., Perez, T., Chenivesse, C., Fry, S. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

The Inhaler Proficiency Score: a useful and valid tool for the assessment of good inhaler technique
Regular assessment of inhaler technique is an essential component of Asthma and COPD care. The 10-point Inhaler Proficiency Score (IPS) was designed to examine use of the Diskus® inhaler in 3 domains of correct inhaler use: Priming, Inhalation and Post-Inhalation.The ability of the IPS to correctly identify errors in Priming and Inhalation, compared to those detected by an electronic audio-recording device, INCA, was assessed.Data from 371 patients enrolled in 3 clinical studies of inhaler adherence was examined: INCA-1, outpatients with severe uncontrolled asthma, INCA-Pharmacy, Asthma and COPD patients from community...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cushen, B., Greene, G., Lannon, F., Cowman, S., Mellon, L., Costello, R. W., Mac Hale, E. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Transforming growth factor-ss1 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 as factors of airway remodeling among asthmatic patients
Asthma is heterogeneous disease, characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, at least at the diseases debut. However, while disease progression, presence of persistent airflow inflammation can induce remodeling of lung tissue and irreversibility can develop.The goal was aimed to analyze the association between the level of lung tissue remodeling factors: transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and the severity of airflow obstruction.Materials and Methods. 89 patients with persistent asthma have been examined and 85 healthy individuals. Diagnostics and treatment were performed acco...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kmyta, V., Prystupa, L. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Prognostic value of FeNO-guided assessment to identify steroid-responsive respiratory symptoms
Conclusions: FeNO has greatest utility in predicting ICS response when considered with other prognostic factors. A predicted probability of>=60% is most accurate in identifying patients likely to respond symptomatically to ICS. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wang, K., Verbakel, J., Fleming-Nouri, A., Brewin, J., Oke, J., Pavord, I., Thomas, M. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Change of mucus rheology in patients with Cystic Fibrosis, COPD and Asthma
Introduction: Rheology provides biophysical markers based on elasticity and viscosity measurements of sputum. It may be a way to better understand of the expectoration deficiencies in patients with COPD, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and Asthma (AST) and adapt treatments. The study aims to find out the differences in sputum rheology and the reproducibility of rheological measurements.Material & Methods: A clinical study was performed on 10 CF, 10 AST, 10 COPD and 10 Healthy volunteers (HV). Two properties are extracted: elastic modulus (G’) and viscous modulus (G’’). New properties were explored: elastic energ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Patarin, J., Ghiringhelli, E., Cracowski, C., Camara, B., Quetant, S., Bosc, C., Pison, C., Cracowski, J.-L. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Associations between PCD-specific health-related quality of life (QOL-PCD) outcomes and clinical measures
Conclusions: Perception of daily symptoms and functioning in patients with PCD showed moderate association with hearing level, but not with cross-sectional measurements of lung function. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the QOL-PCD depicts treatment interventions and differences in trends of longitudinal lung function. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kobbernagel, H., Buchvald, F. F., Behan, L., Lucas, J. S., Haarman, E. G., Rutjes, N. W., Gross, A., Omran, H., Hogg, C., Casaulta, C., Kuehni, C. E., Collins, S. A., Philipsen, M. C., Quittner, A. L., Nielsen, K. G. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Airways mucus pathogenesis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis
Background: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a chronic airway condition characterized by the production of purulent sputum, prolonged inflammation, and repeated episodes of airway infection. We assessed the biochemical and biophysical properties of airway mucous in patients with NCB and healthy adults.Methods: Induced sputum was collected in 99 patients with NCFB and 15 healthy adults. We assessed the sputum samples for mucus percent solids (% solids), total mucin (refractometry), extracellular DNA (ELISA), osmotic pressure (custom-made oncometer), complex viscosity (cone and plate rheology), and sputum proteom...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ramsey, K., Radicioni, G., Hill, D., Ehre, C., Button, B., Alexis, N. E., Knowles, M., Donaldson, S., Kesimer, M., Mcguckin, M., Boucher, R. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

The two sides view of asthma-COPD overlap: a real life population approach
