COVID-19: A Concern for Cardiovascular Disease Patients.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is declared as a pandemic that has spread worldwide, affecting 205 countries. The disease affected 1, 40, 43, 176 individuals and caused 5, 97, 583 deaths around the globe. The organism responsible for the cause of disease is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 enters into the cell via receptors present on the cell surface named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Notwithstanding ACE2 receptors acts as a gateway for infection, and most of the cardiovascular patients are treated with the ACE inhibitors. Thus, the role of ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sharma S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Molecular Mechanism of Aluminum Phosphide poisoning in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Approach.
This study is based on data obtained from PubMed, between 2002 and 2020. The key keywords included "Aluminum phosphide," "Oxidative Stress," "Mitochondria," "Cardiovascular disease," and "Treatment." The results showed that ALP produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to mitochondrial dysfunction. ROS production leads to red blood cell hemolysis, decreased ATP production, and induction of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, which eventually results in cardiovascular disease. Since ALP has the most significant effect on cardiomyocytes, the use of appropriate treatment strategies ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hosseini SF, Forouzesh M, Maleknia M, Valiyari S, Maniati M, Samimi A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Hypoxemia During Sleep and the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between objective sleep parameters of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease as measured by the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We reviewed the medical records of 196 patients who underwent both polysomnography (PSG) and repeated coronary artery computed tomography (CT) for screening purposes. For each participant, the first coronary CT scan was conducted within 12 months of PSG. Follow-up CT was performed voluntarily. The CAC score was log-transformed to obtain normally distributed data. We evalu...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Seo MY, Lee SH, Hong SD, Chung SK, Kim HY Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Chemotherapy with a Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin-Containing Regimen in Newly Diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients.
This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for HL treatment. Patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with at least two cycles of PLD-containing chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The dosing and scheduling of the PLD-containing regimen (the PBVD regimen) were as follows: PLD 25 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 (maximum dose of 2 mg), bleomycin 10 mg/m2, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m2 at days l and 15, repeated every 28 days. Forty-six HL patients were analyzed. The median age was 41.5 years (range 12-77 years), with a male/female ratio...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liu W, Yang M, Ping L, Xie Y, Wang X, Zhu J, Song Y Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

M3, a 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivative and Mixed L-/T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker, Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats.
In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive benefit of M3, a 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, against ISP-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. Adult rats were divided into eight groups of six rats/group. Groups 1-5 received normal saline (control, 10 mL/kg/day, p.o.), ISP (85 mg/kg/day, s.c.), M3 lower dose (M3LD, 5 mg/kg, p.o.), M3 upper dose (M3UD, 20 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and Nifedipine (NFD, 20 mg/kg/day, p.o.), respectively. Others (groups 6-8) were pretreated with either M3LD, M3UD or NFD one hour before ISP administration. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last adm...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kale OE, Gündüz MG, Ogunbiyi BT, Ogundare TF, Ekor M, Awodele O Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Spermidine and Melatonin on Deltamethrin-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Neurotoxicity in Zebrafish.
Abstract Increased application of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin has adverse effects on the cardiac system and neurobehavior on the non-target organisms, which has raised the public's attention. Because of spermidine and melatonin considered to have cardioprotective and neuroprotective characteristics, zebrafish were utilized as the model organism to explore the protective effects of spermidine and melatonin against deltamethrin-induced toxicity. We tested the neurobehavior of zebrafish larvae through a rest/wake behavior assay, and evaluated the levels of the expression of Scn5lab, gata4, nkx2.5, hcrt, h...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liu X, Gao Q, Feng Z, Tang Y, Zhao X, Chen D, Feng X Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of Compound 21 and Valsartan in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats.
This study investigated the protective effects of Compound 21 (C21), the first specific non-peptide AT2 receptor agonist, on cardiac injury in rats with isoproterenol-induced heart failure in vivo and compared it with valsartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist. In this study, 56 Wistar albino male rats (estimated body weights 250-400 g) were divided into eight groups (n = 7). Group 1 (Control) received no drug. Group 2 (ISO) was given 180 mg/kg of isoproterenol subcutaneously (s.c.); two doses were administered at 24-h intervals on days 29 and 30 of the experiment. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were given valsartan (30...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ulutas Z, Ermis N, Ozhan O, Parlakpinar H, Vardi N, Ates B, Colak C Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Role of Peroxiredoxins in Protecting Against Cardiovascular and Related Disorders.
