Nuclear Receptor Coactivators (NCOAs) and Corepressors (NCORs) in the Brain.
Abstract Nuclear receptor coactivators (NCOAs) and corepressors (NCORs) bind to nuclear hormone receptors in a ligand-dependent manner and mediate the transcriptional activation or repression of the downstream target genes in response to hormones, metabolites, xenobiotics, and drugs. NCOAs and NCORs are widely expressed in the mammalian brain. Studies using genetic animal models start to reveal pivotal roles of NCOAs/NCORs in the brain in regulating hormonal signaling, sexual behaviors, consummatory behaviors, exploratory and locomotor behaviors, moods, learning, and memory. Genetic variants of NCOAs or NCORs have...
Source: Endocrinology - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sun Z, Xu Y Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Differential glucocorticoid-dependent regulation and function of the ERRFI1 gene in triple-negative breast cancer.
In this study, we sought to decipher the molecular mechanisms that govern the GC-dependent induction of the tumor suppressor ERRFI1 gene, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, and characterize the role of the GC-ERRFI1 regulatory axis in TNBC. Treatment of TNBC cell lines with a protein synthesis inhibitor or GC receptor (GR) antagonist followed by gene expression analysis suggests that ERRFI1 is a direct GR target. Using in silico analysis coupled with enhancer-reporter assays, we identified a putative ERRFI1 enhancer that supports CORT-dependent transactivation. In orthogonal assays for cell ...
Source: Endocrinology - May 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mojica CAR, Ybañez WS, Olarte KCV, Poblete ABC, Bagamasbad PD Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dapagliflozin does not directly affect human α or β cells.
Dapagliflozin does not directly affect human α or β cells. Endocrinology. 2020 May 19;: Authors: Dai C, Walker JT, Shostak A, Bouchi Y, Poffenberger G, Hart NJ, Jacobson DA, Calcutt MW, Bottino R, Greiner DL, Shultz LD, McGuinness OP, Dean ED, Powers AC Abstract Selective inhibitors of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and act primarily to lower blood glucose by preventing glucose reabsorption in the kidney. However, it is controversial whether these agents also act on the pancreatic islet, specifically the α cell, to inc...
Source: Endocrinology - May 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dai C, Walker JT, Shostak A, Bouchi Y, Poffenberger G, Hart NJ, Jacobson DA, Calcutt MW, Bottino R, Greiner DL, Shultz LD, McGuinness OP, Dean ED, Powers AC Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Of mice and men, redux: modern challenges in beta cell gene targeting.
PMID: 32422652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Estall JL, Screaton RA Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

They look the same but they don't act the same: New techniques reveal cellular heterogeneity in ovarian LH signaling.
PMID: 32422655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Clarke HJ Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

SMAD-FOXL2 regulation of FSHB: A game of human and mouse.
PMID: 32422656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Odle AK, Childs GV Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Placental regulation of energy homeostasis during human pregnancy.
Abstract Successful pregnancies rely on sufficient energy and nutrient supply which requires the mother to metabolically adapt to support fetal needs. The placenta has a critical role in this process, as this specialized organ produces hormones and peptides that regulate fetal and maternal metabolism. The ability for the mother to metabolically adapt to support the fetus depends on maternal pre-pregnancy health. Two thirds of pregnancies in the United States involve obese or overweight women at the time of conception. This poses significant risks for the infant and mother by disrupting metabolic changes that would...
Source: Endocrinology - May 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Armistead B, Johnson E, VanderKamp R, Kula-Eversole E, Kadam L, Drewlo S, Kohan-Ghadr HR Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

CORRIGENDUM FOR  "Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 3 Channel Suppresses Adipogenesis".
CORRIGENDUM FOR "Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 3 Channel Suppresses Adipogenesis". Endocrinology. 2020 May 13;: Authors: PMID: 32403127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

ERRATUM FOR  "WITHDRAWN AS DUPLICATE: Noninvasive Evaluation of GPR119 Agonist Effects on β-Cell Mass in Diabetic Male Mice Using 111In-Exendin-4 SPECT/CT".
