The rise and fall of diseases: reflections on the history of population health in Europe since ca. 1700
AbstractThis essay explores the amazing phenomenon that in Europe since ca. 1700 most diseases have shown a pattern of 'rise-and-fall'. It argues that the rise of so many diseases indicates that their ultimate cause is not to be sought within the body, but in the interaction between humans and their environment. In their tireless pursuit of a better life, Europeans have constantly engaged in new activities which exposed them to new health risks, at a pace that evolution could not keep up with. Fortunately, most diseases have also declined again, mainly as a result of human interventions, in the form of public health interv...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 20, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Johan P. Mackenbach. A history of population health: rise and fall of disease in Europe
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Alcohol intake in early adulthood and risk of colorectal cancer: three large prospective cohort studies of men and women in the United States
AbstractHeavy alcohol consumption in mid-adulthood is an established risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). Alcohol use in early adulthood is common, but its association with subsequent CRC risk remains largely unknown. We prospectively investigated the association of average alcohol intake in early adulthood (age 18 –22) with CRC risk later in life among 191,543 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study ([NHS], 1988–2014), NHSII (1989–2015) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988–2014). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interv...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 mortality in the UK Biobank cohort: revisiting and evaluating risk factors
AbstractMost studies of severe/fatal COVID-19 risk have used routine/hospitalisation data without detailed pre-morbid characterisation. Using the community-based UK Biobank cohort, we investigate risk factors for COVID-19 mortality in comparison with non-COVID-19 mortality. We investigated demographic, social (education, income, housing, employment), lifestyle (smoking, drinking, body mass index), biological (lipids, cystatin C, vitamin D), medical (comorbidities, medications) and environmental (air pollution) data from UK Biobank (N  = 473,550) in relation to 459 COVID-19 and 2626 non-COVID-19 deaths to 21 S...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are depressive disorders caused by psychosocial stressors at work? A systematic review with metaanalysis
AbstractIn the last decade, many studies have examined associations between poor psychosocial work environment and depression. We aimed to assess the evidence for acausal association between psychosocial factors at work and depressive disorders. We conducted a systematic literature search from 1980 to March 2019. For all exposures other than night and shift work and long working hours, we limited our selection of studies to those with a longitudinal design. We extracted available risk estimates for each of 19 psychosocial exposures, from which we calculated summary risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (PROSPERO, id...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tombstone size and life expectancy: a cross-sectional analysis of cemetery data before the turn of the century
AbstractThe extent to which socioeconomic status was associated with life expectancy in the 19th and early part of the twentieth century is poorly understood. We sought to determine the association between a deceased individual ’s tombstone size, a potential marker of socioeconomic status, and their age of death in the late modern period. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 276 deceased individuals buried between 1820 and 1992 in a large cemetery in Quebec, Canada. The main outcome measure was age of death. We used g eneralized linear models adjusted for sex, marital status, and year of death to determine whether...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Thyroid function, sex hormones and sexual function: a Mendelian randomization study
AbstractHypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are observationally associated with sex hormone concentrations and sexual dysfunction, but causality is unclear. We investigated whether TSH, fT4, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are causally associated with sex hormones and sexual function. We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on TSH and fT4 and hypo- and hyperthyroidism from the ThyroidOmics Consortium (N  ≤ 54,288). Outcomes from UK Biobank (women ≤ 194,174/men ≤ 167,020) and ReproGen (women ≤ 252,514) were sex hormones (...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evidence of early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in France: findings from the population-based “CONSTANCES” cohort
AbstractUsing serum samples routinely collected in 9144 adults from a French general population-based cohort, we identified 353 participants with a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, among whom 13 were sampled between November 2019 and January 2020 and were confirmed by neutralizing antibodies testing. Investigations in 11 of these participants revealed experience of symptoms possibly related to a SARS-CoV-2 infection or situations at risk of potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This suggests early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in Europe. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gender specific excess mortality in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic accounting for age
AbstractSince the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, data have been accumulated to examine excess mortality in the first half of 2020. Mortality in the preceding year or years is used to calculate the expected number of deaths, which is then compared with the actual number of deaths in 2020. We calculated weekly age- and sex-specific mortality rates for 93.1% of the Italian municipalities for the years 2015 –2019 and for the first 26 weeks in 2020. We assumed the mortality experience during 2015–2019 as the reference period to calculate standardised mortality ratios. Furthermore, in order to compare the m...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population: meta-analysis of 23 cohort studies involving about 2 million participants
