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A cross-national analysis of the association between years of implementation of opioid substitution treatments and drug-related deaths in Europe from 1995 to 2013
This study elucidates longitudinal associations between country-level implementation of opioid substitution treatment programs on mortality rates of drug related deaths (DRD) from 1995 to 2013 in 30 European nations. Cases of DRD were measured using National Definitions for each country from official sources of data. Preliminary analysis of dispersion of cases of DRD using means and variances justified use of the negative binomial regression model with a population offset. Year and country-level fixed effects negative binomial regression models investigated the association between years of implementation of methadone maint...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to infectious agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Abstract To provide an assessment of the burden of cancer in France in 2015 attributable to infectious agents. A systematic literature review in French representative cancer cases series was undertaken of the prevalence of infectious agents with the major associated cancer types. PubMed was searched for original studies published up to September 2016; random-effects meta-analyses were performed. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the French Cancer Registries Network, thereby allowing the calculation of national incidence estimates. The number of new cancer cases attributable to infectious agents was calculated using ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gestational age at birth and risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause
AbstractPreterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause across the entire range of gestation, using a matched-sibling design to account for unmeasured confounding by shared familial factors. We conducted a population-based retrospective study using data from the Stockholm You...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Disaggregating the mortality reductions due to cancer screening: model-based estimates from population-based data
AbstractThe mortality impact in cancer screening trials and population programs is usually expressed as a single hazard ratio or percentage reduction. This measure ignores the number/spacing of rounds of screening, and the location in follow-up time of the averted deaths vis-a-vis the first and last screens. If screening works as intended, hazard ratios are a strong function of the two Lexis time-dimensions. We show how the number and timing of the rounds of screening can be included in a model that specifies what each round of screening accomplishes. We show how this model can be used to disaggregate the observed reductio...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sauna bathing and systemic inflammation
AbstractWe aimed to investigate whether frequency of sauna bathing is associated with the levels of serum C-reactive protein. C-reactive protein is a leading blood marker of systemic inflammation. The study consisted of 2084 men (42 –60 years) without acute or chronic inflammation. A total of 533 (25.6%), 1368 (65.6%), and 183 (8.8%) participants reported having a sauna bath once a week, 2–3 times, and 4–7 times per week; mean serum C-reactive protein levels were 2.41 (standard deviation 2.91), 2.00 (2.41), 1.65 (1.63) m mol/L, respectively. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for baseline age, body...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Diet and risk of diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review
AbstractDiabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that threatens all individuals with diabetes, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. It is frequently associated with diabetic macular edema, which can occur at any point during the development of diabetic retinopathy. The key factors known to lead to its development include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and the duration of diabetes. Though the diet is important in the development of diabetes, its role in diabetic retinopathy has not been clearly identified. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify, summarize and interpret the li...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Selection of reference groups in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors
AbstractIn cohort studies, unbiased estimation of exposure-outcome associations requires selection of an appropriate reference group of unexposed individuals. We illustrate strategies for analyzing cohort data with multiple potential reference groups. We analyzed the association between radiation exposure and incidence of first primary solid cancer among 105,444 participants of the Life Span Study (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1958 –2009). Potential reference groups included zero-dose survivors at different ground distances from the hypocenter (internal) and city residents who were not in either city at the time of...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - December 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note of thanks
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Measuring childhood cancer late effects: evidence of a healthy survivor effect
ConclusionsOur findings provide empirical evidence that survivor bias attenuates measures of association when comparing survivors with the general population. The design and analysis of studies among childhood cancer survivors, particularly as this population attains older ages, should account for survivor bias to avoid misinterpreting estimates of disease burden. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum metabolites and risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke: a targeted metabolomic approach in two German prospective cohorts
AbstractMetabolomic approaches in prospective cohorts may offer a unique snapshot into early metabolic perturbations that are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in healthy people. We investigated the association of 105 serum metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, phospholipids and hexose, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (27,548 adults) and Heidelberg (25,540 adults) cohorts. Using case-cohort designs, we measured metabolites among individuals who were free of CVD and diabet...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity across adulthood and subjective cognitive function in older men
We examined whether physical activity during early adulthood or mid-to-late life is associated with late-life SCF. We followed 28,481 US male health professionals aged 40 –75 years who reported their physical activity in 1986 and biennially thereafter. SCF was reported in 2008 and 2012. The SCF score was averaged for the 2008 and 2012 assessments and categorized as “good”, “moderate”, and “poor”. Men in the highest versus lowest quintile of mid-to-late life physical activity in 1986 had 38% lower odds of poor versus good SCF score (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.62; ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and subjective cognitive function in men
AbstractBenefits of a Mediterranean diet for cognition have been suggested, but epidemiologic studies have been relatively small and of limited duration. To prospectively assess the association between long-term adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and self-reported subjective cognitive function (SCF). Prospective observational study. The Health Professionals ’ Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort of 51,529 men, 40–75 years of age when enrolled in 1986, of whom 27,842 were included in the primary analysis. Mediterranean diet (MD) score, computed from the mean of five food frequency questionnaires,...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Case –control matching: effects, misconceptions, and recommendations
AbstractMisconceptions about the impact of case –control matching remain common. We discuss several subtle problems associated with matched case–control studies that do not arise or are minor in matched cohort studies: (1) matching, even for non-confounders, can create selection bias; (2) matching distorts dose–response relations between ma tching variables and the outcome; (3) unbiased estimation requires accounting for the actual matching protocol as well as for any residual confounding effects; (4) for efficiency, identically matched groups should be collapsed; (5) matching may harm precision and power...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Air pollution and suicide risk: another adverse effect of air pollution?
