Leveraging neuroplasticity to enhance adaptive learning: The potential for synergistic somatic-behavioral treatment combinations to improve clinical outcomes in depression
Until recently, therapeutic development in psychiatry was targeted solely towards symptom reduction. While this is a worthwhile goal, it has yielded little progress in improved therapeutics in the last several decades in the field of mood disorders. Recent advancements in our understanding of pathophysiology suggests that an impairment of neuroplasticity may be a critical part of the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Interventions that enhance or modulate neuroplasticity often reduce depressive symptoms when applied as stand-alone treatments. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samuel T. Wilkinson, Paul E. Holtzheimer, Shan Gao, David S. Kirwin, Rebecca B. Price Tags: Review Source Type: research

Amino acid dysregulation metabotypes: potential biomarkers for diagnosis and individualized treatment for subtypes of autism spectrum disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is behaviorally and biologically heterogeneous and likely represents a series of conditions arising from different underlying genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. There are currently no reliable diagnostic biomarkers for ASD. Based on evidence that dysregulation of branch chain amino acids (BCAA) may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of ASD, we tested whether dysregulation of amino acids (AA) was a pervasive phenomenon in individuals with ASD. This is the first paper to report results from the Children ’s Autism Metabolome Project (CAMP, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifie...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alan M. Smith, Joseph J. King, Paul R. West, Michael A. Ludwig, Elizabeth L.R. Donley, Robert E. Burrier, David G. Amaral Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

