Immune age and biological age as determinants of vaccine responsiveness among elderly populations: the Human Immunomics Initiative research program
AbstractThe Human Immunomics Initiative (HII), a joint project between the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Human Vaccines Project (HVP), focuses on studying immunity and the predictability of immuneresponsiveness to vaccines in aging populations. This paper describes the hypotheses and methodological approaches of this new collaborative initiative. Central to our thinking is the idea that predictors of age-related non-communicable diseases are the same as predictors for infectious diseases like COVID-19 and influenza. Fundamental to our approach is to differentiate between chronological, biological and im...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Different approaches to quantify years of life lost from COVID-19
AbstractThe burden of an epidemic is often characterized by death counts, but this can be misleading as it fails to acknowledge the age of the deceased patients. Years of life lost is therefore widely used as a more relevant metric, however, such calculations in the context of COVID-19 are all biased upwards: patients dying from COVID-19 are typically multimorbid, having far worse life expectation than the general population. These questions are quantitatively investigated using a unique Hungarian dataset that contains individual patient level data on comorbidities for all COVID-19 deaths in the country. To account for the...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards causal directed acyclic graphs: a qualitative research project
AbstractCausal graphs provide a key tool for optimizing the validity of causal effect estimates. Although a large literature exists on the mathematical theory underlying the use of causal graphs, less literature exists to aid applied researchers in understanding how best to develop and use causal graphs in their research projects. We sought to understand why researchers do or do not regularly use DAGs by surveying practicing epidemiologists and medical researchers on their knowledge, level of interest, attitudes, and practices towards the use of causal graphs in applied epidemiology and health research. We used Twitter and...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 epidemic growth in the 37 OECD member states
AbstractWe estimated the impact of a comprehensive set of non-pharmeceutical interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic growth rate across the 37 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and between October and December 2020. For this task, we conducted a data-driven, longitudinal analysis using a multilevel modelling approach with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation. We found that during the early phase of the epidemic: implementing restrictions on gatherings of more than 100  people, between 11 and 100 people, and 10 people or...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Economic uncertainty and suicide in the United States
AbstractPrevious studies have found an association between recessions and increased rates of suicide. In the present study we widened the focus to examine the association between economic uncertainty and suicides. We used monthly suicide data from the US at the State level from 2000 to 2017 and combined them with the monthly economic uncertainty index. We followed a panel data econometric approach to study the association between economic uncertainty and suicide, controlling for unemployment and other indicators. Economic uncertainty is positively associated with suicide when controlling for unemployment [coeff: 8.026; 95%...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population: Analysis of nationwide serosurvey data in the Netherlands
AbstractBackgroundThe proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons who are asymptomatic —and whether this proportion is age-dependent—are still open research questions. Because an unknown proportion of reported symptoms among SARS-CoV-2 positives will be attributable to another infection or affliction, theobserved, or 'crude' proportion without symptoms may underestimate the proportion of persons without symptoms that arecaused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsBased on two rounds of a large population-based serological study comprising test results on seropositivity and self-reported symptom history conducted in Apr...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on myocardial infarction care
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care, and to identify underlying stressors in the German model region for complete AMI registration. The analysis was based on data from the population-based KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry located in the region of Augsburg, Germany. All cases of AMI (n = 210) admitted to one of four hospitals in the city of Augsburg or the county of Augsburg from February 10th, 2020, to May 19, 2020, were included. Patients were divided into three groups, namely pre-lockdown, strict lockdown, an...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prioritisation and design of clinical trials
AbstractClinical trials require participation of numerous patients, enormous research resources and substantial public funding. Time-consuming trials lead to delayed implementation of beneficial interventions and to reduced benefit to patients. This manuscript discusses two methods for the allocation of research resources and reviews a  framework for prioritisation and design of clinical trials. The traditional error-driven approach of clinical trial design controls for type I and II errors. However, controlling for those statistical errors has limited relevance to policy makers. Therefore, this er...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of carotid intima-media thickness
In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn ’s disease in smokers lacks causal evidence
In conclusion, current versus never-smoking was associated with unexpected 2.3-fold risk of ulcerative colitis and expected 1.9-fold risk of Crohn’s disease in prospective analyses; however, genetic evidence of lifelong increased smoking intensity did not support causal relationships . (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - June 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prenatal and postnatal exposure to acetaminophen in relation to autism spectrum and attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in childhood: Meta-analysis in six European population-based cohorts
