Calcitonin gene related peptide, adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin2 function in uterine artery during human pregnancy
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 24:bqab204. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab204. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRATIONALE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its family members adrenomedullin (ADM) and adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) also known as Intermedin support vascular adaptions in rat pregnancy.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relaxation response of uterine artery (UA) for CGRP, ADM, and ADM2 in non-pregnant and pregnant women and identify the involved mechanisms.FINDINGS: 1) Segments of UA from non-pregnant women that were pre-contracted with U46619 (1μM) in-vitro are insensitive to the hypotensive effects of CGRP, ADM and ADM2, 2) CGRP,...
Source: Endocrinology - September 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Madhu Chauhan Ancizar Betancourt Meena Balakrishnan Akansha Mishra Jimmy Espinosa Alireza A Shamshirsaz Karin Fox Michael Belfort Chandra Yallampalli Source Type: research

Calcitonin gene related peptide, adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin2 function in uterine artery during human pregnancy
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 24:bqab204. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab204. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRATIONALE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its family members adrenomedullin (ADM) and adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) also known as Intermedin support vascular adaptions in rat pregnancy.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relaxation response of uterine artery (UA) for CGRP, ADM, and ADM2 in non-pregnant and pregnant women and identify the involved mechanisms.FINDINGS: 1) Segments of UA from non-pregnant women that were pre-contracted with U46619 (1μM) in-vitro are insensitive to the hypotensive effects of CGRP, ADM and ADM2, 2) CGRP,...
Source: Endocrinology - September 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Madhu Chauhan Ancizar Betancourt Meena Balakrishnan Akansha Mishra Jimmy Espinosa Alireza A Shamshirsaz Karin Fox Michael Belfort Chandra Yallampalli Source Type: research

Calcitonin gene related peptide, adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin2 function in uterine artery during human pregnancy
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 24:bqab204. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab204. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRATIONALE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its family members adrenomedullin (ADM) and adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) also known as Intermedin support vascular adaptions in rat pregnancy.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relaxation response of uterine artery (UA) for CGRP, ADM, and ADM2 in non-pregnant and pregnant women and identify the involved mechanisms.FINDINGS: 1) Segments of UA from non-pregnant women that were pre-contracted with U46619 (1μM) in-vitro are insensitive to the hypotensive effects of CGRP, ADM and ADM2, 2) CGRP,...
Source: Endocrinology - September 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Madhu Chauhan Ancizar Betancourt Meena Balakrishnan Akansha Mishra Jimmy Espinosa Alireza A Shamshirsaz Karin Fox Michael Belfort Chandra Yallampalli Source Type: research

Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into testosterone-producing Leydig-like cells
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 21:bqab202. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab202. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLate-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome due to a partial lack of testosterone, which is mainly secreted by Leydig cells in the testes, decreases the quality of life of older men. Leydig cell transplantation is expected to be a promising alternative to conventional testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for LOH syndrome. We herein report a simple and robust protocol for directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into Leydig-like cells by doxycycline-inducible overexpression of NR5A1 and treatment with...
Source: Endocrinology - September 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Takaki Ishida Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi Daisuke Yamamiya Atsushi Onishi Katsuya Sato Keiichiro Uehara Masato Fujisawa Takashi Aoi Source Type: research

Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into testosterone-producing Leydig-like cells
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 21:bqab202. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab202. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLate-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome due to a partial lack of testosterone, which is mainly secreted by Leydig cells in the testes, decreases the quality of life of older men. Leydig cell transplantation is expected to be a promising alternative to conventional testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for LOH syndrome. We herein report a simple and robust protocol for directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into Leydig-like cells by doxycycline-inducible overexpression of NR5A1 and treatment with...
Source: Endocrinology - September 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Takaki Ishida Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi Daisuke Yamamiya Atsushi Onishi Katsuya Sato Keiichiro Uehara Masato Fujisawa Takashi Aoi Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 on the Endocrine System - a mini-review
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 20:bqab203. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab203. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to exert a significant impact on global healthcare systems, causing devastating mortality and morbidity. As time passes and our understanding of this novel respiratory virus deepens, it is increasingly clear that its effects extend beyond that of the respiratory system. The coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, obtains cellular access through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in a process requiring the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS...
Source: Endocrinology - September 20, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sophie A Clarke Ali Abbara Waljit S Dhillo Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 on the Endocrine System - a mini-review
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 20:bqab203. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab203. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to exert a significant impact on global healthcare systems, causing devastating mortality and morbidity. As time passes and our understanding of this novel respiratory virus deepens, it is increasingly clear that its effects extend beyond that of the respiratory system. The coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, obtains cellular access through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in a process requiring the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS...
Source: Endocrinology - September 20, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sophie A Clarke Ali Abbara Waljit S Dhillo Source Type: research