A longitudinal model of human neuronal differentiation for functional investigation of schizophrenia polygenic risk
Common psychiatric disorders are characterized by complex disease architectures with many small genetic effects that contribute and complicate biological understanding of their etiology. There is therefore a pressing need for in vitro experimental systems that allow for interrogation of polygenic psychiatric disease risk to study the underlying biological mechanisms. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anil P.S. Ori, Merel H.M. Bot, Remco T. Molenhuis, Loes M. Olde Loohuis, Roel A. Ophoff Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Alpha1 and beta3 adrenergic receptor-mediated mesolimbic homeostatic plasticity confers resilience to social stress in susceptible mice
Homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons plays an essential role in mediating resilience to social stress. Recent evidence implicates an association between stress resilience and projections from the locus coeruleus to the ventral tegmental area (LC →VTA) DA system. However, the precise circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic DA neurons mediated by the LC→VTA circuitry, and its role in conferring resilience to social defeat stress, have not been described. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hongxing Zhang, Dipesh Chaudhury, Alexander R. Nectow, Allyson K. Friedman, Song Zhang, Barbara Juarez, He Liu, Madeline L. Pfau, Hossein Aleyasin, Cheng Jiang, Marshall Crumiller, Erin S. Calipari, Stacy M. Ku, Carole Morel, Nikos Tzavaras, Sarah E. Mont Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The Hippocampus in Depression: More than the sum of its parts? Advanced Hippocampal Substructure Segmentation in Depression
Hippocampal volume reduction is the most replicated finding in neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). Varying hippocampal volume definition is a well-established problem in this field and given that hippocampal function can be mapped onto anatomically defined substructures, and detailed examination of substructure volumes is now possible, we examined different hippocampal composite measures in MDD to look for hippocampal markers of MDD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Darren W. Roddy, Chloe Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Elena Roman, Leonardo Tozzi, Thomas Frodl, Veronica O ’Keane, Erik O’Hanlon Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Inflammation: A Proposed Intermediary Between Maternal Stress and Offspring Neuropsychiatric Risk
During pregnancy, programming of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) establishes vulnerabilities for emergence of neuropsychiatric phenotypes later in life. Psychosocial influences during pregnancy, such as stressful life events or chronic stress, correlate with offspring neuropsychiatric disorders and with inflammation, respectively. Stress promotes inflammation, but the role of inflammation as a mediator between maternal psychosocial stress and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes has not been extensively studied in humans. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liisa Hantsoo, Sara Kornfield, Montserrat C. Anguera, C. Neill Epperson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Inflammation: A Proposed Intermediary Between Maternal Stress and, Offspring Neuropsychiatric Risk
During pregnancy, programming of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) establishes vulnerabilities for emergence of neuropsychiatric phenotypes later in life. Psychosocial influences during pregnancy, such as stressful life events or chronic stress, correlate with offspring neuropsychiatric disorders and with inflammation, respectively. Stress promotes inflammation, but the role of inflammation as a mediator between maternal psychosocial stress and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes has not been extensively studied in humans. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liisa Hantsoo, Sara Kornfield, Montserrat C. Anguera, C. Neill Epperson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Navigating Genetic Influences on the Topography of Alzheimer ’s Disease
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Wachinger et  al. (1) describe the results of a combined genetic and imaging study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individually, both genetic discoveries and noninvasive brain imaging have been instrumental in shaping contemporary views of the biological underpinnings of AD. The first major genetic breakthroughs came in the 1990s with the identification of the three genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) that cause AD on an autosomal dominant basis. Discovery of these genes, which influence amyloid-β (Aβ) processing, led to the development of the “amyloid cascade hypot...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas D. Parker, Jonathan M. Schott Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Disrupted in Dementia
This issue of Biological Psychiatry brings us a fascinating article that demonstrates functional interactions of two “high profile” proteins, each genetically linked to different brain disorders. Endo et al. (1) demonstrate a potentially striking association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) with disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin Wolozin Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Lifestyles of a Toxic Twosome: A Novel Tau Strain Induced by α-Synuclein Oligomers
One of the key dicta of disease diagnosis learned in medical school is Occam ’s razor: do not posit multiple causes without necessity. Neurological syndromic diagnoses developed in the 19th century were based on shared signs, symptoms, temporal courses, and gross and microscopic post mortem findings. With the evolution of biophysical, genetic, and imaging approaches to neu rodegeneration, however, it has become increasingly clear that nosological distinctions derived from observations of the 19th and early 20th centuries are artificial. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: George R. Jackson Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 84, Number 7, October 1, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Celebrating 50 Years of Biological Psychiatry: To the Future, and Beyond
First published in 1969, Biological Psychiatry ’s sense of mission and enthusiasm for the science that we publish has never been greater. Now in our 50th year, it is fitting to celebrate the emergence of Biological Psychiatry as a vehicle for accelerating the transformation of translational neuroscience and the treatment of neuropsychiatric di sorders. These disorders have emerged as the most disabling medical conditions worldwide and, with rising suicide rates, are also among the most lethal. The magnitude of the challenge of alleviating the burden of these disorders remains beyond our comprehension as the complexit...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John H. Krystal Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibition: A New Glutamate Twist for Clozapine Augmentation in Schizophrenia?
Despite clozapine, many patients with schizophrenia remain treatment resistant. Unfortunately, after many clinical trials with a diverse range of agents, there remain no evidence-based clozapine augmentation strategies. Against this background, the positive results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive sodium benzoate reported by Lin et  al. (1) in this issue of Biological Psychiatry are extremely welcome, and they complement their earlier trial showing similar benefits in patients taking other antipsychotic medications (2). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul J. Harrison Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Defining the Role of Interneuron N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors in Prefrontal Cortex Inhibition
Sustained pharmacological activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has long been known for its neurotoxic effects (1). Nevertheless, exposure in  vivo to NMDAR antagonists also shows striking neurotoxicity resulting in cell death in localized regions of the neocortex (the retrosplenial cortex in particular) (2). Because it appeared that neurotoxicity was mediated by an excitotoxic action, the NMDAR antagonist action was attributed to a disi nhibition that could be ameliorated by the cholinergic blockade. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert W. Greene Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Nailing the Right Dose! The Key for Developing Glycine Transporter Inhibitors for Schizophrenia
D ’Souza et al. (1) must be congratulated for their rigorous attempt to characterize the relationship between doses, central occupancy, and relevant pharmacodynamic effects by the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor PF-03463275. Such studies are essential to inform optimal dose selection for ef ficacy studies and thus provide a critical and indispensable contribution of academia to successful drug development. The conduct and results of their studies highlight methodological and pharmacological issues that are highly relevant for drug development in general and compounds targeting the N-me thyl-D-aspartate r...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Umbricht Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Guided by Voices: Hallucinations and the Psychosis Spectrum
In the basement of a state psychiatric hospital —a stereotypically dark, drab, and run-down building—a training session is being conducted to teach researchers how to engage with individuals who are experiencing symptoms that might presage psychosis. Bethany stares at the screen. The introduction spells out what she remembers to be true: youn g people at risk of developing schizophrenia sometimes hear things that other people do not. She thinks back to herself at 13 years of age, terrified and confused as she pressed her ear to her desk and listened to what sounded like people conversing inside. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Albert R. Powers, Philip R. Corlett, David A. Ross Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

