Oleic Acid Protects from Arsenic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy via AMPK/FoxO/NFATc3 Pathway.
This study is designed to determine the molecules involved in the augmentation of arsenic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the effects of oleic acid on arsenic-induced hypertrophy and cardiac injury have also been investigated. Our results show that arsenic induces cardiac hypertrophy both in vivo in mice and in vitro in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Moreover, arsenic results in decreased activity of AMPK and FoxO1 along with increased NFATc3 expression, a known cardiac hypertrophy inducer. In addition, activation of AMPK and FoxO1 results in reduced NFATc3 expression causing attenuation of arsenic-induced cardiac hype...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samanta J, Mondal A, Saha S, Chakraborty S, Sengupta A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Late-life Cardiac Injury in Rats following Early Life Exposure to Lead: Reversal Effect of Nutrient Metal Mixture.
In conclusion, the data demonstrate that early-life exposure to Pb continuously influence the cardiac mitochondrial functions from early life to older age and further suggesting that adequate intake of nutrient metals may be potential therapeutic treatment for Pb intoxication. PMID: 31541351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - September 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Davuljigari CB, Gottipolu RR Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Arbutin Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting TLR-4/NF- κB Pathway in Mice.
Arbutin Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway in Mice. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019 Sep 04;: Authors: Nalban N, Sangaraju R, Alavala S, Mir SM, Jerald MK, Sistla R Abstract Arbutin is a glycoside reported for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. However, the cardioprotective effect of Arbutin is not well established. The study aims to understand the effect of arbutin on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. The animals were pretreated with Arbutin for a week and ISO was administered for 10 days and then sac...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - September 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nalban N, Sangaraju R, Alavala S, Mir SM, Jerald MK, Sistla R Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Cardioprotective Effects Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rat.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) against doxorubicin (DOXO) induced cardiomyopathy. Twenty adult rats were distributed in four experimental groups: group 1 received NaCl 0.9% at 1 ml/day for 14 days; group 2 received Q10 at 1 mg/kg/day for 14 days; group 3 received initial 7 days of treatment with NaCl 0.9% followed by a single dose of doxorubicin (12.5 mg/kg IP) and another 7 days of NaCl; and group 4 received initial 7 days of Q10 1 mg/kg/day, followed by a single dose of doxorubicin (12.5 mg/kg IP) and ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Botelho AFM, Lempek MR, Branco SEMT, Nogueira MM, de Almeida ME, Costa AG, Freitas TG, Rocha MCRC, Moreira MVL, Barreto TO, Santos JC, Lavalle G, Melo MM Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Vehicular Particulate Matter (PM) Characteristics Impact Vascular Outcomes Following Inhalation.
Abstract Roadside proximity and exposure to mixed vehicular emissions (MVE) have been linked to adverse pulmonary and vascular outcomes. However, because of the complex nature of the contribution of particulate matter (PM) versus gases, it is difficult to decipher the precise causative factors regarding PM and the copollutant gaseous fraction. To this end, C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-/-) were exposed to either filtered air (FA), fine particulate (FP), FP+gases (FP+G), ultrafine particulate (UFP), or UFP+gases (UFP+G). Two different timeframes were employed: 1-day (acute) or 30-day (subchronic)...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zychowski KE, Tyler CRS, Sanchez B, Harmon M, Liu J, Irshad H, McDonald JD, Bleske BE, Campen MJ Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Lipocalin-2 Predicts Long-Term Outcome of Normotensive Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.
Abstract Normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) are accompanied by heterogeneously adverse events. Responding to tissue injury, lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) is elevated in experimental APE model and associated with short-term prognosis. However, the prognostic value of LCN-2 in normotensive patients with APE for long-term major adverse events (MAEs) remains unknown. We evaluated the association of plasma LCN-2 levels with the median 467-day outcome in 170 normotensive patients with APE. We also assessed whether LCN-2 could improve risk stratification. MAEs consisted of mortality or recurrence of venous t...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yu H, Liu Z, Lu J, Yang X, Yan XX, Mi Y, Hua L, Li Y, Jing ZC, Du J Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Chronic Mercury Exposure in Prehypertensive SHRs Accelerates Hypertension Development and Activates Vasoprotective Mechanisms by Increasing NO and H2O2 Production.
