Moderate neonatal hypoglycemia and adverse neurological development at 2 –6 years of age
AbstractTo determine whether moderate neonatal hypoglycemia in otherwise healthy infants is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in pre-school children. Population-based cohort study with prospectively collected register data from Sweden. All singletons born July 1st 2008 through December 31st 2012 (n  = 101,060) in the region were included. Infants with congenital malformations, infants treated in neonatal intensive care unit, infants with inborn errors of metabolism and infants to mothers with diabetes were excluded. Infants were followed-up until 2014, at 2–6 years of age. Exposure...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evaluating Mediterranean diet and risk of chronic disease in cohort studies: an umbrella review of meta-analyses
AbstractSeveral meta-analyses have been published summarizing the associations of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with chronic diseases. We evaluated the quality and credibility of evidence from these meta-analyses as well as characterized the different indices used to define MedDiet and re-calculated the associations with the different indices identified. We conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on cohort studies evaluating the association of the MedDiet with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and cognitive-related diseases. We used the AMSTAR (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews) checkli...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Correction to: The impact of parity on life course blood pressure trajectories: the HUNT study in Norway
The article was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 24 January 2018 without open access. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Selenium exposure and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractIn 2007, supplementation with the trace element selenium in a trial was unexpectedly found to be associated with an excess risk of type 2 diabetes. Given the concerns raised by these findings and the large number of recent studies on this topic, we reviewed the available literature with respect to this possible association. In this paper, we assessed the results of both experimental and nonexperimental epidemiologic studies linking selenium with type 2 diabetes incidence. Through a systematic literature search, we retrieved 50 potentially eligible nonexperimental studies and 5 randomized controlled trials published...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - July 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Broadening the scope of epidemiologic dementia research
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

What indeed can be tested with an instrumental variable?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A new era for dementia epidemiology: Alzheimer ’s disease, hardening of arteries, or just old age?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Will biomarker-based diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s disease maximize scientific progress? Evaluating proposed diagnostic criteria
AbstractA recently published framework for the diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) in research studies would allow diagnosis on the sole basis of two biomarkers (β-amyloid and pathologic tau), even in people with no objective or subjective memory or cognitive changes. This revision will have substantial implications for future Alzheimer’s research, and the cha nges should be rigorously evaluated before widespread adoption. We propose three principles for evaluating any revision to diagnostic frameworks for AD: (1) does the revision improve the validity of the diagnosis; (2) does the revision improve the...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Direct comparative effectiveness and safety between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
In this study, apixaban was found to have the most favorable safety profile amongst the three NOACs. No significant difference was observed in risk of stroke or systemic embolism be tween the NOACs. Such findings may provide some decision-making support for physicians regarding their choices amongst NOACs in patients with AF.Registration PROSPERO (identifier: CRD42016052908). (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study
In conclusion, a more plant-based and less animal-based diet may lower risk of insulin resistance, prediabetes and T2D. These findings strengthen recent dietary recommendations to adopt a more plant-based diet.Clinical Trial Registry number and website NTR6831,http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6831. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Overcoming misled design and interpretation of randomised trials
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adverse reaction signal detection methodology in pharmacoepidemiology
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tailoring the message with selective reporting
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 30, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Conditional power as an aid in making interim decisions in observational studies
AbstractConditional power combines the findings of a partially completed study with assumptions about the future. The goal is to estimate the probability that the eventual study result will be incompatible with a criterion value, such as acceptable risk or the null hypothesis. Some history and motivation for conditional power calculations are provided, with examples illustrating the application to drug safety studies. This is an expository article suggesting that conditional power, which is well-established in clinical trials research, also has application to observational studies. The utility may be highest in regulatory ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Subjective social status and mortality: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
In conclusion, SSS is a strong predictor of mortality at older ages, but its role in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality appears to be complex. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tumour stage and gender predict recurrence and second primary malignancies in head and neck cancer: a multicentre study within the INHANCE consortium
