Creatures of Habit: The Neuroscience of Habit and Purposeful Behavior
Growing up, Sarah spent nearly every weekend playing soccer, yet one of her most vivid childhood memories of practicing with her team has nothing to do with sports. The practices lasted several hours and were made manageable by a much-cherished snack break. One week in spring, she grabbed her water bottle after leaving the field and ran over to the snack table, as she had countless times before. She spotted a box of doughnuts on the table, and without thinking, picked up a chocolate doughnut and took a bite. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alana I. Mendelsohn Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Impaired Prefrontal-Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity and Substantia Nigra Hyperactivity in Schizophrenia,” by Yoon et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2013; 74:122–129); 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.018. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Value-Based Choice, Contingency Learning, and Suicidal Behavior in Mid- and Late-Life Depression,” by Dombrovski et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2019; 85:506–516); 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.10.006. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Connecting the Dots: Adolescent Alcohol, Enhancer RNA, and Anxiety
The overwhelming drug of choice for abuse by adolescents is alcohol, and when they drink, it is often in intermittent binges, consuming more than four drinks in a few hours (1). Considerable epidemiological evidence documents that adolescent exposure to ethanol can increase the risk for drug dependence, affective disorders, or cognitive impairment in adulthood (2). Similar results from adolescent ethanol exposure have been found in animal models (3) and also occur with other drugs of abuse (4). Such findings document that adolescence is a critically sensitive developmental period whereby ethanol can evoke long-lasting chan...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer T. Wolstenholme, Michael F. Miles Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Inviting in the Exome for Alcohol and Smoking Traits
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Brazel et  al. (1) report the first large meta-analysis of array-based exome genotype data including rare variant (RV) content for phenotypes related to smoking and alcohol use. While there have been numerous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of these traits and of related traits, the custom—at least for smaller studies up to this point—has been to sweep RVs under the rug (where they formed only a very small pile) rather than take notice of them. This has been a necessity, for the most part. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joel Gelernter Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Sex and Hormonal Status Influence the Persistence of Addiction in Animal Models
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Nicolas et  al. (1) add to a growing literature demonstrating the importance of sex and gonadal hormones in the development of substance use disorders. Their study focused on the incubation of cocaine craving in male versus female rats tested at different estrous cycle phases. Overall, they showed that estrou s cyclicity significantly altered cocaine craving (or seeking) after a drug-free period. From a translational perspective, these incubation of craving and self-administration procedures model several key features of human substance use. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan T. Lacy Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

How Does Drug Use Shift the Balance Between Model-Based and Model-Free Control of Decision Making?
What influences the decisions we make? Do we construct rich maps of possible actions and their outcomes to select the best future option, using so-called model-based strategies, or do we default to something more automatic that reflects what generally has been best based on past experience, processes that are referred to as model-free strategies? These questions have motivated experiments designed to tease apart differences in these two decision-making strategies. In humans, a major advance toward addressing this question came from the development of a two-stage decision-making task that allows simultaneous determination o...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kurt M. Fraser, Patricia H. Janak Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 85, Number 11, June 1, 2019 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Autophagy dysfunction in Alzheimer ’s disease: mechanistic insights and new therapeutic opportunities
Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss due to aberrant accumulation of misfolded proteins inside and outside neurons and glial cells leading to a loss of cellular protein homeostasis. Today, no therapy is available to block or slow down AD progress ion and the mechanisms of the disease are not fully understood. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway crucial to maintaining cellular homeostasis by clearing damaged organelles, pathogens, and unwanted protein aggregates. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antonio Di Meco, Mary Elizabeth Curtis, Elisabetta Lauretti, Domenico Pratic ό Tags: Review Source Type: research