Abstract Peroxiredoxin (Prx) refers to a family of thiol-dependent peroxidases that decompose hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxides, as well as peroxynitrite, and protect against oxidative and inflammatory stress. There are six mammalian Prx isozymes (Prx1-6), classified as typical 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, or 1-Cys Prxs based on the mechanism and the number of cysteine residues involved during catalysis. In addition to their well-established peroxide-scavenging activity, some Prxs also participate in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways. Extensive animal studies employing primarily gene knockout model...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Li YR, Zhu H, Danelisen I Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Myocardial Fibrosis Development via PERK-Mediated Autophagy.
Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is involved in a variety of diseases. Recently, it was found that ERS induces not only apoptosis but also autophagy. Previous studies showed that inhibition of autophagy alleviates cell injury. The purpose of our study was to investigate the involvement of the R-like ER kinase (PERK) in ERS-induced autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. To address this aim, therefore, H9c2 cells were treated with PERK agonist and inhibitor after establishment of rapamycin-induced ERS models in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining were used to...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zhang C, Li Y, Zhao J, Su K, He K, Da Y, Xia H Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Involvement of ROS/NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Pathway in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity.
Abstract Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used in cancer therapy, but the clinical application is limited by its cardiotoxicity. The underlying mechanism of Dox-induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. Present study aimed to evaluate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. The NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in the myocardium of Dox-treating (5 mg/kg, once every other day, cumulative dosage to 15 mg/kg and sacrificed after 2 days of last Dox injection) C57BL/6 mice as shown by the up-regulation of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 p20. Dox (1 μM for 48 h) induced the apoptosis of H9c...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wei S, Ma W, Li X, Jiang C, Sun T, Li Y, Zhang B, Li W Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate is Associated with Endothelial Cell Toxicity But Not with Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation.
Abstract One characteristic of ethylene glycol overdose is a cardiopulmonary syndrome including hypertension and pulmonary edema with pathology indicating damage to the endothelium of heart, lung and brain vessels. The mechanism of the cardiopulmonary toxicity is unknown, but has been linked with accumulation of the metabolite calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in the endothelium. These studies have evaluated the hypothesis that COM or the oxalate ion produces endothelial damage in vitro and that damage is linked with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Crenshaw BL, McMartin KE Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Modulation of Paraoxonase-1 and Apoptotic Gene Expression Involves in the Cardioprotective Role of Flaxseed Following Gestational Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles and/or Fenitrothion Insecticide.
Abstract The developmental exposure to a single chemical may elicit apoptosis in the different fetal organs, while the combined effects are restricted. We have examined the protective role of flaxseed (FS) against diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)- and/or fenitrothion (FNT)-induced fetal cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis. A total of 48 timed pregnant rats were divided into eight groups (n = 6). The first group was saved as the control and the second fed on 20% FS diet. Animals in the third, fourth, and fifth groups were administered with DEPs (2.0 mg/kg), FNT (3.76 mg/kg), and their comb...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ibrahim KA, Abdelgaid HA, El-Desouky MA, Fahmi AA, Abdel-Daim MM Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Delayed-type Hypersensitivity to Metals in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
nar J Abstract The causes of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy are classified as genetic or nongenetic, but environmental factors such as metal pollutants may interact with genetic susceptibility. The presence of metal particles has been detected in the myocardium, including in those patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. It is also known that hypersensitivity reactions can induce inflammation in tissue. The present study aimed to verify if metal-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity is present in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The patient group consisted of 30 patients with newly diagnosed dila...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Manousek J, Felsoci M, Miklik R, Parenica J, Krejci J, Bjørklund G, Klanova J, Mlejnek D, Miklikova M, Lokaj P, Chirumbolo S, Spinar J Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography for Cardioncological Evaluation in Bevacizumab-Treated Colorectal Cancer Patients.