AbstractThe potential etiological role of early acetaminophen exposure on Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is inconclusive. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of six European population-based birth/child cohorts. A total of 73,881 mother –child pairs were included in the study. Prenatal and postnatal (up to 18 months) acetaminophen exposure was assessed through maternal questionnaires or interviews. ASC and ADHD symptoms were assessed at 4–12 years of age using validated instruments. Children were classified as having borderl...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 28, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vaccine hesitancy due to vaccine country of origin, vaccine technology, and certification
AbstractVaccine hesitancy is a global health threat which may hinder the widespread acceptance of several COVID-19 vaccines. Following the collection of 2470 responses from an anonymous questionnaire distributed between October and November 2020 across Israel, we analyzed the responses of physicians, life science graduates (biology, virology, chemistry, etc.), and the general public to whether they would obtain a COVID-19 vaccine with particular vaccine characteristics such as vaccine country of origin, technology, side effect profile, efficacy, and other attributes. Physicians and life science graduates were least likely ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 26, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The association between meat and fish consumption and bladder cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies
AbstractEvidence on the effects of meat consumption from different sources on the risk of bladder cancer (BC) is limited and controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between meat consumption and BC risk using a pooled data approach. Individual data from 11 prospective cohorts comprising 2848 BC cases and 515,697 non-cases with a total of 5,498,025 person-years of follow-up was pooled and analysed to investigate the potential associations between total red meat and products, red meat, processed meat, poultry and total fish and BC risk. Hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence int...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Systemic inflammation markers and cancer incidence in the UK Biobank
This study estimated associations between pre-diagnostic systemic inflammation markers and cancer risk in the prospective UK Biobank cohort of approximately 440,000 participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. We assessed associations between four immune-related markers based on blood cell counts: systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and risk for 17 cancer sites by estimating hazard ratios (HR) using flexible parametric survival models. We observed positive associations with risk for seven out of 17 cancers w...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Secondary attack rates of COVID-19 in Norwegian families: a nation-wide register-based study
This study su ggests that whilst the absolute infection numbers are low for young children because of their low introduction rate, when infected, young children and parents transmit the virus to the same extent within the family. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Season of birth and the risk of dementia in the population ‐based Rotterdam Study
In conclusion, winter and fall births were associated with a higher incidence of dementia, especially of AD. We did not find evidence for structural brain changes as an underlying me chanism. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using excess deaths and testing statistics to determine COVID-19 mortalities
AbstractFactors such as varied definitions of mortality, uncertainty in disease prevalence, and biased sampling complicate the quantification of fatality during an epidemic. Regardless of the employed fatality measure, the infected population and the number of infection-caused deaths need to be consistently estimated for comparing mortality across regions. We combine historical and current mortality data, a statistical testing model, and an SIR epidemic model, to improve estimation of mortality. We find that the average excess death across the entire US from January 2020 until February 2021 is 9\(\%\) higher than the numbe...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparative effectiveness and safety of direct acting oral anticoagulants in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation for stroke prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurpose:To systematically review available evidence of indirect comparisons from RCTs and direct comparisons from observational studies regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of DOACs in patients with AF.Methods: Electronic databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PUBMED were searched up to June 5th, 2020. Primary endpoints included effectiveness (stroke or systemic embolism [SE]) and safety (major bleeding) outcomes. Bucher methods and random-effects models were conducted for indirect and direct comparisons among DOACs, respectively. Ranking probability analyses and the number needed to treat for net e...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

10  K: a large‐scale prospective longitudinal study in Israel
AbstractThe 10  K is a large-scale prospective longitudinal cohort and biobank that was established in Israel. The primary aims of the study include development of prediction models for disease onset and progression and identification of novel molecular markers with a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value. The recruitment was initiated in 2018 and is expected to complete in 2021. Between 28/01/2019 and 13/12/2020, 4,629 from the expected 10,000 participants were recruited (46 %). Follow-up visits are scheduled every year for a total of 25 years. The cohort includes individuals between the ages of 4 0 and...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mendelian randomisation for mediation analysis: current methods and challenges for implementation
We describe two approaches that can be used for estimating mediation analysis with MR: multivariable MR (MVMR) and two-step MR. We outline the approaches and provide code to demonstrate how they can be used in mediation analysis. We review issues that can affect analyses, including confounding, measurement error, weak instrument bias, interactions between exposures and mediators and analysis of multiple mediators. Description of the methods is supplemented by simulated and real data examples. Although MR relies on large sample sizes and strong assumptions, such as having strong instruments and no horizontally pleiotropic p...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 7, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal hypertensive disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring: a population-based cohort in two Nordic countries
AbstractMaternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (HDP) have been associated with neuropsychiatric problems in offspring. We aim to investigate the associations between specific types of maternal HDP and offspring neurodevelopmental disorders and further examine whether the timing of onset and severity of HDP would affect these associations. The study population consisted of 4,489,044 live-born singletons in Denmark during 1978 –2012 and Sweden during 1987–2010. Maternal HDP was categorized into chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, and pre-eclampsia; pre-eclampsia was further stratified accord...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - May 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pre-pandemic cognitive function and COVID-19 mortality: prospective cohort study
AbstractPoorer performance on standard tests of pre-morbid cognitive function is related to an elevated risk of death from lower respiratory tract infections but the link with coronavirus (COVID ‑19) mortality is untested. Participants in UK Biobank, aged 40 to 69 years at study induction (2006–10), were administered a reaction time test, an indicator of information processing speed, and also had their verbal-numeric reasoning assessed. Between April 1st and September 23rd 2020 there w ere 388 registry-confirmed deaths (138 women) ascribed to COVID-19 in 494,932 individuals (269,602 women) with a reaction time...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The EU Child Cohort Network ’s core data: establishing a set of findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable (FAIR) variables
AbstractThe Horizon2020 LifeCycle Project is a cross-cohort collaboration which brings together data from multiple birth cohorts from across Europe and Australia to facilitate studies on the influence of early-life exposures on later health outcomes. A major product of this collaboration has been the establishment of a FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable) data resource known as the EU Child Cohort Network. Here we focus on the EU Child Cohort Network ’s core variables. These are a set of basic variables, derivable by the majority of participating cohorts and frequently used as covariates or exposur...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dementia remains the major predictor of death among octogenarians. A study of two population cohorts of 85-year-olds examined 22  years apart
AbstractDementia is the major predictor of death in old age. The aim of this paper was to determine whether 8-year mortality among 85-year olds with and without dementia, and if the contribution of dementia to mortality relative to other common diseases has changed. We used two population-based cohorts of 85-year-olds (N  = 1065), born in 1901–02 and 1923–24, which were examined with identical methods in 1986–87 and 2008–2010 and followed for 8-year mortality according to data from the Swedish Tax Agency. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R. Other diseases were diagnosed base...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vegetable nitrate intake, blood pressure and incident cardiovascular disease: Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study
AbstractWhether the vascular effects of inorganic nitrate, observed in clinical trials, translate to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) with habitual dietary nitrate intake in prospective studies warrants investigation. We aimed to determine if vegetable nitrate, the major dietary nitrate source, is associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and lower risk of incident CVD. Among 53,150 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study, without CVD at baseline, vegetable nitrate intake was assessed using a comprehensive vegetable nitrate database. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using restricted cubic sp...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Coronary deaths during Midsummer festival in Finland: miseries of long, light nights
In conclusion, the anomalous and prominent summer peak in deaths from CHD in Finland is an adverse consequence of the Midsummer festival. The most likely underlying reason is heavy alcohol consumption during the festival period, especially on Midsummer Eve. In the 2000s, one third of deaths from CHD on Midsummer Day are preventable. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Nationwide seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Israel
AbstractThe first local spread of COVID-19 in Israel was detected in March 2020. Due to the diversity in clinical presentations of COVID-19, diagnosis by RT-PCR alone might miss patients with mild or no symptoms. Serology testing may better evaluate the actual magnitude of the spread of infection in the population. This is the first nationwide seroprevalence study conducted in Israel. It is one of the most widespread to be conducted thus far, and the largest per-country population size. The survey was conducted between June 28 and September 14, 2020 and included 54,357 patients who arrived at the Health Maintenance Organiz...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 before and after symptom onset: impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions in China
AbstractNonpharmaceutical interventions, such as contact tracing and quarantine, have been the primary means of controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2; however, it remains uncertain which interventions are most effective at reducing transmission at the population level. Using serial interval data from before and after the rollout of nonpharmaceutical interventions in China, we estimate that the relative frequency of presymptomatic transmission increased from 34% before the rollout to 71% afterward. The shift toward earlier transmission indicates a disproportionate reduction in transmission post-symptom onset. We estimate tha...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Second wave of COVID-19 in Brazil: younger at higher risk
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The iBerry study: a longitudinal cohort study of adolescents at high risk of psychopathology
We report that the oversampling procedure was successful at selecting a cohort of adolescents with a high rate of psychiatric problems based on comprehensive multi-informant measurements. The future results obtained f rom the iBerry Study will provide new insights into the way in which the mental health of high-risk adolescents changes as they transition to adulthood. These findings will therefore facilitate the development of strategies designed to optimize mental healthcare and prevent psychopathology. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sildenafil and suicide in Sweden