Vassallo DV Abstract Mercury is a heavy metal associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have reported increased vascular reactivity without changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after chronic mercury chloride (HgCl2) exposure, an inorganic form of the metal, in normotensive rats. However, we do not know whether individuals in the prehypertensive phase, such as young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), are susceptible to increased arterial blood pressure. We investigated whether chronic HgCl2 exposure in young SHRs accelerates hypertension development by studying the vascular function of mesenteric re...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fardin PBA, Simões RP, Schereider IRG, Almenara CCP, Simões MR, Vassallo DV Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Association of Genetic Variations in NRF2, NQO1, HMOX1, and MT with Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and Related Risk Factors.
In conclusion, NRF2 rs6721961 associated with CAD and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. NQO1 rs1800566 also associated with CAD, only in female. Combined polymorphisms of three NRF2-regulated genes increased risk of DM and hypertension. PMID: 31332605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sarutipaiboon I, Settasatian N, Komanasin N, Kukongwiriyapan U, Sawanyawisuth K, Intharaphet P, Senthong V, Settasatian C Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Mechanism of Hydrogen Sulfide Preconditioning-Associated Protection Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Differs in Diabetic Heart That Develops Myopathy.
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to be effective in the management of the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury via PI3K/GSK3β pathway in normal rats. However, its efficacy against I/R in the presence of diabetic cardiomyopathy is relatively obscure. Thus, the present work aimed to find out H2S-mediated cardioprotection against I/R in diabetic cardiomyopathy and to evaluate its mode of action using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion system. The present work includes three groups of rat, viz. (i) normal, (ii) diabetes mellitus (DM: streptozotocin: 35 mg/kg; normal diet), and (iii) diab...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ansari M, Kurian GA Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Proarrhythmic Effect of Acetylcholine-Esterase Inhibitors Used in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Benefit of Rivastigmine in an Experimental Whole-Heart Model.
r G Abstract Several studies suggest QT prolongation and torsade de pointes with acetylcholine-esterase inhibitors. We therefore examined the electrophysiologic profile of donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine in a sensitive whole-heart model of proarrhythmia. 34 rabbit hearts were isolated and retrogradely perfused employing the Langendorff setup. Hearts were treated either with donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in rising concentrations and electrophysiologic studies were performed. In the presence of donepezil and galantamine, spatial dispersion of repolarization was amplified. Cardiac repolarization (Q...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ellermann C, Coenen A, Niehues P, Leitz P, Kochhäuser S, Dechering DG, Fehr M, Eckardt L, Frommeyer G Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of Pharmacologic Postconditioning of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nigella sativa on Functional Activities and Oxidative Stress Injury During Ischemia-Reperfusion in Isolated Rat Heart.
Abstract Oxidative stress is known to act as the trigger of cardiac damage during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Postconditioning (PoC) is employed to minimize the consequences of ischemia at the onset of reperfusion. Regarding the well-known antioxidant properties of Nigella sativa (Ns), the aim of this study was to investigate whether Nigella sativa postconditioning (Ns-PoC) could reduce IRI by lowering the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Isolated rat hearts were perfused with the Langendorff apparatus, which were subjected to 20 min of preperfusion, 20 min of global ischemia, followed ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ghoreyshi M, Mahmoudabady M, Bafadam S, Niazmand S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Dasatinib can Impair Left Ventricular Mechanical Function But May Lack Proarrhythmic Effect: A Proposal of Non-clinical Guidance for Predicting Clinical Cardiovascular Adverse Events of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Abstract Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to clinically induce various types of cardiovascular adverse events; however, it is still difficult to predict them at preclinical stage. In order to explore how to better predict such drug-induced cardiovascular adverse events, we tried to develop a new protocol by assessing acute electrophysiological, cardiohemodynamic, and cytotoxic effects of dasatinib in vivo and in vitro. Dasatinib at 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg was intravenously administered to the halothane-anesthetized dogs for 10 min with an interval of 20 min between the dosing (n = 4). M...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Izumi-Nakaseko H, Fujiyoshi M, Hagiwara-Nagasawa M, Goto A, Chiba K, Kambayashi R, Naito AT, Ando K, Kanda Y, Ishii I, Sugiyama A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

FOLFIRI-Mediated Toxicity in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells and Possible Amelioration with Curcumin and Quercetin.
l V, Doğanlar ZB Abstract Systemic chemotherapy-mediated cell toxicity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Life-threatening acute events of the FOLFIRI (irinotecan, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil) regimen are mainly due to DNA damage induced by antimetabolite and topoisomerase inhibition effects. However, the role of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HaVSMCs) in this process and the mechanisms of oxidative stress, DNA and protein damage and apoptosis have not been investigated. Therefore, the effects of curcumin and quercetin on HaVSMC survival in the generation of molecular an...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Güçlü O, Doğanlar O, Yüksel V, Doğanlar ZB Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Suppression of LPS-Induced Hepato- and Cardiotoxic Effects by Pulicaria petiolaris via NF- κB Dependent Mechanism.