Knockout of nephron ATP6AP2 impairs proximal tubule function and prevents high fat diet induced obesity in male mice
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 17:bqab200. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab200. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTATP6AP2 expression is increased in the nephron during high fat diet (HFD) and its knockout (ATP6AP2 KO) reduces body weight (WT) in mice. We evaluated the contribution of ATP6AP2 to urinary glucose (UG) and albumin (Ualb) handling during HFD. We hypothesized that nephron ATP6AP2 KO increases UG and Ualb and minimizes HFD-induced obesity. Eight-week old male C57BL/6J mice with inducible nephron specific ATP6AP2 KO and non-induced controls (C) were fed either normal diet (ND, 12% kcal fat) or HFD (45% kcal fat) for 6 months. ATP6AP...
Source: Endocrinology - September 17, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Silas A Culver Safia Akhtar Callie Rountree-Jablin Susanna R Keller Helen P Cathro John J Gildea Helmy M Siragy Source Type: research

Metabolic homeostasis: it's all in the timing
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 17:bqab199. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab199. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCross-talk between peripheral tissues is essential to ensure the coordination of nutrient intake with disposition during the feeding period, thereby preventing metabolic disease. This Mini-review considers the interactions between the key peripheral tissues that constitute the metabolic clock, each of which is considered in a separate Mini-review in this collation of articles published in Endocrinology in 2020/2021, by: Martchenko et al. (Circadian Rhythms and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Relationship to Metabolism and Gut Hormone...
Source: Endocrinology - September 17, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Patricia L Brubaker Alexandre Martchenko Source Type: research

Reproductive Deficits Induced by Prenatal Anti-Mullerian Hormone Exposure Require Androgen Receptor in Kisspeptin Cells
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 16:bqab197. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab197. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder characterized by elevated androgens and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). These hormones remain elevated throughout pregnancy, and potential effects of hormone exposure on offspring from women with PCOS remain largely unexplored. Expanding on recent reports of prenatal AMH exposure in mice, we have fully characterized the reproductive consequences of prenatal AMH (pAMH) exposure throughout the lifespan of first- and second-generation offspring of both sexes. We also s...
Source: Endocrinology - September 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Emily V Ho Chengxian Shi Jessica Cassin Michelle Y He Ryan D Nguyen Genevieve E Ryan Karen J Tonsfeldt Pamela L Mellon Source Type: research

Human population density and reproductive health: a changing world needs endocrinology
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 15:bqab198. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab198. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34525211 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab198 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chelsea A Weitekamp Hans A Hofmann Source Type: research

Human population density and reproductive health: a changing world needs endocrinology
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 15:bqab198. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab198. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34525211 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab198 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chelsea A Weitekamp Hans A Hofmann Source Type: research

Human population density and reproductive health: a changing world needs endocrinology
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 15:bqab198. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab198. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34525211 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab198 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chelsea A Weitekamp Hans A Hofmann Source Type: research

Human population density and reproductive health: a changing world needs endocrinology
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 15:bqab198. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab198. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34525211 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab198 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chelsea A Weitekamp Hans A Hofmann Source Type: research

Human population density and reproductive health: a changing world needs endocrinology
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 15:bqab198. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab198. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34525211 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab198 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Chelsea A Weitekamp Hans A Hofmann Source Type: research