AbstractRecurrence and second primary cancer (SPC) continue to represent major obstacles to long-term survival in head and neck cancer (HNC). Our aim was to evaluate whether established demographics, lifestyle-related risk factors for HNC and clinical data are associated with recurrence and SPC in HNC. We conducted a multicentre study by using data from five studies members of the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium —Milan, Rome, Western Europe, Sao Paulo, and Japan, totalling 4005 HNC cases with a median age of 59 (interquartile range 52–67). Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% conf...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and subsequent maternal cardiovascular health
We examined the associations between blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy, gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE) with cardiovascular measurements 6  years after index pregnancy among 4912 women participating in the Generation R Study, the Netherlands. BP, left ventricular mass (LV mass), aortic root diameter (AOD), left atrial diameter, fractional shortening, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Early pregnancy systolic and diastolic BP were associated with more adverse maternal cardiovascular measurements and a higher incidence of chronic hypertension 6 years after pregnancy. GH was associate...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum phosphate levels are related to all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in men
In conclusion, serum P is associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in men but not women. The asso ciation with COPD mortality is novel and needs further research on underlying mechanisms. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sexual orientation differences in outpatient psychiatric treatment and antidepressant usage: evidence from a population-based study of siblings
AbstractIn the past two decades, population-based health surveys have begun including measures of sexual orientation, permitting estimates of sexual orientation disparities in psychiatric morbidity and differences in treatment utilization. The present study takes advantage of the high-quality, comprehensive nationwide health registry data available in Sweden to examine whether psychiatric outpatient treatment for various diagnoses and antidepressant medication usage are greater in sexual minority individuals compared to their siblings. A longitudinal cohort study design was used with a representative random population-base...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary intake of total polyphenol and polyphenol classes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
AbstractPolyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14  years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Advanced parental age as risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from studies of the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium
AbstractAdvanced parental age has been associated with adverse health effects in the offspring including childhood (0 –14 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), as reported in our meta-analysis of published studies. We aimed to further explore the association using primary data from 16 studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Data were contributed by 11 case–control (CC) st udies (7919 cases and 12,942 controls recruited via interviews) and five nested case–control (NCC) studies (8801 cases and 29,690 controls identified through record linkage of population-based ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening: implications of different colonoscopy referral strategies
In conclusion, colonoscopy referral can substantially increase sensitivity of sigmoidoscopy-based screening, but the gain by referral due to non-advanced adenomas substantially increases NCN compared to referral due to advanced neoplasms only. Major sex differences may call for sex-specific referral strategies. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Statistical analysis and decision making in cancer screening
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

You are smarter than you think: (super) machine learning in context
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

External validation of four dementia prediction models for use in the general community-dwelling population: a comparative analysis from the Rotterdam Study
In this study, we found high variability in dis criminative ability for predicting dementia in an elderly, community-dwelling population. All models showed similar discriminative ability when compared to prediction based on age alone. These findings highlight the urgent need for updated or new models to predict dementia risk in the general popula tion. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The heart of the matter: years-saved from cardiovascular and cancer deaths in an elite athlete cohort with over a century of follow-up
AbstractTo quantify the years of life saved from cardiovascular (CVD), cancer and overall deaths among elite athletes according to their main type of physiological effort performed in the Olympic Games. All French athletes participating in the Games from 1912 to 2012, with vital status validated and cause of death (if concerned) identified by the national registries were included (n  = 2814, 455 died) and classified according to 6 groups of effort: POWER (continuous effort 
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of Parkinson ’s disease with industry sectors: a French nationwide incidence study
AbstractIn order to identify working environments at risk for Parkinson ’s disease (PD), we investigated the relation between the importance of industry sectors, used as a surrogate for occupational exposures, and PD incidence in Frenchcantons. The number of incident PD cases (2010 –2014) in 3689cantons of metropolitan France was determined using drug claims from French National Health Insurance databases. The proportions of workers in 38 industry sectors in 2006 were calculated for eachcanton. Associations between the proportions of workers in industry sectors and PD age/sex-standardized incidence ratios were ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Causal null hypotheses of sustained treatment strategies: What can be tested with an instrumental variable?