Suppression of LPS-Induced Hepato- and Cardiotoxic Effects by Pulicaria petiolaris via NF-κB Dependent Mechanism. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019 Jul 04;: Authors: Ahmed N, El-Agamy DS, Mohammed GA, Abo-Haded H, Elkablawy M, Ibrahim SRM Abstract Recently, there is an increasing interest in searching for harmless natural products isolated from plant materials that can be used as beneficial dietary supplements and/or therapeutic drug candidates. The present study aimed to test the potential protective role of Pulicaria petiolaris (PP, Asteraceae) against hepatic and cardiotoxic effects associated with li...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ahmed N, El-Agamy DS, Mohammed GA, Abo-Haded H, Elkablawy M, Ibrahim SRM Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Cocaine in Hospital Admissions for Diseases of the Circulatory System and as the Underlying Cause of Death: Analysis and Discussion.
This study aims to: (1) analyze the hospitalizations due to cardiovascular processes and the presence of cocaine among the toxic habits of patients; and (2) discuss the forensic difficulties in sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the presence of cocaine. Hospital discharges due to CVD reporting cocaine consumption as a secondary diagnosis between 2003 and 2013 in Spain were analyzed. Subsequently, a review of judicial autopsies (SCD in cocaine users) was carried out to illustrate the forensic difficulties in the determination of the manner and underlying cause of death when cocaine use is involved. The average CVD morbidity rate...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Santurtún A, García Blanco A, Fdez-Arroyabe P, Santurtún M, Zarrabeitia MT Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Effects of Thiamine Hydrochloride on Cardiac Function, Redox Status and Morphometric Alterations in Doxorubicin-Treated Rats.
Abstract Previous studies have suggested that thiamine has antioxidant activity and could decrease the production of ROS in various disorders. Our study focused on the effect of thiamine hydrochloride in the reversal of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and compared it with the reversal in the absence of thiamine pre-treatment. Rats were divided into groups as follows: (a) thiamine + doxorubicin (TIA + DOX), (b) doxorubicin (DOX) and c) healthy (CTRL) groups. For 7 days, thiamine hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally, while a single dose of 15...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Radonjic T, Rankovic M, Ravic M, Zivkovic V, Srejovic I, Jeremic J, Jeremic N, Sretenovic J, Matic S, Jakovljevic V, Nikolic Turnic T Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Role of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel (KATP) and eNOS in Mediating the Protective Effect of Nicorandil in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiotoxicity.
Abstract Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent but its clinical usefulness is challenged with different forms of toxicities. No studies have evaluated the possible protective effect of nicorandil (NIC) in CP-induced cardiotoxicity. Our study aimed to investigate this effect by using NIC (3 mg/kg/day) orally for 5 days, in the presence or absence of cardiotoxicity induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CP (150 mg/kg) on 4th and 5th days. We confirmed the role of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) by coadministration of glibenclamide (GP) (5 mg/kg/day) 2 h...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Refaie MMM, Shehata S, El-Hussieny M, Abdelraheem WM, Bayoumi AMA Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Protective Effect of Crataegus aronia Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Vascular Inflammation in Rats Entails Inhibition of the NLRP-3 Inflammasome Pathway.
In conclusion, C. aronia inhibits the NLRP-3 inflammasome pathway, induced by HFD feeding in the aorta of rats, mainly by its hypolipidemic effect and in vitro, in LPS-stimulated macrophages, by its antioxidant effect. PMID: 31183600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shatoor AS, Al Humayed S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Action Potential Triangulation Explains Acute Proarrhythmic Effect of Aliskiren in a Whole-Heart Model of Atrial Fibrillation.