Obesity and Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Mechanisms
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 14:bqab195. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab195. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObesity is a potential risk for several cancers, including postmenopausal, hormone dependent breast cancers. In this review, we will summarize recent studies on the impact of obesity on postmenopausal women's health and discuss several mechanisms that were proposed to increase the risk of breast carcinogenesis.PMID:34519778 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab195 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qianying Zuo Shoham Band Mrinali Kesavadas Zeynep Madak Erdogan Source Type: research

Simulation model for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis disease
The objective of this work was to describe the interactions of the cell subpopulations that participate in HT. To achieve this goal, we generated a mathematical model that allowed the simulation of different scenarios for the dynamic interaction between thyroid cells, the immune system, and the gut microbiota. We used a hypothetical-deductive design of mathematical modeling based on a system of ordinary differential equations, where the state variables are the TH1, TH17 and Treg lymphocytes, the thyrocytes and the bacteria from gut microbiota. This work generated a compartmental model of the cellular immune response occurr...
Source: Endocrinology - September 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcela Salazar-Viedma Juan Gabriel Verga ño-Salazar Luis Pastenes Vivian D'Afonseca Source Type: research

Simulation model for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis disease
The objective of this work was to describe the interactions of the cell subpopulations that participate in HT. To achieve this goal, we generated a mathematical model that allowed the simulation of different scenarios for the dynamic interaction between thyroid cells, the immune system, and the gut microbiota. We used a hypothetical-deductive design of mathematical modeling based on a system of ordinary differential equations, where the state variables are the TH1, TH17 and Treg lymphocytes, the thyrocytes and the bacteria from gut microbiota. This work generated a compartmental model of the cellular immune response occurr...
Source: Endocrinology - September 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcela Salazar-Viedma Juan Gabriel Verga ño-Salazar Luis Pastenes Vivian D'Afonseca Source Type: research

Simulation model for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis disease
The objective of this work was to describe the interactions of the cell subpopulations that participate in HT. To achieve this goal, we generated a mathematical model that allowed the simulation of different scenarios for the dynamic interaction between thyroid cells, the immune system, and the gut microbiota. We used a hypothetical-deductive design of mathematical modeling based on a system of ordinary differential equations, where the state variables are the TH1, TH17 and Treg lymphocytes, the thyrocytes and the bacteria from gut microbiota. This work generated a compartmental model of the cellular immune response occurr...
Source: Endocrinology - September 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcela Salazar-Viedma Juan Gabriel Verga ño-Salazar Luis Pastenes Vivian D'Afonseca Source Type: research

Simulation model for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis disease
The objective of this work was to describe the interactions of the cell subpopulations that participate in HT. To achieve this goal, we generated a mathematical model that allowed the simulation of different scenarios for the dynamic interaction between thyroid cells, the immune system, and the gut microbiota. We used a hypothetical-deductive design of mathematical modeling based on a system of ordinary differential equations, where the state variables are the TH1, TH17 and Treg lymphocytes, the thyrocytes and the bacteria from gut microbiota. This work generated a compartmental model of the cellular immune response occurr...
Source: Endocrinology - September 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcela Salazar-Viedma Juan Gabriel Verga ño-Salazar Luis Pastenes Vivian D'Afonseca Source Type: research

Simulation model for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis disease
The objective of this work was to describe the interactions of the cell subpopulations that participate in HT. To achieve this goal, we generated a mathematical model that allowed the simulation of different scenarios for the dynamic interaction between thyroid cells, the immune system, and the gut microbiota. We used a hypothetical-deductive design of mathematical modeling based on a system of ordinary differential equations, where the state variables are the TH1, TH17 and Treg lymphocytes, the thyrocytes and the bacteria from gut microbiota. This work generated a compartmental model of the cellular immune response occurr...
Source: Endocrinology - September 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcela Salazar-Viedma Juan Gabriel Verga ño-Salazar Luis Pastenes Vivian D'Afonseca Source Type: research