sio G Abstract Angiogenesis inhibitor Bevacizumab (BVZ) may lead to the development of adverse effects, including hypertension and cardiac ischemia. Whether assessment of changes in myocardial strain by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) can be of value in detecting BVZ-mediated cardiotoxicity at an earlier stage is not known. We investigated whether 2D-STE can non-invasively detect early evidence of cardiotoxicity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with BVZ. Between January and June 2019, 25 consecutive patients (71.8 ± 7.5 year/old, 17 males)...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sonaglioni A, Albini A, Fossile E, Pessi MA, Nicolosi GL, Lombardo M, Anzà C, Ambrosio G Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of Extracellular Matrix Softening on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dysfunction.
In this study, we introduce in vitro and in vivo models to evaluate the impact of ECM stiffnesses on VSMC function. Through unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis, we detected upregulation of synthetic phenotype-related genes including osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinases, and inflammatory cytokines in VSMCs cultured using soft matrix hydrogels in vitro, suggesting VSMC dedifferentiation toward a synthetic phenotype upon ECM softening. For the in vivo model, the lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN) was administrated to disrupt the cross-linking of collagen to induce ECM softening. Con...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shao Y, Li G, Huang S, Li Z, Qiao B, Chen D, Li Y, Liu H, Du J, Li P Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Concomitant Treatment with Proton Pump Inhibitors and Cephalosporins Does Not Enhance QT-Associated Proarrhythmia in Isolated Rabbit Hearts.
r G Abstract Recent results from data mining analyses and reports of adverse drug events suggest a QT-prolonging drug-drug interaction resulting from the combination of distinct proton pump inhibitors and cephalosporins. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of the suspected QT-prolonging combinations of lansoprazole + ceftriaxone and esomeprazole + cefazolin, respectively. 26 hearts of New Zealand White rabbits were retrogradely perfused and paced at different cycle lengths. After generating baseline data, the hearts were assigned to two groups: In group 1, hearts wer...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wolfes J, Ellermann C, Burde S, Leitz P, Bögeholz N, Willy K, Fehr M, Eckardt L, Frommeyer G Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Disruption of the Keap1/Nrf2-Antioxidant Response System After Chronic Doxorubicin Exposure In Vivo.
Abstract Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely prescribed anthracycline antineoplastic drug for treating human solid tumors and leukemias. However, DOX therapy is limited by a cumulative, dose-dependent, and irreversible cardiomyopathy that occurs with repeated administration. Presumably, a pivotal initiating event of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of lipids, DNA, and proteins. We recently identified activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-antioxidant response system-a major cellular defense mechanism against such oxidative stress-as an important response to acute DOX expo...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nordgren KKS, Wallace KB Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparative Cardiotoxicity of Low Doses of Digoxin, Ouabain, and Oleandrin.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative effects of CGs on heart physiology. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n = 7), control group received NaCl 0.9% every 24 h for 21 days; treated groups received respectively 50 μg/kg of digoxin (DIG), ouabain (OUA) and oleandrin (OLE) every 24 h for 21 days. Serial ECGs were performed, as well as serum levels of creatinine kinase (CK), its MB fraction, troponin I (cTnI), calcium (Ca2+) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). Heart tissue was processed for histology, scanning electron microscopy ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - June 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Botelho AFM, Miranda ALS, Freitas TG, Milani PF, Barreto T, Cruz JS, Melo MM Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Sudden Cardiac Arrest in an Asymptomatic Zinc Phosphide-Poisoned Patient: A Case Report.
Abstract Zinc phosphide is a gray to black powder mainly used as a rodenticide. In contact with gastric fluid, it releases phosphine which is the main toxic material of this compound. Phosphine interferes with oxidative respiratory cycle of the cells, but is generally expected to manifest its toxicity with prodromal signs and symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, metabolic acidosis, and increased liver function tests. A 64-year-old man was referred to our center with the history of ingestion of three full table spoons of zinc phosphide powder with only a mild GI discomfort. Abdominal X-ray reveal...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Parhizgar P, Forouzanfar R, Hadeiy SK, Zamani N, Hassanian-Moghaddam H Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Case of Myocardial Infarction in a Fifteen-Year-Old Adolescent Caused by Toxic Substances.
