The effects of oral care with 0.2% chlorhexidine with toothbrushing to prevent ventilator associated pneumonia in adults' intensive care units
Conclusion: VAP was less likely to occur in the trial group than in the control group, indicating that tooth brushing twice daily in addition to standard care of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse was effective in reducing the incidence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients treated at Hospital USM ICU (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Khan, M., Mohamed, Z., Ali, S., Saddki, N., Sukminingrum, N. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

A case series of 17 patients with pulmonary tularemia in Norway 2016-2018
Conclusion: Pulmonary manifestations in tularemia were unexpectedly frequent. Although all patients had symptoms consistent with infection, the majority were investigated as possible malignancies based on the radiological findings. Pulmonary tularemia may be an important differential diagnosis to lung cancer. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kravdal, A., Stubhaug, O. O. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Carbapenem-resistant pathogens in US patients hospitalized with respiratory infections
Conclusion: Non-fermenters were responsible for the majority of the CR found in patients with respiratory infections. Many of these infections were present at admission. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cai, B., Echols, R., Rudin, D., Corvino, F., Morgan, G., Ariyasu, M., Sawada, T., Nagata, T. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Respiratory viral infection in immunocompromised patients
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of respiratory virus infections in immunocompromised patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy for respiratory symptoms. This finding may influence patient management. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jahn, K., Schumann, D., Tamm, M., Hirsch, H., Halter, J., Junker, L., Strobel, W., Savic, S., Stolz, D. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Usefulness of ICU criteria for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in critically ill patients
Conclusions: Clinically, the ICU criteria are not used consistently for diagnosis and treatment decision making in critically ill patients with non-hematologic disease and treatment were performed according to patient’s underlying disease, therefore further research is needed to modify the criteria. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, S.-I., Huh, J.-W. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Respiratory viral point of care testing (POCT) allows improved infection control and bed management during an influenza outbreak
We present findings from the first 2 weeks after implementation of this novel service.Results: Of 130 patients tested, 57 cases of influenza were identified, of the following strains: 41 B, 14 A H3 and 2 A H1 2009.The average time from receipt of sample to test result was 12 hours for n = 25 samples sent to the microbiology lab via the traditional method. In contrast, POCT results were available in 43 minutes.29 of 57 influenza patients underwent POCT whilst in ED prior to admission, of whom 22 could be appropriately admitted as per infection control (IC) measures and 7 safely discharged.Of the 50 admitted, 32 were dischar...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Roy, K., Kandil, H., Knight, M., Thapa, M., Groom, K. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Nosocomial outbreak of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a respiratory intensive care unit
Conclusion: There are many potential modes of nosocomial infections transmission in ICU. Bronchoscopy should always be taken in to the consideration if oubreaks occur even without microbiological confirmation. Our report emphasizes the importance of careful bronchoscope reprocessing and introducing of single-use bronchoscopes as a possible solution. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pavlisa, G., Marekovic, I., Puretic, H., Dzubur, F., Bosnjak, Z., Firis, N., Samarzija, M. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Predicting outcomes for invasive fungal tracheobronchitis
This study aimed to predict IFT outcomes.Methods: A retrospective, multicenter, observational study of adults diagnosed with IFT between January 2007 and December 2015 was conducted. IFT was classified as pseudomembranous, ulcerative, or obstructive. The patients’ characteristics, underlying diseases, laboratory data, histopathological and bronchoscopic findings and outcomes were recorded. The predictive factors for in-hospital mortality were analyzed.Results: Thirty-six patients, comprising 28 men and eight women with a mean age of 63.5±2.2 years, who were diagnosed with IFT were recruited. Half of the patien...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lin, C. Y., Fang, Y. F. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Allergic diseases of upper and lower airways caused by fungi: one or two diseases?