Simulation model for Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis disease
The objective of this work was to describe the interactions of the cell subpopulations that participate in HT. To achieve this goal, we generated a mathematical model that allowed the simulation of different scenarios for the dynamic interaction between thyroid cells, the immune system, and the gut microbiota. We used a hypothetical-deductive design of mathematical modeling based on a system of ordinary differential equations, where the state variables are the TH1, TH17 and Treg lymphocytes, the thyrocytes and the bacteria from gut microbiota. This work generated a compartmental model of the cellular immune response occurr...
Source: Endocrinology - September 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marcela Salazar-Viedma Juan Gabriel Verga ño-Salazar Luis Pastenes Vivian D'Afonseca Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA MIAT Modulates the Extracellular Matrix Deposition in Leiomyomas by Sponging MiR-29 Family
The objective of this study was to determine the expression and functional role of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MIAT (myocardial infarction associated transcript) in leiomyoma pathogenesis. Leiomyoma as compared with myometrium (N=66) expressed significantly more MIAT which was independent of race/ethnicity and menstrual cycle phase but dependent on MED12 (mediator complex subunit 12) mutation status. Leiomyomas bearing the MED12 mutation expressed higher levels of MIAT and lower levels of microRNA 29 family (miR-29a, -b and -c) compared with MED12 wild type leiomyomas. Using luciferase reporter activity and RNA immunopre...
Source: Endocrinology - September 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tsai-Der Chuang Derek Quintanilla Drake Boos Omid Khorram Source Type: research

Erratum to: "ABCD of Thyroid Hormone Action: After and Before Cloning of Deiodinase Genes"
Endocrinology. 2021 Nov 1;162(11):bqab176. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab176.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34487158 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab176 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

PFAS and potential adverse impacts on bone and adipose tissue through interactions with PPAR-gamma
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 4:bqab194. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab194. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPer- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a widely dispersed, broad class of synthetic chemicals with diverse biological effects, including effects on adipose and bone differentiation. PFAS most commonly occur as mixtures and only rarely, if ever, as single environmental contaminants. This poses significant regulatory questions and a pronounced need for chemical risk assessments, analytical methods, and technological solutions to reduce the risk to public and environmental health. The impacts of PFAS on biological systems may...
Source: Endocrinology - September 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Andrea B Kirk Stephani Michelsen-Correa Cliff Rosen Clyde F Martin Bruce Blumberg Source Type: research

Transient Dexamethasone Loading Induces Prolonged Hyperglycemia in Male Mice with Histone Acetylation in Dpp-4 Promoter
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 4:bqab193. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab193. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGlucocorticoid causes hyperglycemia which is common in patients with or without diabetes. We experience prolonged hyperglycemia even after the discontinuation of glucocorticoid use. In the present study, we examined time course of blood glucose level in the patients of our hospital who received transient glucocorticoid treatment. In addition, the mechanism of prolonged hyperglycemia was investigated by using dexamethasone (Dexa)-treated mice and cultured cells. The blood glucose level in glucose tolerance test, level of insulin an...
Source: Endocrinology - September 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Asuka Uto Kazutoshi Miyashita Sho Endo Masaaki Sato Masaki Ryuzaki Kenichiro Kinouchi Masanori Mitsuishi Shu Meguro Hiroshi Itoh Source Type: research

Endoxifen, an Estrogen Receptor Targeted Therapy: from Bench to Bedside
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 4:bqab191. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab191. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen, is the only endocrine agent with approvals for both the prevention and treatment of premenopausal and postmenopausal estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer as well as for the treatment of male breast cancer. Endoxifen, a secondary metabolite resulting from CYP2D6-dependent biotransformation of the primary tamoxifen metabolite, N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDT), is a more potent antiestrogen than either NDT or the parent drug, tamoxifen. However, endoxifen's antitumor ef...
Source: Endocrinology - September 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Swaathi Jayaraman Joel M Reid John R Hawse Matthew P Goetz Source Type: research