AbstractRegular physical activity is well established to be associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes. Whether physical activity is associated with the future risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a controversy. Using a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational cohort studies in general populations with at least one-year of follow-up, we aimed to evaluate the association between regular physical activity and the risk of AF. Relevant studies were sought from inception until October 2020 in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and manual search of relevant articles. Extracted relativ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mortality among individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in utero: 1950 –2012
We examined the mortality risks among 2463 individuals who were exposed in utero to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima or Nagasaki in August 1945 and were followed from October 1950 through 2012. Individual estimates of mother ’s weighted absorbed uterine dose (DS02R1) were used. Poisson regression method was used to estimate the radiation-associated excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cause-specific mortality. Head size, birth weight, and parents’ survival status were evaluated as potential mediators of radiation effect. There were 339 deaths (216 males and 123 females) i...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Time-to-pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular disease among men and women
In conclusion, both men and women with a prolonged TTP had a small increased risk of CVD, clinical significance of which is unclear. Further studies are necessary to investigate in detail what underlying causes of prolonged TTP might be reflected in the increased risk of CVD. Longer follow-up is required to confirm these preliminary findings. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The transplant cohort of the German center for infection research (DZIF Tx-Cohort): study design and baseline characteristics
AbstractInfectious complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality after solid organ and stem cell transplantation. To better understand host and environmental factors associated with an increased risk of infection as well as the effect of infections on function and survival of transplanted organs, we established the DZIF Transplant Cohort, a multicentre prospective cohort study within the organizational structure of the German Center for Infection Research. At time of transplantation, heart-, kidney-, lung-, liver-, pancreas- and hematopoetic stem cell- transplanted patients are enrolled into the study. Follo...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sedentary behaviour in relation to ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractSedentary behaviour is an emerging risk factor for several site-specific cancers. Ovarian cancers are often detected at late disease stages and the role of sedentary behaviour as a modifiable risk factor potentially contributing to ovarian cancer risk has not been extensively examined. We systematically searched relevant databases from inception to February 2020 for eligible publications dealing with sedentary behaviour in relation to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, calculating summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. We cal...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Does death from Covid-19 arise from a multi-step process?
AbstractThe Covid-19 death rate increases exponentially with age, and the main risk factors are having underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, severe chronic respiratory disease and cancer. These characteristics are consistent with the multi-step model of disease. We applied this model to Covid-19 case fatality rates (CFRs) from China, South Korea, Italy, Spain and Japan. In all countries we found that a plot of log(CFR)  against log(age) was approximately linear with a slope of about 5. We also conducted similar analyses for selected other respiratory diseases. SARS showed a simi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: assessing the impact of reverse causation and measurement error in two large prospective cohorts
In conclusion, PA measured at baseline or with short lag time was prone to bias. Cumulati ve average PA showed robust evidence that PA is inversely associated with mortality in a dose-response manner. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Overdiagnosis: one concept, three perspectives, and a model
AbstractDefining, estimating, communicating about, and dealing with overdiagnosis is challenging. One reason for this is because overdiagnosis is a complex phenomenon. In this article we try to show that the complexity can be analysed and addressed in terms of three perspectives, i.e., that of the person, the professional, and the population. Individuals are informed about overdiagnosis based on population-based estimates. These estimates depend on professionals ’ conceptions and models of disease and diagnostic criteria. These conceptions in turn depend on individuals’ experience of suffering, and on populatio...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Xi ’an longitudinal mother–child cohort study: design, study population and methods
AbstractThe large-scale Xi ’an longitudinal mother–child cohort study has started to enroll pregnant women who attended Northwest Women’s and Children’s Hospital (NWCH) for antenatal care in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks’ gestation) from January 2013 and the enrollment will be ended in January 2023. We aimed t o investigate the role of external factors (i.e., diet and environment) and internal (i.e., biological, genetic and epigenetic) on the short- and long-term outcomes of mothers and children up to at least 12 years. Mothers completed all routine prenatal care during pregnancy an...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 and risk of COVID-19 mortality: results from UK Biobank
In conclusion, our data suggest that higher IGF-1 concentrations are associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 mortality. Further studies are required to determine whether and how targeting IGF-1 pathway might improve COVID-19 prognosis. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Calcium intake, calcium supplementation and cardiovascular disease and mortality in the British population: EPIC-norfolk prospective cohort study and meta-analysis