A Network Perspective on the Search for Common Transdiagnostic Brain Mechanisms
The way we conceptualize and categorize psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders has evolved significantly over time —beginning with mental disorders being classified into distinct diagnostic entities purely based on phenomenological criteria, toward a multidimensional description of mental disorders along symptom clusters across diagnostic boundaries that are potentially closer aligned to underlying biological (patho)mechanisms (1). Despite its attractions from a biological/precision medicine point of view, the utility of a transdiagnostic, multidimensional description of mental disorders is challenged by longitudi...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Urs Braun Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 84, Number 6, September 15, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Maternal inflammation and neurodevelopmental programming: A review of preclinical outcomes and implications for translational psychiatry
Early disruptions to neurodevelopment are highly relevant to understanding both psychiatric risk and underlying pathophysiology that can be targeted by new treatments. Much convergent evidence from the human literature associates inflammation during pregnancy with later offspring neuropsychiatric disorders. Preclinical models of prenatal inflammation have been developed to examine the causal maternal physiological and offspring neural mechanisms underlying these findings. Here we review the strengths and limitations of preclinical models used for these purposes and describe selected studies that have shown maternal immune ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Serena B. Gumusoglu, Hanna E. Stevens Tags: Review Source Type: research

Reversing behavioral, neuroanatomical, and germline influences of intergenerational stress
Stressors impact populations exposed to them as well as offspring. Strategies preventing the intergenerational propagation of effects of stress would benefit public health. Olfactory cue-based fear conditioning provides a framework to address this issue. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hadj S. Aoued, Soma Sannigrahi, Nandini Doshi, Filomene G. Morrison, Hannah Linsenbaum, Sarah Hunter, Hasse Walum, Justin Baman, Bing Yao, Peng Jin, Kerry J. Ressler, Brian G. Dias Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Regressive Autism Spectrum Disorder Expands the  Phenotype of BSCL2/Seipin-Associated Neurodegeneration
In 2013, Guill én-Navarro et al. (1) described 6 Spanish patients from Murcia, Spain, affected with a lethal neurodegenerative syndrome during infancy. All the patients were homozygous or compound heterozygous for a rare BSCL2 exon 7–skipping variant. This disorder was called progressive encephalopathy with or without lipodystrophy, or Celia's encephalopathy (2). Since then, no other case has been published, and the phenotypic variability of this genetic event remains unknown. Here, we report a female patient with regressive autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who developed atypical parkinsonism in adulthood. ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alice Poisson, Nicolas Chatron, Audrey Labalme, Marianne Till, Emmanuel Broussolle, Damien Sanlaville, Caroline Demily, Gaetan Lesca Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

RPS23RG1 is Required for Synaptic Integrity and Rescues Alzheimer ’s Associated Cognitive Deficits
Although synaptic impairment is prerequisite to cognitive deficiencies in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of essential synaptic scaffolding components and their integrity remain elusive. RPS23RG1 is a newly identified protein implicated in AD. However, the physiological function of RPS23RG1 has yet to be determined. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dongdong Zhao, Jian Meng, Yingjun Zhao, Yuanhui Huo, Yan Liu, Naizhen Zheng, Muxian Zhang, Yue Gao, Zhicai Chen, Hao Sun, Xiangyu Wang, Chuya Jing, Tongmei Zhang, Xian Zhang, Hong Luo, Xin Wang, Jie Zhang, Fa-rong Liu, Yanfang Li, Guojun Bu, Lei Wen, Timo Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