Abstract Recent experimental studies showed a protective effect of the renin inhibitor aliskiren regarding atrial structural remodeling. Purpose of this study was to assess acute electrophysiologic effects of aliskiren in a whole-heart model of atrial fibrillation (AF) and to investigate its impact on the ventricle. Twelve rabbit hearts were excised, retrogradely perfused, and paced at different cycle lengths. To enhance atrial vulnerability, a combination of acetylcholine (ACh) and isoproterenol (Iso) was infused and significantly reduced atrial action potential duration (aAPD90) and atrial effective refractory p...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ellermann C, Mittelstedt A, Wolfes J, Willy K, Leitz P, Reinke F, Eckardt L, Frommeyer G Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Use of iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Optical Mapping for Erythromycin Arrhythmogenicity Testing.
In this study, the re-entry formation, conduction velocity, and maximum capture rate were investigated in a monolayer of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes from a healthy donor and in a neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM) monolayer using the optical mapping method under erythromycin concentrations of 15, 30, and 45 μM. In the monolayer of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, the conduction velocity (CV) varied up to 12 ± 9% at concentrations of 15-45 μM as compared with that of the control, whereas the maximum capture rate (MCR) declined substantially up...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Podgurskaya AD, Tsvelaya VA, Slotvitsky MM, Dementyeva EV, Valetdinova KR, Agladze KI Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Oleic Acid Prevents Isoprenaline-Induced Cardiac Injury: Effects on Cellular Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Histopathological Alterations.
Abstract The present study was designed to assess the cardio-protective role of oleic acid in myocardial injury (MI) induced by intra-peritoneal injection of isoprenaline (ISO) in rats for 2 consecutive days. Oleic acid (OA) was administered orally (@ 5 mg/kg b.wt and 10 mg/kg b.wt) for 21 days before inducing MI. Pre-exposure to OA at higher dose significantly improved the HW/BW ratio, myocardial infarct size, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, HDL-C) and cardiac injury biomarkers (LDH, CK-MB, cardiac troponin-I, MMP-9), thus suggesting its cardio-protective role. The ameliorative potential of the ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Singh PK, Gari M, Choudhury S, Shukla A, Gangwar N, Garg SK Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Direct and Indirect Effect of Air Particles Exposure Induce Nrf2-Dependent Cardiomyocyte Cellular Response In Vitro.
Abstract Air particulate matter has been associated with adverse effects in the cardiorespiratory system leading to cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. Particulate matter-associated cardiac effects may be direct or indirect. While direct interactions may occur when inhaled ultrafine particles and/or particle components cross the air-blood barrier reaching the cardiac tissue, indirect interactions may occur as the result of pulmonary inflammation and consequently the release of inflammatory and oxidative mediators into the blood circulation. The aim of the study is to investigate the direct or indirectly the ef...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Orona NS, Astort F, Maglione GA, Yakisich JS, Tasat DR Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces Vascular Dysfunction That is Dependent on Perivascular Adipose and Cytochrome P4501A1 Expression.
Abstract 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is associated with hypertension in humans and animals, and studies suggest that cytochrome P4501A1 (Cyp1a1) induction and vascular dysfunction may contribute. We investigated the role of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and Cyp1a1 in TCDD-induced vascular dysfunction. Cyp1a1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) male mice were fed a dough pill containing 1,4-p-dioxane (TCDD vehicle control) on days 0 and 7, or 1000 ng/kg TCDD on day 0 and 250 ng/kg TCDD on day 7. mRNA expression of Cyp1a1 was assessed on days 3, 7, and 14, and of Cyp1b1, 1a2, angiotensinog...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Walsh-Wilcox MT, Kaye J, Rubinstein E, Walker MK Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Intermittent Exposure to Chlorpyrifos Differentially Impacts Neuroreflex Control of Cardiorespiratory Function in Rats.
Abstract Previous studies showed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) acute exposure impaired cardiorespiratory reflexes. Evidence also indicates that continuous exposure to organophosphorus compounds impairs cardiovascular function. However, the effect of intermittent exposure to CPF, as may be experienced in the real world, on tonic and reflex cardiorespiratory function remains unexplored. Wistar rats were injected with saline or CPF for 4 weeks (3 times/week) or 12 weeks (once/week) at the doses of 7 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. After exposure, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), tidal vo...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Batista TJ, Minassa VS, Aitken AV, Jara BT, Felippe ISA, Beijamini V, Paton JFR, Dos Santos L, Sampaio KN Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Acylated Ghrelin Protects the Hearts of Rats from Doxorubicin-Induced Fas/FasL Apoptosis by Stimulating SERCA2a Mediated by Activation of PKA and Akt.
