Quantification of biological age as a determinant of age-related diseases in the Rotterdam Study: a structural equation modeling approach
AbstractChronological age alone is not a sufficient measure of the true physiological state of the body. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify biological age based on a physiological biomarker composite model; (2) and evaluate its association with death and age-related disease onset in the setting of an elderly population. Using structural equation modeling we computed biological age for 1699 individuals recruited from the first and second waves of the Rotterdam study. The algorithm included nine physiological parameters (c-reactive protein, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, cytomegalovirus optical dens...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Generalizing from the results of randomized studies of treatment: Can non-randomized studies be of help?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal proximity to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and risk of birth defects
AbstractCauses of birth defects are unclear, and the association with electromagnetic fields is inconclusive. We assessed the relationship between residential proximity to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields from power grids and risk of birth defects. We analyzed a population-based sample of 2,164,246 infants born in Quebec, Canada between 1989 and 2016. We geocoded the maternal residential postal code at delivery and computed the distance to the nearest high voltage electrical transmission line or transformer station. We used log-binomial regression to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Interaction between lifestyle and genetic susceptibility in myopia: the Generation R study
AbstractMyopia is a refractive error of the eye caused by a complex interplay between nature and nurture. The aim of this study was to investigate whether environmental risk factors can influence the genetic effect in children developing myopia. A total of 3422 children participating in the birth-cohort study Generation R underwent an extensive eye examination at 9  years with measurements of refractive error and axial length corneal radius ratio (AL/CR). Environmental risk factors were evaluated using a questionnaire, and environmental risk scores (ERS) were calculated using backward regression analyses. Genetic ri...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Being born in the aftermath of World War II increases the risk for health deficit accumulation in older age: results from the KORA-Age study
AbstractMorbidity trends may result from cohort experiences in critical developmental age. Our objective was to compare the health status of 65 –71 year-olds who were in critical developmental age before (1937–June 1945), during (June 1945–June 1948) and after (June 1948–1950) the early reconstruction and food crisis (ERFC) period in Germany following World War II. Data originate from the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Re gion of Augsburg)-Age study in Southern Germany. We used the 2008 baseline sample born 1937–1943 and the 2015 enrichment sample born 1944–1950. Health st...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The longitudinal integrated database for health insurance and labour market studies (LISA) and its use in medical research
AbstractEducation, income, and occupation are factors known to affect health and disease. In this review we describe the Swedish Longitudinal Integrated Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies (LISA, Longitudinell Integrationsdatabas f ör Sjukförsäkrings- och Arbetsmarknadsstudier). LISA covers the adult Swedish population aged ≥ 16 years registered on December 31 each year since 1990 (since 2010 individuals aged ≥ 15 years). The database was launched in response to rising levels of sick leave in the country. Part icipation in Swedish government-adm...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Blood pressure, hypertension and the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
AbstractAbdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are fatal in 80% of the cases when ruptured. Hypertension has been considered a potential risk factor for AAA; but the findings from prospective cohort studies have not been entirely consistent, nor have they been summarised  in a comprehensive meta-analysis. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of the association between blood pressure, hypertension and AAA to clarify the strength and shape of these associations. We searched PubMed and Embase databases for relevant cohort studies up to April 30th, 2018. Random-effec...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Nutritional epidemiology, extinction or evolution? It is all about balance and moderation
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Missing girls among deliveries from Indian and Chinese mothers in Spain 2007 –2015
AbstractDeliveries from Indian and Chinese mothers present a higher than expected male:female ratio in their own countries, in northern Europe, EEUU and Canada. No studies have been carried out in southern European countries. We explored whether the high male-to-female ratio common in Indian and Chinese communities, also exists among families from those regions who live in Spain. For that purpose we designed a cross-sectional population-based study containing data on 3,133,908 singleton live births registered in the Spanish Vital Statistics Registry during the period 2007 –2015. The ratio of male:female births by are...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Birth seasonality and risk of autism spectrum disorder