Background: Asthma COPD overlap (ACO) is a term that encompasses patients with characteristics of both conditions, smoking asthmatics (SA) or COPD patients with asthma-like features (COPD-AF), such as high bronchodilator response (COPD-HBR, bronchodilator test>400 ml and 15%) or blood eosinophil count ≥300 cells/μL (COPD-Eo). We hypothesized that SA and COPD-AF are two different clinical entities.Objectives: To compare the prevalence, clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients classified as SA or COPD-AF in a primary care population.Methods: We analyzed patients from the MAJORICA cohort (that includes data...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Toledo Pons, N., van Boven, J. F. M., Roman-Rodriguez, M., Valera, J. L., Millan Pons, A., Cosio, B. B. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Late Breaking Abstract - Influence of omalizumab therapy on airway remodelling assessed with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in severe allergic asthma patients
Conclusions: Despite clinical effectiveness of omalizumab, its effect on airway remodelling may be limited. HRCT is a reliable tool for assessing airway remodelling. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Przybyszowski, M., Paciorek, K., Zastrzezynska, W., Gawlewicz-Mroczka, A., Trojan-Krolikowska, A., Orlowska, A., Soja, J., Pawlik, W., Sladek, K. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Asthma control and asthma severity in relation to sleep disturbances: Results of the LifeGene study
Sleep disturbances are common with asthma. The aim of the study was to analyse the associations between sleep disturbances and asthma control, asthma severity, and asthma-related comorbidity in a population-based material.LifeGene is an on-going prospective cohort study in Sweden. Questionnaire data on sleep disturbances, airway symptoms, asthma diagnosis, asthma medication and comorbidities was available from 23 875 participants aged 18-45 years.Of the participants 1272 (5.3%) had asthma. The prevalence of any sleep disturbance was higher in participants with uncontrolled asthma than with controlled or partially controlle...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sundbom, F., Malinovschi, A., Lindberg, E., Almqvist, C., Janson, C. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Small airway dysfunction in elderly patient with asthma: a real life study
Background: It is still unclear if elderly patients with asthma have more prominent small airway dysfunction (SAD) compared to nonelderly.Objective: To compare prevalence and features of SAD between elderly and nonelderly patients, in an unselected sample with physician-diagnosed asthma.Methods: Adult patients followed at a secondary care asthma clinic and seen between 01.01.2017 and 01.02.2018 were included and stratified by age in elderly (≥65 years old) and nonelderly. All patients underwent to both standard spirometry and impulse oscillometry at the first visit: SAD was defined as the fall in resistance from 5 to 20...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berti, A., Licini, A., Lombardi, C., Cottini, M. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Evaluation of inflammatory markers MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in Asthma
Conclusion: MMP-2 could be a biomarker for severe asthma and needs further studies. Elevated TIMP-1 could be a biomarker for asthma. Further studies are needed to assess whether TIMP-1 levels are also elevated in mild asthma (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sivakoti, K., Chaya, S. K., Jayaraj, B. S., Lokesh, K. S., Veerapaneni, V. V., Madhunapantula, S., Mahesh, P. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Identification of treatable traits in a severe asthma registry: prevalence and exacerbation predictors
Conclusion: Treatable traits can be assessed using severe asthma registry data. In severe asthma, patients express more treatable traits than non-severe asthma. Traits may be associated with future asthma exacerbation risk demonstrating clinical utility of assessing treatable traits. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: McDonald, V. M., Hiles, S. A., Godbout, K., Harvey, E. S., Marks, G. B., Hew, M., Peters, M., Bardin, P., Reynolds, P. N., Upham, J. W., Baraket, M., Bhikoo, Z., Bowden, J., Brockway, B., Chung, L. P., Cochrane, B., Foxley, G., Garrett, J., Jayaram, L., J Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Treatment decisions with an exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)-based algorithm vs a symptoms-based algorithm for asthma in pregnancy
Introduction: The Managing Asthma in Pregnancy (MAP) Study found an eNO-algorithm reduces exacerbations by 50% compared to a symptoms-algorithm.Aim: To determine differences between algorithm treatment decisions in MAP.Methods: Women with asthma (1.5) and decreased for controlled (29, decrease when
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Murphy, V. E., Powell, H., Porsbjerg, C., Gibson, P. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Effects of aerobic exercise on asthma control in eosinophilic asthma patients: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion: In conclusion, an aerobic exercise program tends to improve the quality of life and control of asthma in eosinophilic asthma patients. Studies with larger samples will be required to confirm our findings. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jalbert, A.-C., Lavoie, K., Bacon, S. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Effects of physiological variation on parameter estimates in a dynamic model of FeNO