Perinatal Nutrition and Programmed Risk for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Focus on Animal Models
Maternal nutrition is critically important for fetal development. Recent human studies demonstrate a strong connection between diet during pregnancy and offspring risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Animal models have emerged as a crucial tool for understanding maternal nutrition ’s contribution to prenatal programming and the later development of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review highlights preclinical studies examining how maternal consumption of the three macronutrients (protein, fats, and carbohydrates) influence offspring negative...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Madison DeCapo, Jacqueline R. Thompson, Geoffrey Dunn, Elinor L. Sullivan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Is Pretreatment Blood Pressure a Marker of Prazosin Response in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Comorbid Alcohol Use Disorder?
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder, and central nervous system adrenergic system hyperactivity is thought to play a key role in its pathophysiology (1 –3). Several studies have suggested that prazosin, an α1-adrenoreceptor blocker, is effective in improving PTSD-related sleep symptoms, hyperarousal, global clinical status, and overall PTSD symptom burden (3–9). However, there is a wide variation in the effect(s) of prazosin across various pat ient populations (3). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ajay Manhapra, Elizabeth Ralevski, Ismene L. Petrakis Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A Case for the Frontal Pole as an Empirically Derived Neuromodulation Treatment Target
Since 2015 there has been unprecedented growth in the development of noninvasive brain stimulation treatments for a variety of psychiatric diseases. This growth was catalyzed by the initial U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a tool to treat pharmacoresistant major depressive disorder in 2008, widespread coverage by medical insurers throughout the United States, and the announcement of several high-profile Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative requests for noninvasive brain stimulation applications from the National Institutes ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Colleen A. Hanlon, Noah S. Philip, Rebecca B. Price, Warren K. Bickel, Jonathan Downar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Noradrenergic transmission at alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the ventral periaqueductal gray modulates arousal
Dysregulation of arousal is symptomatic of numerous psychiatric disorders. Previous research has shown that the activity of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) tracks with arousal state, and lesions of vPAGDA cells increase sleep. However, the circuitry controlling these wake-promoting DA neurons is unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kirsten A. Porter-Stransky, Samuel W. Centanni, Saumya L. Karne, Lindsay M. Odil, Sinda Fekir, Jennifer C. Wong, Canaan Jerome, Heather A. Mitchell, Andrew Escayg, Nigel P. Pederson, Danny G. Winder, Darlene A. Mitrano, David Weinshenker Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Adolescent Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure and Astrocyte-Specific Genetic Vulnerability Converge on Nuclear Factor-κB–Cyclooxygenase-2 Signaling to Impair Memory in Adulthood
Although several studies have linked adolescent cannabis use to long-term cognitive dysfunction, there are negative reports as well. The fact that not all users develop cognitive impairment suggests a genetic vulnerability to adverse effects of cannabis, which are attributed to action of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a cannabis constituent and partial agonist of brain cannabinoid receptor 1. As both neurons and glial cells express cannabinoid receptor 1, genetic vulnerability could influence Δ9-THC–induced signaling in a cell type–specific manner. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yan Jouroukhin, Xiaolei Zhu, Alexey V. Shevelkin, Yuto Hasegawa, Bagrat Abazyan, Atsushi Saito, Jonathan Pevsner, Atsushi Kamiya, Mikhail V. Pletnikov Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

Adolescent Δ9-THC exposure and astrocyte-specific genetic vulnerability converge on NF-κB-COX-2 signaling to impair memory in adulthood
Although several studies linked adolescent cannabis use to long-term cognitive dysfunction, there are negative reports too. The fact that not all users develop cognitive impairment suggests a genetic vulnerability to adverse effects of cannabis, which are attributed to action of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ9-THC), a cannabis constituent and partial agonist of brain cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1). As both neurons and glial cells express CNR1, genetic vulnerability could influence Δ9-THC-induced signaling in a cell type-specific manner. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yan Jouroukhin, Xiaolei Zhu, Alexey V. Shevelkin, Yuto Hasegawa, Bagrat Abazyan, Atsushi Saito, Jonathan Pevsner, Atsushi Kamiya, Mikhail V. Pletnikov Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