AbstractMuch theory asserts that sexual intimacy sustains mental health. Experimental tests of such theory remain rare and have not provided compelling evidence because ethical, practical, and cultural constraints bias samples and results. An epidemiologic approach would, therefore, seem indicated given the rigor the discipline brings to quasi-experimental research. For reasons that remain unclear, however, epidemiologist have largely ignored such theory despite the plausibility of the processes implicated, which engender, for example, happiness, feelings of belonging and self-worth, and protection against depression. We u...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Danish National Register of assisted reproductive technology: content and research potentials
AbstractThe Danish National Register of assisted reproductive technology (ART) was initially established in 1994. The register comprises complete information on all ART procedures in public and private clinics in Denmark from 2013 and onwards, including baseline information on the cause of infertility and a number of health-related patient characteristics. The register enables monitoring and research on infertility treatment and reproductive topics in single women or couples seeking assisted reproduction, and the register is thus a key component of the Danish health information system within human reproduction. We aimed to...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Parental age and birth defects: a sibling study
AbstractHigher parental age at childbearing has generated much attention as a potential risk factor for birth disorders; however, previous research findings are mixed. Existing studies have exploited variation in parental age across families, which is problematic because families differ not only in parental age but also in genetic and environmental factors. To isolate the effects of parental age, holding many genetic and environmental factors constant, we exploit the variation in parental age within families and compare outcomes for full siblings. The study data were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, whi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Radiation effects on atherosclerosis in atomic bomb survivors: a cross ‐sectional study using structural equation modeling
AbstractPast reports indicated that total-body irradiation at low to moderate doses could be responsible for cardiovascular disease risks, but the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between radiation exposure and atherosclerosis, an underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases, in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. We performed a cross-sectional study measuring 14 clinical-physiological atherosclerosis indicators during clinical exams from 2010 to 2014  in 3274 participants of the Adult Health Study cohort. Multivariable analyses were performed by using a struct...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Arguments about face masks and Covid-19 reflect broader methodologic debates within medical science
AbstractThere has perhaps been no issue as contentious in Covid-19 as face masks. The most contentious scientific debate has been between those who argue that “there is no scientific evidence”, by which they mean that there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs), versus those who argue that when the evidence is considered together, “the science supports that face coverings save lives”. It used to be a ‘given’ that to decide whether a parti cular factor, either exogenous or endogenous, can cause a particular disease, and in what order of magnitude, one should consider all reasonably c...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Genetic liability to insomnia in relation to cardiovascular diseases: a Mendelian randomisation study
AbstractThe present study aimed to determine the associations between insomnia and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. As instrumental variables, we used 208 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with insomnia at the genome-wide significance threshold in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the UK Biobank and 23andMe including a total of 397  959 self-reported insomnia cases and 933 057 non-cases. Summary-level data for nine CVDs were obtained from the UK Biobank including 367 586 individuals of European ancestry. After correction for ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and subsequent all-cause mortality in Sweden: a nationwide study
AbstractWe conducted a nationwide, registry-based study to investigate the importance of 34 potential risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, hospitalization (with or without intensive care unit [ICU] admission), and subsequent all-cause mortality. The study population comprised all COVID-19 cases confirmed in Sweden by mid-September 2020 (68,575 non-hospitalized, 2494 ICU hospitalized, and 13,589 non-ICU hospitalized) and 434,081 randomly sampled general-population controls. Older age was the strongest risk factor for hospitalization, although the odds of ICU hospitalization decreased after 60 &nda...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Heart rate, intelligence in adolescence, and Parkinson ’s disease later in life
AbstractTo investigate whether physical and cognitive fitness measured in late adolescence was associated with future risk of Parkinson ’s disease (PD). The cohort included 1,259,485 Swedish men with physical fitness, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, intelligence quotient (IQ), and stress resilience measured at the age of 17–20 in relation to conscription. Incident cases of PD were ascertained fro m the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios were estimated from Cox models, after controlling for multiple confounders. We further performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to a...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant women and mothers of young children: results of a survey in 16 countries
AbstractWith the development of multiple effective vaccines, reducing the global morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 will depend on the distribution and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Estimates of global vaccine acceptance among pregnant women and mothers of young children are yet unknown. An understanding of the challenges and correlates to vaccine acceptance will aid the acceleration of vaccine administration within these populations. Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 18-years-old, as well as potential predictors, were assessed through an online survey, admi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - March 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

External validity of phase III trials on vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to a middle-aged and elderly Western European population