Associations between ADHD and various eating disorders: A Swedish nationwide population study using multiple genetically informative approaches
In this study we comprehensively investigated the genetic association between ADHD and various EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs (OED, including bulimia nervosa [BN]). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shuyang Yao, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Joanna Martin, Yi Lu, Paul Lichtenstein, Claes Norring, Andreas Birgeg ård, Zeynep Yilmaz, Christopher Hübel, Hunna Watson, Jessica Baker, Catarina Almqvist, Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Cons Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Joint attention in infancy and the emergence of autism
In typical infant development, parents and their children jointly contribute to establishing frequent episodes of joint attention, which boost language acquisition and shape social cognition. Here we used novel live eye tracking technology to evaluate the degree to which Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to reduced responding to others ’ joint attention bids in infancy (RJA) and to a reduced tendency to initiate joint attention episodes (IJA). Because young infants use their gaze for both RJA and IJA, this approach allowed us to quantify these elusive processes early in life. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: P är Nyström, Emilia Thorup, Sven Bölte, Terje Falck-Ytter Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

An Exploratory Examination of Neonatal Cytokines and Chemokines as Predictors of Autism Risk: The Early Markers for Autism Study
The identification of an early biomarker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would improve the determination of risk, leading to earlier diagnosis and, potentially to earlier intervention and improved outcomes. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luke S. Heuer, Lisa A. Croen, Karen L. Jones, Cathleen K. Yoshida, Robin L. Hansen, Robert Yolken, Ousseny Zerbo, Gerald DeLorenze, Martin Kharrazi, Paul Ashwood, Judy Van de Water Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

1. Dissecting the Neural Circuits for Motivated Behavior
In order to survive and effectively navigate an ever-changing and unpredictable environment, organisms must readily adapt their behavior to seek out needed resources, while simultaneously avoiding life-threatening situations. These opposing processes are controlled by neural circuitry that is readily engaged by both environmental and physiological factors to promote behavioral output. The work of my lab studies the precise neural circuits that control both reward and aversive-related behavioral responses. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Garret Stuber Tags: Thursday, May 16, 2019 Source Type: research

2. Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum Hubs: Integrating Information From Reward, Cognitive, and Motor Control Regions
The cortico-cortical and cortico-basal ganglia networks are central to incentive-based learning and good decision making. There is growing consensus that obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, and addiction are manifestations of dysfunction of these networks. Behavioral responses to environmental cues depend not only on the ability to evaluate different aspects of reward, but also the ability to inhibit inappropriate choices. Integrating reward information with that involved in cognition and motor control is thus essential for developing motivational control and appropriately adaptive behaviors. (Source:...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Suzanne Haber Source Type: research

3. The Genomic Architecture of Individual Differences in Stress Susceptibility
Stress is a well-established ‘trigger’ for multiple forms of chronic illness including mental disorders. Despite the compelling epidemiological evidence, most individuals exposed to chronic, severe stress during development or adulthood are largely unaffected with respect to serious health outcomes. These findings reflect t he remarkable individual variation in susceptibility to stress. In the studies reported here we attempted to integrate this knowledge into an analysis of the genetic architecture of stress susceptibility in humans. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Meaney Source Type: research

4. Emotion-Related Impulsivity: Outcomes and Putative Mechanisms
Emotion-related impulsivity, or the tendency to become impulsive in response to positive and negative emotion states, is conceptually and empirically distinct from other forms of impulsivity. A large body of work now indicates that emotion-related impulsivity is more robustly related to psychopathology than other forms of impulsivity are. Cross-sectional and longitudinal work indicates this form of impulsivity is related to internalizing, externalizing, and psychotic disorders. Early findings indicate that emotion-related impulsivity is tied to neurocognitive deficits in response inhibition, particularly during states of h...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sheri Johnson Source Type: research

5. Emotion Network Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Youth at High Risk for Bipolar Disorder
Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) have aberrant emotion-relevant networks. However, function of these networks leading to resilience versus the emergence of BD and other mood disorders in these high-risk youth is poorly understood. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Manpreet Singh, Akua Nimarko, Sara Momi Leslie, Adina Fischer Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

6. Multimodal Neuroimaging and Neurocognitive Investigation of Bipolar Youth and Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder
We have investigated fronto-limbic brain mechanisms in youth with bipolar disorder (BD), as well as the at-risk children of a BD parent. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jair Soares Source Type: research