AbstractSeason of birth has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the evidence has been mixed and limited due to methodological challenges. We examine ASD birth trends for 5,464,628 births across 5 countries. ASD birth prevalence data were obtained from the International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology database, including children born in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Western Australia. Empirical mode decomposition and cosinor modeling were used to assess seasonality. We show seasonal variation in ASD births for the countries of Finland and Sweden. There w...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The application of six dietary scores to a Middle Eastern population: a comparative analysis of mortality in a prospective study
Conclusion Various indices of dietary quality are inversely associated with overall mortality, and selectively with cancer and cardiovascular mortality in the GCS, which contribute to the generalizability and validity of dietary guidelines. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia: design, results and future prospects
AbstractThe impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) cons...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The long and winding road to causality
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Preconceptional paternal antiepileptic drugs use and risk of congenital anomalies in offspring: a nationwide cohort study
This study sug gested that the mildly increased risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring associated with paternal AEDs use before conception may be attributable to the underlying indications related to AEDs use. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Umbrella reviews: what they are and why we need them
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Principles of confounder selection
AbstractSelecting an appropriate set of confounders for which to control is critical for reliable causal inference. Recent theoretical and methodological developments have helped clarify a number of principles of confounder selection. When complete knowledge of a causal diagram relating all covariates to each other is available, graphical rules can be used to make decisions about covariate control. Unfortunately, such complete knowledge is often unavailable. This paper puts forward a practical approach to confounder selection decisions when the  somewhat less stringent assumption is made that knowledge is available fo...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Theory meets practice: a commentary on VanderWeele ’s ‘principles of confounder selection’
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The disjunctive cause criterion by VanderWeele: An easy solution to a complex problem?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP): a guideline developed by the German Society for Epidemiology
ConclusionsThe revised GEP are addressed to everyone involved in the planning, preparation, execution, analysis, and evaluation of epidemiological research, as well as research institutes and funding bodies. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Blood –brain barrier transcytosis genes, risk of dementia and stroke: a prospective cohort study of 74,754 individuals
AbstractTo test whether genetic variants inPICALM,BIN1,CD2AP, andRIN3—suggested to be involved in blood–brain barrier amyloid-β transcytosis pathways—associate with Alzheimer’s disease, all dementia, suggested vascular dementia, and stroke, and whether such associations are independent of the strong ε4APOE risk allele. In a prospective cohort study of 74,754 individuals from the general population we genotypedPICALM (rs10792832),BIN1 (rs6733839),CD2AP (rs10948363), andRIN3 (rs10498633), and generated a weighted and a simple allele score. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for the f...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of stroke and stroke subtypes
AbstractSeveral meta-analyses including a small number of cohorts showed inverse associations between the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) and risk of stroke. However, it remains unclear whether such a relation varies by region of the study population or by major subtypes of stroke. We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases for relevant studies and we further included unpublished results from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (N = 57,078) and the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) study (N  =  12,670). We used a random-effects model to calculate summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence in...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Western countries: discrepancies in published estimates
AbstractTwo papers were extracted and pooled data from published sources were used to estimate the distribution of BMI values for adults living in many countries around the world. The NCD Risk Factor Collaboration and the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 presented data for 200 and 188 countries, respectively. We extracted estimates from the two datasets for the prevalences of overweight and obesity in 28 Western countries. The two studies used similar methodology for extracting and pooling data, however the papers show serious discrepancies in several countries. Our analysis reveals the need for increased standardizatio...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Identifying dementia outcomes in UK Biobank: a validation study of primary care, hospital admissions and mortality data
AbstractProspective, population-based studies that recruit participants in mid-life are valuable resources for dementia research. Follow-up in these studies is often through linkage to routinely-collected healthcare datasets. We investigated the accuracy of these datasets for dementia case ascertainment in a validation study using data from UK Biobank —an open access, population-based study of >  500,000 adults aged 40–69 years at recruitment in 2006–2010. From 17,198 UK Biobank participants recruited in Edinburgh, we identified those with ≥ 1 dementia code in their ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Expanding disease and undermining the ethos of medicine