AbstractSometimes instrumental variable methods are used to test whether a causal effect is null rather than to estimate the magnitude of a causal effect. However, when instrumental variable methods are applied to time-varying exposures, as in many Mendelian randomization studies, it is unclear what causal null hypothesis is tested. Here, we consider different versions of causal null hypotheses for time-varying exposures, show that the instrumental variable  conditions alone are insufficient to test some of them, and describe additional assumptions that can be made to test a wider range of causal null hypotheses, incl...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and long-term prognosis of COPD: a prospective cohort study
AbstractRole and importance of vitamin D deficiency in long-term prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) still remains undetermined. We tested the hypothesis that among individuals with COPD, those with low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have a poorer prognosis compared to those with normal concentrations. We studied 35,153 individuals from the general population aged 20 –100 years with 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements and spirometry, the Copenhagen City Heart Study [median follow-up 21 years (range 13 days–36 years)] and the Copenhagen General Population Study [7.1&...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Age-specific ALS incidence: a dose –response meta-analysis
This study confirms the consistency of the age-specific ALS incidence pattern within different subcontinents. Age-specific incidence appears lower in Eastern Asia as compared to Europe and North America. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

How accurately is euthanasia reported on death certificates in a country with legal euthanasia: a population-based study
ConclusionsDeath certificates substantially underestimate the frequency of euthanasia as a cause of death in Belgium. Mortality follow-back studies are essential complementary instruments to examine and monitor the practice of euthanasia more accurately. Death certificate forms may need to be modified and clear guidelines provided to physicians about recording euthanasia to ensure more accurate certification. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Challenges to studying population effects of medical treatments
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Body mass index, abdominal fatness, weight gain and the risk of psoriasis: a systematic review and dose –response meta-analysis of prospective studies
AbstractGreater body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of psoriasis in case –control and cross-sectional studies, however, the evidence from prospective studies has been limited. We conducted a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of different adiposity measures and the risk of psoriasis to provide a more robust summary of the evidence based on data from pr ospective studies. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies up to August 8th 2017. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. The sum...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

From John Snow to omics: the long journey of environmental epidemiology
AbstractA major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas noncommunicable diseases have multiple causes which by themselves are usually neither necessary nor sufficient. Epidemiology seems to have reached a limit in disentangling the role of single components in causal complexes, particularly at low doses. To overcome limitations the discipline can take advantage of technical developments including the science of the exposome. By referring to the interpretation of the exposome as put forward in the work of Wild and Rappaport, I sho...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum magnesium and risk of incident heart failure in older men: The British Regional Heart Study
AbstractTo examine the association between serum magnesium and incident heart failure (HF) in older men and investigate potential pathways including cardiac function, inflammation and lung function. Prospective study of 3523 men aged 60 –79 years with no prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for a mean period of 15 years, during which 268 incident HF cases were ascertained. Serum magnesium was inversely associated with many CVD risk factors including prevalent atrial fibrillation, lung function (FEV1) and markers of inflammation (IL-6), endothelial dysfunction (vWF) and cardiac dysfunction [NT-p...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Theory and methodology: essential tools that can become dangerous belief systems
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning
AbstractStacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the “Super Learner”. Super Learner usesV-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple i...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

One- and two-stage surgical revision of peri-prosthetic joint infection of the hip: a pooled individual participant data analysis of 44 cohort studies
AbstractOne-stage and two-stage revision strategies are the two main options for treating established chronic peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip; however, there is uncertainty regarding which is the best treatment option. We aimed to compare the risk of re-infection between the two revision strategies using pooled individual participant data (IPD). Observational cohort studies with PJI of the hip treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and reporting re-infection outcomes were retrieved by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Regis...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology in wonderland: Big Data and precision medicine
AbstractBig Data and precision medicine, two major contemporary challenges for epidemiology, are critically examined from two different angles. In Part 1 Big Data collected for research purposes (Big research Data) and Big Data used for research although collected for other primary purposes (Big secondary Data) are discussed in the light of the fundamental common requirement of data validity, prevailing over “bigness”. Precision medicine is treated developing the key point that high relative risks are as a rule required to make a variable or combination of variables suitable for prediction of disease occurrence...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal associations of lifetime adiposity with leukocyte telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number
In conclusion, telomere attrition may be accelerated by marked weight gain in middle life, whereas mtCN is likely to be reduced persistently by adiposity over the life course. The findings indicate the importance of lifetime weight management to preserve functional telomeres and mitoch ondria. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Performing studies using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink: to link or not to link?