This study is one step forward in clarifying mechanism by which airborne fungi turn from ‘normal flora’ into triggers of immunological reactions, resulting in ABPA/AFRS. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barac, A., Minic, P., Dudvarski Ilic, A., Stevanovic, G., Tomic Spiric, V. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Endoscopic one-way endobronchial valves in the treatment of persistent air leak with empyema: A Case Series
Conclusion: Insertion of endobronchial valves is a safe and effective method for treating persistent air leak even during empyemas, as valid alternative to surgery, in selected cases. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cusumano, G., Fiorelli, A., Bellofiore, S., Riscica Lizzio, C., Giarlotta, R., Santini, M., Terminella, A. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and deoxyribonuclease (DNAse) for pleural infection in an Asian population: Similar outcomes between 5mg and 10mg regimen
Background: Intrapleural fibrinolytic using the combination of tPA and DNAse can be an alternative to surgery for pleural infection cases who fail antibiotics and tube thoracostomy. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the use of tPA/DNAse in Asia.Aim: To study the use and outcomes of patients treated with tPA/DNase in our centre.Methods: Medical records of all patients who received intrapleural tPA/DNase for pleural infection from 1/12/2016 to 30/11/2017 were reviewed for demographics, treatment details, survival outcomes and complications.Results: Sixteen patients received intrapleural tPA/DNAse. Median (interqua...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yap, K. H., Tan, G. P., Abisheganaden, J. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Are there geographical differences in the microbiology of pleural infection?
Conclusion: Gram +ve cocci are predominant causes of pleural infections. There appears to be geographical differences in the incidence of different organisms. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hassan, M., Cargill, T., Corcoran, J., Harriss, E., Asciak, R., Mercer, R., Hallifax, R., Rahman, N. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Outcomes of empyema in the elderly: A study from Australia's Capital Territory
Conclusion: Key clinical differences exist in baseline characteristics of older patients with empyema. Understanding factors associated with mortality may help stratify those at highest risk of an adverse outcome and thus target treatment appropriately. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nanayakkara, B., Tai, J., Lemberger, J., Huang, C. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Combining supervised and unsupervised models to characterize asthma phenotypes in children
Conclusion: Characterizing asthma using supervised and unsupervised methods we have been able to identify several phenotypes that may improve the clinical management of asthma. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brew, B., Chiesa, F., Lundholm, C., Almqvist, C. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic educational pathway effect on asthma control: a pilot study
Conclusions: this study confirms the importance of TEP in pediatric asthma, suggesting that it may help in asthma management. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Montalbano, L., Cilluffo, G., Malizia, V., Fasola, S., Gentile, M., Arrigo, M., La Guardia, D., Allegra, M., Murgia, N., Pichini, S., Mancini, R., Rotolo, M. C., La Grutta, S. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Self-reported and medical chart histories of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) children and young adults
Conclusion: There is poor agreement between self-reported and medical chart diagnoses in our cohort. This may reflect poor health knowledge and/or poor medical chart documentation of these conditions. These results highlight challenges for monitoring disease prevalence/burden within Australian Indigenous communities. Table 1: Number of occurences (% of cohort)Self-reported (SR)Medical chart (MC)Both SR & MCKappaAsthma174 (18%)107 (11%)81 (8%)0.5Bronchiectasis15 (2%)6 (0.6%)5 (0.5%)0.5Pneumonia18 (2%)55 (6%)5 (0.5%)0.1Allergic Rhinitis74 (8%)10 (1%)6 (0.6%)0.1Eczema60 (6%)58 (6%)18 (2%)0.3 (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Blake, T., Chatfield, M., Chang, A., Petsky, H., Mcelrea, M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Snoring in schoolchildren: prevalence and risk factors
Conclusions: Habitual snoring is reported for 5% of schoolchildren. Risk factors, treatment options and long-term health outcomes will merit further investigations.Funding: Lunge Zurich, Switzerland; SNF32003B_162820 (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mozun Torrico, R., Goutaki, M., Ardura-Garcia, C., Singer, F., Latzin, P., Moeller, A., Kuehni, C. E. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Challenges facing parents/caregivers of children with interstitial lung disease (chILD): international survey
Conclusion: These findings will inform CRC activities and research going forward. Online information, clinical networks and industry links are in active development (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boyd, J., Cunningham, S., Schwerk, N., Gilbert, C., Powell, P., Schamberger, M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Exercise induced dyspnea among adolescents - prevalence and incidence, a five-year follow-up
Introduction: Many adolescents are limited in their physical activity because of exercise induced dyspnea (EID).Aim: To investigate the prevalence and incidence of EID over a five- year period in a population of 12--13-year-old adolescents in Uppsala, Sweden.Methods: The ANDAS study started in 2011 by inviting all 12-13-year-old adolescents in Uppsala (n=3838) to complete a questionnaire together with a parent on EID during the last 12 months. The response rate was 60%. Five years later, in 2016 a follow-up questionnaire was sent to all responding adolescents from the ANDAS study 2011 (n=2309), now 17-18-year-old. In total...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Johansson, H., Emtner, M., Janson, C., Malinovschi, A., Norlander, K., Nordang, L. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Association between asthma and lung function in adolescents born very preterm: results of the EPIPAGE cohort study.