This study was conducted among 7162 participants (age-range: 51 –106 years; 58% women) from the Rotterdam Study. We quantified the proportion of participants that would be eligible for the nine ongoing phase-III trials. We further quantified the eligibility among participants at high risk to develop severe COVID-19. Since many trials were not explicit in thei r exclusion criterion with respect to ‘acute’ or ‘unstable preexisting’ diseases, we performed two analyses. First, we included all participants irrespective of this criterion. Second, we excluded persons with acute or ‘unstabl...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

How to detect and reduce potential sources of biases in studies of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
AbstractIn response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, public health scientists have produced a large and rapidly expanding body of literature that aims to answer critical questions, such as the proportion of the population in a geographic area that has been infected; the transmissibility of the virus and factors associated with high infectiousness or susceptibility to infection; which groups are the most at risk of infection, morbidity and mortality; and the degree to which antibodies confer protection to re-infection. Observational studies are subject to a number of different biases, including confounding, s...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are Mendelian randomization investigations immune from bias due to reverse causation?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The rise and fall of diseases: reflections on the history of population health in Europe since ca. 1700
AbstractThis essay explores the amazing phenomenon that in Europe since ca. 1700 most diseases have shown a pattern of 'rise-and-fall'. It argues that the rise of so many diseases indicates that their ultimate cause is not to be sought within the body, but in the interaction between humans and their environment. In their tireless pursuit of a better life, Europeans have constantly engaged in new activities which exposed them to new health risks, at a pace that evolution could not keep up with. Fortunately, most diseases have also declined again, mainly as a result of human interventions, in the form of public health interv...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 20, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Johan P. Mackenbach. A history of population health: rise and fall of disease in Europe
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Alcohol intake in early adulthood and risk of colorectal cancer: three large prospective cohort studies of men and women in the United States
AbstractHeavy alcohol consumption in mid-adulthood is an established risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). Alcohol use in early adulthood is common, but its association with subsequent CRC risk remains largely unknown. We prospectively investigated the association of average alcohol intake in early adulthood (age 18 –22) with CRC risk later in life among 191,543 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study ([NHS], 1988–2014), NHSII (1989–2015) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988–2014). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interv...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 mortality in the UK Biobank cohort: revisiting and evaluating risk factors
AbstractMost studies of severe/fatal COVID-19 risk have used routine/hospitalisation data without detailed pre-morbid characterisation. Using the community-based UK Biobank cohort, we investigate risk factors for COVID-19 mortality in comparison with non-COVID-19 mortality. We investigated demographic, social (education, income, housing, employment), lifestyle (smoking, drinking, body mass index), biological (lipids, cystatin C, vitamin D), medical (comorbidities, medications) and environmental (air pollution) data from UK Biobank (N  = 473,550) in relation to 459 COVID-19 and 2626 non-COVID-19 deaths to 21 S...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are depressive disorders caused by psychosocial stressors at work? A systematic review with metaanalysis
AbstractIn the last decade, many studies have examined associations between poor psychosocial work environment and depression. We aimed to assess the evidence for acausal association between psychosocial factors at work and depressive disorders. We conducted a systematic literature search from 1980 to March 2019. For all exposures other than night and shift work and long working hours, we limited our selection of studies to those with a longitudinal design. We extracted available risk estimates for each of 19 psychosocial exposures, from which we calculated summary risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (PROSPERO, id...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tombstone size and life expectancy: a cross-sectional analysis of cemetery data before the turn of the century
AbstractThe extent to which socioeconomic status was associated with life expectancy in the 19th and early part of the twentieth century is poorly understood. We sought to determine the association between a deceased individual ’s tombstone size, a potential marker of socioeconomic status, and their age of death in the late modern period. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 276 deceased individuals buried between 1820 and 1992 in a large cemetery in Quebec, Canada. The main outcome measure was age of death. We used g eneralized linear models adjusted for sex, marital status, and year of death to determine whether...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Thyroid function, sex hormones and sexual function: a Mendelian randomization study
AbstractHypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are observationally associated with sex hormone concentrations and sexual dysfunction, but causality is unclear. We investigated whether TSH, fT4, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are causally associated with sex hormones and sexual function. We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on TSH and fT4 and hypo- and hyperthyroidism from the ThyroidOmics Consortium (N  ≤ 54,288). Outcomes from UK Biobank (women ≤ 194,174/men ≤ 167,020) and ReproGen (women ≤ 252,514) were sex hormones (...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evidence of early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in France: findings from the population-based “CONSTANCES” cohort
AbstractUsing serum samples routinely collected in 9144 adults from a French general population-based cohort, we identified 353 participants with a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, among whom 13 were sampled between November 2019 and January 2020 and were confirmed by neutralizing antibodies testing. Investigations in 11 of these participants revealed experience of symptoms possibly related to a SARS-CoV-2 infection or situations at risk of potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This suggests early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in Europe. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research