Somatostatin Receptor Antagonism Reverses Glucagon Counterregulatory Failure in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Male Rats
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 3:bqab189. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab189. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecent antecedent hypoglycemia is a known source of defective glucose counterregulation in diabetes; yet, the mechanisms perpetuating the cycle of progressive α-cell failure and recurrent hypoglycemia remain unknown. Somatostatin has been shown to supress the glucagon response to acute hypoglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that somatostatin receptor 2 antagonism (SSTR2a) would restore glucagon counterregulation and delay the onset of insulin-induced hypoglycemia in recurrently hypoglycemic, non-di...
Source: Endocrinology - September 3, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Emily G Hoffman Mahsa Jahngiriesmaili Erin R Mandel Caylee Greenberg Julian Aiken Ninoschka C D'Souza Aoibhe Pasieka Trevor Teich Owen Chan Richard Liggins Michael C Riddell Source Type: research

Sexual differentiation specifies cellular responses to DNA damage
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 3:bqab192. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab192. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34478502 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab192 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 3, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lauren Broestl Joshua B Rubin Source Type: research

The role of mitochondria linked fatty-acid uptake-driven adipogenesis in Graves' Orbitopathy
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that FA-uptake can drive OAT-adipogenesis and revealed a fundamental role for mitochondria-OXPHOS in GO development, which provides potential for therapeutic interventions.PMID:34473251 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab188 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - September 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lei Zhang Pavandeep Rai Satomi Miwa Mohd Shazli Draman D Aled Rees Anjana S Haridas Daniel S Morris Andrew R Tee Marian Ludgate Doug M Turnbull Colin M Dayan Source Type: research

Adrenal cortex development and maintenance; knowledge acquired from mouse models
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 2:bqab187. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab187. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe adrenal cortex is an endocrine organ organized into concentric zones that are specialized to produce specific steroid hormones essential for life. The development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex are complex, as a fetal adrenal is first formed from a common primordium with the gonads, followed by its separation in a distinct primordium, the invasion of the adrenal primordium by neural crest-derived cells to form the medulla, and finally its encapsulation. The fetal cortex is then replaced by a definitive cortex, which wil...
Source: Endocrinology - September 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nour Abou Nader Alexandre Boyer Source Type: research

The Transcriptome and Epigenome Reveal Novel Changes in Transcription Regulation During Pancreatic Rat Islet Maturation
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 1:bqab181. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab181. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIslet function is critical for normal glucose homeostasis. Unlike adult β-cells, fetal and neonatal islets are more proliferative and have decreased insulin secretion in response to stimuli. However, the underlying mechanisms governing functional maturity of islets have not been completely elucidated. Pancreatic islets are comprised of different cell types. The microenvironment of islets and interactions between these cell types are critical for β-cell development and maturation. Thus, the study of intact islets is optim...
Source: Endocrinology - September 1, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Yu-Chin Lien Xueqing Maggie Lu Kyoung-Jae Won Paul Zhiping Wang Wendy Osei-Bonsu Rebecca A Simmons Source Type: research

Neurodegenerative Disease: Roles for Sex, Hormones, and Oxidative Stress
Endocrinology. 2021 Sep 1:bqab185. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab185. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNeurodegenerative diseases cause severe impairments in cognitive and motor function. With an increasing aging population and the onset of these diseases between 50-70 years, the consequences are bound to be devastating. While age and longevity are the main risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases, sex is also an important risk factor. Sex is multifaceted, encompassing sex chromosome complement, sex hormones (estrogens and androgens), and sex hormone receptors. Sex hormone receptors can induce various signaling cascades, ranging...
Source: Endocrinology - September 1, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nathalie Sumien J Thomas Cunningham Delaney L Davis Rachel Engelland Oluwadarasimi Fadeyibi George E Farmer Steve Mabry Paapa Mensah-Kane Oahn T P Trinh Philip H Vann E Nicole Wilson Rebecca L Cunningham Source Type: research

TLX, an orphan nuclear receptor with emerging roles in physiology and disease
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 31:bqab184. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab184. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTLX (NR2E1), an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a transcription factor that has been described to be generally repressive in nature. It has been implicated in several aspects of physiology and disease. TLX is best known for its ability to regulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and retinal progenitor cells. Dysregulation, overexpression, or loss of TLX expression has been characterized in numerous studies focused on a diverse range of pathological conditions, including: abnormal brain development, ps...
Source: Endocrinology - August 31, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Adam T Nelson Yu Wang Erik R Nelson Source Type: research