This article identifies six ways that our conception of disease is expanded: by increased knowledge (epistemic), making more phenomena count as disease (ontological), doing more (pragmatic), defining more (conceptual), and by encompassing the bad (ethic) and the ugly (aesthetic). Expanding the subject matter of medicine extends its realm and power, but also its responsibility. It makes medicine accountable for ever more of human potential dis-eases. At the same time it blurs the borders and undermines the demarcation of medicine. Six specific advices can guide our action clarifying the subject matter of medicine in general...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and epigenetic mortality risk score: associations with all-cause mortality among elderly people
This study aimed to address the association between OS and MS, and to assess and compare their performance in the prediction of all- cause mortality. For 1448 participants aged 50–75 of the German ESTHER cohort study, the MS was derived from the DNA methylation profiles measured by Illumina HumanMethylation450K Beadchip and the levels of two urinary OS markers, 8-isoprostane (8-iso) and oxidized guanine/guanosine [including 8-h ydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo)], were measured by ELISA kits. Associations between OS markers and the MS were evaluated by linear and ordinal logistic regression models, and their...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Unreformed nutritional epidemiology: a lamp post in the dark forest
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cystic echinococcosis in unaccompanied minor refugees from Afghanistan and the Middle East to Germany, July 2016 through June 2017
AbstractCystic echinococcosis (CE) is not covered by current refugee screening protocols. After we had detected CE among several refugees attending our clinic from Afghanistan and the Middle East, serological examinations for CE were performed for apparently healthy unaccompanied minor refugees from these regions. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The association between weight at birth and breast cancer risk revisited using Mendelian randomisation
AbstractObservational studies suggest that higher birth weight (BW) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in adult life. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to assess whether this association is causal. Sixty independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated atP 
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Asthma and selective migration from farming environments in a three-generation cohort study
This study investigated if parents with asthma are less likely to raise their children on a farm. This study involved three generations: 6045 participants in ECRHS/RHINE cohorts (born 1945 –1973, denoted G1), their 10,121 parents (denoted G0) and their 8260 offspring participating in RHINESSA (born 1963–1998, denoted G2). G2-offspring provided information on parents not participating in ECRHS/RHINE. Asthma status and place of upbringing for all three generations were reported in q uestionnaires by G1 in 2010–2012 and by G2 in 2013–2016. Binary regressions with farm upbringing as outcome were perform...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

“Bad luck” hypothesis and cancer prevention: translating the debate to more actions
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Nutritional epidemiology: forest, trees and leaves
AbstractIoannidis has stated that the field of nutritional epidemiology has generated confusion and numerous implausible findings and is in need of radical reform. One of the reforms he proposes is to conduct analyses that take into account the"totality for all nutritional factors measured". This approach is based on isolating and reducing diet into numerous independent variables with little regard to prior knowledge or the interrelations among dietary components, and relying on a"discovery" approach. This method, akin to genomewide association studies (GWAS), would involve very large sample sizes, smal...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Premenopausal cardiovascular disease and age at natural menopause: a pooled analysis of over 170,000 women
We examined whether premenopausal CVD events are associated with early age at menopause. We pooled the individual data of 177,131 women from nine studies. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between age at onset of premenopausal CVD events —including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke—and age at natural menopause. Altogether 1561 (0.9%) premenopausal participants reported CVD events (including 1130 CHD and 469 stroke) at a mean age of 41.3 years. Compared with women without any premen...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality in The Netherlands Cohort Study
AbstractProcessed meat and red meat have been associated with increased mortality, but studies are inconsistent and few have investigated substitution by other protein sources. The relationship of overall and causes-specific mortality with red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources was investigated in The Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 men and women aged 55 –69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to statistics Netherlands. Multivariable case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The meaning of confounding adjustment in the presence of multiple versions of treatment: an application to organ transplantation