Conclusions: Physiological variation can have significant effects on FeNO parameter estimates in this model. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Muchmore, P., Eckel, S., Rappaport, E., Zhang, Y., Garcia, E., Berhane, K., Linn, W., Molshatski, N., Habre, R., Gilliland, F. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Reduced lung function and exhaled lining fluid from small airways
Introduction: Exhaled droplets of lining fluid (PEx; Particles in Exhaled air) can be sampled and quantified non-invasively with the PExA method. A recent pilot study with PExA indicated that number of exhaled particles (mainly reflecting number of airways that close and re-open) and Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) in PEx is lower in COPD patients compared to the healthy. However, the association between lung function and composition of PEx in general population has not been studied.Methods: A general population aged 37-87 yrs (n=332) performed spirometry and PExA measurements, using a breathing manoeuvre allowing airway closu...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, J. L., Viklund, E., Friberg, H., Koca Akdeva, H., Olin, A.-C. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Small airway dysfunction in asthma: a real life study
Background: Real life data on small airways dysfunction (SAD) in asthmatic patients are lacking.Objective: To characterize SAD in an unselected sample of patients with physician-diagnosed asthma, across all asthma severities.Methods: A cross-sectional study on 280 adult patients, seen in a secondary care asthma clinic between 01.01.2017 and 01.01.2018 was conducted. All patients underwent standard spirometry and impulse oscillometry (IOS) at the first visit, and were stratified by the presence of SAD (defined as the fall in resistance from 5 to 20 Hz [R5–R20]>0.07) and by GINA steps.Results: According to GINA clas...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berti, A., Licini, A., Lombardi, C., Cottini, M. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Serum Surfactant Protein D is decreased by oral steroids in asthma but not COPD
Sputum eosinophilia predicts responses to oral steroids in asthma (Kupczyk, 2013). Oral prednisolone decreases airway submucosal tissue eosinophil and mast cell numbers and epithelial eosinophil accumulation, compared to placebo in asthma (Djukanovic, 1997). In severe asthma (high dose inhaled steroid therapy) peripheral airway eosinophil accumulation remains elevated (bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil (Mackay, 2016)). The activation status of eosinophils in severe asthma is inversely related the BAL surfactant protein D (SP-D) concentrations. SP D is a component of innate immune defence against pathogens within the ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mackay, R.-M., Clark, H., Lau, L., James, A., Kupczyk, M., Dahlen, S.-E., Howarth, P. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Healthcare resource utilisation (HRU) in the Asthma Salford Lung Study (SLS asthma)
SLS asthma demonstrated the effectiveness and safety of initiating once-daily inhaled fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) 100[200]/25µg vs continuing usual care (UC) in patients (pts) with symptomatic asthma in UK primary care.1 Here, we describe HRU and costs in SLS asthma.HRU data were captured remotely in real-time via pts’ electronic health records using a primary/secondary care-linked database system. Prespecified HRU and cost analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat population.At baseline: mean age 50 yrs, 74% asthma duration ≥10 yrs, 38% current comorbidities, 90%/50% day/nighttime symptoms. ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Browning, D., Diar Bakerly, N., New, J. P., Stein, N., Svedsater, H., Leather, D. A., Lay-Flurrie, J., Fletcher, J. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

The Value of Voluntary Cough Sounds for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Disease
Conclusion: Within the disease categories which we studied (Asthma, COPD, and AR), , we conclude that voluntary cough sounds can have some value for computer-aided diagnostic systems, with primary use as a crude low-cost screening tool. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fletcher, R., Infante, C., Thorat, Y., Vincent, V., Salvi, S. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Analysis of wheezing in patients with partially controlled bronchial asthma during intrabronchial auscultation
Conclusions. Intrabronchial auscultation allows objectively identifying wheezing in adult patients with partially controlled bronchial asthma. This expands the patient's breathing noise assessment capabilities and, ultimately, allows for adjustment of the therapy. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Abrosimov, V., Glotov, S., Petrov, Y., Ponomareva, I. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Sputum eosinophils vary by time of day in severe asthma: Implications for management
Conclusions: Time of day has a clinically relevant effect on SE in severe asthma. If confirmed by a prospective controlled study, this would have important implications for clinical practice. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tavernier, G., Fowler, S. J., Allen, D., Simpson, A., Durrington, H., Niven, R. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Treatment of multimorbid asthma patients in structured care. Results from the Disease Management Program (DMP) Bronchial Asthma in the North Rhine region in Germany.
