Dispositional optimism and depression risk in older women in the Nurses ´ Health Study: a prospective cohort study
AbstractDispositional optimism is a potentially modifiable factor and has been associated with multiple physical health outcomes, but its relationship with depression, especially later in life, remains unclear. In the Nurses ´ Health Study (n = 33,483), we examined associations between dispositional optimism and depression risk in women aged 57–85 (mean = 69.9,SD = 6.8), with 4,051 cases of incident depression and 10 years of follow-up (2004–2014). We defined depression as either having a physician/clinician-diagnosed depression, or regularly using antidepres...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 15, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Plasma metabolomic profiles for colorectal cancer precursors in women
AbstractHow metabolome changes influence the early process of colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains unknown. We conducted a 1:2 matched nested case –control study to examine the associations of pre-diagnostic plasma metabolome (profiled using LC–MS) with risk of CRC precursors, including conventional adenomas (n = 586 vs. 1141) and serrated polyps (n = 509 vs. 993), in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Conditional logistic r egression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used the permutation-based Westfall and Young approach to acc...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 15, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal trajectories of lifetime body shape and prostate cancer angiogenesis
This study examined the association between lifetime body shape trajectories and prostate cancer angiogenesis. 521 prostate cancer patients who underwent prostatectomy or transurethral resection between 1986 and 2000 were enrolled from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cancers were immunostained and quantitated for cancer vessel regularity, diameter, area, and density, and composite angiogenesis (factor analysis). To identify distinct groups of body shape change, we conducted group-based trajectory modeling. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate the percentage difference in angiogenesis score and 95% ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 13, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Protecting against researcher bias in secondary data analysis: challenges and potential solutions
AbstractAnalysis of secondary data sources (such as cohort studies, survey data, and administrative records) has the potential to provide answers to science and society ’s most pressing questions. However, researcher biases can lead to questionable research practices in secondary data analysis, which can distort the evidence base. While pre-registration can help to protect against researcher biases, it presents challenges for secondary data analysis. In this arti cle, we describe these challenges and propose novel solutions and alternative approaches. Proposed solutions include approaches to (1) address bias linked t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 13, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term association of pregnancy and maternal brain structure: the Rotterdam Study
AbstractThe peripartum period is the highest risk interval for the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric illness in women ’s lives. Notably, pregnancy and childbirth have been associated with short-term structural and functional changes in the maternal human brain. Yet the long-term effects of pregnancy on maternal brain structure remain unknown. We investigated a large population-based cohort to examine the asso ciation between parity and brain structure. In total, 2,835 women (mean age 65.2 years; all free from dementia, stroke, and cortical brain infarcts) from the Rotterdam Study ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 6, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The nationwide Finnish anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (FinACAF): study rationale, design, and patient characteristics
AbstractAtrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke and the number of AF patients is increasing. Thus, up-to-date multifaceted data about the characteristics of AF patients, their treatments, and outcomes are urgently needed. The Finnish anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (FinACAF) study has collected comprehensive data on all Finnish AF patients from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2018. The aim of this paper is to describe the study rationale, the process of integrating data from the applied resources and to define the study cohort. Using national unique personal identification number, individual p...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 5, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort profile and representativeness of participants in the Diet, Cancer and Health —Next Generations cohort study
AbstractThe Diet, Cancer and Health —Next Generations (DCH-NG) study is a large population-based cohort study that was established as a resource for transgenerational research. The cohort is an extension of the Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. The aim of this paper was to describe the study design and methods and to investigate the representativeness of participants by comparing participants with non-participants with emphasis on socioeconomic determinants. In 2015–2019, children (G1), their spouses (G1P) and grandchildren (G2) of DCH cohort members were invited to participate. Participants completed quest...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A comparison of statistical methods to predict the residual lifetime risk
AbstractLifetime risk measures the cumulative risk for developing a disease over one ’s lifespan. Modeling the lifetime risk must account for left truncation, the competing risk of death, and inference at a fixed age. In addition, statistical methods to predict the lifetime risk should account for covariate-outcome associations that change with age. In this paper, we review and co mpare statistical methods to predict the lifetime risk. We first consider a generalized linear model for the lifetime risk using pseudo-observations of the Aalen-Johansen estimator at a fixed age, allowing for left truncation. We also consi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk factors, living and ageing in Halle: the CARLA study