In conclusion, AG cardioprotection against DOX involves inhibition of extrinsic cell death and restoring normal Ca+2 homeostasis. PMID: 31093930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shati AA, Dallak M Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

MDMA Induced Cardio-toxicity and Pathological Myocardial Effects: A Systematic Review of Experimental Data and Autopsy Findings.
Abstract 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as "ecstasy," is a semi-synthetic entactogenic phenylethylamine. In recent years it has gained popularity as a recreational drug whose use has registered an upward trend especially among adolescents and young adults. Despite its unwarranted reputation of being a "safe" drug, the actual scientific data denote that it actually leaves a trail of cardio-toxicity, above and beyond its neurotoxicity and other somatic effects. Both experimental and clinical data, in fact, indicate that ecstasy can alter cardiac function leading to ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bonsignore A, Barranco R, Morando A, Fraternali Orcioni G, Ventura F Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Liraglutide, Oxytocin and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy Model: An Experimental Animal Study.
O Abstract Doxorubicin-induced (DXR) cardiomyopathy is a serious health issue in oncology patients. Effective treatment of this clinical situation still remains to be discovered. In this experimental animal study, we aimed to define therapeutic effects of liraglutide, oxytocin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in DXR-induced cardiomyopathy model. 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were included to study. 32 rats were given doxorubicin (DXR) for cardiomyopathy model. DXR was administered intraperitonally (i.p.) at every other day of 2.5 mg/kg/day at six times. Eight rats were taken as normal group and no tr...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Taşkıran E, Erdoğan MA, Yiğittürk G, Erbaş O Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Role of Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in the Evaluation of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature.
Abstract Diagnosis and management of Cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction is of crucial importance in breast cancer (BC) patients. The role of advanced echocardiographic techniques, such as deformation imaging, in the diagnosis and characterization of patients receiving cancer therapy has so far involved relatively small studies in the research setting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of observational studies evaluating myocardial changes during chemotherapy detected through conventional echocardiographic parameters, such as 2D left ventricular ejection fraction (2D LVEF), ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bergamini C, Dolci G, Truong S, Zanolla L, Benfari G, Fiorio E, Rossi A, Ribichini FL Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Carbon Monoxide Attenuates High Salt-Induced Hypertension While Reducing Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in the Paraventricular Nucleus.
Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as a new gaseous neuromessenger produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the body. High salt-induced hypertension is relevant to the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We explored whether CO in PVN can attenuate high salt-induced hypertension by regulating PICs or oxidative stress. Male Dahl Salt-Sensitive rats were fed high-salt (8% NaCl) or normal-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet for 4 weeks. CORM-2, ZnPP IX, or vehicle was microinjected into bilateral PVN f...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zhang DD, Liang YF, Qi J, Kang KB, Yu XJ, Gao HL, Liu KL, Chen YM, Shi XL, Xin GR, Fu LY, Kang YM, Cui W Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Synthetic Cannabinoids and Cardiac Arrhythmia Risk: Review of the Literature.
Abstract Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are widely used recreational substances especially among adults. Although they have been considered as safe during the marketing process, our knowledge about their adverse effects has evolved since years. SCBs are associated with various cardiac events including acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. There is also growing evidence that SCBs are associated with cardiac arrhythmia development both in acute and chronic exposure. SCBs have been shown to be associated with both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. However, the exact mechanism of the SCB rel...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ozturk HM, Yetkin E, Ozturk S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Tricyclic Antidepressant Doxepin on Voltage-Dependent K+ Channels in Rabbit Coronary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells.
Abstract Doxepin, tricyclic antidepressant, is widely used for the treatment of depressive disorders. Our present study determined the inhibitory effect of doxepin on voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. Vascular Kv currents were inhibited by doxepin in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 6.52 ± 1.35 μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.03. Doxepin did not change the steady-state activation curve or ina...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Li H, Kang H, An JR, Seo MS, Jung WK, Lee DS, Choi G, Yim MJ, Lee JM, Bae YM, Son YK, Choi IW, Park WS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Slow-Release Doxorubicin Pellets Generate Myocardial Cardiotoxic Changes in Mice Without Significant Systemic Toxicity.