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - November 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Horizontal mixture model for competing risks: a method used in waitlisted renal transplant candidates
Abstract When a patient is registered on renal transplant waiting list, she/he expects a clear information on the likelihood of being transplanted. Nevertheless, this event is in competition with death and usual models for competing events are difficult to interpret for non-specialists. We used a horizontal mixture model. Data were extracted from two French dialysis and transplantation registries. The “Ile-de-France” region was used for external validation. The other patients were randomly divided for training and internal validation. Seven variables were associated with decreased long-term probability of trans...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Meta-analytic evaluation of the association between head injury and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AbstractHead injury is considered as a potential risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, several recent studies have suggested that head injury is not a cause, but a consequence of latent ALS. We aimed to evaluate such a possibility of reverse causation with meta-analyses considering time lags between the incidence of head injuries and the occurrence of ALS. We searched Medline and Web of Science for case –control, cross-sectional, or cohort studies that quantitatively investigated the head-injury-related risk of ALS and were published until 1 December 2016. After selecting appropriate publicati...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with incidence of lung cancer and histologic types in Norwegian adults: a case-cohort analysis of the HUNT study
AbstractPrevious prospective studies have shown inconsistent associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and lung cancer incidence. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with incidence of lung cancer overall and different histologic types. We performed a population-based prospective case-cohort study including 696 incident lung cancer cases and 5804 individuals in a subcohort who participated in the second survey of the Nord-Tr øndelag Health Study in Norway. Cox proportional hazards regression models counting for the case-cohort design were used to e...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Temporal association patterns and dynamics of amyloid- β and tau in Alzheimer’s disease
AbstractThe elusive relationship between underlying pathology and clinical disease hampers diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and preventative intervention development. We seek to understand the relationship between two classical AD biomarkers, amyloid-β1 −42 (A β1 −42) and total-tau (t-tau), and define their trajectories across disease development, as defined by disease onset at diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using longitudinal data from the Alzheimer ’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we performed a correlation analysis of biomarkers CSF Aβ1 −42 and ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Lactase persistence, milk intake, and mortality in the Danish general population: a Mendelian randomization study
AbstractMeta-analyses have suggested no association between milk intake and mortality. Since only few studies have been conducted, we investigated the association between the lactase persistent genetic variantLCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), a proxy for long-term low and high intake of milk, and mortality. We used two Danish population-based studies with self-reported intake of milk and genotyping forLCT-13910 C/T. We obtained information on all-cause and cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular and cancer) from the national Danish registries. We used multivariable adjusted Cox regression to assess the association between milk i...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Rotterdam Study: 2018 update on objectives, design and main results
This article gives the rationale of the study and its design. It also presents a summary of the major findings and an update of the objectives and methods. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study: the second wave
AbstractPaediatric population neuroimaging is an emerging field that falls at the intersection between developmental neuroscience and epidemiology. A key feature of population neuroimaging studies involves large-scale recruitment that is representative of the general population. One successful approach for population neuroimaging is to embed neuroimaging studies within large epidemiological cohorts. The Generation R Study is a large, prospective population-based birth-cohort in which nearly 10,000 pregnant mothers were recruited between 2002 and 2006 with repeated measurements in the children and their parents over time. M...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Trends in the incidence of dementia: design and methods in the Alzheimer Cohorts Consortium
AbstractSeveral studies have reported a decline in incidence of dementia which may have large implications for the projected burden of disease, and provide important guidance to preventive efforts. However, reports are conflicting or inconclusive with regard to the impact of gender and education with underlying causes of a presumed declining trend remaining largely unidentified. The Alzheimer Cohorts Consortium aggregates data from nine international population-based cohorts to determine changes in the incidence of dementia since 1990. We will employ Poisson regression models to calculate incidence rates in each cohort and...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of light-to-moderate alcohol drinking in pregnancy with preterm birth and birth weight: elucidating bias by pooling data from nine European cohorts
AbstractWomen who drink light-to-moderately during pregnancy have been observed to have lower risk of unfavourable pregnancy outcomes than abstainers. This has been suggested to be a result of bias. In a pooled sample, including 193 747 live-born singletons from nine European cohorts, we examined the associations between light-to-moderate drinking and preterm birth, birth weight, and small-for-gestational age in term born children (term SGA). To address potential sources of bias, we compared the associations from the total sample with a sub-sample restricted to first-time pregnant women who conceived within six months of t...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

To see and then to act, that is the challenge