AbstractThe CARLA study (Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of the general population of the city of Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary aim of the cohort was to investigate risk factors for cardiovascular diseases based on comprehensive cardiological phenotyping of study participants and was extended to study factors associated with healthy ageing. In total, 1779 probands (812 women and 967 men, aged 45 –83 years) were examined at baseline (2002–2005), with a first and second follow-up performed 4 and 8 years later. The response proport...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Lifestyle risk factors and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: assessing the influence of reverse causation in a prospective cohort of 457,021 US adults
ConclusionsMethods to account for reverse causation suggest different effects of reverse causation on the associations between lifestyle risk factors and mortality. Exclusion of participants with diseases at baseline, and exclusion of 5 –10 years of follow-up may be necessary to mitigate reverse causation. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Esophageal abnormalities and the risk for gastroesophageal cancers —a histopathology-register-based study in Sweden
ConclusionsFor the first time, we demonstrate that patients with esophageal inflammatory and other metaplastic abnormalities than Barrett ’s esophagus have an increased risk of EAC and GCA compared to the general population. Moreover, patients with different histopathologic subtypes of Barrett’s esophagus have a comparable risk for EAC. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of milk intake with hay fever, asthma, and lung function: a Mendelian randomization analysis
We examined the causal effect of milk intake on hay fever, asthma, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) by using the lactase rs4988235 genotype associated with milk intake.MethodsWe performed a Mendelian Randomization study including 363,961 participants from the UK Biobank.ResultsObservational analyses showed that self-reported milk-drinkers vs. non-milk drinkers had an increased risk of hay fever: odds ratio (OR)  = 1.36 (95% CI 1.32, 1.40,p 
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2022 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note of thanks
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Revival of ecological studies during the COVID-19 pandemic
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note of thanks
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Re: Subramanian and Kumar. Vaccination rates and COVID-19 cases
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Authors' Reply: Need for a multi-pronged population-level strategy to manage SARS-CoV-2 infection
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Re: Subramanian and Kumar. Vaccination rates and COVID-19 cases
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Revival of ecological studies during the COVID-19 pandemic
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Re: Subramanian and Kumar. Vaccination rates and COVID-19 cases
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Authors' Reply: Need for a multi-pronged population-level strategy to manage SARS-CoV-2 infection
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Re: Subramanian and Kumar. Vaccination rates and COVID-19 cases
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Ageing-related markers and risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort
We examined the associations between five markers of unhealthy ageing; Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and cystatin-C; with risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We used a case-cohort design embedded in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, including a subcohort of 3792 participants along with 4867 incident cases of cancer and CVD. Hazard ratios (HRs) were computed and the strongest associations were used to build weighted multi-marker combinations, and their associations with cancer and CVD risks we...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of COVID-19 mortality with COVID-19 vaccination rates in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) from calendar week 1 to 20 in the year 2021: a registry-based analysis
AbstractVaccination is among the measures implemented by authorities to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, real-world evidence of population-level effects of vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 are required to confirm that positive results from clinical trials translate into positive public health outcomes. Since the age group 80  + years is most at risk for severe COVID-19 disease progression, this group was prioritized during vaccine rollout in Germany. Based on comprehensive vaccination data from the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate for calendar week 1–20 in the year...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of thyroid cancer in Ukrainian cleanup workers following the Chornobyl accident
AbstractAlthough much is known about the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed at young ages, less is known about the risk due to adult exposure, particularly in men. We aimed to examine the association between thyroid radiation dose received during adulthood and thyroid cancer risk in men. We conducted a nested case –control study (149 cases; 458 controls) of male, Ukrainian cleanup workers who first worked in the Chornobyl zone between ages 18 and 59 years, with cases identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine from 1988 to 2012. Individual thyroid doses due to e...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of COVID-19 mortality with COVID-19 vaccination rates in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) from calendar week 1 to 20 in the year 2021: a registry-based analysis