ERRATUM FOR "WITHDRAWN AS DUPLICATE: Noninvasive Evaluation of GPR119 Agonist Effects on β-Cell Mass in Diabetic Male Mice Using 111In-Exendin-4 SPECT/CT". Endocrinology. 2020 May 09;: Authors: PMID: 32386294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

ERRATUM FOR "Dynorphin and GABAA Receptor Signaling Contribute to Progesterone's Inhibition of the LH Surge in Female Mice".
ERRATUM FOR "Dynorphin and GABAA Receptor Signaling Contribute to Progesterone's Inhibition of the LH Surge in Female Mice". Endocrinology. 2020 May 08;: Authors: Shen X PMID: 32384136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Shen X Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cellular heterogeneity of the LH receptor and its significance for cyclic GMP signaling in mouse preovulatory follicles.
Abstract Meiotic arrest and resumption in mammalian oocytes are regulated by two opposing signaling proteins in the cells of the surrounding follicle: the guanylyl cyclase NPR2, and the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). NPR2 maintains a meiosis-inhibitory level of cyclic GMP (cGMP) until LHR signaling causes dephosphorylation of NPR2, reducing NPR2 activity, lowering cGMP to a level that releases meiotic arrest. However, the signaling pathway between LHR activation and NPR2 dephosphorylation remains incompletely understood, due in part to imprecise information about the cellular localization of these two protein...
Source: Endocrinology - May 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baena V, Owen CM, Uliasz TF, Lowther KM, Yee SP, Terasaki M, Egbert JR, Jaffe LA Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Updating the function of Activin A in the fetal testis: a new role in steroidogenesis.
PMID: 32379304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - May 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Abou Nader N, Boyer A Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

IL-10 restores MHC class Ⅰ expression and interferes immunity in papillary thyroid cancer with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Abstract The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is increasing. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine previously reported to be elevated in this condition. Evidence from multiple human malignancies showed IL-10 participated in tumor immunity and exhibited therapeutic potential. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-10 interferes tumor immunity in PTC with concomitant HT. Expression of IL-10 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ were compared on PTC tissues with or without concomitant HT. PTC cell lines K1 and TPC-1 were stimulated wit...
Source: Endocrinology - April 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lu ZW, Hu JQ, Liu WL, Wen D, Wei WJ, Wang YL, Wang Y, Liao T, Ji QH Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Salt Inducible Kinases Are Critical Determinants of Female Fertility.
Abstract Follicle development is the most crucial step towards female fertility and is controlled mainly by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), FSH activates protein kinase A by increasing cyclic AMP. Since cAMP signaling is impinged in part by salt-inducible kinases (SIKs), we examined the role of SIKs on the regulation of FSH actions. Here, we report that SIKs are essential for normal ovarian function and female fertility. All SIK isoforms are expressed in human and rodent GCs at different levels (SIK3>SIK2>SIK1). Pharmacological inhibition of SIK activity potentiated the ...
Source: Endocrinology - April 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Armouti M, Winston N, Hatano O, Hobeika E, Hirshfeld-Cytron J, Liebermann J, Takemori H, Stocco C Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex-specific effects of αγ in the ventromedial hypothalamus of female mice controlling glucose and lipid balance.
Sex-specific effects of αγ in the ventromedial hypothalamus of female mice controlling glucose and lipid balance. Endocrinology. 2020 Apr 27;: Authors: Felsted JA, Meng A, Ameroso D, Rios M Abstract The thrombospondin receptor α2δ-1 plays essential roles promoting the activity of SF1 neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and mediating glucose and lipid metabolism in male mice. Its role in the VMH of female mice remains to be defined, especially considering that this hypothalamic region is sexually dimorphic. We found that α2δ-1 depletion in SF1 neu...