7. Neural Predictors of a Mood Episode in Youth With a Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder
Recent findings suggest that youth with bipolar disorder exhibit structural and functional alteration in prefrontal brain regions. We investigated whether these abnormalities are present prior to illness onset in order to  identify biomarkers that may serve as predictors of illness. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Melissa DelBello, Wenjing Zhang, Su Lui, Max Tallman, Caleb Adler, Rodrigo Patino, Stephen Strakowski Source Type: research

8. Neural Markers of Treatment Response of First-Episode Mania in Adolescents
Bipolar I disorder is defined by the occurrence of mania, typically starts in adolescence and then progresses into a recurrent lifelong condition. If the early disease course progression could be prevented, long-term outcomes might improve. Identifying neural markers of treatment response at illness onset might guide treatment and clarify the evolving neurobiology of this condition. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen Strakowski, David Fleck, Jeffrey Welge, Caleb Adler, Melissa DelBello Source Type: research

9. Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission and Cortical Circuits Function
The balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission shapes cortical circuit excitability and neuronal responses to incoming stimuli. While transient alterations of this balance may occur during learning or during experience-dependent reorganization of neural circuits, long lasting disruption of the balance between excitation and inhibition, especially during postnatal development, may render networks unstable possibly leading to disease states. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arianna Maffei Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

10. Acute Stress Suppresses Prefrontal Cortex Excitability and Potentiates Nicotine-Seeking Among Cigarette Smokers: Evidence of a Neurobiological Mechanism
Relapse rates among cigarette smokers remain unacceptably high. Patients often cite ‘stress’ as a precipitating factor. Indeed, experimental stress reliably potentiates drug-seeking in rodents: yet, neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we examined dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) excitability as a mechanism through which acute stress may potentiate nicotine-seeking. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eric Woodcock, Mark Greenwald, Dalal Khatib, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Jeffrey Stanley Source Type: research

11. Detecting Age-Related Changes in Brain Chemistry Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Understanding neurocognitive aging will help us better characterize pathological and non-pathological changes in the brain throughout the lifespan and identify preclinical markers for cognitive decline. Human studies have often relied on the indirect and relative measures provided by BOLD fMRI, but using magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy (MRS), we can measure the metabolic signatures for excitatory and inhibitory activity (e.g. GABA, glutamate, choline, etc.), which provides a more direct mechanism for hippocampal dysfunction related to aging and dementia. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Craig Stark Source Type: research

12. 1H fMRS Provides Direct Evidence for the Impaired Modulation of Hippocampal Glutamate During Memory Consolidation in Schizophrenia
Glutamate-related dysfunctional neuroplasticity is proposed as a critical mechanism mediating learning and memory deficits in schizophrenia (SZ), though direct neurochemical evidence has been lacking. Here we provide the first ever application of in vivo 1H fMRS (to access functional neurochemistry) to demonstrate dysfunctional modulation of hippocampal glutamate in SZ patients during memory consolidation. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeffrey Stanley, Patricia Thomas, Dalal Khatib, Asadur Chowdury, Usha Rajan, Luay Haddad, Alireza Amirsadri, Vaibhav Diwadkar Source Type: research

13. The Role of Common and Rare Variants in ADHD Risk and Genetic Overlap With Other Phenotypes
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioural disorder affecting 3-6% of children and 4% of adults. Here we will present results from our latest research elucidating the role of common and rare variants in ADHD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ditte Demontis, Kyle F. Satterstrom, Jinjie Duan, Francesco Lescai, S øren Dinesen Østergaard, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Thomas Werge, Preben Mortensen, Simon Glerup, Barbara Franke, David M. Hougaard, Andreas Reif, Mark Daly, Benjamin Neale, Anders Børglum, Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

14. Conditional Knockout of Rbfox1, a Cross-Disorder Psychiatric Risk Gene, Causes an Autism-Like Phenotype in Mice
The splicing regulator Rbfox1 has been identified as a candidate for aggressive behaviors (Fernandez-Castillo, 2018). In parallel, it emerged as one of the most significant candidate gene in the latest mood spectrum and cross-disorder GWAS making it a candidate gene to be prioritized for functional studies. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andreas Reif, Florian Freudenberg, Esin Candemir, No èlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Bru Cormand, Andreas Chiocchetti, David A. Slattery, Aet O'Leary Source Type: research