AbstractVaccination is among the measures implemented by authorities to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, real-world evidence of population-level effects of vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 are required to confirm that positive results from clinical trials translate into positive public health outcomes. Since the age group 80  + years is most at risk for severe COVID-19 disease progression, this group was prioritized during vaccine rollout in Germany. Based on comprehensive vaccination data from the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate for calendar week 1–20 in the year...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of thyroid cancer in Ukrainian cleanup workers following the Chornobyl accident
AbstractAlthough much is known about the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed at young ages, less is known about the risk due to adult exposure, particularly in men. We aimed to examine the association between thyroid radiation dose received during adulthood and thyroid cancer risk in men. We conducted a nested case –control study (149 cases; 458 controls) of male, Ukrainian cleanup workers who first worked in the Chornobyl zone between ages 18 and 59 years, with cases identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine from 1988 to 2012. Individual thyroid doses due to e...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

One in five patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy dies from other causes than cardiac or respiratory failure
We present novel epidemiological data on the increasing population of adult patients with DMD. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 21, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Non-efficacy benefits and non-inferiority margins: a scoping review of contemporary high-impact non-inferiority trials in clinical cardiology
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in the UK Biobank study
AbstractWhile there is strong epidemiological evidence that circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with a higher risk of several cancers, little is known about its association with non-cancer outcomes. We investigated associations of circulating IGF-I with risk of 25 common conditions, other than cancer, in a large British cohort. Study participants were 318,749 middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank Study. Serum IGF-I concentration was measured in samples collected at baseline (2006 –2010), and re-measured in 12,334 participants after an average of 4.3 years. We followed-up partic...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimated lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism in men and women in a Danish nationwide cohort: impact of competing risk of death
AbstractIncidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk varies by age and sex. Some studies have reported overall higher risk in men, especially when VTEs triggered by female reproductive factors are excluded. However, higher mortality rates in men may have led to overestimation of lifetime VTE risk in men compared with women. Therefore, we  estimated the lifetime risk of VTE in men and women in a Danish, nationwide cohort, taking into account the competing risk of death. Within the population of Denmark (>  5 million persons), all first-time VTEs occurring in 1995–2016 were identified from the Dan...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term intake of total energy and fat in relation to subjective cognitive decline
AbstractDiet is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline. However, human studies on total energy intake and cognitive function have remained limited and studies on fat intake and cognitive decline have been inconclusive. We aimed to examine prospectively the associations between long-term intakes of total energy and fat with subsequent subjective cognitive decline (SCD). A total of 49,493 women from the Nurses ’ Health Study and 27,842 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were followed for over 20 years. Average dietary intake was calculated based on repeated food frequency questionn...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in the UK Biobank study
AbstractWhile there is strong epidemiological evidence that circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with a higher risk of several cancers, little is known about its association with non-cancer outcomes. We investigated associations of circulating IGF-I with risk of 25 common conditions, other than cancer, in a large British cohort. Study participants were 318,749 middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank Study. Serum IGF-I concentration was measured in samples collected at baseline (2006 –2010), and re-measured in 12,334 participants after an average of 4.3 years. We followed-up partic...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimated lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism in men and women in a Danish nationwide cohort: impact of competing risk of death
AbstractIncidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk varies by age and sex. Some studies have reported overall higher risk in men, especially when VTEs triggered by female reproductive factors are excluded. However, higher mortality rates in men may have led to overestimation of lifetime VTE risk in men compared with women. Therefore, we  estimated the lifetime risk of VTE in men and women in a Danish, nationwide cohort, taking into account the competing risk of death. Within the population of Denmark (>  5 million persons), all first-time VTEs occurring in 1995–2016 were identified from the Dan...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term intake of total energy and fat in relation to subjective cognitive decline