Abstract An increasing volume of pre-clinical and clinical-translational research is attempting to identify novel biomarkers for improved diagnosis and risk-stratification of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. Most published animal models have employed weekly intraperitoneal injections of doxorubicin to reach a desired cumulative dose. This approach can be associated with severe systemic toxicity which limits the animal model usefulness, particularly for advanced imaging. In the current study, slow-release subcutaneous doxorubicin pellets demonstrated histopathologic evidence of cardiotoxicity at doses similar t...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Allen BD, Zhang Z, Naresh NK, Misener S, Procissi D, Carr JC Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Alleviates Chronic Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Induced Premature Endothelial Senescence.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy are afforded an increased lifespan but also exhibit an elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease. HIV therapy uses a combination drug approach, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) are a backbone of this therapy. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in cardiovascular disease etiology, and in our prior studies, NRTIs induced an endothelial dysfunction that was dependent upon mitochondrial oxidative stress. Moreover, short-term NRTI administration induced a mitophagy-associated endothelial t...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chen YF, Hebert VY, Stadler K, Xue SY, Slaybaugh K, Luttrell-Williams E, Glover MC, Krzywanski DM, Dugas TR Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Electronic Cigarette Inhalation on the Vasculature and the Conducting Airways.
JA Abstract The use of electronic cigarettes has increased exponentially since its introduction onto the global market in 2006. However, short- and long-term health effects remain largely unknown due to the novelty of this product. The present study examines the acute effects of e-cigarette aerosol inhalation, with and without nicotine, on vascular and pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. Seventeen healthy subjects inhaled electronic cigarette aerosol with and without nicotine on two separate occasions in a double-blinded crossover fashion. Blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antoniewicz L, Brynedal A, Hedman L, Lundbäck M, Bosson JA Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Toxic Effects of Particulate Matter Derived from Dust Samples Near the Dzhidinski Ore Processing Mill, Eastern Siberia, Russia.
Abstract Ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, an effect influenced by the metal components of the PM. We characterized five sediment samples obtained near a tungsten-molybdenum ore-processing complex in Zakamensk, Russia for elemental composition and PM toxicity with regard to pulmonary, vascular, and neurological outcomes. Elemental and trace metals analysis of complete sediment and PM10 (the respirable fraction,
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zychowski KE, Wheeler A, Sanchez B, Harmon M, Steadman Tyler CR, Herbert G, Lucas SN, Ali AM, Avasarala S, Kunda N, Robinson P, Muttil P, Cerrato JM, Bleske B, Smirnova O, Campen MJ Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Combustion Particle-Induced Changes in Calcium Homeostasis: A Contributing Factor to Vascular Disease?
vik J Abstract Air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease and premature death in the world. This is mainly due to exposure to urban air particle matter (PM), in particular, fine and ultrafine combustion-derived particles (CDP) from traffic-related air pollution. PM and CDP, including particles from diesel exhaust (DEP), and cigarette smoke have been linked to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Moreover, CDP typically consist of carbon cores with a complex mixture of organic chemicals such as polycyclic aro...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Holme JA, Brinchmann BC, Le Ferrec E, Lagadic-Gossmann D, Øvrevik J Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Cardiogenic Shock Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning Treated with Intra-aortic Balloon Pump: A Report of Two Cases.
This article reports the successful treatment of cardiogenic shock caused by AlP poisoning in a 17-year-old man and a 21-year-old woman using the IABP procedure. PMID: 30949845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mehrpour O, Asadi S, Yaghoubi MA, Azdaki N, Mahmoodabadi N, Javadmoosavi S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Bupivacaine Toxicity Increases Transmural Dispersion of Repolarization, Developing of a Brugada-like Pattern and Ventricular Arrhythmias, Which is Reversed by Lipid Emulsion Administration. Study in an Experimental Porcine Model.
Almendral J Abstract Unintentional administration of bupivacaine may be associated with electrocardiogram changes that promote the development cardiac arrhythmias. Ventricular repolarization markers (corrected QT, QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend and Tpeak-Tend dispersion) are useful to predict cardiac arrhythmias. We aim to investigate the effects of bupivacaine on the transmural dispersion of repolarization and their reversion following intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) administration. Fourteen pigs were anaesthetized with thiopental and sevoflurane and underwent tracheal intubation. After instrumentation, a 4 mg&n...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: De Diego C, Zaballos M, Quintela O, Sevilla R, Callejo D, González-Panizo J, Anadón MJ, Almendral J Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

High Intensity Interval Training Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Left Ventricle of Mice with Type 2 Diabetes.
