Smoking cessation and incident dementia in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study
AbstractTo investigate the association of smoking status and years since smoking cessation with the risk of incident dementia among elderly Japanese. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of smoking status and smoking cessation with dementia in prospective cohort study of 12,489 Japanese individuals aged ≥ 65 years who were followed up for 5.7 years. Information on smoking status and other lifestyle factors was collected via a questionnaire in 2006. Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance Database. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimat e the mult...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are infectious diseases risk factors for sarcoidosis or a result of reverse causation? Findings from a population-based nested case –control study
AbstractFindings from molecular studies suggesting that several infectious agents cause sarcoidosis are intriguing yet conflicting and likely biased due to their cross-sectional design. As done in other inflammatory diseases to overcome this issue, prospectively-collected register data could be used, but reverse causation is a threat when the onset of disease is difficult to establish. We investigated the association between infectious diseases and sarcoidosis to understand if they are etiologically related. We conducted a nested case –control study (2009–2013) using incident sarcoidosis cases from the Swedish ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Asbestos exposure and haematological malignancies: a Danish cohort study
AbstractEnvironmental asbestos exposure and occupational asbestos exposure increase the risk of several types of cancer, but the role of such exposures for haematological malignancies remains controversial. We aimed to examine the risk of haematological malignancies: first, in subjects exposed early in life, independently of any occupational exposure occurring later; second, in subjects exposed occupationally. We established an environmentally exposed cohort from four schools located near the only former asbestos cement production plant in Denmark. We identified nearly all pupils in the seventh grade and created an age and...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Outdoor light at night at residences and breast cancer risk in Canada
AbstractExperimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that light at night (LAN) exposure disrupts circadian rhythm, and this disruption may increase breast cancer risk. We investigated the potential association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer risk. A population-based case –control study was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia and Kingston, Ontario, Canada with incident breast cancer cases, and controls frequency matched by age in the same region. This analysis was restricted to 844 cases and 905 controls who provided lifetime residential histories. Using time- weighted average duration at each...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adventures in the environment and genes
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - February 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contributions of the UK biobank high impact papers in the era of precision medicine
AbstractTo review the highest impact studies published from the UK Biobank and assess their contributions to “precision medicine.” We reviewed 140 of 689 studies published between 2008 and May 2019 from the UK Biobank deemed to be high impact by citations, alternative metric data, or publication in a high impact journal. We classified studies according to whether they (1) were largely methods papers, (2) largely replicated prior findings or associations, (3) generated novel findings or associations, (4) developed risk prediction models that did not yield clinically significant improvements in risk estimati...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Early life body size in relation to risk of renal cell carcinoma in adulthood: a Danish observational cohort study
This study investigated if birth weight, child body mass index (BMI) and height are associated with adult RCC. The study included 301,418 children (152,569 boys) from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register born 1930 –1985 with measured weights and heights at ages 7 to 13 years. Birth weight was obtained by parental report. BMI and height were transformed to z-scores, and BMI was categorized as normal BMI or overweight. RCC was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% co nfidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. During follow-up, 1...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Consumption of cocoa-containing foods and risk of hypertension in French women
AbstractMultiple randomised controlled trials have shown high doses of cocoa to reduce blood pressure and improve endothelial function. However, evidence regarding long-term consumption of cocoa and its potential effect on hypertension is lacking. We aimed to prospectively evaluate if cocoa intake from various food sources was associated with incident hypertension. Among 45,653 women of the E3N cohort, chocolate consumption was estimated from a 208 item dietary questionnaire and 24-h recall. Quantities of cocoa for certain foods including chocolate drinks, Danish pastries, chocolate biscuits, chocolate cakes, chocolate can...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Radiation risk of central nervous system tumors in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors, 1958 –2009
AbstractRadiation exposure is among the few factors known to be associated with risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. However, the patterns of radiation risk by histological type, sex or age are unclear. We evaluated radiation risks of first primary glioma, meningioma, schwannoma, and other or not otherwise specified (other/NOS) tumors in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors. Cases diagnosed between 1958 and 2009 were ascertained through population-based cancer registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. To estimate excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy), we fit rate models using Poisson regression methods. T...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Changing contribution of smoking to the sex differences in life expectancy in Europe, 1950 –2014