15. Predicting Comorbid Disorders in ADHD Using Machine Learning
Substantial research shows that ADHD is frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders and with some medical outcomes such as obesity and asthma. We also know from genome-wide association studies that common genetic variants account for some of this comorbidity. Because ADHD is typically an early-onset disorder, ADHD youth are an ideal group for applying prediction models to predict comorbidity from clinical and biological data. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen Faraone, Yanli Zhang James, Qi Chen, Henrik Larsson Source Type: research

16. Brain Imaging of ADHD Across the Lifespan – Results of the Largest Study Worldwide From the Enigma ADHD Working Group
Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with ADHD. However, these studies are often underpowered and heterogeneous in their methods. Our aim is to map the characteristics of the brains of people with ADHD across the life span. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martine Hoogman, Ryan Muetzel, ENIGMA-ADHD collaboration, Generation R, Jan Buitelaar, Paul M. Thompson, Steven Faraone, Philip Shaw, Henning Tiemeier, Janita Bralten, Barbara Franke Source Type: research

17. Blunted Tuning of Posterior Parietal Cortex Activity is Central to Working Memory Storage Deficits in Schizophrenia
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is believed to underlie working memory (WM) deficits in people with schizophrenia (PSZ), but few studies have focused on WM storage devoid of manipulation. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Britta Hahn, Molly Erickson, Benjamin Robinson, Carly Leonard, Steven Luck, James Gold Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

18. Molecular Substrate of Impaired Working Memory in Schizophrenia: Differential Contributions of Cortical Regions and Cell Types
Visuospatial working memory (WM), which is impaired in schizophrenia, depends on a distributed network including primary visual (V1), association visual (V2), posterior parietal (PPC), and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices. Information is conveyed across these regions via the excitatory projections of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons located in layer 3, whose activity is regulated by subsets of GABAergic neurons that express parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST) or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David Lewis, Gil Hoftman, Samuel Dienel, Makoto Tsubomoto, Takanori Hashimoto Source Type: research

19. Dorsolateral Prefrontal and Posterior Parietal Networks Supporting Working Memory in a Non-Human Primate Model
Neurons in both the dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are active during working memory tasks. The functional specialization of the two areas and the underlying circuit properties responsible for such a specialization are unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christos Constantinidis Source Type: research

20. Intrinsic Properties of Layer 3 Pyramidal Neurons From Monkey Prefrontal and Parietal Cortices
In primates, working memory depends on activity in a distributed network of cortical areas, including the posterior parietal (PPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices, interconnected by projections originated from layer 3 pyramidal neurons (L3PNs). Intrinsic properties of L3PNs differ between primate sensory cortex and DLPFC, but whether L3PN properties differ between association areas such as DLPFC and PPC is less clear. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos, Takeaki Miyamae, Yosef Krimer, Dominique Arion, John F. Enwright, David Lewis Source Type: research

21. ENIGMA-Relatives: The Association Between Familial Risk for Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and Brain Abnormalities
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. Interestingly, imaging studies have indicated that there may be a converse pattern of brain abnormalities in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (FDRs-SZ) and bipolar patients (FDRs-BD), with smaller volumes reported in FDRs-SZ and enlargements in FDRs-BD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sonja de Zwarte, Rachel Brouwer, Christopher Ching, Ole Andreassen, Theo van Erp, Jessica Turner, Paul Thompson, Ren é Kahn, Neeltje van Haren, ENIGMA-Relatives Working Group Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

22. Meta-Analysis of Hippocampal Subfields: Results From the ENIGMA-MDD Working Group
Hippocampal volume reductions in major depressive disorder (MDD) represent a robust finding in retrospective meta-analyses. Subregional specificity of this finding has been suspected from several smaller previous studies. Given the complex role of the hippocampus both for stress response regulation and its vulnerability to chronic disease, we aim at finer mapping of this result using FreeSurfer based, automated subfield segmentation. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philipp Saemann, Michael Czisch, Neda Jahanshad, Christopher D. Whelan, Laura van Velzen, Derrek Hibar, Laura Han, Ilya M. Veer, Henrik Walter, Dick Veltman, Lianne Schmaal Source Type: research