Abstract The article reveals about the clinical accident of myocardial infarction in an adolescent after visiting a night club, where he had been drinking tequila. A "sniper" test was performed at home and showed synthetic marihuana in urine. The uniqueness of this case is the adolescent's difficult premorbid condition (severe diabetes mellitus type 1 and sub-compensated hypothyreosis) and the clinical course of the disease had caused difficulty in diagnosis which led to a belated hospitalization on the third day. Considering pain syndrome, infarction-like findings in ECG (ST elevation), high levels of c...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Loskutov O, Markov Y, Todurov B, Druzhyna O, Kolesnykov V, Maruniak S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Ergosterol Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Cardiotoxicity.
In conclusion, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that ER significantly enhances Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidative activities, and exerts a protective effect on cardiomyocyte apoptosis. ER could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent to prevent myocardial injury. PMID: 32361914 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - May 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xie Q, Li S, Gao Y, Jin L, Dai C, Song J Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

TRPV4 Mediates Cardiac Fibrosis via the TGF- β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats.
TRPV4 Mediates Cardiac Fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2020 Apr 09;: Authors: Jia X, Xiao C, Sheng D, Yang M, Cheng Q, Wu J, Zhang S Abstract Emerging evidence shows that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is involved in fibrosis in many organs. However, its role in diabetic cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the expression level of TRPV4 in the diabetic heart and clarify its role in diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis. A diabetic animal model was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of s...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - April 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jia X, Xiao C, Sheng D, Yang M, Cheng Q, Wu J, Zhang S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Puerarin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Fibrosis by Inhibiting PARP-1 to Prevent HMGB1-Mediated TLR4-NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
Puerarin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Fibrosis by Inhibiting PARP-1 to Prevent HMGB1-Mediated TLR4-NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2020 Mar 31;: Authors: Ni SY, Zhong XL, Li ZH, Huang DJ, Xu WT, Zhou Y, Ou CW, Chen MS Abstract Myocardial fibrosis (MFs) is a crucial pathological process that results in cardiac failure in the development of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Puerarin could reportedly be used to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the exact mechanism of puerarin on MFs was not clear enough. The separated primary cardiac fibroblasts (...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 31, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ni SY, Zhong XL, Li ZH, Huang DJ, Xu WT, Zhou Y, Ou CW, Chen MS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Cardioprotective Effects of Aminoguanidine on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Inflammation in Rats.
Abstract Myocardial dysfunction, a major component of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure, contributes to the production of massive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to act as a precursor of free radicals in inflammation. This research was conducted to assess the effect of aminoguanidine (AG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced heart injury. 50 male rats were categorized into five groups (n = 10): (1) control, (2) LPS, (3) LPS-AG50, (4) LPS-AG100, and (5) LPS-AG150. LPS (1 mg/kg) was injected for 5 weeks, and AG (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) was injected 30 ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Beheshti F, Hosseini M, Hashemzehi M, Hadipanah MR, Mahmoudabady M Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Cardioprotective Effect of Paricalcitol on Amitriptyline-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats: Comparison of [99mTc]PYP Cardiac Scintigraphy with Electrocardiographic and Biochemical Findings.
We examined ECG, biochemical, and scintigraphic results of PRC administration on AMT-induced changes. Cardiotoxicity of AMT was characterized by conduction abnormalities (increased QRS complex, T wave, and QT interval duration and elevation of ST segment amplitude), elevated 99mTechnetium Pyrophosphate ([99mTc]PYP) uptake, and increased cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels. Treatment with PRC significantly decreased all AMT-associated conduction abnormalities in ECG (p 
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aygun H, Basol N, Gul SS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Electropharmacological Characterization of Aciclovir in the Halothane-Anesthetized Dogs: A Proposal of Evaluation Method for Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Anti-virus Drugs.