Background: Prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) affect long-term lung function. The potential associations between postnatal respiratory symptoms, their course, and lung function are yet to be explored. We aimed to study the respiratory outcome of adolescents born very preterm and analyze their current lung function in relation to asthma symptoms from birth.Methods: Lung function was measured in a volunteer sample of 304 very preterm and 47 term-born adolescents from the prospective EPIPAGE birth cohort. Results were correlated with neonatal data and asthma symptoms collected in EPIPAGE follow-up questionnaire...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hadchouel-Duverge, A., Rousseau, J., Roze, J.-C., Arnaud, C., Bellino, A., Marret, S., Ancel, P.-Y., Delacourt, C. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Infant lung function in relation to air pollution exposure in Stockholm, Sweden - results from the EMIL-cohort
Background: Traffic related air pollution (TRAP) is a well-known risk factor for lung disease. In particular, exposure during infancy has been shown to affect lung function later in childhood. However, there are few studies investigating the effect on lung function in infancy.Aims and Objectives: To investigate lung function in infancy in relation to TRAP exposure, hypothesizing that the effect on lung function is apparent already in infancy.Methods: Through a combination of birth registers and address based exposure assessment a total of 99 infants resident within Stockholm city at addresses with low (PM10
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lundberg, B., Melen, E., Gruzieva, O., Pershagen, G., Hallberg, J. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Lung function in children with congenital heart disease
Conclusions: Unexpectedly, CHD with increased PBF were associated with a worse lung function outcome than CHD with decreased PBF. If we consider that the age of surgery was largely related to the hemodynamic significance of CHD, we suggest that increased PBF induced impaired lung development that is proportional to the magnitude of the pulmonary flow.Support by French Ministry of Health and Abbvie (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Guerin, S., Bertille, N., Khraiche, D., Bonnet, D., Goffinet, F., Lelong, N., Khoshnood, B., Delacourt, C. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Predictors of pulmonary function test (Spirometry) values for Pakistani children, aged 5-14 years
Title: Predictors of pulmonary function test (Spirometry) values for Pakistani children, aged 5-14 yearsObjective: To predict pulmonary function test values in children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Nishtar Medical university, Multan, Pakistan, from August 2014 to March 2015, and comprised school-going children aged 5-14 years. After noting their gender, age, height and weight, the pulmonary function test measures, force vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow rate were taken. Simple and multiple regression models were used for the prediction of pulmonary funct...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ghulam, M., Aslam, M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Neuropsychological and Quality of life (QoL) assessment in children with severe asthma (SA) and moderate persistent asthma (MPA): a case-control study
Background: SA requires high dose inhaled steroids + a second controller, and management at a specialized centre to exclude differential diagnoses and evaluate comorbidities. Psychological aspects in SA children require further consideration.Aim: To evaluate neuropsychological aspects and QoL in children with SA (definition as above) vs children with MPA.Methods: Multicenter cross-sectional study in Italy included 261 children, 138
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Montalbano, L., Cilluffo, G., Montella, S., La Grutta, S., Barni, S., Bozzetto, S., Caldarelli, V., Di Marco, A., Di Palmo, E., Fenu, G., Galli, V., Ghezzi, M., Leonardi, L., Licari, A., Mastrorilli, V., Lelli, M., Villani, M. L., Volpini, A., Rusconi, F. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of quality of life in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia
Conclusions: Non-compliance to treatment and treatment burden is a major problem in adolescent patients with PCD. Even though there was no statistical difference among groups in terms of treatment burden in our study, this was interpreted as a result of low number of patients. Our study is still in progress. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bingol, I., Ergenekon, P., Atag, E., Bas Ikizoglu, N., Gökdemir, Y., Erdem Eralp, E., Karadag, B. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

The effect of conventional chest physiotherapy and vibratory positive pressure therapy system on lung clearance index and spirometry in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia
Conclusion: Patient's respiratory function tests improved with 6-month chest physiotherapy. There was no statistically significant increase in LCI and spirometry results due to small number of patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation in PCD is important to maintain lung functions. Patients preference should be considered in order to increase compliance in chronic patient follow-up. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Atag, E., Ergenekon, P., Bas Ikizoglu, N., Bıngol, I., Gokdemir, Y., Erdem Eralp, E., Evkaya, A., Gencer, K., Karadag Saygı, E., Karadag, B. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparison of conventional chest physiotherapy and vibratory positive pressure treatment system method in diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia
Conclusion: Acapella® was found to be equally effective with CCPT in PCD patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bingöl, I., Ergenekon, P., Atag, E., Bas Ikizoglu, N., Gokdemir, Y., Erdem Eralp, E., Evkaya, A., Gencer, K., Karadag Saygi, E., Karadag, B. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Characterising nutrition status in a regional cohort of children with primary ciliary dyskinesia
Introduction: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare disorder where impaired mucociliary clearance leads to recurrent sinopulmonary infections and, ultimately, bronchiectasis. There is limited evidence characterising the nutritional status of children with PCD. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy phase-angle (BIS-PA) has been shown to identify declining nutritional status earlier than standard measures of anthropometry but has not been assessed in PCD.Aim: To characterise the nutritional phenotype of children with PCD.Methods: Children
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marino, L. V., Harris, A., Johnstone, C., Friend, A., Keenan, V., Wilkins, H., Lucas, J., Calder, P., Walker, W. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparison of diagnostic accuracy between the chemiluminescence and electrochemical methods for nasal nitric oxide measurements in PCD
Conclusion: The chemiluminescence method had higher discriminative ability for PCD compared to the electrochemical method. However both methods were characterized by good and comparable diagnostic accuracy and can be used effectively in the clinical setting as part of PCD diagnostic work-up. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kouis, P., Chatziparasidis, G., Boutopoulou, B., Omran, H., Kakkoura, M., Papatheodorou, S. I., Kyriacou, K., Papadopoulos, M., Grammeniatis, V., Douros, K., Priftis, K., Yiallouros, P. K. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Does nasal rinsing reduce the need for repeat nasal brushing biopsies in a primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) diagnostic service? A pilot study.
Conclusion: This small pilot study suggests NR reduces mucus impedance in nasal brushing biopsies but this does not affect the need to repeat HSVM in equivocal cases. Secondary ciliary dyskinesia and PCD with subtle cilia abnormalities is likely to be the main reason for equivocal HSVM. Further research is needed. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Harris, A., Keenan, V., Friend, A., Wilkins, H., Rubbo, B., Jackson, C., Coles, J., Thompson, J., Packham, S., Macleod, E., Nyimbili, E., Walker, W., Lucas, J., Evans, H. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Motile cilia structure and function in patients with mutations in the outer dynein arm heavy chain DNAH9
In conclusion: DNAH9 mutations result in subtle motile cilia defects which are detectable by immunofluorescence and 3D electron tomography but result in normal or subtle diagnostic investigations. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shoemark, A., Fassad, M. R., Daudvohra, F., Burgoyne, T., Hirst, R. A., Hayes, J., Dixon, M., Rogers, A., Loebinger, M., O'Callaghan, C., Hogg, C., Mitchison, H. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Lung clearance index and exercise capacity among children and adolescents survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Conclusions: Our study showed that children and adolescents with a history of BPD, exhibit mild exercise limitation. They probably develop obstructive lung disease, even though their airflow limitation is not related to inflammation provoked by asthma. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kouroukli, E., Hatziagorou, E., Sarafidis, K., Tsanakas, J. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Caucasian small for gestational age infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia require longer, and more intensive treatment for their disease than appropriate for gestational age, and non-Caucasian counterparts.
Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) secondary to prematurity is routinely managed with home oxygen therapy (HOT) and a protocoled weaning of HOT as per published guideline. Current evidence indicates that small for gestational age (SGA :
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grimley, E., Prayle, A. P., Hurley, M., Spencer, S., Batra, D., Bhatt, J. M. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Individualised dietary treatment of congenital chylothorax
Conclusion: Several options exist when treating congenital chylothorax with the low LCT diet. Individualised advice and support is key. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Whitfield-Brown, L., Moss, S. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Work of breathing at different levels of volume-targeted ventilation in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Conclusion: The results suggest that if VTV was to be used a target tidal volume of 5ml/kg might be most appropriate in infants with CDH. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hunt, K., Dassios, T., Ali, K., Greenough, A. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Acinetobacter baumannii infection and colonization among pediatric patients in pediatric ICU and other ICUs
Conclusions: Critically-ill children treated only at PICUs had a lower incidence of A. baumannii infection. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, B. J., Bae, W. R., Kim, K., Lee, H., Yang, E. A., Kim, H. S., Chun, Y. H., Yoon, J.-S., Kim, H. H., Kim, J. T. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Long Term Home Oxygen Therapy for Chronic Neonatal Lung Disease: A four year Service Evaluation at Sheffield Children's Hospital
This study shows that the duration of LTOT for children with CNLD is markedly affected by morbidty in the neonatal period, in particular duration of mechanical ventilation and pneumothoraces. With increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving to discharge, an awareness of contributing factors to likely duration of therapy is essential both so that LTOT services are adequately resourced and clinicians are better equipped to inform parents and carers of potential expected time frame for LTOT. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bean, A., Kansra, S., Bell, J. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration in school-aged children born who had chronic lung disease in infancy
Discussion: As expected spirometry was lower in the CLD group but FENO was not increased suggesting that eosinophilic inflammation is unlikely to play a part in the on-going spirometry deficits in preterm-born children who had CLD in infancy. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hart, K., Cousins, M., Willetts, G., Yendle, L., Doull, I., Williams, M., Kotecha, S., Henderson, J., Kotecha, S. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Bronchodilator response in school-aged preterm-born children who had chronic lung disease in infancy
Discussion: We confirm that preterm-born children with CLD have low spirometry in childhood. Whilst the CLD group had greater response to bronchodilator, clinical efficacy needs assessment in a formal randomised control trial. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hart, K., Cousins, M., Yendle, L., Willetts, G., Doull, I., Williams, M., Kotecha, S., Henderson, J., Kotecha, S. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Multiple breath washout is not useful in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Introduction: Children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have an increased risk for persistent structural and functional lung abnormalities. The multiple breath washout (MBW) test assesses efficiency of ventilation distribution and the lung clearance index (LCI) is considered a sensitive marker of ventilation inhomogeneity.Aim: To determine LCI and functional residual capacity (FRC) in infants with BPD and assess the correlations of LCI and FRC with lung structure and clinical parameters. We hypothesized that LCI would be elevated in infants with BPD and would correlate with structural changes.Methods: Preterm infants ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bas Ikizoglu, N., De Jong, L., Karadag, B., Reiss, I., Duijts, L., Kroon, A., Van Mastrigt, E., Tiddens, H., Ersu, R., Pijnenburg, M. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Early life lung microbiome in preterm infants
Conclusions: The microbial load in many samples was below the limit of detection in the lungs of preterm infants especially in infants receiving antibiotics. The early colonisation of preterm lungs is characterised by recurrent episodes of bacterial infection associated with rises inflammatory activity within the lung. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gallacher, D., Alber, D., Logan, G., Klein, N., Marchesi, J., Kotecha, S. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Physical activity and body composition in Norwegian children born extremely preterm
Introduction: Extremely preterm (EP) birth is associated with a series of adverse health outcomes, some of which may be alleviated by improved physical activity (PA). Studies show diverging results regarding level of PA and bone mass density (BMD), body composition and health outcome during childhood and adult life.Aim: To examine associations between PA and body composition in a Norwegian cohort born EP compared with term-born (TB) controls.Methods: An area-based cohort of EP born children
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Engan, M., Vollsaeter, M., Halvorsen, T., Clemm, H. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Albuterol delivery by soft mist and pressurized metered dose inhalers during noninvasive ventilation in a model of a spontaneously breathing child