AbstractThe role of dietary calcium in cardiovascular disease prevention is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between calcium intake and incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. Data were extracted from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Multivariable Cox regressions analysed associations between calcium intake (dietary and supplemental) and cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, aortic stenosis, peripheral vascular disease) and mortality (cardiovascular and all-cause). The results of this study were pooled with those from published pr...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 31, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A randomized controlled trial comparing community lifestyle interventions to improve adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations: the VitalUM study
This study reports on the effectiveness of various social-cognitive interventions to improve adherence to guidelines and the revealed adherence predictors. Participants (n  =  1,629), aged 45–70 years, randomly selected and recruited in 2005–2006 from 23 Dutch general practices, were randomized (centralized stratified allocation) to four groups to receive a 12-month lifestyle intervention targeting guideline adherence for PA and fruit and vegetable consumption. St udy groups received either four computer-tailored print communication (TPC) letters (n  =  405), four telephone moti...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note of thanks
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Oral contraceptive use by formulation and endometrial cancer risk among women born in 1947 –1964: The Nurses’ Health Study II, a prospective cohort study
AbstractOral contraceptives (OCs) have been associated with long-term lower endometrial cancer risk; relatively little is known about associations with more recent OC formulations and associations with longer-term risk. A total of 107,069 women from the Nurses ’ Health Study II recalled OC use from age 13 to baseline (1989); biennial questionnaires updated data on OC use until 2009. OCs were classified by estrogen and progestin type, dose, and potency based on reported brand. 864 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified through 2017. Multivaria ble Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR)...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity and the risk of heart failure: a systematic review and dose –response meta-analysis of prospective studies
AbstractAlthough physical activity is an established protective factor for cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease and stroke, less is known with regard to the association between specific domains of physical activity and heart failure, as well as the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and heart failure. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies to clarify the relations of total physical activity, domains of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of heart failure. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 14th, 2020. Summ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessing causality in epidemiology: revisiting Bradford Hill to incorporate developments in causal thinking
This study highlights a need for greater clarity on BH viewpoints to improve causal assessment. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 16, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Design and overview of the Origins of Alzheimer ’s Disease Across the Life course (ORACLE) study
This article provides an overview of th e rationale and the design of the ORACLE Study. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 16, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessing the age specificity of infection fatality rates for COVID-19: systematic review, meta-analysis, and public policy implications
AbstractDetermine age-specific infection fatality rates for COVID-19 to inform public health policies and communications that help protect vulnerable age groups. Studies of COVID-19 prevalence were collected by conducting an online search of published articles, preprints, and government reports that were publicly disseminated prior to 18 September 2020. The systematic review encompassed 113 studies, of which 27 studies (covering 34 geographical locations) satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Age-specific IFRs were computed using the prevalence data in conjunction with reported fatalities...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 8, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

When will individuals meet their personalized probabilities? A philosophical note on risk prediction
AbstractRisk prediction is one of the central goals of medicine. However, ultimate prediction –perfectly predicting whether individuals will actually get a disease–is still out of reach for virtually all conditions. One crucial assumption of ultimate personalized prediction is that individual risks in the relevant sense exist. In the present paper we argue that perfect prediction at the individual level will fail–and we will do so by providing pragmatic, epistemic, conceptual, and ontological arguments. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology is about disease in populations
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Decline of coronary heart disease mortality is strongly effected by changing patterns of underlying causes of death: an analysis of mortality data from 27 countries of the WHO European region 2000 and 2013
AbstractMortality rates for coronary heart disease (CHD) experience a longstanding decline, attributed to progress in prevention, diagnostics and therapy. However, CHD mortality rates vary between countries. To estimate whether national patterns of causes of death impact CHD mortality, data from the WHO “European detailed mortality database” for 2000 and 2013 for populations aged ≥ 80 years was analyzed. We extracted mortality rates for total mortality, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, dementia and ill-defined causes. We calculated proportions of selected causes of death among all dea t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hypothetical blood-pressure-lowering interventions and risk of stroke and dementia