SAR405, a highly specific Vps34 inhibitor, disrupts auditory fear memory consolidation of mice via facilitation of inhibitory neurotransmission in basolateral amygdala
Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an important role in memory deficits as well as the degradation of neurotransmitter receptors. SAR405 is a newly discovered inhibitor that can specifically inhibit vacuolar sorting protein 34 (Vps34) and prevent autophagosome biogenesis. However, the effects of SAR405 on memory process remains largely unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kuan Li, Hong-Sheng Chen, Di Li, Hou-Hong Li, Ji Wang, Lei Jia, Peng-Fei Wu, Li-Hong Long, Zhuang-Li Hu, Jian-Guo Chen, Fang Wang Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Evolving Perspectives on the Public Health Burden of Eating Disorders
What is the public health burden of eating disorders? The burden is a product of two factors: 1) the prevalence of these disorders and 2) the degree of disability (including morbidity and mortality) caused by these disorders. In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Udo and Grilo (1) offer new numbers for this “burden equation.” Using data from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), they have attempted to estimate the prevalence and correlates, including self-reported disability, of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: James I. Hudson, Harrison G. Pope Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Stereotactic Radiosurgical Capsulotomy for the Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Surgical interventions for psychiatric disorders are as old as the field of stereotactic neurosurgery. Indeed, the first stereotactic neurosurgical procedures in humans, performed in the late 1940s, were for psychiatric indications (1). Thermocoagulation probes were introduced through small incisions and burr holes using coordinates determined from ventricular anatomy visualized using pneumoencephalography. These early procedures created targeted lesions in gray matter structures (e.g., the thalamic nuclei in thalamotomy) or white matter connections between them (e.g., the anterior limb of the internal capsule [ALIC] in ca...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sameer A. Sheth Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Distinct but Synergistic Roles for Histone Deacetylase in the Dorsal Striatum During Habit Formation
The world is a complicated place. In new situations, environmental contingencies are often difficult to predict, and successfully navigating them requires flexibility. But as an environment becomes more familiar, these contingencies often turn out to be quite regular and predictable; once this becomes clear, it is adaptive to sacrifice flexibility in favor of efficiency and to form habitual patterns of behavior. The mammalian brain contains neural systems that are specialized to operate in these two modes: a more cognitive, goal-oriented system well adapted for novel or complex environments, and a more efficient but inflex...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christopher Pittenger, Jane R. Taylor Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Poverty, Parenting, and Psychiatry
If poverty persists in America, it is not for lack of resources. —Matthew Desmond, Harvard sociologist and author, Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American CityI have a rough time wanting to spend billions and billions and trillions of dollars to help people who won’t help themselves, won’t lift a finger, and expect the federal government to do everythin g.—Senator Orrin Hatch (R-Utah)Just my soul is messed up…. Sometimes I find my body trembling or shaking. I’m tired, but I can’t sleep. I’m fitting to have a nervous breakdown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kunmi Sobowale, David A. Ross Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

A Developmental Perspective of Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by vocal and motor tics that impacts 4 to 6 out of every 1000 children (1). The developmental course of TS is noteworthy, as the condition will spontaneously improve or remit by adulthood in a significant proportion of child patients (1). These spontaneous improvements suggest that the neural circuits underlying TS undergo significant changes during extended postnatal maturation, with periods of vulnerability during the childhood years that improve for many patients during the transition to adolescence and beyond. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer B. Dwyer Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 84, Number 5, September 1, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Potential of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Consensus Statement
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1 in 59 children, but there are currently no biomedical treatments available that target the core symptoms (1). Preliminary evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have the potential to alleviate difficulties experienced by individuals with ASD (2). The evidence supporting the use of rTMS for ASD has led researchers in the field to form a consensus group that has met annually since 2014. Here we summarize discussions from the most recent meeting in May 2017, including recommendations for future research directions. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eleanor J. Cole, Peter G. Enticott, Lindsay M. Oberman, M. Frampton Gwynette, Manuel F. Casanova, Scott L.J. Jackson, Ali Jannati, James C. McPartland, Adam J. Naples, Nicolaas A.J. Puts, rTMS in ASD Consensus Group Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The Functional Connectivity Between the Nucleus Accumbens and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex as an Endophenotype for Bipolar Disorder
Alterations in functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and frontal cortices have been previously associated with the presence of psychiatric syndromes, including bipolar disorder (BD). Whether these alterations are a consequence or a risk factor for mental disorders remains unresolved. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph R. Whittaker, Sonya F. Foley, Edward Ackling, Kevin Murphy, Xavier Caseras Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Increased number and activity of a lateral subpopulation of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons underlies the expression of an addicted state in rats
The orexin system is important for reward-driven motivation but has not been implicated in the expression of a multi-phenotype addicted state. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Morgan H. James, Colin M. Stopper, Benjamin A. Zimmer, Nikki E. Koll, Hannah E. Bowrey, Gary Aston-Jones Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research