Global assessment of C-reactive protein and health-related outcomes: an umbrella review of evidence from observational studies and Mendelian randomization studies
AbstractC-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied extensively for association with a large number of non-infectious diseases and outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the breadth and validity of associations between CRP and non-infectious, chronic health outcomes and biomarkers. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses and a systematic review of Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched from inception up to March 2019. Meta-analyses of observational studies and MR studies examining associations between CRP and healt...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 25, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal use of hormonal contraception and risk of childhood ADHD: a nationwide population-based cohort study
We examined the association between maternal hormonal contraception use before or during pregnancy and ADHD risk in children. This nationwide population-based cohort study included 1,056,846 children born in Denmark between 1998 and 2014. Prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives redeemed by the mother was categorized as: no use, previous use (>  3 months before pregnancy), and recent use (≤ 3 months before or during pregnancy). Children were followed for ADHD, from birth until 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interv...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are women using hormonal contraceptives the risk-takers?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

National all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic: a Danish registry-based study
We examined national all-cause mortality comparing weeks 1–27 in 2020 and 2015–2019. This registry-based study used Danish national registry data until 5 July 2020. We examined all-cause mortality rates among all deaths recorded from 2015 to 2020 and among chronic conditions (cardiovascular (c ardiac& circulatory), chronic pulmonary, chronic kidney disease, cancer, and diabetes), comparing each week in 2020 to weeks in 2015 –2019. In 2020, there were 28,363 deaths in weeks 1–27 (30 December 2019–5 July 2020), the mean deaths in 2015–2019 were 28,630 deaths (standard deviation 784). C...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Offspring sex and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a multinational pooled analysis of 12 case –control studies
AbstractWhile childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case –controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case–control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for po tential confounders. In gen...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Amyloid, tau and risk of Alzheimer ’s disease: a Mendelian randomization study
This study was carried out to assess the effect of amyloid and tau on Alzheimer ’s disease using two-sample Mendelian randomization design. Genetic associations with plasma amyloid species (amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-like protein 2, serum amyloid P-component, amyloid beta peptide), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta, total tau, and phosphorylated tau181 were extracted from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) available. Genetic associations with Alzheimer ’s disease were obtained from a GWAS of proxy-cases based on family history of Alzheimer’s disease with 314,278 participants fro...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 14, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessment of cancer screening effectiveness in the era of screening programs
AbstractWhilst the benefit of detecting and removing cancer precursors in the cervix and the large bowel is unequivocally documented, the balance between benefit and harm due to screening for early detection of breast and prostate cancer remains uncertain after 30 –50 years of randomized control trials (RCTs). Concomitantly, traditional RCTs become increasingly unfeasible due to low compliance, contamination of control groups, difficulties to enroll screening naïve individuals, and prohibitively high costs. Therefore, we have systematically reviewed pros and cons with alternative study designs to quantify s...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 14, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An epidemiological modelling approach for COVID-19 via data assimilation
AbstractThe global pandemic of the 2019-nCov requires the evaluation of policy interventions to mitigate future social and economic costs of quarantine measures worldwide. We propose an epidemiological model for forecasting and policy evaluation which incorporates new data in real-time through variational data assimilation. We analyze and discuss infection rates in the UK, US and Italy. We furthermore develop a custom compartmental SIR model fit to variables related to the available data of the pandemic, named SITR model, which allows for more granular inference on infection numbers. We compare and discuss model results wh...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The effects of incidental findings from whole-body MRI on the frequency of biopsies and detected malignancies or benign conditions in a general population cohort study
AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields numerous tumor-related incidental findings (IFs) which may trigger diagnostics such as biopsies. To clarify these effects, we studied how whole-body MRI IF disclosure in a population-based cohort affected biopsy frequency and the detection of malignancies. Laboratory disclosures were also assessed. Data from 6753 participants in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) examined between 2008 and 2012 were utilized. All underwent laboratory examinations and 3371 (49.9%) a whole-body MRI. Electronic biopsy reports from 2002 to 2017 were linked to participants and assigned to outc...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 29, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data extraction for epidemiological research (DExtER): a novel tool for automated clinical epidemiology studies