This article provides a  detailed and overarching illustration of the contribution of smoking to sex differences in life expectancy at birth (e0) in Europe, focusing on changes over time and differences between both European countries and European regions. For this purpose, the sex difference in e0 for 31 European countri es over the 1950–2014 period was decomposed into a smoking- and a non-smoking-related part, using all-cause mortality data and indirectly estimated smoking-attributable mortality rates by age and sex, and a formal decomposition analysis. It was found that smoking-attributable mortality con...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Seasonal and pandemic influenza during pregnancy and risk of fetal death: A Norwegian registry-based cohort study
AbstractPrevious studies of fetal death with maternal influenza have been inconsistent. We explored the effect of maternal influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy on the risk of fetal death, distinguishing between diagnoses during regular influenza seasons and the 2009/2010 pandemic and between trimesters of ILI. We used birth records from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to identify fetal deaths after the first trimester in singleton pregnancies (2006 –2013). The Norwegian Directorate of Health provided dates of clinical influenza diagnoses by primary-health-care providers, whereas dates of laboratory-confirme...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Short-term exposure to desert dust and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in Japan: a time-stratified case-crossover study
AbstractParticulate matter from natural sources such as desert dust causes harmful effects for health. Asian dust (AD) increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, little is known about the risk of myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA), compared to myocardial infarction with coronary artery disease (MI-CAD). Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models, the association between short-term exposure to AD whereby decreased visibility (
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Coffee consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a pooled analysis of 501,604 participants from 12 cohort studies in the BLadder Cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) international study
AbstractRecent epidemiological studies have shown varying associations between coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC). This research aims to elucidate the association between coffee consumption and BC risk by bringing together worldwide cohort studies on this topic. Coffee consumption in relation to BC risk was examined by pooling individual data from 12 cohort studies, comprising of 2601 cases out of 501,604 participants. Pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using multilevel Weibull regression models. Furthermore, dose –response relationships w...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using Mendelian randomization to evaluate the causal relationship between serum C-reactive protein levels and age-related macular degeneration
AbstractSerum C-reactive protein (CRP), an important inflammatory marker, has been associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in observational studies; however, the findings are inconsistent. It remains unclear whether the association between circulating CRP levels and AMD is causal. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the potential causal relationship between serum CRP levels and AMD risk. We derived genetic instruments for serum CRP levels in 418,642 participants of European ancestry from UK Biobank, and then conducted a genome-wide association study for 12,711 advanced AMD cases and 1...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Blood pressure, hypertension and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
AbstractCardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, while sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for over 60% of all cardiovascular deaths. Elevated blood pressure and hypertension have been associated with increased risk of SCD, but the findings have not been consistent. To clarify whether blood pressure or hypertension is associated with increased risk of SCD and to quantify the size and the shape of any association observed. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for published prospective studies on blood pressure or hypertension and SCD up to 30 April 2018. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Annual rate of newly treated atrial fibrillation by age and gender in France, 2010 –2016
The objective was to estimate the rate of AF patients newly treated with oral anticoagulants (OAC) in France each year between 2010 and 2016 and to describe age and gender differences. We used the French national health data system. For each year between 2010 and 2016, we identified patients aged over 20 initiating OAC. OAC indicated for the treatment of AF was determined by hospitalization diagnoses, specific procedures and registered long-term disease status, or a multiple imputation process for patients with no recorded information as to why they initiated OAC. Among the 421,453 individuals initiating OAC treatment in 2...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hospitalization following influenza infection and pandemic vaccination in multiple sclerosis patients: a nationwide population-based registry study from Norway
AbstractPatients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of infections and related worsening of neurological function. Influenza infection has been associated with increased risk of various neurological complications. We conducted a population-based registry study to investigate the risk of acute hospitalization of MS patients in relation to influenza infection or pandemic vaccination in Norway. The entire Norwegian population in the years 2008 –2014 was defined as our study population (N = 5,219,296). Information on MS diagnosis, influenza infection and vaccination were provided by Norwegian...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pathology-confirmed versus non pathology-confirmed cancer diagnoses: incidence, participant characteristics, and survival