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Chronic disease research in Europe and the need for integrated population cohorts
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Swedish cause of death register
AbstractSweden has a long tradition of recording cause of death data. The Swedish cause of death register is a high quality virtually complete register of all deaths in Sweden since 1952. Although originally created for official statistics, it is a highly important data source for medical research since it can be linked to many other national registers, which contain data on social and health factors in the Swedish population. For the appropriate use of this register, it is fundamental to understand its origins and composition. In this paper we describe the origins and composition of the Swedish cause of death register, se...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Life course body mass index and risk and prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from the ALS registry Swabia
AbstractWeight loss appears as a strong predictor of survival of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, yet no data are currently available to describe the life course history of pre-diagnostic body mass index (BMI) in these patients. 393 ALS cases (mean age: 65.8  years, 57.3% men) and 791 controls matched by age and sex from a population-based case–control study of the ALS Registry Swabia were analyzed. Differences of BMI change in cases and controls over time were modeled using a multilevel additive model. In addition, survival in ALS cases by BMI chang e was modeled using an accelerated failure time mo...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - October 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity and the risk of hip fracture in the elderly: a prospective cohort study
This study was performed to investigate the association between daily household activities, leisure time physical activity, work-related physical activity and total physical activity during a 24-h period, and the risk of hip fracture. In the Swedish National March Cohort we followed 23,881 men and women aged of 50 and over from 1997 until 2010. Information on domain-specific physical activity was collected at baseline using a questionnaire. We fitted separate multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to each domain to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Each model was mutually adjust...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Consumption of alcohol and cardiovascular disease mortality: a 16  year follow-up of 115,592 Norwegian men and women aged 40–44 years
AbstractWe tested whether teetotalism explains the upturn in cardiovascular risk for non-drinkers and whether wine is a more favorable alcohol type. We studied 115,592 men and women aged 40 –44 years who participated in the age 40 program in Norway in 1994–1999 and were followed for an average of 16 years with 550 cardiovascular deaths. Self-reported number of glasses of beer, wine and spirits during 14 days was transformed to alcohol units/day. One unit is approximately 8 grams of pure alcohol. The mean and median number of alcohol units/day were 0.70 and 0.46. Teetotallers had higher risk of dy...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mother ’s education and offspring asthma risk in 10 European cohort studies
AbstractHighly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3 –8 across 10 European countries. Data on 47,099 children were obtained from prospective birth cohort studies across 10 European countries. We calculated cohort-specific prevalence difference in asthma outcomes using the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII). Result s from all countries were pooled using...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Somatic health effects of Chernobyl: 30 years on
Abstract2016 marked the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. We and others wrote reviews for the 25th anniversary. Since then, additional papers have appeared and it seems timely to highlight lessons learned. To present, not a systematic review, but a commentary drawing attention to notable findings. We include not only recent reports and updates on previous results, but key findings from prior Chernobyl studies. The dose-dependent increase in Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) following childhood I-131 exposure in Ukraine and Belarus has now been shown to persist for decades. Studies of post-Chernob...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The growing rift between epidemiologists and their data
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Re: Lifestyle and bladder cancer prevention: no consistent evidence from cohort studies
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sauna bathing reduces the risk of respiratory diseases: a long-term prospective cohort study
Abstract Sauna bathing has been linked with numerous health benefits. Sauna bathing may reduce the risk of respiratory diseases; however, no prospective evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We aimed to assess the association of frequency of sauna bathing with risk of respiratory diseases (defined as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or pneumonia). Baseline sauna bathing habits were assessed in a prospective cohort of 1935 Caucasian men aged 42 –61 years. During a median follow-up of 25.6 years, 379 hospital diagnosed incident cases of respiratory diseases were recorded. In adjustment for...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants and risk of epilepsy in a Danish cohort
AbstractInfant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) may be complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage, a known trigger of epilepsy. However, few data exist on long term epilepsy risk following IRDS. We therefore examined the association between IRDS in preterm infants and childhood epilepsy. We conducted a population-based cohort study using individual-level data linkage among nationwide registries. All infants born at 32 –36 weeks of gestation in 1978–2009 were identified in the Medical Birth Registry. We identified children with IRDS and those with epilepsy using the Danish National Patient Registry. We com...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Relationship of very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 levels with long-term survival in a large cohort of colorectal cancer patients from Germany