AbstractWe aimed to study  the effects of hypothetical interventions on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and smoking on risk of stroke and dementia using data from 15 years of follow-up in the Rotterdam Study. We used data from 4930 individuals, aged 55–80 years, with no prior history of stroke, dementia or cognitive impai rment, followed for 15 years within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort. We defined the following sustained interventions on SBP: (1) maintaining SBP below 120 mmHg, (2) maintaining SBP below 140 mmHg, (3) reducing SBP by 10% if above 140 mmHg, (4) reducin...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 27, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19: facts and failures, a tale of two worlds
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Malm ö Offspring Study (MOS): design, methods and first results
AbstractAs cardio metabolic disease manifestations tend to cluster in families there is a need to better understand the underlying mechanisms in order to further develop preventive strategies. In fact, genetic markers used in genetic risk scores, important as they are, will not be able alone to explain these family clusters. Therefore, the search goes on for the so calledmissing heritability to better explain these associations. Shared lifestyle and social conditions in families, but also early life influences may be of importance. Gene-environmental interactions should be explored. In recent years interest has grown for t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort profile: Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO)
AbstractThe Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO) is a preconception, longitudinal cohort study that aims to study the effects of nutrition, lifestyle, and maternal mood prior to and during pregnancy on the epigenome of the offspring and clinically important outcomes including duration of gestation, fetal growth, metabolic and neural phenotypes in the offspring. Between February 2015 and October 2017, the S-PRESTO study recruited 1039 Chinese, Malay or Indian (or any combinations thereof) women aged 18 –45 years and who intended to get pregnant and deliver in Singapore...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 21, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Biomedical and health research: an analysis of country participation and research fields in the EU ’s Horizon 2020
AbstractWe analysed the Horizon 2020 project database, currently the European Union ’s (EU) largest framework programme for research and innovation—nearly 80 billion euros available over 7 years (2014–2020), to estimate the amount and type of EU-supported biomedical and health research and funding distribution among EU member states and non-European countries. Out of 20,877 projects as of 14th January 2019, a total of 4865 projects were classified as human health related. Ninety-four countries/territories worldwide participated in at least one biomedical project. The EU-15 original member states show...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Non-COVID-19 deaths after social distancing in Norway
AbstractLay persons and policy makers have speculated on how national differences in the imposition of social distancing to reduce SARS CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection has affected non-COVID-19 deaths. No rigorous estimation of the effect appears in the scholarly literature. We use time-series methods to compare non-COVID-19 deaths in Norway during its 9  weeks of mandated social distancing to those expected from history as well as from non-COVID-19 deaths in relatively less restricted Sweden. We estimate that 430 fewer Norwegians than expected died from causes other than COVID-19. We...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19: US federal accountability for entry, spread, and inequities —lessons for the future
AbstractThe United States (US) has been among those nations most severely affected by the first —and subsequent—phases of the pandemic of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. With only 4% of the worldwide population, the US has seen about 22% of COVID-19 deaths. Despite formidable advantages in resources and expertise, presently the per capita mortality rate is over 585/million, res pectively 2.4 and 5 times higher compared to Canada and Germany. As we enter Fall 2020, the US is enduring ongoing outbreaks across large regions of the country. Moreover, within the US, an early and persistent feature of the...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Body size and weight change over adulthood and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and hormone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohort studies
AbstractAssociations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose –response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restric...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Generalizing experimental results by leveraging knowledge of mechanisms
AbstractWe show how experimental results can be generalized across diverse populations by leveraging knowledge of local mechanisms that produce the outcome of interest, only some of which may differ in the target domain. We use structural causal models and a refined version of selection diagrams to represent such knowledge, and to decide whether it entails the invariance ofprobabilities of causation across populations, which then enables generalization. We further provide: (i) bounds for the target effect when some of these conditions are violated; (ii) new identification results for probabilities of causation and the tran...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 18, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

SES inequalities in cause-specific adult mortality: a study of the long-term trends using longitudinal individual data for Sweden (1813 –2014)
AbstractHigher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower mortality, and this correlation has been confirmed using different indicators across several geographical settings. Nevertheless, the timing of the emergence of the SES gradient remains unclear. We used individual-level longitudinal data for a regional population in southern Sweden covering the period between 1813 and 2014, and we applied a cause-specific proportional hazard model. We estimated SES differences in all-cause, nonpreventable, preventable, and cause-specific adult mortality in four subperiods (1813 –1921, 1922–1967, 1968–1989,...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global assessment of C-reactive protein and health-related outcomes: an umbrella review of evidence from observational studies and Mendelian randomization studies