Source: Endocrinology - April 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Felsted JA, Meng A, Ameroso D, Rios M Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GATA2 and progesterone receptor interaction in endometrial stromal cells undergoing decidualization.
Abstract The transcription factor GATA2 is important for endometrial stromal cell decidualization in early pregnancy. Progesterone receptor (PGR) is also critical during decidualization but its interaction with GATA2 in regulating genes and pathways necessary for decidualization in human endometrium are unclear. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to compare gene expression profiles (n=3) and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) using an antibody against GATA2 (n=2) was performed to examine binding to target genes in human endometrial stromal cells undergoing in vitro decidualization ...
Source: Endocrinology - April 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kohlmeier A, Sison CAM, Yilmaz BD, Coon JS, Dyson MT, Bulun SE Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in a pregnant woman.
Abstract Hypoparathyroidism during pregnancy is a very rare endocrine disorder. The majority of cases are postsurgical (75%). Managing pregnant or nursing women with hypoparathyroidism is challenging due to complications arising from either under- or overtreatment, including premature delivery or fetal death, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal death and neonatal tetany. Specific adaptations are needed within each time period to meet the fetal, neonatal and maternal calcium requirements. A systematic search was performed on PubMed using the search terms "pregnancy" and "hypoparathyroidism". Include...
Source: Endocrinology - April 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lebrun B, De Block C, Jacquemyn Y Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mutational analysis of the putative Anti-M üllerian Hormone (AMH) binding interface on its type II receptor, AMHR2.
In this study, we used previous structural information to derive a model of AMH bound to AMHR2 to guide mutagenesis studies to identify receptor residues important for AMH signaling. Non-conserved mutations were introduced in AMHR2 and characterized in an AMH responsive cell-based luciferase assay and Native PAGE. Collectively, our results identified several residues important for AMH signaling within the putative ligand binding interface of AMHR2. Our results show that AMH engages AMHR2 at a similar interface to how Activin and BMP class ligands bind the type II receptor, ACVR2B, however, there are significant molecular d...
Source: Endocrinology - April 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hart KN, Pépin D, Czepnik M, Donahoe PK, Thompson TB Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

LncRNA-Malat1 is involved in lipotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction and the therapeutic effect of exendin-4 via Ptbp1.
LncRNA-Malat1 is involved in lipotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction and the therapeutic effect of exendin-4 via Ptbp1. Endocrinology. 2020 Apr 23;: Authors: Xiong L, Wu L, Li J, He W, Zhu X, Gong Y, Xiao H Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial roles in various biological processes. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to β-cell dysfunction and their roles in diabetes therapeutics remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the lncRNAs dysregulated in diabetic islets and to explore the lncRNAs involved in β-cell functi...
Source: Endocrinology - April 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Xiong L, Wu L, Li J, He W, Zhu X, Gong Y, Xiao H Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex steroids as regulators of gestural communication.
Abstract Gestural communication is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, occurring in species that range from humans to arthropods. Individuals produce gestural signals when their nervous system triggers the production of limb and body movement, which in turn functions to help mediate communication between or among individuals. Like many stereotyped motor patterns, the probability of a gestural display in a given social context can be modulated by sex steroid hormones. Here, we review how steroid hormones mediate the neural mechanisms that underly gestural communication in humans and non-humans alike. This is ...
Source: Endocrinology - April 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tobiansky DJ, Fuxjager MJ Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Actions of peripubertal gonadal steroids in the formation of sexually dimorphic brain regions in mice.
This study aimed to determine the action mechanisms of testicular androgens on the masculinization of the CALB-SDN and CALB-BNSTp and whether ovarian estrogens are the hormone that has significant actions in the feminization of the BNSTpv. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of calbindin and NeuN, a neuron marker, in male mice orchidectomized on postnatal day 20 (PD20) and treated with cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, or dihydrotestosterone during PD20-70, female mice ovariectomized on PD20 and treated with cholesterol or estradiol during PD20-70, and PD70 mice gonadectomized on PD56. Calbindin neurons number in...