AbstractDiet is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline. However, human studies on total energy intake and cognitive function have remained limited and studies on fat intake and cognitive decline have been inconclusive. We aimed to examine prospectively the associations between long-term intakes of total energy and fat with subsequent subjective cognitive decline (SCD). A total of 49,493 women from the Nurses ’ Health Study and 27,842 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were followed for over 20 years. Average dietary intake was calculated based on repeated food frequency questionn...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 8, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Improving the reporting of non-inferiority trials by incorporating non-efficacy benefits: not all non-inferiority trials are created equal
AbstractNon-inferiority trials are used to test if a novel intervention is not worse than a standard treatment by more than a prespecified amount, the non-inferiority margin ( ΔNI). The ΔNI indicates the amount of efficacy loss in the primary outcome that is acceptable in exchange for non-efficacy benefits in other outcomes. However, non-inferiority designs are sometimes used when non-efficacy benefits are absent. Without non-efficacy benefits, loss in efficacy cannot b e easily justified. Further, non-efficacy benefits are scarcely defined or considered by trialists when determining the magnitude of and provid...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prioritisation and design of clinical trials
AbstractClinical trials require participation of numerous patients, enormous research resources and substantial public funding. Time-consuming trials lead to delayed implementation of beneficial interventions and to reduced benefit to patients. This manuscript discusses two methods for the allocation of research resources and reviews a  framework for prioritisation and design of clinical trials. The traditional error-driven approach of clinical trial design controls for type I and II errors. However, controlling for those statistical errors has limited relevance to policy makers. Therefore, this er...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of carotid intima-media thickness
In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Improving the reporting of non-inferiority trials by incorporating non-efficacy benefits: not all non-inferiority trials are created equal
AbstractNon-inferiority trials are used to test if a novel intervention is not worse than a standard treatment by more than a prespecified amount, the non-inferiority margin ( ΔNI). The ΔNI indicates the amount of efficacy loss in the primary outcome that is acceptable in exchange for non-efficacy benefits in other outcomes. However, non-inferiority designs are sometimes used when non-efficacy benefits are absent. Without non-efficacy benefits, loss in efficacy cannot b e easily justified. Further, non-efficacy benefits are scarcely defined or considered by trialists when determining the magnitude of and provid...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

10  K: a large‐scale prospective longitudinal study in Israel
AbstractThe 10  K is a large-scale prospective longitudinal cohort and biobank that was established in Israel. The primary aims of the study include development of prediction models for disease onset and progression and identification of novel molecular markers with a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value. The recruitment was initiated in 2018 and is expected to complete in 2021. Between 28/01/2019 and 13/12/2020, 4,629 from the expected 10,000 participants were recruited (46 %). Follow-up visits are scheduled every year for a total of 25 years. The cohort includes individuals between the ages of 4 0 and...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating the hazard rate difference from case-cohort studies
AbstractThe case-cohort design, among many two-phase sampling designs, substantially reduces the cost of an epidemiological study by selecting more informative participants within the full cohort for expensive variable measurements. Despite their benefits, additive hazards models, which estimate hazard differences, have rarely been used for the analysis of case-cohort studies due to the lack of software and application examples. In this paper, we describe a newly developed estimation method that fits the additive hazards models to general two-phase sampling studies along with the R packageaddhazard that implements it. It a...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The limits of small-for-gestational-age as a high-risk category
AbstractSGA (small for gestational age) is widely used to identify high-risk infants, although with inconsistent definitions. Cut points range from 2.5th to 10th percentile of birthweight-for-gestational age. We used receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) to identify the cut point with maximum sensitivity and specificity (Youden Index), and the area under the curve (AUC), which assesses overall discriminating power. Analysis was conducted on 3,836,034 US births (2015) and 292,279 Norwegian births (2010 –14). Birthweight percentiles were calculated using exact birthweights at each week of gestational age, and t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A robust mean and variance test with application to high-dimensional phenotypes
AbstractMost studies of continuous health-related outcomes examine differences in mean levels (location) of the outcome by exposure. However, identifying effects on the variability (scale) of an outcome, and combining tests of mean and variability (location-and-scale), could provide additional insights into biological mechanisms. A joint test could improve power for studies of high-dimensional phenotypes, such as epigenome-wide association studies of DNA methylation at CpG sites. One possible cause of heterogeneity of variance is a variable interacting with exposure in its effect on outcome, so a joint test of mean and var...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Turtles all the way down: do biological mechanisms for epidemiological observations always matter?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 7, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research