Mechanisms of OCT4 on 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine and FSH-induced granulosa cell development in female mice
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 31:bqab183. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab183. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOctamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) regulates the pluripotency of stem cells and also plays important roles in granulosa cells growth, which is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Thyroid hormone (TH) is important for the development and maturation of follicles and the maintenance of various endocrine functions. Although 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) enhances the effects of FSH on the regulation of the growth of granulosa cells and development of follicles, it is unclear whether and how TH combines with FSH ...
Source: Endocrinology - August 31, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qiaozhi Wang Yilin Yao Xiaoshu Ma Baoqiang Fu Ningxin Li Cheng Zhang Source Type: research

Pericyte insulin receptors modulate retinal vascular remodeling and endothelial angiopoietin signaling
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 30:bqab182. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab182. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPericytes regulate vascular development, stability and quiescence; their dysfunction contributes to diabetic retinopathy. To explore the role of insulin receptors in pericyte biology, we created pericyte insulin receptor knockout mice (PIRKO) by crossing PDGFR β-Cre mice with insulin receptor (Insr) floxed mice. Their neonatal retinal vasculature exhibited peri-venous hypervascularity with venular dilatation, plus increased angiogenic sprouting in superficial and deep layers. Pericyte coverage of capillaries was unaltered in...
Source: Endocrinology - August 30, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nele Warmke Fiona Platt Alexander F Bruns Claire H Ozber Natalie J Haywood Yilizila Abudushalamu Charles Slater Victoria Palin Piruthivi Sukumar Stephen B Wheatcroft Nadira Y Yuldasheva Mark T Kearney Kathryn J Griffin Richard M Cubbon Source Type: research

Pericyte insulin receptors modulate retinal vascular remodeling and endothelial angiopoietin signaling
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 30:bqab182. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab182. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPericytes regulate vascular development, stability and quiescence; their dysfunction contributes to diabetic retinopathy. To explore the role of insulin receptors in pericyte biology, we created pericyte insulin receptor knockout mice (PIRKO) by crossing PDGFR β-Cre mice with insulin receptor (Insr) floxed mice. Their neonatal retinal vasculature exhibited peri-venous hypervascularity with venular dilatation, plus increased angiogenic sprouting in superficial and deep layers. Pericyte coverage of capillaries was unaltered in...
Source: Endocrinology - August 30, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nele Warmke Fiona Platt Alexander F Bruns Claire H Ozber Natalie J Haywood Yilizila Abudushalamu Charles Slater Victoria Palin Piruthivi Sukumar Stephen B Wheatcroft Nadira Y Yuldasheva Mark T Kearney Kathryn J Griffin Richard M Cubbon Source Type: research

Differential effects of viral nucleic acid sensor signaling pathways on testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 28:bqab180. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab180. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe human testis can be infected by a large number of RNA and DNA viruses. While various RNA virus infections may induce orchitis and impair testicular functions, DNA virus infection rarely affects the testis. Mechanisms underlying the differential effects of RNA and DNA viral infections on the testis remain unclear. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of viral RNA and DNA sensor signaling pathways on mouse Sertoli cells (SC) and Leydig cells (LC). The local injection of viral RNA analogue polyinosinic-polycyt...
Source: Endocrinology - August 28, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qing Wang Fei Wang Ran Chen Weihua Liu Na Gao Jing An Yongmei Chen Han Wu Daishu Han Source Type: research

Differential effects of viral nucleic acid sensor signaling pathways on testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 28:bqab180. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab180. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe human testis can be infected by a large number of RNA and DNA viruses. While various RNA virus infections may induce orchitis and impair testicular functions, DNA virus infection rarely affects the testis. Mechanisms underlying the differential effects of RNA and DNA viral infections on the testis remain unclear. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of viral RNA and DNA sensor signaling pathways on mouse Sertoli cells (SC) and Leydig cells (LC). The local injection of viral RNA analogue polyinosinic-polycyt...
Source: Endocrinology - August 28, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qing Wang Fei Wang Ran Chen Weihua Liu Na Gao Jing An Yongmei Chen Han Wu Daishu Han Source Type: research