Stølen TO Abstract Both human and animal studies have shown mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction in hearts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise training has shown positive effects on cardiac function, but its effect on the mitochondria have been insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exercise training on mitochondrial function in T2DM hearts. We divided T2DM mice (db/db) into a sedentary and an interval training group at 8 weeks of age and used heterozygote db/+ as controls. After 8 weeks of training, we evaluated mitochondrial structure and functio...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bækkerud FH, Salerno S, Ceriotti P, Morland C, Storm-Mathisen J, Bergersen LH, Høydal MA, Catalucci D, Stølen TO Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Acute and Subacute Effects of Low Versus High Doses of Standardized Panax ginseng Extract on the Heart: An Experimental Study.
This study was aimed to elucidate acute and subacute effects of the low and high doses of standardized Panax ginseng extract (sPGe) on cardiac functions. Rats were randomly assigned to control group, acute low-dose group (ALD), subacute low-dose group (SALD), acute high-dose group (AHD), and subacute high-dose group (SAHD). The cardiac effects of sPGe were evaluated using hemodynamic, biochemical, echocardiographic, genetic, and immunohistopathologic parameters. Mean blood pressures were significantly lower in all sPGe-treated groups compared with the control group. Troponin I and myoglobin levels were increased in the SAL...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Parlakpinar H, Ozhan O, Ermis N, Vardi N, Cigremis Y, Tanriverdi LH, Colak C, Acet A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Micheliolide Protects Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice by Regulating PI3K/Akt/NF-kB Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Micheliolide (MCL) is a naturally derived anti-inflammatory agent. In the present investigation, we examined the protective potential of MCL against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Mice were injected with a single 15-mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of DOX at day 1 and the study groups received daily 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg doses of MCL for 7 days. Cardiac histopathology, cardiac function, serum markers of cardiac injury, and tissue markers of inflammation, and oxidative stress were examined. MCL decreased serum levels of creatinine kinase MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, a...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kalantary-Charvadeh A, Sanajou D, Hemmati-Dinarvand M, Marandi Y, Khojastehfard M, Hajipour H, Mesgari-Abbasi M, Roshangar L, Nazari Soltan Ahmad S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 Inhibits PKC ζ-Mediated Reduction of ERK5 Transactivation to Prevent Endotoxin-Induced Vascular dysfunction.
SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 Inhibits PKCζ-Mediated Reduction of ERK5 Transactivation to Prevent Endotoxin-Induced Vascular dysfunction. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019 Feb 25;: Authors: Li Z, Hu J, Guo J, Fan L, Wang S, Dou N, Zuo J, Yu S Abstract SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 is a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate that inhibits the activity of PKC through binding with it. SSeCKS is expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The atypical PKC isoform ζ (PKCζ) is a pathologic mediator of endothelial dysfunction. However, the functional significance of SSeCKS/PKCζ dimerization in the vascular endothelium...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Li Z, Hu J, Guo J, Fan L, Wang S, Dou N, Zuo J, Yu S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Characterization of microminipig as a laboratory animal for safety pharmacology study by analyzing fluvoxamine-induced cardiovascular and dermatological adverse reactions.
Abstract Fluvoxamine is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, of which IC50 values for serotonin- and noradrenaline-uptake process were reported to be 3.8 and 620 nmol/L, respectively, also known to directly inhibit cardiac Na+, Ca2+, and K+ channels. We characterized microminipig as a laboratory animal by analyzing fluvoxamine-induced cardiovascular and dermatological responses under halothane anesthesia. Fluvoxamine maleate was infused in doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg over 10 min with a pause of 20 min (n = 4). The peak plasma concentrations were 35, 320, and 1906 ng/mL...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tanikawa Y, Hagiwara-Nagasawa M, Kambayashi R, Goto A, Chiba K, Kitta K, Hoshiai K, Izumi-Nakaseko H, Naito AT, Sugiyama A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of Gestational Age on Maternofetal Vascular Function Following Single Maternal Engineered Nanoparticle Exposure.