Conclusion: Obviously multimorbid asthma patients need more attention in achieving treatment goals. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Weber, A., Groos, S., Kretschmann, J., Macare, C., Hagen, B. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

New-onset asthma in adults; does the trigger predict outcome?
Rationale: New-onset asthma in adults often starts following a specific trigger. It is unknown whether these triggers affect different patients and are associated with different asthma outcomes.Aim: to investigate the association between triggers of asthma onset, patient characteristics and asthma remission rates.Methods: 200 adults with recently diagnosed (
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Coumou, H., Westerhof, G., De Nijs, S., Amelink, M., Bel, E. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Clustering of adherence variability metrics and clinical outcomes in asthma
Conclusions: Novel metrics showed that low time adherence was associated with greater risk of decline in symptom control and a trend to higher exacerbation risk. Adherence patterns may exhibit ‘memory’ relevant to future clinical status, warranting validation in a larger dataset. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Huvanandana, J., Reddel, H., Nguyen, C., Foster, J., Frey, U., Thamrin, C. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Late onset asthma: A distinct phenotype
Introduction: The age of asthma onset is often implicated in clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of the disease.Aim: To define demographic, clinical and functional features and inflammatory characteristics in induced sputum in patients with late onset asthma.Methods: 333 asthmatics who are followed up in asthma clinics of two tertiary hospitals were included in the study. All patients underwent detailed assessment of demographic characteristics, evaluation of severity and treatment regimes, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, measurement of blood eosinophils and sputum induction for the assessment of s...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Papaporfyriou, A., Hillas, G., Papaioannou, A., Kostikas, K., Konstantelou, E., Tseliou, E., Koulouris, N., Papiris, S., Bakakos, P., Loukides, S. Tags: Monitoring Airway Disease Source Type: research

Symptoms of vocal cord paresis among children born extremely premature with- or without PDA ligation. A Norwegian national cohort study.
Background: Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in extremely preterm (EP) born infants is debated. If active measures are decided, two options are available; cyclooxygenase inhibitors or surgical ligation. The latter option is associated with verified but varying rates of left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP), causing respiratory problems often confused with other disorders such as asthma. It is unknown if LVCP leads to recognizable patterns of respiratory symptoms.Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms in EP-born children exposed to surgical ligation of PDA.Methods: This was a sub-study of all infants with a signi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Engeseth, M. S., Maeland, S., Clemm, H., Vollsaeter, M., Engan, M., Halvorsen, T., Roksund, O. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

An observational study of incident diagnoses of childrens diffuse parenchymal lung disease (ChILDEU)
Introduction: There are sparse data on progression of Children‘s Interstitial Lung Disease (ChILD). We prospectively observed ChILD cases in the year following diagnosis (ChILD EU FP7- 305653).Methods: European clinicians submitted cases to the ChILDEU database. Baseline data were peer reviewed to confirm diagnosis. Clinical status updated at 4, 8, 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. CDC growth chart algorithms used for height/weight.Results: 128 incident ChILD cases were submitted from 9 countries in 26 months (01/14 - 11/16); Germany (48), UK (25) and Poland (21). Cases were predominantly male (56%) and caucasian (90%), ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cunningham, S., Graham, C., Maclean, M., Aurora, P., Ashworth, M., Calder, A., Clement, A., Hengste, M., Kiper, N., Krenke, K., Lange, J., Nicholson, A., Reu, S., Snijders, D., Bush, A., Schwerk, N., Griese, M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Early life home indoor bacterial and fungal microbiota measured with amplicon sequencing and risk of asthma by the age of 10.5 years
Introduction and aims: Amplicon sequencing has revolutionized possibilities to identify microbial taxa. We studied the association between early-life indoor exposure to specific microbial taxa and development of asthma.Methods: Dust samples from living room floors were collected at 2 months of age and children (N=374) were followed up until age 10.5 years. Bacterial and fungal DNA amplicons were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Relative abundances were transformed into loads (i.e. cell equivalents per square meter (CE/m2)) by multiplying with total bacterial/fungal loads measured via qPCR (Dannemiller et al. Atmos Env 2014;84:...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pekkanen, J., Täubel, M., Kirjavainen, P., Hyvärinen, A., Remes, S., Von Mutius, E., Karvonen, A. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of children of the ALL Age Asthma Cohort