Abstract Given limited information regarding the pathophysiology underlying aciclovir-associated, clinically observed cardiovascular adverse events including chest pain, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, arrhythmia, hypertension and hypotension, we investigated its electropharmacological effects using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs. Aciclovir in doses of 2 and 20 mg/kg was sequentially infused over 10 min with an interval of 20 min (n = 4), which would achieve sub-therapeutic to supra-therapeutic levels of plasma concentrations. Aciclovir decreased the total peripheral vas...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kondo Y, Hagiwara-Nagasawa M, Kambayashi R, Goto A, Chiba K, Nunoi Y, Izumi-Nakaseko H, Matsumoto A, Sugiyama A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Exendin-4 Ameliorates Cardiac Remodeling in Experimentally Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats by Inhibiting PARP1/NF- κB Axis in A SIRT1-Dependent Mechanism.
In conclusion, exendin-4 is a potent cardioprotective agent that prevents post-MI inflammation and cardiac remodeling by activating SIRT1-induced inhibition of PARP1. PMID: 32193876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eid RA, Alharbi SA, El-Kott AF, Eleawa SM, Zaki MSA, El-Sayed F, Eldeen MA, Aldera H, Al-Shudiefat AAS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Evolution of Electrocardiographic Repolarization Parameters During Antiandrogen Therapy in Patients with Prostate Cancer and Hypogonadism.
In conclusion, after 6 months of treatment, patients with hypogonadism on degarelix associated with enzalutamide had significant prolongation of QTc, QTd, maxTpe, meanTpe/QT, maxTpe/QT, Tped compared to patients on degarelix alone. The proportion of patients with 10% iCEB variation was similar between groups. There was no record of severe arrhythmias during the first 6 months of treatment. PMID: 32152959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gheorghe ACD, Ciobanu A, Hodorogea AS, Radavoi GD, Jinga V, Nanea IT, Gheorghe GS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of the Cardiac Myocyte-Damaging Effects of Dasatinib.
Abstract The anticancer drug dasatinib (Sprycel) is a BCR-ABL1-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia that has been shown in clinical trials to display cardiovascular toxicities. While dasatinib potently inhibits BCR-ABL1, it is not a highly selective kinase inhibitor and may have off-target effects. A neonatal rat cardiac myocyte model was used to investigate potential mechanisms by which dasatinib damaged myocytes. The anthracycline cardioprotective drug dexrazoxane was shown to be ineffective in preventing dasatinib-induced myocyte damage. Dasatinib treatment increased ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - March 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hasinoff BB, Patel D Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Human Amnion Membrane Proteins Prevent Doxorubicin-Induced Oxidative Stress Injury and Apoptosis in Rat H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.
Abstract Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as an effective chemotherapy agent in cancer treatment. Cardiac toxicity in cancer treatment with DOX demand urgent attention and no effective treatment has been established for DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. It has been well documented that human amniotic membrane proteins (AMPs), extracted from amnion membrane (AM), have antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of AMPs against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX in cultured rat cardiomyocyte cells (H9c2). DOX-induced cell injury was evalua...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Faridvand Y, Haddadi P, Vahedian V, Nozari S, Nejabati HR, Pezeshkian M, Afrasiabi A, Safaie N, Jodati A, Nouri M Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Effect of High Lactate Level on Mortality in Acute Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction Without Cardiogenic Shock.
Abstract BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of blood lactate levels on cardiovascular (CV) death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF) in acute HF patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: Eighty-five acute HF patients with reduced ejection fraction were divided into two groups according to admission blood lactate levels. 48 of them had low blood lactate levels (
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Uyar H, Yesil E, Karadeniz M, Orscelik O, Ozkan B, Ozcan T, Cicek Yilmaz D, Celik A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Various Manifestations of 5-Fluorouracil Cardiotoxicity: A Multicenter Case Series and Review of Literature.
We present three cases of 5-FU cardiac toxicity that manifested as myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, and ventricular fibrillation. Additionally, we discuss the current literature regarding 5-fluorouracil cardiotoxicity mechanisms as well as management. PMID: 31925673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Allison JD, Tanavin T, Yang Y, Birnbaum G, Khalid U Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

How the Deuteration of Dronedarone Can Modify Its Cardiovascular Profile: In Vivo Characterization of Electropharmacological Effects of Poyendarone, a Deuterated Analogue of Dronedarone.