We describe how explicitly outlining the target trial (i.e. the hypothetical randomized trial which would answer the causal question of interest) to be emulated by an observational study analysis helps conceptualize treatment versions, guides selection of appropriate adjustment variables, and helps clarify the settings in which causal effects of compound treatments will be of value to decision-makers. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Intake of sucrose-sweetened soft beverages during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring: a Norwegian pregnancy cohort study
AbstractStudies report increased risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring of mothers with diabetes, where high blood glucose levels might confer the risk. We explored the association between intake of sucrose-sweetened soft beverages during pregnancy and risk of CHD. Prospective cohort data with 88,514 pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked with information on infant CHD diagnoses from national health registers and the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project. Risk ratios were estimated by fitting generalized linear models and generalized additive models. The ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 19, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Secular trends of mortality and dementia-free life expectancy over a 10-year period in France
AbstractThe aim of this paper was to investigate the evolution of mortality and life expectancy according to dementia in two French populations 10  years apart. Two different populations of subjects aged 65 or older included in PAQUID from 1988 to 1989 (n = 1342) and 3C from 1999 to 2000 (n = 1996) and initially not demented were followed over 10 years. Dementia was assessed using an algorithmic approach, and participants were consid ered to have dementia if they had an MMSE score  1. Illness-death models were used to compare mortality with and without dementia and to provide to...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Causal criteria: time has come for a revision
AbstractEpidemiologists study associations but they are usually interested in causation that could lead to disease prevention. Experience show, however, that many of the associations we identify are not the causes we take an interest in (correlation is not causation). In order to proper translate association into causes, a set of causal criteria was developed 50 –60 years ago and they became important tools guiding this translational process (sometimes correlation is causation). Best known of these are the Bradford Hill ‘criteria’. In these last 50 years, epidemiologic theory and infrastructure ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hospitalisation of people with dementia: evidence from English electronic health records from 2008 to 2016
AbstractHospitalisation of people with dementia is associated with adverse outcomes and high costs. We aimed to examine general, i.e. non-psychiatric, hospitalisation rates, changes since 2008 and factors associated with admission. We also aimed to compare admission rates of people with dementia with age-matched people without dementia. We conducted a cohort study of adults  ≥ 65 years, with dementia diagnosed during the 2008–2016 study window, derived from a large secondary mental healthcare database in South London, UK. We used national general hospital records to identify emergency and electi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Alcohol consumption and labour market participation: a prospective cohort study of transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence, and social benefits
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption and problem drinking on transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence and social benefits. Participants were 86,417 men and women aged 18 –60 years who participated in the Danish National Health Survey in 2010. Information on alcohol consumption (units per week) and problem drinking (CAGE-C score of 4–6) was obtained by questionnaire. The primary outcome was labour market attachment. Information on labour market attachment was ob tained from the national administrative registers during a 5-year follow-up peri...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The risk of breast and gynecological cancer in women with a diagnosis of infertility: a nationwide population-based study
AbstractSome studies have suggested that infertility is a risk factor for endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The study aimed to create a comprehensive picture of the association between infertility and the risk of ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer, and whether any association could be explained by ovulatory disturbances, endometriosis or nulliparity. In a population-based cohort of 2,882,847 women, cox regression analysis was used to investigate cancer incidence among infertile women. Overall, infertility was associated with a higher incidence rate of ovarian (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.53, 95% confidence inte...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Stem cell replication, somatic mutations and role of randomness in the development of cancer
AbstractAn intense scientific debate has recently taken place relating to the “bad luck” hypothesis in cancer development, namely that intrinsic random, and therefore unavoidable, mutagenic events would have a predominant role in tumorigenesis. In this article we review the main contributions to this debate and explain the reasons why the claim that cancer is mostly expla ined by intrinsic random factors is unsupported by data and theoretical models. In support of this, we present an analysis showing that smoking-induced mutations are more predictive of cancer risk than the lifetime number of stem cell cellular...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vision loss and 12-year risk of dementia in older adults: the 3C cohort study