Conclusions: Sampling of VOCs is feasible even in young children. The number of VOCs that differ between asthmatics and controls as well between wheeze phenotypes suggests that this non-invasive method will be an excellent complementary measure for in-depth characterization and identification of possible wheeze or asthma biomarkers and predictors in ALLIANCE. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ehrmann, M., Von Mutius, E., Hansen, G., Kopp, M., Hohlfeld, J. M., Holz, O., Fuchs, O. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Clinical features & management of 334 children with primary ciliary dyskinesia in the English National Cohort
Introduction: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare condition where impaired mucociliary clearance leads to recurrent sinopulmonary infection & bronchiectasis. A National Children's PCD management service was commissioned in England in 2012 across 4 Centres. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of all children in England within this new service.Methods: Detailed diagnostic, phenotypic & management data were collected at annual review assessments for all children seen in 2014.Results: 334 children underwent annual review. Median age at review was 9.8yrs. Median age at diagnosis was 2.6yrs, ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rubbo, B., Best, S., Hirst, R., Gahleitner, F., Carr, S. B., Chetcuti, P., Hogg, C., Kenia, P., Lucas, J. S., Moya, E., Narayanan, M., O'Callaghan, C., Williamson, M., Walker, W. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Impact of Lung Resection in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia: a cohort and nested case-control study
RationalLung resection in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a controversial therapeutic modality. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lung resection in PCD across countries and compare disease course in lobectomised and non-lobectomised patients.Methods: In a study nested in the international iPCD cohort (n=2855), we identified lobectomised (cases) and non-lobectomised age, center and sex-matched (controls) PCD patients and compared their clinical characteristics, lung function and BMI cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Results: Data from 163 lobectomised PCD patients from 20 centers (15 countries) were available. The...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kouis, P., Goutaki, M., Halbeisen, F. S., Gioti, I., Middleton, N., Amirav, I., Barbato, A., Behan, L., Boon, M., Emiralioglu, N., Haarman, E., Karadag, B., Koerner-Rettberg, C., Lazor, R., Loebinger, M. R., Maitre, B., Mazurek, H., Morgan, L., Nielsen, K Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Accuracy of high-speed video microscopy to diagnose primary ciliary dyskinesia
Conclusions: Specialist scientists accurately diagnosed PCD using HSVM analysis, with high inter-observer agreement. HSVM can be used to reliably counsel patients on their likely diagnosis on the same day as clinic appointment and inform clinicians on initiation of treatment while confirmatory investigations are conducted.Funding: NIHR Research for Patient Benefit grant (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rubbo, B., Reading, I., Shoemark, A., Jackson, C., Hirst, R. A., Thompson, J., Hayes, J., Frost, E., Copeland, F., O'Callaghan, C., Hogg, C., Lucas, J. S. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Neonatal manifestations in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia: a multinational cohort study
Background: Neonatal respiratory distress (NRDS) and other neonatal manifestations are reported commonly in patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD): Despite this, most patients remain undiagnosed until much later in life. We calculated the prevalence of neonatal manifestations in a large multinational dataset and assessed if they were associated with earlier PCD diagnosis.Methods: We included 13 datasets from the international PCD (iPCD) cohort, with almost complete information on the neonatal period. We calculated the prevalence of reported NRDS and separately the prevalence of any reported neonatal manifestation (...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Goutaki, M., Halbeisen, F. S., Wisse, A. C., Amirav, I., Barbato, A., Casaulta, C., Crowley, S., Haarman, E. G., Hirst, R. A., Karadag, B., Lucas, J. S., Morgan, L., Ozcelik, U., Ucros, S., Yiallouros, P., Zivkovic, Z., Latzin, P., Kuehni, C. E. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Infant lower respiratory tract illness reduces lung function at 2 years in African children
Conclusion: LRTI in infancy has a sustained impact on lung function at 2 years, especially if recurrent or associated with wheeze.Funding: The Wellcome Trust (204755/Z/16/Z) Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (1017641) (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gray, D., Turkovic, L., Mcmillan, L., Jacobs, C., Stadler, J. A., Vanker, A., Hantos, Z., Czovek, D., Sly, P. D., Hall, G. L., Zar, H. J. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in adolescents attending national sports high school