Abstract Since deuterium replacement has a potential to modulate pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicity, we developed deuterated dronedarone; poyendarone, and assessed its cardiovascular effects. Poyendarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s was intravenously administered to the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 4), which provided peak plasma concentrations of 108 ± 10 and 1120 ± 285 ng/mL, respectively. The 0.3 mg/kg shortened the ventricular repolarization period. The 3 mg/kg transiently increased the heart...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kambayashi R, Hagiwara-Nagasawa M, Kondo Y, Yeo ZJ, Goto A, Chiba K, Nunoi Y, Izumi-Nakaseko H, Leow JWH, Venkatesan G, Matsumoto A, Chan ECY, Sugiyama A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Rho Kinase Inhibition by Fasudil Attenuates Adriamycin-Induced Chronic Heart Injury.
Abstract Adriamycin (ADR)-induced chronic heart injury (CHI) is a serious complication of chemotherapy. The present study was designed to assess the ability of fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, to prevent ADR-induced CHI. Forty male 6-week-old C57BL6 mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: (1) control group, (2) CHI induced by adriamycin (ADR group), (3) CHI plus low dose fasudil (ADR + L group), and (4) CHI plus high dose fasudil (ADR + H group). Animals from groups 2-4 received ADR (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) once a week for 8 weeks, and the control group received sa...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - January 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yan Y, Xiang C, Yang Z, Miao D, Zhang D Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Myocardial Repolarization Parameters and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio are Associated with Cardiotoxicity in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.
Abstract The present study aims to examine the clinical values of complete blood count (CBC) bioindicators and corrected QT (QTc), Tpeak - Tend interval (Tp-e), Tpeak dispersion (Tp disp), and Tp-e/QT ratio that are the parameters of myocardial repolarization (M-rep) for cardiotoxicity, which develops due to acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in patients admitted to the emergency service. This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational, and single-center study was conducted between April and June 2019. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 23.0 software. Data of 234 participants w...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - December 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Temrel TA, Bilge S Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Cardioprotective Effects and Duration of Beta Blocker Therapy in Anthracycline-Treated Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Abstract Anthracycline-containing chemotherapy is commonly associated with irreversible cardiovascular toxicity. Beta blockers are currently recommended as first-line drugs for improving cardiac function. However, the effects of beta blocker on cardiac preservation and the duration of beta blocker intervention therapy in anthracycline-treated patients remain unclear. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane for randomized controlled trials (published between January, 2000 and January, 2019) to determine the effectiveness of cardiac preservation of beta blocker in anthracycline-treated patients by ac...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - December 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xu L, Long Y, Tang X, Zhang N Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Effects of Neuropeptide Y Overexpression on the Mouse Model of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity.
ntaus M Abstract Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug with cardiotoxicity hampering its use. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most abundant neuropeptide in the heart and a co-transmitter of the sympathetic nervous system that plays a role in cardiac diseases. The aim of this work was to study the impact of NPY on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Transgenic mice overexpressing NPY in noradrenergic neurons (NPY-OEDβH) and wild-type mice were treated with a single dose of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin caused cardiotoxicity in both genotypes as demonstrated by decreased weight gain, tendency to reduced ejection fract...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - December 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mattila M, Söderström M, Ailanen L, Savontaus E, Savontaus M Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Platelet Function in Cardiovascular Disease: Activation of Molecules and Activation by Molecules.
Abstract Globally, one of the major causes of death is the cardiovascular disease (CVD), and platelets play an important role in thrombosis and atherosclerosis that led to death. Platelet activation can be done by different molecules, genes, pathways, and chemokines. Lipids activate platelets by inflammatory factors, and platelets are activated by receptors of peptide hormones, signaling and secreted proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and oxidative stress which also affect the platelet activation in older age. In addition, surface molecules on platelets can interact with other cells and chemokines in activated platelet...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khodadi E Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Impact of Arterial Hypertension on Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy-Induced Subclinical Cardiac Damage in Breast Cancer Patients.