Cochlear fibrocyte and osteoblast lineages expressing type 2 deiodinase identified with a Dio2  CreERt2 allele
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 26:bqab179. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab179. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 2 deiodinase (Dio2) amplifies levels of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of thyroid hormone, and is essential for cochlear maturation and auditory development. However, cellular routes for endocrine signaling in the compartmentalized, anatomically complex cochlea are little understood. Dio2 generates T3 from thyroxine (T4), a more abundant thyroid hormone precursor in the circulation, and is dramatically induced in the cochlea before the onset of hearing. The evidence implies that specific Dio2-expressing cell...
Source: Endocrinology - August 26, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lily Ng Ye Liu Hong Liu Douglas Forrest Source Type: research

Cochlear fibrocyte and osteoblast lineages expressing type 2 deiodinase identified with a Dio2  CreERt2 allele
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 26:bqab179. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab179. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 2 deiodinase (Dio2) amplifies levels of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of thyroid hormone, and is essential for cochlear maturation and auditory development. However, cellular routes for endocrine signaling in the compartmentalized, anatomically complex cochlea are little understood. Dio2 generates T3 from thyroxine (T4), a more abundant thyroid hormone precursor in the circulation, and is dramatically induced in the cochlea before the onset of hearing. The evidence implies that specific Dio2-expressing cell...
Source: Endocrinology - August 26, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lily Ng Ye Liu Hong Liu Douglas Forrest Source Type: research

Cochlear fibrocyte and osteoblast lineages expressing type 2 deiodinase identified with a Dio2  CreERt2 allele
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 26:bqab179. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab179. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 2 deiodinase (Dio2) amplifies levels of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of thyroid hormone, and is essential for cochlear maturation and auditory development. However, cellular routes for endocrine signaling in the compartmentalized, anatomically complex cochlea are little understood. Dio2 generates T3 from thyroxine (T4), a more abundant thyroid hormone precursor in the circulation, and is dramatically induced in the cochlea before the onset of hearing. The evidence implies that specific Dio2-expressing cell...
Source: Endocrinology - August 26, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lily Ng Ye Liu Hong Liu Douglas Forrest Source Type: research

LH induces de novo cholesterol biosynthesis via SREBP activation in granulosa cells during ovulation in female mice
In this study, when immature mice were treated with gonadotropins (eCG followed by hCG), eCG induced and hCG maintained the expression of SREBP-1a, -2, and SCAP granulosa cells, whereas INSIG1 expression was dramatically downregulated after hCG injection. Downregulation of INSIG1 led to generate the SREBPs active form and translocate the SREBPs active form to nuclei. Inhibition of generation of the SREBPs active form by fatostatin or Scap siRNA in both in vivo and in vitro significantly decreased the expressions of de novo cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes, cholesterol accumulation, and progesterone (P4) production compared...
Source: Endocrinology - August 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tomoya Nakanishi Risa Tanaka Shingo Tonai Joo Yeon Lee Manami Yamaoka Tomoko Kawai Asako Okamoto Masayuki Shimada Yasuhisa Yamashita Source Type: research

Population Numbers and Reproductive Health
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 24:bqab154. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab154. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA recent study published in Lancet predicts a remarkable drop in population numbers following a peak that will be reached by 2064. A unique feature of the upcoming population drop is that it will be almost exclusively caused by decreased reproduction, rather than factors that increase rates of mortality. The reasons for decreased reproduction are also unique, as, unlike previous centuries, today, limited reproduction is hardly due to a shortage in resources. In other words, the predicted population drop is almost exclusively due ...
Source: Endocrinology - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Alexander Suvorov Source Type: research

Effect of Three NR3C1 mutations in Pathogenesis of Pituitary ACTH Adenoma
CONCLUSION: Our findings identify 3/49 (6.1%) consecutive human corticotroph tumors harboring GR mutations. Further findings demonstrate the role NR3C1 plays in CD pathogenesis and offer insights into a novel treatment approach in this patient subset.PMID:34427636 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab167 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hui Miao Yang Liu Lin Lu Fengying Gong Linjie Wang Lian Duan Yong Yao Renzhi Wang Shi Chen Xinxin Mao Dongyun Zhang Anthony P Heaney Huijuan Zhu Source Type: research

