Repositioning compounds for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis treatment: seeking the future in the past
Extract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease with only two approved treatments, pirfenidone and nintedanib, which have been shown to slow lung function decline and may improve survival by 2 years [1, 2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 16, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Crestani, B. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

T-cells and precision medicine for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Extract The pathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remains poorly understood, despite its widely accepted recognition as a distinct endotype of severe asthmatic disease [1]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 16, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moss, R. B. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Reply to: The puzzles surrounding the impact of face masks on 6-minute walking distance in pulmonary hypertension
This study was conducted in 122 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and suggested that wearing a face mask has significant impact on the 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and Borg dyspnoea score in patients with PH. Two specific issues have been raised by J-L. Ma and co-workers. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 16, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wissmüller, M., Wartner, V., Hohmann, C., Adler, J., Kramer, T., Hellmich, M., Gerhardt, F., Baldus, S., Rosenkranz, S. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Th2-skewed peripheral T-helper cells drive B-cells in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Conclusion We identified a distinctly elevated population of circulating Th2-skewed Tph cells that induced the production of IgE in ABPA patients. It may be a biomarker and therapeutic target for ABPA. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 16, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Luo, R.-G., Wu, Y.-F., Lu, H.-W., Weng, D., Xu, J.-Y., Wang, L.-L., Zhang, L.-S., Zhao, C.-Q., Li, J.-X., Yu, Y., Jia, X.-M., Xu, J.-F. Tags: Lung biology and experimental studies Original Articles: Respiratory immunology Source Type: research

The puzzles surrounding the impact of face masks on 6-minute walking distance in pulmonary hypertension
Extract We read with great interest the research letter by Wissmüller et al. [1], which was recently published in the European Respiratory Journal. The authors conducted a prospective, randomised cross-over study to evaluate the impact of face masks on 6-min walking distance (6MWD) in 122 pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting that wearing face masks could lead to a decrease in 6MWD and higher Borg dyspnoea score. However, surprisingly, face masks did not affect maximum heart rate (HR), baseline HR, oxygen saturation and vital signs. In spite of these promising findings, there...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 16, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ma, J.-L., Wang, A.-Y., Lu, D., Cheng, C.-Y., Jing, Z.-C. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Repositioning of ezetimibe for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Extract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and lethal interstitial lung disease characterised by excessive extracellular matrix deposition and structural distortion with fibrosis [1, 2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 16, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, C., Kwak, S. H., Han, J., Shin, J. H., Yoo, B., Lee, Y. S., Park, J. S., Lim, B. J., Lee, J. G., Kim, Y. S., Kim, S. Y., Bae, S. H. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung disease Source Type: research

From gut to lung and back again: early life microbiota in cystic fibrosis
Extract The connection between gastrointestinal and respiratory pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) was first observed in 1938 in Dorothy Andersen's initial description of CF [1]. Andersen reported on the autopsy findings of 49 infants and young children with CF, which notably included near-universal evidence of pancreatic fibrosis, nutritional deficiencies and chronic respiratory infections. In the following decades, dramatic increases in life expectancy for people with CF largely resulted from therapies directed towards gastrointestinal and respiratory disease, including pancreatic enzymes, calorie and vitamin supplementat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 9, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Caverly, L. J., Ross, B. D., Dickson, R. P. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

The concept of Sfrp1+ transitional fibroblasts: the key to dissociating lineage heterogeneity and fate of invasive fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis?
This study largely aligns with our recent publication proposing that multiple fibroblast subtypes from IPF lungs contribute to the invasive phenotype of fibroblasts and the matrix deposition in pulmonary fibrosis [2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 9, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liu, X., Zhang, X., Liang, J., Noble, P. W., Jiang, D. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The longitudinal microbial and metabolic landscape of infant cystic fibrosis: the gut-lung axis
Conclusion Exploration of the gut–lung microbiome and metabolome reveals diverse multisite interactions in cystic fibrosis that emerge in early life. Gut–lung metabolomic links with airway inflammation and Pseudomonas abundance warrant further investigation for clinical utility, particularly in non-expectorating patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 9, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Frayman, K. B., Macowan, M., Caparros-Martin, J., Ranganathan, S. C., Marsland, B. J., on behalf of SYNERGY CF Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research