AbstractThe use of primary care electronic health records for research is abundant. The benefits gained from utilising such records lies in their size, longitudinal data collection and data quality. However, the use of such data to undertake high quality epidemiological studies, can lead to significant challenges particularly in dealing with misclassification, variation in coding and the significant effort required to pre-process the data in a meaningful format for statistical analysis. In this paper, we describe a methodology to aid with the extraction and processing of such databases, delivered by a novel software progra...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 27, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Anemia and iron metabolism in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractIron metabolism and anemia may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and erythrocyte indices) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explored their prognostic value. Six bibliographic databases were searched up to August 3rd 2020. We included 189 unique studies, with data from ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 20, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mistrust in biomedical research and vaccine hesitancy: the forefront challenge in the battle against COVID-19 in Italy
AbstractResearchers have been working quickly and collaboratively for the development of vaccines against the COVID-19 virus. The effort of the scientific community in searching a vaccine for COVID-19 may be hampered by a diffused vaccine hesitancy. Two waves of data collection on representative samples of the Italian population (during the “first” and “second” phase of the Italian Covid-19 mitigation strategy) were conducted to understand citizens’ perceptions and behaviors about preventive behaviors willingness to vaccine for COVID-19. Our study shows that willingness to COVID-19 vaccine is ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vaccine hesitancy: the next challenge in the fight against COVID-19
AbstractVaccine hesitancy remains a barrier to full population inoculation against highly infectious diseases. Coincident with the rapid developments of COVID-19 vaccines globally, concerns about the safety of such a vaccine could contribute to vaccine hesitancy. We analyzed 1941 anonymous questionnaires completed by healthcare workers and members of the general Israeli population, regarding acceptance of a potential COVID-19 vaccine. Our results indicate that healthcare staff involved in the care of COVID-19 positive patients, and individuals considering themselves at risk of disease, were more likely to self-report acqui...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 12, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A case study in model failure? COVID-19 daily deaths and ICU bed utilisation predictions in New York state
AbstractForecasting models have been influential in shaping decision-making in the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is concern that their predictions may have been misleading. Here, we dissect the predictions made by four models for the daily COVID-19 death counts between March 25 and June 5 in New York state, as well as the predictions of ICU bed utilisation made by the influential IHME model. We evaluated the accuracy of the point estimates and the accuracy of the uncertainty estimates of the model predictions. First, we compared the “ground truth” data sources on daily deaths against which these models were...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Individual model forecasts can be misleading, but together they are useful
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The potential impact of previous exposure to SARS or MERS on control of the COVID-19 pandemic
AbstractThe Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to share similar characteristics with SARS in 2003 and Mediterranean East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. We hypothesized that countries with previous exposure to SARS and MERS were significantly more likely to have fewer cases and deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We retrieved the incidence of COVID-19 per 100,000 population within 30  days since the first confirmed case was reported from the 2019 Novel COVID-19 data repository by the Johns Hopkins Centre for Systems Science and Engineering for 94 countries. The a...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 10, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Female reproductive factors and the risk of Parkinson ’s disease: a nationwide cohort study
AbstractThere are conflicting finds in the literature regarding the association of female estrogen status and the incidence of Parkinson ’s disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether female reproductive factors are associated with PD. Using the Korean National Health Insurance System database, 4,729,546 postmenopausal women without PD were identified. The new incidence of PD was defined as subjects with an ICD-10 code for PD (G2 0) and with a rare intractable disease registration code for PD (V124). The Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations of various reproductive factors with incid...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

‘Vaccine hesitancy’ among university students in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
AbstractThe debate around vaccines has been in the spotlight over the last few years in Europe, both within the scientific community and the general public debate. In this regard, the case of the Italian vaccination debate is particularly worrying given that Italy has been one of the European countries with the highest number of measles cases in the recent past. According to this scenario, we conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of Italian university students aimed at: (1) exploring their attitudes towards a future vaccine to prevent COVID-19 and; (2) evaluating the impact of the university curricula (...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Latency estimation for chronic disease risk: a damped exponential weighting model