This study is based on the Three-City (3C) study, a population-based cohort of 7736 initially dementia-f ree participants aged 65 years and over with 12 years of follow-up. Near visual impairment (VI) was measured and distance visual function (VF) loss was self-reported. Dementia was diagnosed and screened over the 12-year period. At baseline, 8.7% had mild near VI, 4.2% had moderate to severe near V I, and 5.3% had distance VF loss. Among the 882 dementia cases diagnosed over the 12-year follow-up period, 140 cases occurred in the first 2 years, 149 from 2 to 4 years and 593 beyond 4 years after i...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Protein markers and risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes: a targeted proteomics approach in the KORA F4/FF4 study
In conclusion, our mass spectrometric approach revealed a nove l association of MASP with incident type 2 diabetes and incident prediabetes. In combination, MASP, adiponectin and apoE improved type 2 diabetes prediction beyond non-invasive risk factors or HbA1c, age and sex. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with mortality in the general population: The Rotterdam Study
AbstractInflammation is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation that integrates the information of the leukocyte differentials into one variable. We aimed to assess whether the NLR is a risk indicator for overall and cause-specific mortality in the general population. We analyzed data (2002 –2014) from the Rotterdam Study, a long-standing, population-based, prospective cohort study in a community-dwelling ageing population. The association between the NLR and time to all-cause mortality was assessed with Cox proportional h...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular mortality attributable to dietary risk factors in 51 countries in the WHO European Region from 1990 to 2016: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study
This study was performed to highlight the relationship between single dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the WHO European Region. We used the comparative risk assessment framework of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate CVD mortality attributable to diet; comprising eleven forms of CVDs, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs in four GBD regions including 51 countries by age and sex between 1990 and 2016. In 2016, dietary risks were associated with 2.1 million cardiovascular deaths (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 1.7 –2.5 million) in the WHO European Region, accoun...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hypothesis: ubiquitous circadian disruption can cause cancer
AbstractCircadian disruption (CD) was implicated in chains of cancer causation when the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift-work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic in 2007. In the following decade, epidemiological studies into causal concepts associated with circadian disruption were inconclusive. Unappreciated complexity with an exclusive focus on shift-work, light-at-night, sleep, and melatonin in regard to circadian disruption may be accountable. With compelling non-epidemiological evidence, we posit that ubiquitous circadian disruption causes cancer and, moreover, that this...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Apgar paradox
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Use of natural language processing in electronic medical records to identify pregnant women with suicidal behavior: towards a solution to the complex classification problem
AbstractWe developed algorithms to identify pregnant women with suicidal behavior using information extracted from clinical notes by natural language processing (NLP) in electronic medical records. Using both codified data and NLP applied to unstructured clinical notes, we first screened pregnant women in Partners HealthCare for suicidal behavior. Psychiatrists manually reviewed clinical charts to identify relevant features for suicidal behavior and to obtain gold-standard labels. Using the adaptive elastic net, we developed algorithms to classify suicidal behavior. We then validated algorithms in an independent validation...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contribution of the OC Sensor ® immunoassay in comparison to the Hemoccult II ® guaiac-test in organized colorectal cancer screening
AbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death of worldwide with high incidence and mortality rate, accessible to a screening program in France, first with guaiac- based fecal occult blood test (g-FOBT) then with fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), since 2015, because of better accuracy. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of screen-detected lesions in two successive CRC screening campaigns, using two different tests (Hemoccult II® and OC Sensor®) in the department of Maine-et-Loire, and to precise the performance of these tests [participation rate, detection rates (DR), ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

FranceCoag: a 22-year prospective follow-up of the national French cohort of patients with inherited bleeding disorders
AbstractFranceCoag is an ongoing open prospective multicentre cohort project aimed at improving epidemiological knowledge about inherited bleeding disorders in France. The main objective of this article was to evaluate the project ’s progress as of the 30th December 2016. Between 1994 and this date, of the 10,047 patients included in the study, 384 (3.8%) were reported by clinicians to have died and 159 (1.6%) to be lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 9504 patients still being followed up, 5748 (60.5%) had haemophilia A, 1300 (13.7%) haemophilia B, 1980 (20.8%) von Willebrand Disease while 476 (5.0%) had another c...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research