AbstractCancer diagnoses which are not confirmed by pathology are often under-registered in cancer registries compared to pathology-confirmed diagnoses. It is unknown how many patients have a non pathology-confirmed cancer diagnosis, and whether their characteristics and survival differ from patients with a pathology-confirmed diagnosis. Participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study were followed between 1989 and 2013 for the diagnosis of cancer. Cancer diagnoses were classified into pathology-confirmed versus non pathology-confirmed (i.e., based on imaging or tumour markers). We compared participant c...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vaccines and the risk of Guillain-Barr é syndrome
AbstractThe role of vaccination in the development of Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is controversial, although cases of GBS have been reported following a wide range of vaccines. A nested case–control study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015 in three Chinese cities. Four controls were matched to a case by gender, age, address and index date. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls according to the Brighton Collaboration GBS case definition. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. Causal relations were assessed by conditi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 19, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note of thanks
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of intellectual disability in children born appropriate-for-gestational-age at term or post-term: impact of birth weight for gestational age and gestational age
AbstractChildren born small for gestational age have a higher risk of intellectual disability. We investigated associations of birth weight for gestational age percentile and gestational age with risk of intellectual disability in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) children. We included 828,948 non-malformed term or post-term AGA singleton children (including 429,379 full siblings) born between 1998 and 2009 based on data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Diagnosis of intellectual disability after 3  years of age was identified through the Patient Register. Using Cox regression models, we calculated hazard r...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of aortic stiffness with cognitive decline: Whitehall II longitudinal cohort study
AbstractAortic stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and mortality and may increase risk of dementia. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between arterial stiffness and cognitive decline in a large prospective cohort study with three repeated cognitive assessment over 7  years of follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured among 4300 participants (mean ± standard deviation age 65.1 ± 5.2 years) in 2007–2009 and categorized based on the tertiles: (lowest third:   8.91&nb...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Circulating total bilirubin and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the PREVEND study: observational findings and a Mendelian randomization study
AbstractThe relationship between circulating total bilirubin and incident non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association of total bilirubin with the risk of new-onset NAFLD and investigate any causal relevance to the association using a Mendelian randomization (MR) study. Plasma total bilirubin levels were measured at baseline in the PREVEND prospective study of 3824 participants (aged 28 –75 years) without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or NAFLD. Incident NAFLD was estimated using the biomarker-based algorithms, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Genetic instrumental variable analysis: time to call mendelian randomization what it is. The example of alcohol and cardiovascular disease
AbstractIn recent years, epidemiologists have increasingly sought to employ genetic data to identify ‘causal’ relationships between exposures of interest and various endpoints – an instrumental variable approach sometimes termed Mendelian randomization. However, this approach is subject to all of the limitations of instrumental variable analysis and to several limitations specific to its gene tic underpinnings, including confounding, weak instrument bias, pleiotropy, adaptation, and failure of replication. Although the approach enjoys some utility in testing the etiological role of discrete biochemical pa...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Soy intake and breast cancer risk: a prospective study of 300,000 Chinese women and a dose –response meta-analysis
AbstractEpidemiological evidence on the association of soy intake with breast cancer risk is still inconsistent due to different soy intake levels across previous studies and small number of breast cancer cases. We aimed to investigate this issue by analyzing data from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study and conducting a dose –response meta-analysis to integrate existing evidence. The CKB study included over 300,000 women aged 30–79 from 10 regions across China enrolled between 2004 and 2008, and followed-up for breast cancer events until 31 December 2016. Information on soy intake was collected from baselin...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply: Body fatness, diabetes, physical activity and risk of kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Predicted lean body mass, fat mass and risk of lung cancer: prospective US cohort study
In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer risk. Based on anthropometric prediction equations, low LBM rather than low FM accounted fo r the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer risk. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pregnancy, pregnancy loss and the risk of diabetes in Chinese women: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank
We examined the associations of pregnancy and pregnancy loss (miscarriage, induced abortion, and still birth) with the risk of incident diabetes in later life among Chinese women. In 2004 –2008, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 302 669 women aged 30–79 years from 10 (5 urban, 5 rural) diverse localities. During 9.2 years of follow-up, 7780 incident cases of diabetes were recorded among 273,383 women without prior diabetes and cardiovascular disease at baseline. C ox regression yielded multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of diabetes associated with pregnancy and pregnancy ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 19, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum albumin and atrial fibrillation: insights from epidemiological and mendelian randomization studies
In this study, we aim to characterize the nature and magnitude of the prospective association between serum albumin and incident AF in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and investigate any causal relevance to the association between them. ARIC Study is a population-based, prospective, cohort study of cardiovascular risk factors in four US communities, initially consisting of 15,792 participants, aged 45 –64 years, recruited between 1987 and 1989 (visit 1). The final sample size was 12,833 in this study. Baseline (visit 1) characteristics were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA test, C...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of colorectal cancer in users of bisphosphonates: analysis of population-based electronic health records
AbstractThe use of bisphosphonates has been associated with a decrease in the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in observational studies, but with controversial results and difficult to interpret because of routine concomitant use of calcium and vitamin D. We aimed to assess the association between CRC risk and outpatient exposure to antiosteoporotic drugs using a large cohort with prescription data in Catalonia. A case –control study was performed using the Information System for Development of Primary Care Research (SIDIAP) which is a primary care medical record database that has linked data on reimbursed medica...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Progress against inequalities in mortality: register-based study of 15 European countries between 1990 and 2015
AbstractSocioeconomic inequalities in mortality are a challenge for public health around the world, but appear to be resistant to policy-making. We aimed to identify European countries which have been more successful than others in narrowing inequalities in mortality, and the factors associated with narrowing inequalities. We collected and harmonised mortality data by educational level in 15 European countries over the last 25  years, and quantified changes in inequalities in mortality using a range of measures capturing different perspectives on inequality (e.g., ‘relative’ and ‘absolute’ ineq...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A quarter century of decline of autopsies in the Netherlands
ConclusionIn the Netherlands, clinical autopsies have been declining over the last quarter century. Age at death, but not sex, was associated with the autopsy rate. These different results stress the importance of correct collection and analysis methods of data. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity and risk of venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
AbstractThe inverse association between physical activity and arterial thrombotic disease is well established. Evidence on the association between physical activity and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is divergent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational prospective cohort studies evaluating the associations of physical activity with VTE risk. MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and manual search of relevant bibliographies were systematically searched until 26 February 2019. Extracted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum versus minimal amount of physical a...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A 24-step guide on how to design, conduct, and successfully publish a systematic review and meta-analysis in medical research
We describe each step, illustrate it with concrete examples, and provide relevant references for further guidance. The 24-step guide (1) simplifies the methodology of conducting a systematic review, (2) provides healthcare professionals and researchers with methodologically sound tools for conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and (3) it can enhance the quality of existing evidence synthesis efforts. This guide will help its readers to better understand the complexity of the process, appraise the quality of published systematic reviews, and better comprehend (and use) evidence from medical literature. (Source: E...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Repeated interviews are much better for drug exposure assessment than a single baseline interview
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and colorectal cancer in the UK Biobank
We examined the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to colorectal cancer in 59,191 UK Biobank participants aged 39 –70 years without prevalent cancer at baseline, followed from 2009 to 2014. Submaximal bicycle ergometry was conducted at study entry, and cardiorespiratory fitness was defined as physical work capacity at 75% of the maximum heart rate, standardised to body mass (PWC75%). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 4.6  years, 232 participants developed colorectal cance...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Rationale and Design of the Hamburg City Health Study
AbstractThe Hamburg City Health Study  (HCHS) is a large, prospective, long-term, population-based cohort study and a unique research platform and network to obtain substantial knowledge about several important risk and prognostic factors in major chronic diseases. A random sample of 45,000 participants between 45 and 74 years of age from the general population of Hamburg, Germany, are taking part in an extensive baseline assessment at one dedicated study center. Participants undergo 13 validated and 5 novel examinations primarily targeting major organ system function and structures including extensive imaging ex...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Measles vaccine immune escape: Should we be concerned?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effect heterogeneity and variable selection for standardizing causal effects to a target population