AbstractC-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied extensively for association with a large number of non-infectious diseases and outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the breadth and validity of associations between CRP and non-infectious, chronic health outcomes and biomarkers. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses and a systematic review of Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched from inception up to March 2019. Meta-analyses of observational studies and MR studies examining associations between CRP and healt...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal use of hormonal contraception and risk of childhood ADHD: a nationwide population-based cohort study
We examined the association between maternal hormonal contraception use before or during pregnancy and ADHD risk in children. This nationwide population-based cohort study included 1,056,846 children born in Denmark between 1998 and 2014. Prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives redeemed by the mother was categorized as: no use, previous use (>  3 months before pregnancy), and recent use (≤ 3 months before or during pregnancy). Children were followed for ADHD, from birth until 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interv...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are women using hormonal contraceptives the risk-takers?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

National all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic: a Danish registry-based study
We examined national all-cause mortality comparing weeks 1–27 in 2020 and 2015–2019. This registry-based study used Danish national registry data until 5 July 2020. We examined all-cause mortality rates among all deaths recorded from 2015 to 2020 and among chronic conditions (cardiovascular (c ardiac& circulatory), chronic pulmonary, chronic kidney disease, cancer, and diabetes), comparing each week in 2020 to weeks in 2015 –2019. In 2020, there were 28,363 deaths in weeks 1–27 (30 December 2019–5 July 2020), the mean deaths in 2015–2019 were 28,630 deaths (standard deviation 784). C...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 20, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Offspring sex and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a multinational pooled analysis of 12 case –control studies
AbstractWhile childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case –controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case–control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for po tential confounders. In gen...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 20, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Amyloid, tau and risk of Alzheimer ’s disease: a Mendelian randomization study
This study was carried out to assess the effect of amyloid and tau on Alzheimer ’s disease using two-sample Mendelian randomization design. Genetic associations with plasma amyloid species (amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-like protein 2, serum amyloid P-component, amyloid beta peptide), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta, total tau, and phosphorylated tau181 were extracted from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) available. Genetic associations with Alzheimer ’s disease were obtained from a GWAS of proxy-cases based on family history of Alzheimer’s disease with 314,278 participants fro...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessment of cancer screening effectiveness in the era of screening programs
AbstractWhilst the benefit of detecting and removing cancer precursors in the cervix and the large bowel is unequivocally documented, the balance between benefit and harm due to screening for early detection of breast and prostate cancer remains uncertain after 30 –50 years of randomized control trials (RCTs). Concomitantly, traditional RCTs become increasingly unfeasible due to low compliance, contamination of control groups, difficulties to enroll screening naïve individuals, and prohibitively high costs. Therefore, we have systematically reviewed pros and cons with alternative study designs to quantify s...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An epidemiological modelling approach for COVID-19 via data assimilation
AbstractThe global pandemic of the 2019-nCov requires the evaluation of policy interventions to mitigate future social and economic costs of quarantine measures worldwide. We propose an epidemiological model for forecasting and policy evaluation which incorporates new data in real-time through variational data assimilation. We analyze and discuss infection rates in the UK, US and Italy. We furthermore develop a custom compartmental SIR model fit to variables related to the available data of the pandemic, named SITR model, which allows for more granular inference on infection numbers. We compare and discuss model results wh...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The effects of incidental findings from whole-body MRI on the frequency of biopsies and detected malignancies or benign conditions in a general population cohort study
AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields numerous tumor-related incidental findings (IFs) which may trigger diagnostics such as biopsies. To clarify these effects, we studied how whole-body MRI IF disclosure in a population-based cohort affected biopsy frequency and the detection of malignancies. Laboratory disclosures were also assessed. Data from 6753 participants in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) examined between 2008 and 2012 were utilized. All underwent laboratory examinations and 3371 (49.9%) a whole-body MRI. Electronic biopsy reports from 2002 to 2017 were linked to participants and assigned to outc...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data extraction for epidemiological research (DExtER): a novel tool for automated clinical epidemiology studies
AbstractThe use of primary care electronic health records for research is abundant. The benefits gained from utilising such records lies in their size, longitudinal data collection and data quality. However, the use of such data to undertake high quality epidemiological studies, can lead to significant challenges particularly in dealing with misclassification, variation in coding and the significant effort required to pre-process the data in a meaningful format for statistical analysis. In this paper, we describe a methodology to aid with the extraction and processing of such databases, delivered by a novel software progra...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 26, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research