Abstract Normal pregnancy outcome is accomplished, in part, by rapid and expansive physiological adaptations to the systemic circulation, the extent of which is specific to gestational day (GD) and anatomical location. Pregnancy-related hemodynamic changes in uterine placental blood flow stimulate compensatory vascular signaling and remodeling that begins early and continues throughout gestation. Exposure of the maternal environment to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) during pregnancy has been shown to impact health of the dam, fetus, and adult offspring; however, the consequences of specific temporal (gestational a...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fournier SB, Kallontzi S, Fabris L, Love C, Stapleton PA Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Linoleic Acid Metabolite DiHOME Decreases Post-ischemic Cardiac Recovery in Murine Hearts.
r A Abstract Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury is associated with the formation and action of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among them, linoleic acid (LA) is metabolized to epoxyoctadecanoic acids (EpOMEs) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases and further to dihydroxyoctadecanoic acids (DiHOMEs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We hypothesized that EpOMEs and/or DiHOMEs may affect cardiac post-ischemic recovery and addressed this question using isolated murine hearts in a Langendorff system. Hearts from C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 12,13-EpOME, 12,13-DiHOME, or vehicle (phosphate bu...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bannehr M, Löhr L, Gelep J, Haverkamp W, Schunck WH, Gollasch M, Wutzler A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Measurement of J-Tpeakc along with QT-Interval Prolongation May Increase the Assay Sensitivity and Specificity for Predicting the Onset of Drug-Induced Torsade de Pointes: Experimental Evidences Based on Proarrhythmia Model Animals.
Abstract dl-Sotalol which can block both K+ channel and ß-adrenoceptor has been shown to prolong the J-Tpeakc of electrocardiogram in beagle dogs but tended to shorten it in microminipigs, although the drug prolonged the QT interval in both animals under physiologically maintained experimental condition. In order to estimate how the changes in the J-Tpeakc in the normal hearts would be reflected in the pathologic hearts, we compared proarrhythmic effects of dl-sotalol by using proarrhythmia models of beagle dogs and microminipigs, of which atrioventricular node had been ablated> 2 months and 8...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Goto A, Hagiwara-Nagasawa M, Kambayashi R, Chiba K, Izumi-Nakaseko H, Naito AT, Kanda Y, Sugiyama A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Causes Adverse Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Changes and Dysfunction in Neonatal Mice.
Abstract Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe condition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and is associated with congenital heart defects. However, more subtle defects such as ventricular wall thinning and cardiac compliance may be overlooked in FASD. Our studies focus on the role of cardiac fibroblasts in the neonatal heart, and how they are affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). We hypothesize that PAE affects fibroblast function contributing to dysregulated collagen synthesis, which leads to cardiac dysfunction. To investigate these effects, pregnant C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ninh VK, El Hajj EC, Mouton AJ, Gardner JD Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Carnitine Supplementation Attenuates Sunitinib-Induced Inhibition of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Downstream Signals in Cardiac Tissues.
In conclusion, data from this study suggest that SUN inhibits AMPK downstream signaling with the consequent inhibition of mitochondrial transport of LCFA and energy production in cardiac tissues. Carnitine supplementation attenuates SUN-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID: 30644033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sayed-Ahmed MM, Alrufaiq BI, Alrikabi A, Abdullah ML, Hafez MM, Al-Shabanah OA Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

An Overview on Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Cardiotoxicity.
Abstract Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is among the first-line chemotherapeutic drugs used in oncological practice. It has shown substantial efficacy in treating patients with relapsed or refractory acute promyelocytic leukaemia. The clinical use of ATO is hampered due to cardiotoxicity and hence many patients are precluded from receiving this highly effective treatment. An alternative to this would be to use any drug that can ameliorate the cardiotoxic effects and allow exploiting the full therapeutic potential of ATO, with considerable impact on cancer therapy. Generation of reactive oxygen species is involved in ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vineetha VP, Raghu KG Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Diagnostic Value of Parameters Related to White Blood Cell Counts for Troponin I Elevation in CO Poisoning.
Abstract To assess myocardial injury related to acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, serial troponin I is measured in patients not presenting with troponin I elevation. This retrospective study investigated whether parameters related to white blood cell (WBC) counts (total and differential WBC counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio) improved predictive accuracy for troponin I elevation (> 0.04 ng/ml) in patients not presenting with evidence of myocardial injury. Serial parameters, troponin I values, and clinical courses were collected in 241 patients. Troponin I ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Moon JM, Chun BJ, Cho YS, Lee SM Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research