Conclusion: Albuterol delivery during NIV with a single-limb ventilator circuit in a model of a spontaneously breathing child using pMDI/SMI is inefficient and is not a cost-efficient when compared to nebulization. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berlinski, A., Velasco, J. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Long term respiratory and developmental outcomes of children with absent pulmonary valve syndrome
Background: Absent pulmonary valve (APV) syndrome is a rare congenital heart defect characterised by marked pulmonary artery dilatation and variable degree of airway compression. Chromosomal abnormalities are common. Surgical outcomes are well described (PMID: 24636707), however, the long term respiratory and neurodevelopmental consequences are poorly described. We hypothesized that surviving children with APV syndrome require long term respiratory support (LTV) and suffer from adverse neuro developmental outcome.Methods: Single centre review of patients with APV born between 2007 and 2017. LTV was defined as more than 3 m...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brettle, E., Torok, K., Desai, T., Brookes, I., Kenia, P., Rao, S., Seale, A., Nagakumar, P. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Anatomical and alveolar dead space in mechanically ventilated newborn infants
Background: We aimed to compare anatomical (VD-Ana) and alveolar dead space (VD-Alv) in term and prematurely-born infants and identify the clinical determinants of those indices. We hypothesized that VD-Ana and VD-Alv will be higher in prematurely-born compared to term infants.Methods: Retrospective analysis of data of 56 infants (11 term, 45 preterm) studied at a median age of 8(IQR 2-33) days at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. VD-Ana was determined using Fowler’s method of volumetric capnography (Figure 1). VD-Alv was determined by subtracting VD-Ana from the physiological dead space which...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dassios, T., Dixon, P., Hickey, A., Fouzas, S., Greenough, A. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Influence of gender on lung function in prematurely born young people
Background: Males compared to females born prematurely have increased neonatal and childhood respiratory morbidity. Yet, other studies have shown that female prematurely born adults were more likely to have chronic respiratory morbidity.Aim: To assess whether gender influenced the lung function of very prematurely born young people investigated post puberty.Methods: Lung function and exercise capacity were assessed in 85 young people, born at a median of 27 (range 24-29) weeks of gestation, when they were a median of 17 (range 16-18) years of age. Spirometry was performed (forced expiratory flow at 75%, 50% and between 25 ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Harris, C., Lunt, A., Peacock, J., Greenough, A. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Clinical outcome of antenatally detected congenital lung malformations: a non-operative approach.
In conclusion, a non-operative approach provides a safe and effective strategy for the management of antenatally detected CLMs with excellent medium to long term clinical outcome. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Robertson, C., Law, A., Fink, M., Crameri, J. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Pulmonary microbes identified by 16S sequencing of tracheal aspirate samples in two neonatal units in the UK
Conclusion: Microbial DNA was not detectable in TA samples of preterm infants in the absence of infection most likely due to absence of microbes or below detection levels. 16S rRNA sequencing identified dominant genera suggesting respiratory infections, as evidenced by an increase in IL-6 and IL-8. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gallacher, D., Alber, D., Logan, G., Klein, N., Wach, R., Marchesi, J., Kotecha, S. Tags: Neonatology and paediatric intensive care Source Type: research

Calprotectin as new sensitive marker of neutrophilic inflammation in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans
Background: Calprotectin is found extensively in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and it is released predominately in inflammatory processes. Calprotectin is released locally which suggests that it is a sensitive indicator of inflammation. Bronchiolitis Obliterans (BO) describes a pathologic alteration of small airways which begins with an initial injury and is followed by a distinctive inflammatory response.Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate for the first time to what extent calprotectin is increased in sputum of BO patients and whether it can be used as inflammatory marker.Methods: 28 patients with BO median age 1...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jerkic, P.-S., Michel, F., Kochems, A., Schubert, R., Rosewich, M., Zielen, S. Tags: Paediatric respiratory infection and immun. Source Type: research

The effect of ambient air pollution on the risk of hospitalisation with bronchiolitis in infants: A systematic review.
Background: Air pollution increases the risk of various acute respiratory events in children, including asthma exacerbations and acute lower respiratory infections, but there are no published systematic reviews of the effect of air pollution on viral bronchiolitis.Aim: To systematically review and grade the evidence around the effects of ambient levels of particulate (diameter
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: King, C., Hawcutt, D., Kirkham, J., Sinha, I. Tags: Paediatric respiratory infection and immun. Source Type: research