Introduction: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) can hamper exercise performance. Prevalence of EIB and EILO in adolescents attending sports high school has not been previously investigated.Aim: To investigate prevalence of EIB and EILO, with standardized exercise tests, in a population of adolescents attending sports high school.Method: A questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnea was administrated to all students attending first year in a national sports high school, Uppsala, Sweden (n=548). The response rate was 67%. Exercise-induced dyspnea (EID) was reported by ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Johansson, H., Ersson, K., Malinovschi, A., Mallmin, E., Norlander, K., Nordang, L. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Associations between early life exposure to pollen and adolescent lung function are modified by residential greenness
Background: Lung function directly influences metabolic function, stamina and respiratory health. Early life exposures may have a substantial impact on lung development during childhoodObjective: To examine the associations between early life ambient grass pollen exposure and lung function up to 18 years and explore potential effect modifications by residential greennessMethods: Using the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study (MACS), a high-risk allergic disease birth cohort, we examined lung function (FEV1, FVC and FEF25-75) at ages 12 and 18 years. Daily ambient levels of grass pollen (measured with a Burkard trap) and residentia...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lambert, K., Lodge, C., Prendergast, L. A., Bowatte, G., Lowe, A., Wjst, M., Abramson, M. J., Dharmage, S. C., Erbas, B. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in spirometry in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa
Background: Chronic lung disease is common in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. There is little data on lung function progression in HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART).Objective: To investigate progression of lung function over 2 years in HIV-infected adolescents in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral cohort (CTAAC).Methods: HIV-infected adolescents, 9-14 years, on ART, underwent spirometry with bronchodilator testing at enrolment and two years later. Healthy HIV-uninfected, matched controls were also tested. Linear mixed models were used to compute longitudinal changes in lung function.Result...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Githinji, L., Gray, D., Hlengwa, S., Machemedze, T., Myer, L., Zar, H. J. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and immune and respiratory outcomes
In this study population with low levels of PFAS, we found little evidence of associations of prenatal PFAS exposure with immune and respiratory outcomes until 7 years of age. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Casas, M., Manzano-Salgado, C. B., Granum, B., Lopez-Espinosa, M.-J., Ballester, F., Iniguez, C., Gascon, M., Martinez, D., Guxens, M., Basterretxea, M., Zabaleta, C., Schettgen, T., Sunyer, J., Vrijheid, M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and lung function until early adulthood
Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) can increase the risk of adverse respiratory symptoms in children and adolescents, but evidence is mainly based on reported symptoms. We assessed the association between prenatal exposure to OCs and lung function until early adulthood.We included 1146 participants belonging to the Spanish INMA (Childhood and Environment) birth cohort in Menorca, Valencia, Gipuzkoa, and Sabadell regions. Prenatal concentrations of hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE], and four polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB-118, -138, -153, ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Casas, M., Abellan, A., Garcia, R., Torrent, M., Roda, C., Gascon, M., Ferrero, A., Lopez-Espinosa, M.-J., Zabaleta, C., Basterrechea, M., Grimalt, J., Garcia-Aymerich, J., Vrijheid, M., Sunyer, J. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Lung function and oral health in adolescents
Conclusion: We observed an association between the occurrence of gingivitis and reduced lung function already in adolescents. This association was unrelated to inflammatory markers and smoking. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Heinrich, J., Thiering, E., Jörres, R., Schulz, H., Kühnisch, J., Standl, M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Associations of maternal Chlamydia trachomatis infection with wheezing, lung function and asthma in children.
Conclusion: Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy is associated with early childhood wheezing and school-age asthma. Further studies are needed to assess potential underlying mechanisms and clinical implications. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van Meel, E. R., Attanasi, M., Reiss, I. K., Moll, H. A., De Jongste, J. C., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Duijts, L. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Reduced first trimester fetal size and asthma outcomes to age 29 years - results from a "virtual" birth cohort
Conclusions: There are small but consistent reductions in first trimester fetal size associated with later asthma outcomes and the association does not appear to diminish with time. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turner, S., Aucott, L. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research