Source: Endocrinology - April 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Morishita M, Koiso R, Tsukahara S Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Androgen action in adipose tissue and the brain are key mediators in the development of PCOS traits in a mouse model.
Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disorder characterised by endocrine, reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Despite PCOS being the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age, the etiology of PCOS is poorly understood so there is no cure and symptomatic treatment is suboptimal. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature observed in PCOS patients, and recently aberrant neuroendocrine signalling and adipose tissue function have been proposed as playing a role in the development of PCOS. To investigate the role of adipose tissue and the brain as key sites for AR-media...
Source: Endocrinology - April 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Cox MJ, Edwards MC, Rodriguez Paris V, Aflatounian A, Ledger WL, Gilchrist RB, Padmanabhan V, Handelsman DJ, Walters KA Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Branched Chain Amino Acid Catabolism by Brown Adipose Tissue.
PMID: 32296814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Carpentier AC Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The microbiome as a circadian coordinator of metabolism.
ss CA Abstract The microbiome is critically involved in the regulation of systemic metabolism. An important but poorly understood facet of this regulation is the diurnal activity of the microbiome. Herein, we summarize recent developments in our understanding of the diurnal properties of the microbiome and their integration into the circadian regulation of organismal metabolism. The microbiome may be involved in the detrimental consequences of circadian disruption for host metabolism and the development of metabolic disease. At the same time, the mechanisms by which microbiome diurnal activity is integrated into h...
Source: Endocrinology - April 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Alvarez Y, Glotfelty LG, Blank N, Dohnalová L, Thaiss CA Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Activin A determines steroid levels and composition in the fetal testis.
Abstract Activin A promotes fetal mouse testis development, including by driving Sertoli cell proliferation and cord morphogenesis, but its mechanisms of action are undefined. We performed RNA-seq on testicular somatic cells from fetal activin A-deficient mice (Inhba KO) and wildtype littermates at embryonic ages E13.5 and E15.5. Analysis of whole gonads provided validation, and cultures with a pathway inhibitor discerned acute from chronic effects of altered activin A bioactivity. Activin A deficiency predominantly affects the Sertoli cell transcriptome. New candidate targets include Minar1, Sel1l3, Vnn1, Sfrp4, ...
Source: Endocrinology - April 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Whiley PAF, O'Donnell L, Moody SC, Handelsman DJ, Young JC, Richards EA, Almstrup K, Western PS, Loveland KL Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vitamin D sufficiency has a limited effect on placental structure and histopathology: placental phenotypes in the VDAART trial.
Abstract Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is widespread. The effects of active vitamin D on the human placenta in vivo are unknown. We test the hypotheses that 25(OH) D sufficiency (arbitrarily defined as 25(OH)D ≥ 32 ng/mL) modulates placental structure and function in vivo in a population of women whose offspring are at risk for childhood asthma, and that placental pathology is more common in offspring that evolve asthma at age three. Pregnant volunteers in the St. Louis, MO, cohort of The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART, NIH grant #HL091528) participated in a nested case-control st...
Source: Endocrinology - April 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: He M, Mirzakhani H, Chen L, Wu R, Litonjua AA, Bacharier L, Weiss ST, Nelson DM Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine-Immune Crosstalk Shapes Sex-Specific Brain Development.
Abstract Sex is an essential biological variable that significantly impacts multiple aspects of neural functioning in both the healthy and diseased brain. Sex differences in brain structure and function are organized early in development during the critical period of sexual differentiation. While decades of research establish gonadal hormones as the primary modulators of this process, new research has revealed a critical, and perhaps underappreciated, role of the neuroimmune system in sex-specific brain development. The immune and endocrine systems are tightly intertwined and share processes and effector molecules...