Ethnicity corrections in pulmonary function test reports: what to do?
Extract The 2023 American Thoracic Society (ATS) document on race and ethnicity in pulmonary function test interpretation advocating "race-neutral prediction equations" [1], and the subsequent editorial on the same subject, in a recent issue of the European Respiratory Journal [2], are timely, in spite of some disagreement. For many years, pulmonary function laboratories have (alternatively, they may have chosen not to) reduced the predictions (based on age, height and sex) for lung volumes and capacities (but not for the transfer factor, TLCO) by 10–15% for patients of African or Asian ancestry. In my book on pulmon...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 2, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hughes, M. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cannabis smoking is associated with advanced epigenetic age
Extract Cannabis use has been controversial, largely having been designated a controlled substance over the past century. While certain studies have linked cannabis smoking with harmful effects such as increased respiratory symptoms and faster lung function decline in older adults [1, 2], these findings have not been fully replicated by others [3]. The link between cannabis and disease pathogenesis may best be explored through DNA methylation. This mechanism consists of the addition or removal of a methyl group at a cytosine–guanine residue (CpG), can be influenced by exposures, and can modify transcription. Methylat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 2, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hernandez Cordero, A. I., Li, X., Yang, C. X., Ambalavanan, A., MacIsaac, J. L., Kobor, M. S., Doiron, D., Tan, W., Bourbeau, J., Sin, D. D., Duan, Q., Leung, J. M., the CanCOLD Collaborative Research Group Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid in multidrug-resistant and pre-extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in refugees from Ukraine and Somalia in Germany
Extract According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2023 tuberculosis (TB) report, in the European Union region there are approximately 200 000 TB cases per year, among which 30 000 are rifampicin resistant (RR) with treatment success rates of 57% [1], indicating a considerable gap from the United Nations' goal of an 80% reduction by 2030. In 2022, the WHO guideline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB recommended as new first-line regimen for MDR-TB (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin [2]) bedaquiline, pretomanid, linezolid and moxifloxacin (BPaLM), and for pre-extensively drug-resistant tub...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 2, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Trauth, J., Kantelhardt, V., Usenko, B., Knipper, M., Kuhns, M., Friesen, I., Herold, S. Tags: Research Letters Source Type: research

Correcting and harmonising the terminology for exhaled gases
Extract Frequently, the abbreviations and methods used for measuring and reporting respired gases do not follow the standardisation, definitions and symbols that experts in the field have agreed on. This has become apparent for exhaled nitric oxide, where expired gas is commonly and incorrectly denoted by "e" rather than by "E", much like "i" instead of "I" for inspired [1]. Why is standardisation important? (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 2, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Högman, M., Wagner, P. D. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Multitasking within the airway epithelium
Extract Asthma frequently begins in childhood. The first manifestation is often recurrent wheezing during the preschool years, predominantly associated with viral respiratory infection and perturbation of the airway microbiome. Sometimes early onset wheeze is transient, but it can evolve into persistent asthma with multifactorial wheeze triggered by infections, allergens, irritants or exercise. This progression of persistent wheeze evolving into allergic or nonallergic asthma can last a lifetime and is treatable but not curable. Emerging evidence indicates that risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms differ among as...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 2, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gern, J. E., Ober, C. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Rifampicin has no role in treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease and bactericidal sterilising drugs are needed: a viewpoint
Extract Current rifampicin/ethambutol/azithromycin regimens for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) are long, toxic and yield relatively poor outcomes [1]: a meta-analysis lumping nodular bronchiectatic disease and fibro-cavitary disease reported a 65% prolonged culture conversion rate; following initially successful treatment, recurrence rates of 30% have been reported [2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - May 2, 2024 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van Ingen, J., Hoefsloot, W., Dartois, V., Dick, T. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research