AbstractThe Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is a repository of electronic medical records collected during routine primary care clinical practice in the UK, and is one of the most widely used sources of real-world data for healthcare research. Although CPRD provides access to comprehensive longitudinal patient records, the data does not fully capture diagnoses or outcomes occurring in secondary care and/or mortality. We provide here an overview of CPRD and the potential bias when using unlinked data in certain situations. Linkage of CPRD to other datasets can help to overcome these limitations. We discuss when t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Radiation dose from cardiac catheterization procedures in young patients may not contribute to increased cancer risk
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Antenatal non-medical risk assessment and care pathways to improve pregnancy outcomes: a cluster randomised controlled trial
AbstractSocial deprivation negatively affects health outcomes but receives little attention in obstetric risk selection. We investigated whether a combination of (1) risk assessment focused on non-medical risk factors, lifestyle factors, and medical risk factors, with (2) subsequent institution of risk-specific care pathways, and (3) multidisciplinary consultation between care providers from the curative and the public health sector reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes among women in selected urban areas in the Netherlands. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial in 14 urban municipalities across the Netherlands. ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hypothesis-free screening of large administrative databases for unsuspected drug-outcome associations
AbstractActive surveillance for unknown or unsuspected adverse drug effects may be carried out by applying epidemiological techniques to large administrative databases. Self-controlled designs, like the symmetry design, have the advantage over conventional design of adjusting for confounders that are stable over time. The aim of this paper was to describe the output of a comprehensive open-ended symmetry analysis of a large dataset. All drug dispensings and all secondary care contacts in Denmark during the period 1995 –2012 for persons born before 1950 were analyzed by a symmetry design. We analyzed all drug–dr...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Suggestion of reduced cancer risks following cardiac x-ray exposures is unconvincing
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis
Conclusions: Independent of PA, total sitting and TV viewing time are associated with greater risk for several major chronic disease outcomes. For all-cause and CVD mortality, a threshold of 6–8 h/day of total sitting and 3–4 h/day of TV viewing was identified, above which the risk is increased. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The combination of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, and mortality risk
AbstractLittle is known about the combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and hand grip strength (GS) with mortality in general adult populations. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative risk of mortality for CRF, GS, and their combination. In UK Biobank, a prospective cohort of>  0.5 million adults aged 40–69 years, CRF was measured through submaximal bike tests; GS was measured using a hand-dynamometer. This analysis is based on data from 70,913 men and women (832 all-cause, 177 cardiovascular and 503 cancer deaths over 5.7-year follow-up) who provided valid CRF and G S...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Toward eradicating misconceptions on matching in etiological studies
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The importance of endpoint selection: How effective does a drug need to be for success in a clinical trial of a possible Alzheimer ’s disease treatment?
AbstractTo date, Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. Failures have been attributed to a number of factors including ineffective drugs, inadequate targets, and poor trial design, of which the choice of endpoint is crucial. Using data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative , we have calculated the minimum detectable effect size (MDES) in change from baseline of a range of measures over time, and in different diagnostic groups along the AD development trajectory. The Functional Activities Questionnaire score had the smallest MDES for a single endpoint where an ef...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research