AbstractIdentifying the susceptible period when environmental factors affect disease risk is essential for understanding disease etiology. Most existing epidemiologic studies use oversimplified summaries of time-dependent exposures such as baseline or most current exposure, or the cumulative average of exposure over available follow-up periods. In this paper, we introduce a damped exponential weighting model for estimating optimal exposure weights for different time intervals. This model can accommodate flexible patterns of weights and can be fit using standard software. We applied the model to assess the latency of BMI an...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Body mass index in young adulthood and risk of subsequent dementia at different levels of intelligence and education in Danish men
We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) at entry to adult life and subsequent risk of dementia in men and assessed whether the relationship differed by levels of intelligence and education. The study population consisted of 377,598 Danish men born 1939 –1959 with measures of height, weight, intelligence test score (ITS), and educational level (EL) at conscript board examinations around the age of 19 years. Dementia outcomes were obtained from National Patient and Prescription Registries between 1969 and 2016. The association between BMI and dem entia was analysed using Cox proportional hazard r...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 29, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The profile of Rafsanjan Cohort Study
AbstractOwning the largest human-made jungle of pistachio, the second largest copper mine, and being located on the trade route of opium transit, distinguish Rafsanjan from many other cities in Iran. The environmental exposures and lifestyle factors associated with these characteristics of Rafsanjan, have raised concern about possible health outcomes for individuals living in and around this city. Thus, local health authorities initiated the Rafsanjan Cohort Study (RCS), as part of the prospective epidemiological research studies in IrAN (PERSIAN). RCS is a population-based prospective cohort of men and women aged 35 &ndas...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Citrus intake and risk of skin cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC)
AbstractCitrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~  520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% co...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The LifeCycle Project-EU Child Cohort Network: a federated analysis infrastructure and harmonized data of more than 250,000 children and parents
AbstractEarly life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that exposure to adverse stressors during early life leads to developmental adaptations, which subsequently affect disease risk in later life. Also, geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic differences are related to health inequalities from early life onwards. To address these important public health challenges, many European pregnancy and childhood cohorts have been established over the last 30  years. The enormous wealth of data of these cohorts has led to important new bio...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Coffee consumption and overall and cause-specific mortality: the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC)
AbstractCoffee consumption has previously been reported to reduce overall and cause-specific mortality. We aimed to further investigate this association by coffee brewing methods and in a population with heavy coffee consumers. The information on total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee consumption from self-administered questionnaires was available from 117,228 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. We used flexible parametric survival models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality by total coffee consumption and brewing metho...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Rare cancers of unknown etiology: lessons learned from a European multi-center case –control study
AbstractRare cancers together constitute one fourth of cancers. As some rare cancers are caused by occupational exposures, a systematic search for further associations might contribute to future prevention. We undertook a European, multi-center case –control study of occupational risks for cancers of small intestine, bone sarcoma, uveal melanoma, mycosis fungoides, thymus, male biliary tract and breast. Incident cases aged 35–69 years and sex-and age-matched population/colon cancer controls were interviewed, including a complete list of jo bs. Associations between occupational exposure and cancer were asse...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Forecasting efforts from prior epidemics and COVID-19 predictions
AbstractSince the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, countless disease prediction models have emerged, shaping the focus of news media, policymakers, and broader society. We reviewed the accuracy of forecasts made during prior twenty-first century epidemics, namely SARS, H1N1, and Ebola. We found that while disease prediction models were relatively nascent as a research focus during SARS and H1N1, for Ebola, numerous such forecasts were published. We found that forecasts of deaths for Ebola were often far from the eventual reality, with a strong tendency to over predict. Given the societal prominence of these models, it is cr...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term strategies to control COVID-19 in low and middle-income countries: an options overview  of community-based, non-pharmacological interventions