Source: Endocrinology - April 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Arambula SE, McCarthy MM Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Emerging roles for non-coding RNAs in Autoimmune thyroid disease.
Abstract Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is one of the most frequent autoimmune disorders. However, the pathogenesis of AITD has not been fully elucidated. Recently, accumulating evidences have demonstrated that abnormal expression of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is closely related to the etiopathogenesis of AITD. microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) are three major groups of ncRNAs, which attract increasing attention. Herein,we summarized our present knowledge on the role of microRNA, lncRNAs and circRNAs in AITD. This review focused on the importance of ncRNAs in de...
Source: Endocrinology - April 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Liang Y, Zeng C, Yao J, Shen J Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Murine FSH production depends on the activin type II receptors ACVR2A and ACVR2B.
Bernard DJ Abstract Activins are selective regulators of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) production by pituitary gonadotrope cells. In a gonadotrope-like cell line, LβT2, activins stimulate FSH via the activin type IIA receptor (ACVR2A) and/or bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). Consistent with these observations, FSH is greatly reduced, though still present, in global Acvr2a knockout mice. In contrast, FSH production is unaltered in gonadotrope-specific Bmpr2 knockout mice. In light of these results, we questioned whether an additional type II receptor might mediate the actions of activin...
Source: Endocrinology - April 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Schang G, Ongaro L, Schultz H, Wang Y, Zhou X, Brûlé E, Boehm U, Lee SJ, Bernard DJ Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ins1-Cre and Ins1-CreER gene replacement alleles are susceptible to silencing by DNA hypermethylation.
Abstract Targeted gene ablation studies of the endocrine pancreas have long suffered from sub-optimal Cre deleter strains. In many cases, Cre-lines purportedly specific for ß cells also displayed expression in other islet endocrine cells or in a subset of neurons in the brain. Several pancreas and endocrine Cre lines have experienced silencing or mosaicism over time. In addition, many Cre transgenic constructs were designed to include the hGH mini-gene, which by itself increases beta-cell replication and decreases beta-cell function. More recently, driver lines with Cre or CreER inserted ...
Source: Endocrinology - April 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mosleh E, Ou K, Haemmerle MW, Tembo T, Yuhas A, Carboneau BA, Townsend SE, Bosma KJ, Gannon M, O'Brien RM, Stoffers DA, Golson ML Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone facilitates in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells via thyroid hormone receptors.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of thyroid hormone on decidualization in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) and define its physiological roles in vitro by gene targeting. To identify the expression patterns of thyroid hormone, we performed gene expression profiling of hESCs during decidualization after treating them with the thyroid hormone levothyroxine (LT4). A major increase in decidual response was observed after combined treatment with ovarian steroid hormones and thyroid hormone. Moreover, LT4 treatment also affected the regulation of many transcription factors important for decidualization. We found ...
Source: Endocrinology - April 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kaita-Kobayashi M, Murata H, Nishigaki A, Hashimoto Y, Komiya S, Tsubokura H, Kido T, Kida N, Tsuzuki-Nakao T, Matsuo Y, Bono H, Hirota K, Okada H Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cold exposure distinctively modulates parathyroid and thyroid hormones in cold-acclimatized and non-acclimatized humans.
Ukropcová B, Ukropec J Abstract Cold-induced activation of thermogenesis modulates energy metabolism, but the role of humoral mediators is not completely understood. We aimed to investigate the role of parathyroid and thyroid hormones in acute and adaptive response to cold in humans. Examinations were performed before/after 15min ice-water swimming (IWS, n=15) or 120-150min of cold-induced non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) applied to cold-acclimatized (n=6) or non-acclimatized (n=11) individuals. Deep-neck brown adipose tissue (BAT) was collected from non-acclimatized patients undergoing elective neck surge...