AbstractThe participants in randomized trials and other studies used for causal inference are often not representative of the populations seen by clinical decision-makers. To account for differences between populations, researchers may consider standardizing results to a target population. We discuss several different types of homogeneity conditions that are relevant for standardization: Homogeneity of effect measures, homogeneity of counterfactual outcome state transition parameters, and homogeneity of counterfactual distributions. Each of these conditions can be used to show that a particular standardization procedure wi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Trends in surgical treatment for breast cancer in Germany after the implementation of the mammography screening program
AbstractIn Germany, the nationwide population-based mammography screening program (MSP) was introduced in 2005 and is full-running since 2010. By 2014, incidence rates for invasive breast cancer were very similar to those of the pre-screening era. Therefore, the ongoing effect of the MSP on breast cancer surgery rates can now be investigated. We analyzed population-based breast-conserving (BCS) and mastectomy (MET) surgery rates (per 100,000) among women aged  
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commonly used estimates of the genetic contribution to disease are subject to the same fallacies as bad luck estimates
AbstractThe scientific debate following the initial formulation of the “bad luck” hypothesis in cancer development highlighted how measures based on analysis of variance are inappropriately used for risk communication. The notion of “explained” variance is not only used to quantify randomness, but also to quantify genetic and environmental contribution to disea se in heritability coefficients. In this paper, we demonstrate why such quantifications are generally as problematic as bad luck estimates. We stress the differences in calculation and interpretation between the heritability coefficient and t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Do replicable profiles of multimorbidity exist? Systematic review and synthesis
AbstractThis systematic review aimed to synthesise multimorbidity profiling literature to identify replicable and clinically meaningful groupings of multimorbidity. We searched six electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science) for articles reporting multimorbidity profiles. The identified profiles were synthesised with multidimensional scaling, stratified by type of statistical analysis used in the derivation of profiles. The 51 studies that met inclusion criteria reported results of 98 separate analyses of multimorbidity profiling, with a total of 407 multimorbidity profiles identifi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Measles, the need for a paradigm shift
AbstractMeasles vaccination schedules and targets of herd immunity have been designed according to the paradigm that the vaccine is as protective as natural infection, and the virus has remained of a single serotype over many decades. As a result, ongoing measles resurgence is mostly attributed to gaps in immunization. Using official data, we investigated the correlation between the rate of vaccine coverage reported and aggregated at the national level, and the incidence of cases. We discussed the limits of this indicator considered in isolation. We provide a literature overview of measles vaccine efficacy and failures. We...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A multi-state model based reanalysis of the Framingham Heart Study: Is dementia incidence really declining?
AbstractRecent research by Satizabal and colleagues using data from the Framingham Heart Study demonstrated a linear decline in dementia incidence since the 1970s. The aim of this study is to re-examine these findings, given concerns that bias resulted from failure to account for the probability of acquiring dementia between the last dementia-free observation and death. This analysis included 5118 persons 60+ years of age, and determined the 5-year dementia incidence during four non-overlapping epochs. In addition to a replication using Cox proportional hazards, we applied separate Cox models (given unequal hazards across ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply to ‘Multiple comparisons controversies are about context and costs, not frequentism versus Bayesianism’
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the EPIC study
In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15  years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLIBMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLIWHR), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estima...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Observational and genetic studies of short telomeres and Alzheimer ’s disease in 67,000 and 152,000 individuals: a Mendelian randomization study
AbstractShort telomeres might lead to increased risk of Alzheimer ’s disease, but observational analyses have been inconclusive and potentially confounded by the strong association of both telomere length and risk of Alzheimer’s disease with age and adverse lifestyle. To circumvent this, analyses including single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with telome re length used in an instrumental variable analysis produces risk estimates likely free of distortions from reverse causation and of most confounding. We tested the hypothesis that short telomeres are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s di...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

On the relationship of machine learning with causal inference
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Statin use, hyperlipidemia, and risk of glioma
Conclusion In contrast to case –control studies reporting inverse associations, we found borderline increased risk of glioma with statin use. Results were strengthened after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors due to an unexpected inverse association between hyperlipidemia and glioma risk. Further studies of statin use, hyperlipidemia, and glioma risk are warranted. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multiple comparisons controversies are about context and costs, not frequentism versus Bayesianism
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research