In conclusion, while we propose three community-based, non-pharmacological options for LMICs, a suitable measure should be context-specific and based on: (1) epidemiological considerations, (2) soc ial and economic costs, (3) existing health systems capabilities and (4) future-proof plans to implement and sustain the strategy. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Counterfactual prediction is not only for causal inference
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Containment strategies for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus: flatten the curve or crush it?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk prediction models versus simplified selection criteria to determine eligibility for lung cancer screening: an analysis of German federal-wide survey and incidence data
AbstractAs randomized trials in the USA and Europe have convincingly demonstrated efficacy of lung cancer screening by computed tomography (CT), European countries are discussing the introduction of screening programs. To maintain acceptable cost-benefit and clinical benefit-to-harm ratios, screening should be offered to individuals at sufficiently elevated risk of having lung cancer. Using federal-wide survey and lung cancer incidence data (2008 –2013), we examined the performance of four well-established risk models from the USA (PLCOM2012, LCRAT, Bach) and the UK (LLP2008) in the German population, comparing with ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Good science is good science: we need specialists, not sects
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 20, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Influence of periodontal disease on risk of dementia: a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis
AbstractPeriodontal disease (PD) is common and increases cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether PD is associated with increased risk of dementia. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the influence of PD on dementia. We projected the number of dementia cases to be saved by reducing PD prevalence in the world. We searched cohort and case –control studies reporting the association of PD with all dementia (or any specific type of dementia) through PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, CINHAL, and CNKI until 7th November 2018. Five cohorts and seven case–control studies...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 12, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sugar and artificially sweetened beverages and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and all-cause mortality: a dose –response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
AbstractAlthough consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) has increasingly been linked with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and all-cause mortality, evidence remains conflicted and dose –response meta-analyses of the associations are lacking. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to synthesize the knowledge about their associations and to explore their dose–response relations. We comprehensively searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Open Grey up to September 2019 for pro spective cohort studies investigating the associations in adults. S...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reply to: Mendel ’s laws, Mendelian randomization and causal inference in observational data: substantive and nomenclatural issues
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Do we really need to invoke heroic measures for early SARS-CoV-2 outbreak detection?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease in China, 1980 –2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 617 studies
AbstractTo assess the birth prevalence and spatial distribution of congenital heart disease (CHD) in China by conducting a complete overview and using spatial epidemiological methods. Unrestricted searches were conducted on seven electronic databases, with an end-date parameter of May 2019. Data on the birth prevalence of CHD and its subtypes were collected and combined using either the random-effect model or fixed-effect model. Subgroup sensitivity analyses were performed to explore potential heterogeneity moderators. The three-dimensional trend analysis and a visualization of CHD birth prevalence among different province...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global, regional and time-trend prevalence of central obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 13.2 million subjects
AbstractWe aimed to examine the global prevalences of central obesity according to age, sex, race, place of residence, geographical region, national income level, and the definitions of central obesity. MEDLINE and Embase were searched. Studies with sample size of  ≥ 500 and investigated individuals aged ≥ 15 years were included. Metaprop (a Stata command) was adopted to conduct a meta-analysis of prevalence, and the Freeman-Tukey Double Arcsine Transformation was used to stabilize the variances. A random-effects model was used to evaluate the pr evalence and 95% confidence intervals ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prediction meets causal inference: the role of treatment in clinical prediction models
AbstractIn this paper we study approaches for dealing with treatment when developing a clinical prediction model. Analogous to the estimand framework recently proposed by the European Medicines Agency for clinical trials, we propose a ‘predictimand’ framework of different questions that may be of interest when predicting risk in relation to treatment started after baseline. We provide a formal definition of the estimands matching these questions, give examples of settings in which each is useful and discuss appropriate estima tors including their assumptions. We illustrate the impact of the predictimand choice ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term prognosis after kidney donation: a propensity score matched comparison of living donors and non-donors from two population cohorts