Source: Endocrinology - April 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kovaničová Z, Kurdiová T, Baláž M, Štefanička P, Varga L, Kulterer OC, Betz MJ, Haug AR, Burger IA, Kiefer FW, Wolfrum C, Ukropcová B, Ukropec J Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

ESR1 mutations associated with EIS change conformation of ligand receptor complex and alter transcriptome profile.
Abstract Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS) arises from rare mutations in estrogen receptor α (ERα, encoded by ESR1 gene) resulting in the inability of estrogen to exert its biological effects. Due to the rarity, mutations in ESR1 gene and the underlying molecular mechanisms of EIS have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate known ESR1 mutants, Q375H and R394H, associated with EIS patients using in vitro and in vivo systems. Comparison of the transcriptome and DNA methylome from stable cell lines of both Q375H and R394H clinical mutants show a differential profile compared to WT ERα...
Source: Endocrinology - April 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Li Y, Hamilton KJ, Perera L, Wang T, Gruzdev A, Jefferson TB, Zhang AX, Mathura E, Gerrish KE, Wharey L, Martin NP, Li JL, Korach KS Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Targeted disruption of Lats1 and Lats2 in mice impairs adrenal cortex development and alters adrenocortical cell fate.
We report here that developing adrenocortical cells adopt characteristics of myofibroblasts in both male and female Lats1flox/flox;Lats2flox/flox;Nr5a1-cre mice, resulting in a loss of steroidogenic gene expression, adrenal failure and death by 2 to 3 weeks of age. A marked accumulation of YAP and TAZ in the nuclei of the myofibroblast-like cell population with an accompanying increase in the expression of their transcriptional target genes in the adrenal glands of Lats1flox/flox;Lats2flox/flox;Nr5a1-cre animals suggested that the myofibroblastic differentiation could be attributed in part to YAP and TAZ. Taken together, o...
Source: Endocrinology - April 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ménard A, Abou Nader N, Levasseur A, St-Jean G, Le Roy MLG, Boerboom D, Benoit-Biancamano MO, Boyer A Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Estrogen Stimulation of Pleiotrophin Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation and Maintains Bone Mass in IGFBP-2 Null Mice.
Abstract Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) stimulates osteoblast differentiation but only male Igfbp2 null mice have a skeletal phenotype. The trophic actions of IGFBP-2 in bone are mediated through its binding to receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPβ). Another important ligand for RPTPβ is pleiotrophin (PTN), which also stimulates osteoblast differentiation. We determined the change in PTN and RPTPβ in Igfbp2-/- mice. Analysis of whole bone mRNA in wild-type and knockout mice revealed increased expression of Ptn. Rptpβ increased in gene-deleted animals with females hav...
Source: Endocrinology - March 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Xi G, Demambro VE, D'Costa S, Xia SK, Cox ZC, Rosen CJ, Clemmons DR Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Depot-specific analysis of human adipose cells and their responses to Bisphenol S.
In this study, we show that human primary progenitors from omental depots have a distinct transcriptomic signature as compared to progenitors derived from donor-matched subcutaneous depots. Furthermore, we show that BPS increases adipogenesis of both omental and subcutaneous preadipocytes and can mimic the action of glucocorticoids or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists. We also show that BPS treatment, at 0.1 µM and 25 µM, modifies the adipokine profiles of both omental and subcutaneous derived adipocytes, in a depot specific manner. Taken together our data show distinct g...
Source: Endocrinology - March 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Peshdary V, Styles G, Gagné R, Yauk CL, Sorisky A, Atlas E Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neurochemical characterization of brainstem Pro-opiomelanocortin cells.
Abstract Genetic research has revealed pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to be a fundamental regulator of energy balance and body weight in mammals. Within the brain, POMC is primarily expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), while a smaller population exists in the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (POMCNTS). We performed a neurochemical characterization of this understudied population of POMC cells using transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a POMC promoter/enhancer (PomceGFP). Expression of endogenous Pomc mRNA in NTS PomceGFP cells was confirmed usi...