Abstract Advances in oncologic therapies have allowed to achieve better outcomes and longer survival in many patients with breast cancer. Anthracyclines are cytotoxic antibiotics widely used in daily oncology practice. However, anthracyclines cause cardiotoxicity which is a limiting factor of its use. Cumulative dose of anthracyclines is the major cause of induced cardiotoxicity. According to previous clinical trials, the major predisposing high-risk factors for anthracycline-based chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity are age, body weight, female gender, radiotherapy, and other diseases such as diabetes and hyperte...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vaitiekus D, Muckiene G, Vaitiekiene A, Maciuliene D, Vaiciuliene D, Ambrazeviciute G, Sereikaite L, Verikas D, Jurkevicius R, Juozaityte E Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

The Role of Topoisomerase II β in the Mechanisms of Action of the Doxorubicin Cardioprotective Agent Dexrazoxane.
This study characterized the kinetics of the rapid and nearly complete dexrazoxane-induced loss of topoisomerase IIβ protein from neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Immunofluorescent staining of attached myocytes for topoisomerase IIβ revealed that most of the topoisomerase IIβ was localized to the nucleus, although it was also present in the cytoplasm. Dexrazoxane treatment resulted in an almost complete reduction of topoisomerase IIβ in the nucleus and a lesser reduction in the cytoplasm. The recovery of topoisomerase IIβ levels after a pulse topoisomerase IIβ inhibitory concentration of dexrazo...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hasinoff BB, Patel D, Wu X Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Acute Myocardial Infarction Following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.
Abstract Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) may increase the risk of myocardial infarction. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the risk. We used the Nationwide Poisoning Database in Taiwan to identify COP patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2012. We compared the risk for myocardial infarction between patients with and without HBOT by following up through 2013 and identified the independent predictors of myocardial infarction. The risk of myocardial infarction in the 7278 patients with HBOT was lower than in the 18,459 patients without HBOT, but this difference did n...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Huang CC, Ho CH, Chen YC, Hsu CC, Lin HJ, Wang JJ, Su SB, Guo HR Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Assessment of Pregabalin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats: Mechanistic Role of Angiotensin 1-7.
Abstract Pregabalin (PRG) possesses great therapeutic benefits in the treatment of epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. However, clinical data have reported incidence or exacerbation of heart failure following PRG administration. Experimental data exploring cardiac alterations and its underlying mechanisms are quite scarce. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PRG on morphometric, echocardiographic, neurohumoral, and histopathological parameters in rats. It was hypothesized that alterations in cardiac renin angiotensin system (RAS) might be involved in PRG-induced cardiotoxicity. T...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - November 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Awwad ZM, El-Ganainy SO, ElMallah AI, Khedr SM, Khattab MM, El-Khatib AS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Protective Effect of RIVA Against Sunitinib-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress-Mediated Inflammation: Probable Role of TGF- β and Smad Signaling.
Protective Effect of RIVA Against Sunitinib-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress-Mediated Inflammation: Probable Role of TGF-β and Smad Signaling. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019 Nov 06;: Authors: Imam F, Al-Harbi NO, Khan MR, Qamar W, Alharbi M, Alshamrani AA, Alhamami HN, Alsaleh NB, Alharbi KS Abstract Sunitinib (SUN) is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved in 2006 as a first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell cancer. However, weak selectivity to kinase receptors and cardiotoxicity have limited the use of sunitinib. Rivaroxaban (RIVA) is a Factor Xa inhibitor with cardiop...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - November 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Imam F, Al-Harbi NO, Khan MR, Qamar W, Alharbi M, Alshamrani AA, Alhamami HN, Alsaleh NB, Alharbi KS Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Oleic Acid Protects from Arsenic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy via AMPK/FoxO/NFATc3 Pathway.
This study is designed to determine the molecules involved in the augmentation of arsenic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the effects of oleic acid on arsenic-induced hypertrophy and cardiac injury have also been investigated. Our results show that arsenic induces cardiac hypertrophy both in vivo in mice and in vitro in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Moreover, arsenic results in decreased activity of AMPK and FoxO1 along with increased NFATc3 expression, a known cardiac hypertrophy inducer. In addition, activation of AMPK and FoxO1 results in reduced NFATc3 expression causing attenuation of arsenic-induced cardiac hype...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samanta J, Mondal A, Saha S, Chakraborty S, Sengupta A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Late-life Cardiac Injury in Rats following Early Life Exposure to Lead: Reversal Effect of Nutrient Metal Mixture.