ConclusionLoss of kidney mass after live donation does not translate into negative long-term outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality compared to non-donors.Trial registrationDutch Trial Register NTR3795. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dynamic interventions to control COVID-19 pandemic: a multivariate prediction modelling study comparing 16 worldwide countries
AbstractTo date, non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) have been the mainstay for controlling the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While NPIs are effective in preventing health systems overload, these long-term measures are likely to have significant adverse economic consequences. Therefore, many countries are currently considering to lift the NPIs —increasing the likelihood of disease resurgence. In this regard, dynamic NPIs, with intervals of relaxed social distancing, may provide a more suitable alternative. However, the ideal frequency and duration of intermittent NPIs, and the ideal &ldq...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 19, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Number of prior negative screening outcomes does not influence future risk of breast cancer
AbstractWe questioned whether a history of negative screening outcomes could be used to predict breast cancer risk, and thus be used as a potential factor for stratification of mammographic screening. Data from the Norwegian population based breast cancer screening program, BreastScreen Norway, was used to estimate cumulative hazard rates for breast cancer by number of prior negative screening outcomes among participants from 1995 through 2016. We followed three age cohorts of women, who started screening at age 50 –54, 55–59, and 60–64 years. Further, we estimated the absolute and relative risk of b...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 19, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Burden and prevalence of prognostic factors for severe COVID-19 in Sweden
AbstractThe World Health Organization and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that individuals over the age of 70  years or with underlying cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or diabetes are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. However, the prevalence of these prognostic factors is unknown in many countries. We aimed to describe the burden and prevalence of prognost ic factors of severe COVID-19 at national and county level in Sweden. We calculated the burden and prevalence of prognostic factors for severe COVID-19 based on records from the Swedish na...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 18, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Rethinking morbidity compression
AbstractStudies of morbidity compression routinely report the average number of years spent in an unhealthy state but do not report variation in age at morbidity onset. Variation was highlighted by Fries (1980) as crucial for identifying disease postponement. Using incidence of first hospitalization after age 60, as one working example, we estimate variation in morbidity onset over a 27-year period in Denmark. Annual estimates of first hospitalization and the population at risk for 1987 to 2014 were identified using population-based registers. Sex-specific life tables were constructed, and the average age, the threshold ag...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 16, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Antipsychotic use in dementia: the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptom profiles and adverse outcomes
In conclusion, the adverse effects of antipsychotics in dementia are complex. Stroke risk may be highest when used in patients presenting with psychosis without agitation, indicating the need for novel inter ventions for this group. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum copper-to-zinc-ratio and risk of incident infection in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study
In conclusion, our data suggest that an increased Cu/Zn-ratio and especially serum Cu concentration are associated with increased risk of incident infections in middle-aged and older men in Eastern Finland. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mendelian randomization analysis does not support causal associations of birth weight with hypertension risk and blood pressure in adulthood
AbstractEpidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 par...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Body mass index and height in relation to type 2 diabetes by levels of intelligence and education in a large cohort of Danish men
AbstractSocioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with risks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated if young men ’s cognitive function, measured by intelligence test scores and educational level, as determinants of SES modified associations between body mass index (BMI) and height with the risk of T2D. 369 989 young men from the Danish Conscription Database born between 1939 and 1959 with information on meas ured height, weight, intelligence test scores, and education were linked to the Danish National Patient Register. During follow-up from 1977 through 2015, T2D was recorded in 32 188 men. Hazard ratios...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Objectives, design and main findings until 2020 from the Rotterdam Study
This article provides an update on the rationale and design of the stu dy. It also presents a summary of the major findings from the preceding 3 years and outlines developments for the coming period. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Disease mapping of early- and late-stage cancer to monitor inequalities in early detection: a study of cutaneous malignant melanoma
In conclusion, our analysis of CMM incidences supported the use of this method of cancer stage incidence mapping for revealing geographical and socio-demographic disparities in cancer detection. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Humanistic Epidemiology: Love in the time of cholera, COVID-19 and other outbreaks
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 25, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research