Population Numbers and Reproductive Health
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 24:bqab154. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab154. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA recent study published in Lancet predicts a remarkable drop in population numbers following a peak that will be reached by 2064. A unique feature of the upcoming population drop is that it will be almost exclusively caused by decreased reproduction, rather than factors that increase rates of mortality. The reasons for decreased reproduction are also unique, as, unlike previous centuries, today, limited reproduction is hardly due to a shortage in resources. In other words, the predicted population drop is almost exclusively due ...
Source: Endocrinology - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Alexander Suvorov Source Type: research

Effect of Three NR3C1 mutations in Pathogenesis of Pituitary ACTH Adenoma
CONCLUSION: Our findings identify 3/49 (6.1%) consecutive human corticotroph tumors harboring GR mutations. Further findings demonstrate the role NR3C1 plays in CD pathogenesis and offer insights into a novel treatment approach in this patient subset.PMID:34427636 | DOI:10.1210/endocr/bqab167 (Source: Endocrinology)
Source: Endocrinology - August 24, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hui Miao Yang Liu Lin Lu Fengying Gong Linjie Wang Lian Duan Yong Yao Renzhi Wang Shi Chen Xinxin Mao Dongyun Zhang Anthony P Heaney Huijuan Zhu Source Type: research

Rosiglitazone requires hepatocyte PPAR γ expression to promote steatosis in male mice with diet-induced obesity
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 21:bqab175. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab175. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThiazolidinediones (TZD) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonists that could reduce hepatic steatosis through their effects in adipose tissue, and therefore have been assessed as potential therapies to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans. However, some studies suggest that expression and activation of hepatocyte PPARγ promotes steatosis and that would limit the benefits of TZD as a NAFLD therapy. To further explore this possibility, we examined the impact of short-te...
Source: Endocrinology - August 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Samuel M Lee Jose Muratalla Alberto Diaz-Ruiz Pablo Remon-Ruiz Maximillian McCann Chong Wee Liew Rhonda D Kineman Jose Cordoba-Chacon Source Type: research

Thrombin cleaves prolactin into a potent 5.6  kDa vasoinhibin: Implication for tissue repair
Endocrinology. 2021 Aug 21:bqab177. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqab177. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTVasoinhibin is an endogenous prolactin (PRL) fragment with pro-fibrinolytic, anti-vasopermeability, and anti-angiogenic effects. The fact that blood clotting, vascular permeability, and angiogenesis are functionally linked during the wound healing process led us to investigate whether thrombin, a major protease in tissue repair, generates vasoinhibin. Here, we have incubated human PRL with thrombin and analyzed the resulting proteolytic products by western blot, mass spectrometry, HPLC purification, recombinant production, and bi...
Source: Endocrinology - August 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Magdalena Zamora Juan Pablo Robles Manuel B Aguilar Sergio de Jes ús Romero-Gómez Thomas Bertsch Gonzalo Martinez de la Escalera Jakob Triebel Carmen Clapp Source Type: research

O-GlcNAcylation is essential for rapid Pomc expression and cell proliferation in corticotropic tumor cells
In this study, we demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation enzymes were upregulated, particularly in aggressive ACTH-secreting tumors, suggesting a role for O-GlcNAcylation in pituitary adenoma etiology. In addition to the demonstration that O-GlcNAcylation was essential for their proliferation, we show that the endocrine function of pituitary adenoma is also dependent on O-GlcNAcylation. In corticotropic tumors, hyper-secretion of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived hormone ACTH leads to Cushing's disease, materialized by severe endocrine disruption and increased mortality. We demonstrate that Pomc mRNA is stabilized in an O-G...
Source: Endocrinology - August 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Logan J Massman Michael Pereckas Nathan T Zwagerman Stephanie Olivier-Van Stichelen Source Type: research