Source: Endocrinology - March 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Georgescu T, Lyons D, Doslikova B, Garcia AP, Marston O, Burke LK, Chianese R, Lam BYH, Yeo GSH, Rochford JJ, Garfield AS, Heisler LK Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Human sperm express the receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) which affects sperm function and metabolism.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, we discovered that human sperm is a new GLP1 incretin target broadening our knowledge about the effects of the GLP1-R agonist in male reproductive field. Further findings in humans should be conducted in the future to confirm it and to improve the translational aspect of this study. PMID: 32157297 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - March 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vittoria R, Daniela R, Marta S, Salvatore P, Rocco M, Andò S, Rosario D, Saveria A Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Androgens Stimulate EPC-Mediated Neovascularization and Are Associated with Increased Coronary Collateralization.
In conclusion, androgens enhance EPC function and promote neovascularization after ischemia in mice and are associated with coronary collateralization in men. PMID: 32157309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - March 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lam YT, Simpson PJL, Hsu CJ, Dunn LL, Chow RW, Chan KH, Yong ASC, Yu Y, Sieveking DP, Lecce L, Yuan J, Celermajer DS, Wise SG, Ng MKC Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New Prospects for restoring skeletal growth in mucopolysaccharidoses.
PMID: 32152627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - March 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Espiner EA, Prickett TCR Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Roles of endogenous IL-10 and IL-10-competent CD1dhi and CD5+ B cells in autoimmune thyroiditis in NOD.H-2h4mice.
In conclusion, endogenous IL-10 plays no important role in autoimmune thyroiditis. CD1dhi B cells may play regulatory roles through mechanisms other than secreting IL-10. PMID: 32152630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - March 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qin J, Zhao N, Wang S, Liu S, Liu Y, Cui X, Wang S, Xiang Y, Fan C, Li Y, Shan Z, Teng W Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

mTORC1 Deficiency Modifies Volume Homeostatic Responses to Dietary Sodium in a Sex-Specific Manner.
Abstract Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a role in features common to both excess salt/aldosterone and cardiovascular/renal diseases. Dietary sodium can upregulate mTORC1 signaling in cardiac and renal tissue, and inhibition of mTOR can prevent aldosterone associated, salt-induced hypertension. The impact of sex and age on mTOR's role in volume homeostasis and the regulation of aldosterone secretion is largely unknown. We hypothesize that both age and sex modify mTOR's interaction with volume homeostatic mechanisms. The activity of three volume homeostatic mechanisms---cardiovascular, renal an...
Source: Endocrinology - March 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Brooks DL, Garza AE, Caliskan Guzelce E, Gholami SK, Treesaranuwattana T, Maris S, Ranjit S, Tay CS, Lee JM, Romero JR, Adler GK, Pojoga LH, Williams GH Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An efficient method for generating murine hypothalamic neurospheres for the study of regional neural progenitor biology.
Abstract The hypothalamus is a key homeostatic brain region and the primary effector of neuroendocrine signaling. Recent studies show that early embryonic developmental disruption of this region can lead to neuroendocrine conditions later in life, suggesting that hypothalamic progenitors might be sensitive to exogenous challenges. To study the behavior of hypothalamic neural progenitors, we developed a novel dissection methodology to isolate murine hypothalamic neural stem and progenitor cells at the early timepoint of embryonic day (E) 12.5, which coincides with peak hypothalamic neurogenesis. Additionally, we es...
Source: Endocrinology - March 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nesan D, Thornton HF, Sewell LC, Kurrasch DM Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein A-IV enhances fatty acid uptake by adipose tissues of male mice via sympathetic activation.
Abstract Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) synthesized by the gut regulates lipid metabolism. Sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues also controls lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that ApoA-IV required sympathetic innervation to increase fatty acid (FA) uptake by adipose tissues and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. After 3 weeks feeding of either a standard chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), mice with unilateral denervation of adipose tissues received intraperitoneal administration of recombinant ApoA-IV protein and intravenous infusion of lipid mixture with radioactive triolein. In chow-fed mice, ApoA-...