In conclusion, the data demonstrate that early-life exposure to Pb continuously influence the cardiac mitochondrial functions from early life to older age and further suggesting that adequate intake of nutrient metals may be potential therapeutic treatment for Pb intoxication. PMID: 31541351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology)
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - September 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Davuljigari CB, Gottipolu RR Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Arbutin Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting TLR-4/NF- κB Pathway in Mice.
Arbutin Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway in Mice. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019 Sep 04;: Authors: Nalban N, Sangaraju R, Alavala S, Mir SM, Jerald MK, Sistla R Abstract Arbutin is a glycoside reported for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. However, the cardioprotective effect of Arbutin is not well established. The study aims to understand the effect of arbutin on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. The animals were pretreated with Arbutin for a week and ISO was administered for 10 days and then sac...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - September 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nalban N, Sangaraju R, Alavala S, Mir SM, Jerald MK, Sistla R Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Cardioprotective Effects Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rat.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) against doxorubicin (DOXO) induced cardiomyopathy. Twenty adult rats were distributed in four experimental groups: group 1 received NaCl 0.9% at 1 ml/day for 14 days; group 2 received Q10 at 1 mg/kg/day for 14 days; group 3 received initial 7 days of treatment with NaCl 0.9% followed by a single dose of doxorubicin (12.5 mg/kg IP) and another 7 days of NaCl; and group 4 received initial 7 days of Q10 1 mg/kg/day, followed by a single dose of doxorubicin (12.5 mg/kg IP) and ...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Botelho AFM, Lempek MR, Branco SEMT, Nogueira MM, de Almeida ME, Costa AG, Freitas TG, Rocha MCRC, Moreira MVL, Barreto TO, Santos JC, Lavalle G, Melo MM Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Vehicular Particulate Matter (PM) Characteristics Impact Vascular Outcomes Following Inhalation.
Abstract Roadside proximity and exposure to mixed vehicular emissions (MVE) have been linked to adverse pulmonary and vascular outcomes. However, because of the complex nature of the contribution of particulate matter (PM) versus gases, it is difficult to decipher the precise causative factors regarding PM and the copollutant gaseous fraction. To this end, C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-/-) were exposed to either filtered air (FA), fine particulate (FP), FP+gases (FP+G), ultrafine particulate (UFP), or UFP+gases (UFP+G). Two different timeframes were employed: 1-day (acute) or 30-day (subchronic)...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Zychowski KE, Tyler CRS, Sanchez B, Harmon M, Liu J, Irshad H, McDonald JD, Bleske BE, Campen MJ Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Lipocalin-2 Predicts Long-Term Outcome of Normotensive Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.
Abstract Normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) are accompanied by heterogeneously adverse events. Responding to tissue injury, lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) is elevated in experimental APE model and associated with short-term prognosis. However, the prognostic value of LCN-2 in normotensive patients with APE for long-term major adverse events (MAEs) remains unknown. We evaluated the association of plasma LCN-2 levels with the median 467-day outcome in 170 normotensive patients with APE. We also assessed whether LCN-2 could improve risk stratification. MAEs consisted of mortality or recurrence of venous t...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yu H, Liu Z, Lu J, Yang X, Yan XX, Mi Y, Hua L, Li Y, Jing ZC, Du J Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Chronic Mercury Exposure in Prehypertensive SHRs Accelerates Hypertension Development and Activates Vasoprotective Mechanisms by Increasing NO and H2O2 Production.
Vassallo DV Abstract Mercury is a heavy metal associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have reported increased vascular reactivity without changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after chronic mercury chloride (HgCl2) exposure, an inorganic form of the metal, in normotensive rats. However, we do not know whether individuals in the prehypertensive phase, such as young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), are susceptible to increased arterial blood pressure. We investigated whether chronic HgCl2 exposure in young SHRs accelerates hypertension development by studying the vascular function of mesenteric re...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - July 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fardin PBA, Simões RP, Schereider IRG, Almenara CCP, Simões MR, Vassallo DV Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research