AbstractTo investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) with survival in a large prospective cohort study of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The study population consisted of 2,910 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2003 and 2010 who participated in the DACHS study, a multicenter study from Germany with comprehensive long-term follow-up. 25(OH)D3 was determined in serum samples collected shortly after cancer diagnosis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electro Spray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Analyses of survival outcomes were performed using Cox regression with comprehensive adjustment ...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Religion and health in Europe: cultures, countries, context
AbstractMuch of the research on the relationships between religious participation and health comes from the United States. Studies in other geographic regions or cultural contexts is more sparse. Evidence presented by Ahrenfelt et al., and that from other research studies, is reviewed concerning the associations between religion and health within Europe and world-wide. The evidence within Europe suggests protective associations between various forms of religious participation and lower depression, lower mortality, and better self-rated health. Methodological challenges in such research are reviewed, and discussion is given...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Lifestyle and bladder cancer prevention: no consistent evidence from cohort studies
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Immortal time bias in pharmacoepidemiological studies on cancer patient survival: empirical illustration for beta-blocker use in four cancers with different prognosis
In conclusion, ITB l ed to spurious beneficial associations of beta-blocker use among cancer patients. The magnitude of ITB depends on the duration of excluded immortal time and the prognosis of each cancer. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary sugar/starches intake and Barrett ’s esophagus: a pooled analysis
AbstractBarrett ’s esophagus (BE) is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a lethal cancer that has increased rapidly in westernized countries over the past four decades. Dietary sugar intake has also been increasing over time, and may be associated with these tumors by promoting hyperinsulinemia . The study goal was to examine multiple measures of sugar/starches intake in association with BE. This pooled analysis included 472 BE cases and 492 controls from two similarly conducted case–control studies in the United States. Dietary intake data, collected by study-specific food frequency que stio...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - September 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tobacco smoking and breast cancer: a life course approach
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epistemological rehabilitation of “shoe leather” epidemiology: the lesson of cholera in Haiti
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sleep duration, mortality and the influence of age
AbstractPrior work has shown that both short and long sleep predict mortality. However, sleep duration decreases with age and this may affect the relationship of sleep duration with mortality. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the association between sleep duration and mortality varies with age. Prospective cohort study. 43,863 individuals (64% women), recruited in September 1997 during the Swedish National March and followed through record-linkages for 13  years. Sleep duration was self-reported and measured using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, and grouped into 4 categories: ≤5, 6, 7 (ref...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Neonatal outcomes following exposure in utero to fallout from Chernobyl
AbstractIodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members ’ prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adju...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Religiousness and health in Europe
AbstractRecent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004 –2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006–2007), 4 (2011) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associatio ns. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95%...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in the Rotterdam Study
AbstractWe aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45  years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0–82.8)]. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a food-frequency questionnaire. For all participants, we examined adherence (yes/no) to fourteen items of the guidelines: vegetables (≥200 g/day), fruit (≥200 g/day), whole-grains (&...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and ‘big data’
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology in Germany —general development and personal experience
AbstractDid you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10 –15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohor ts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level. My own career in epidemiology started...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Childhood body mass index and height in relation to site-specific risks of colorectal cancers in adult life
AbstractAs colorectal cancers have a long latency period, their origins may lie early in life. Therefore childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and height may be associated with adult colorectal cancer. Using a cohort design, 257,623 children from The Copenhagen School Health Records Register born from 1930 to 1972 with measured heights and weights at ages 7 to 13  years were followed for adult colon and rectal adenocarcinomas by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regressions. During follow-up, 2676 colon and 1681 rect...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Trends in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Poland: is there an impact of the introduction of the organised screening?
AbstractAside from existing opportunistic screening, an organised screening programme (OSP) for cervical cancer (CC) was implemented in 2006/2007 in Poland. We applied joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort model to look for the impact of the OSP on CC incidence/mortality trends. Decline of age-standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) in the screening-age group (25 –59 years) accelerated from −2.2% (95% CI −2.7 to −1.7%) between 1993 and 2008 to −6.1% (95% CI −7.7 to −4.4%) annually after 2008. In women aged 60+ years, ASIRs declined from 1986 until 2005 [annual percent change...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - August 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research