Source: Endocrinology - March 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Zhu Q, Weng J, Shen M, Fish J, Shen Z, Coschigano KT, Davidson WS, Tso P, Shi H, Lo CC Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GLP-2, EGF and the intestinal epithelial IGF-1 receptor interactions in the regulation of crypt cell proliferation.
Abstract Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotrophic hormone that promotes intestinal growth and proliferation through downstream mediators, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). EGF synergistically enhances the proliferative actions of IGF-1 in intestinal cell lines, and both of these factors are known to be essential for the trophic effects of GLP-2 in vivo. However, whether EGF and IGF-1 interact to mediate the proliferative actions of GLP-2 in vivo remains unknown. Normal and knockout (KO) mice lacking the intestinal epithelial IGF-1 receptor (IE-IGF-1R) w...
Source: Endocrinology - March 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fesler Z, Mitova E, Brubaker PL Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Essential role of syntaxin-binding protein-1 in the regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.
In conclusion, Stxbp1 is a circadian regulated exocytotic protein in the intestinal L-cell that is an essential regulatory component of GLP-1 secretion. PMID: 32141504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - March 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Campbell JR, Martchenko A, Sweeney ME, Maalouf MF, Psichas A, Gribble FM, Reimann F, Brubaker PL Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A gatekeeping role of ESR2 to maintain the primordial follicle reserve.
Abstract Over the entire reproductive lifespan in mammals, a fixed number of primordial follicles serve as the source of mature oocytes. Uncontrolled and excessive activation of primordial follicles can lead to depletion of the ovarian reserve. We observed that disruption of ESR2-signaling results in increased activation of primordial follicles in Esr2-null (Esr2-/-) rats. However, follicle assembly was unaffected, and the total number of follicles remained comparable between neonatal wildtype and Esr2-/- ovaries. While the activated follicle counts were increased in Esr2-/- ovary, the number of primordial follicl...
Source: Endocrinology - March 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chakravarthi VP, Ghosh S, Roby KF, Wolfe MW, Rumi MAK Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The FSH-HIF-1 α-VEGF pathway is critical for ovulation and oocyte health but not necessary for follicular growth in mice.
The FSH-HIF-1α-VEGF pathway is critical for ovulation and oocyte health but not necessary for follicular growth in mice. Endocrinology. 2020 Mar 06;: Authors: Li C, Liu Z, Li W, Zhang L, Zhou J, Sun M, Zhou J, Yao W, Zhang X, Wang H, Tao J, Shen M, Liu H Abstract Recent evidence has indicated that follicular vascularization is critical to ovarian follicle development and survival. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a gonadotropin that induces follicular growth and development, also acts as the major survival factor for antral follicles. FSH has been reported to stimulate angiogenesis in the the...
Source: Endocrinology - March 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Li C, Liu Z, Li W, Zhang L, Zhou J, Sun M, Zhou J, Yao W, Zhang X, Wang H, Tao J, Shen M, Liu H Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unconventional Estrogen Signaling in Health and Disease.
Abstract Estrogen is a key hormone involved in the development and homeostasis of several tissue types in both males and females. By binding Estrogen Receptors (ER), estrogen regulates essential functions of gene expression, metabolism, cell growth and proliferation by acting through cytoplasmic signaling pathways or activating transcription in the nucleus. However, disruption or dysregulation of estrogen activity has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. This review will expatiate on some of the unconventional roles of estrogen in homeostasis and disease. PMID: 3...
Source: Endocrinology - March 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Faltas CL, Lebron KA, Holz MK Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metastatic Pheochromocytoma: In Search of a Cure.
PMID: 32126137 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - March 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Young WF Tags: Endocrinology Source Type: research