23. In Vivo Hippocampal Subfield Volumes in Bipolar Disorder – A Multisite ENIGMA Mega-Approach
This study aims at mapping hippocampal subfield morphology in BD across subgroups, the relation to clinical characteristics, and effects of medication. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tiril P. Gurholt, Unn K. Haukvik, Stener Nerland, Paul M. Thompson, Christopher Ching, Ole Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group ENIGMA Consortium Source Type: research

24. Shape Asymmetry of Deep Brain Structural Structures in 2763 Individuals With Schizophrenia Compared to 3768 Healthy Volunteers in a Prospective Shape Meta-Analysis via the ENIGMA Consortium
Shape analysis methods have advanced our understanding of morphometric changes in schizophrenia. However, findings are equivocal, including hemisphere asymmetry. We performed a prospective shape meta-analysis to investigate subcortical shape in 2763 individuals with schizophrenia and 3768 healthy controls, using data from 21 worldwide institutions via the ENIGMA Consortium. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Boris Gutman, Lei Wang, ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group Source Type: research

25. Longitudinal Epigenome-Wide Changes From Trauma to PTSD Diagnosis
Most individuals who experience a traumatic event exhibit acute, but transient, symptoms over the first week after trauma. However, recovery from trauma occurs much more slowly in those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Though advances in epigenetics have identified methylation differences in subjects with PTSD, little is known the longitudinal epigenetic changes after trauma exposure. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shota Nishitani, Varun Kilaru, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Sterling Winters, Barbara Rothbaum, Kerry Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic, Alicia Smith Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

26. Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in 1,135 U.S. Veterans
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and often disabling condition that is highly prevalent in military veterans. Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in the etiology of PTSD, with DNA methylation being the most studied to identify novel biomarkers associated with this disorder. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janitza Montalvo-Ortiz, Joel Gelernter, Steven M. Southwick, John Krystal, Robert Pietrzak Source Type: research

27. Differential Methylation at Glucocorticoid-Relevant Regulatory Regions Associated With PTSD in African Americans
Recent genome-scale work has identified African-ancestry specific genetic contributions to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk but integrated analyses of other epigenomic data in individuals of predominantly African ancestry are currently lacking. We sought to identify functionally relevant, differentially methylated (DM) genomic sites that associate with PTSD in African-Americans (AA), focusing specifically on genes in the glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network (GRRN) pathway. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Grace Kim, Allison Aiello, Karestan Koenen, Sandro Galea, Derek Wildman, Monica Uddin Source Type: research

28. An Epigenome-Wide Association Study of PTSD in Veterans Implicates Several New DNA Methylation Loci
Both candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) have implicated DNA methylation in PTSD. Here, we present an EWAS of PTSD in a cohort of United States veterans (n=378 lifetime PTSD cases and 135 controls) assessed using the Illumina EPIC BeadChip. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mark Logue, Erika Wolf, Filomene Morrison, Zhenwei Zhou, Alicia Smith, Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Anjanette Stone, Steven Schichman, Regina McGlinchey, William Milberg, Traumatic Stress Brain Study Group, Bertrand Huber, Mark Miller Source Type: research

29. Prospective Study of Adolescents Reveals Disturbed Trajectories of Frontal Cortical and Cerebellar Volumes Following Initiation of Drinking
Development of the human brain continues throughout adolescence and into young adulthood and is characterized by declining cortical gray matter. Initiation of heavy drinking alcohol, which commonly occurs during neurodevelopment years, can potentially alter normal brain trajectories. This analysis questioned the effect of initiating heavy drinking on developmental trajectories of supratentorial cortex and the cerebellum. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith Sullivan Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

30. Translational Studies on the Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Exposure on Sleep and Brain Connectivity
Frequent binge drinking during adolescence has been associated with health risk behaviors including alcohol use disorders (AUD), yet few studies have documented its effects on neurophysiological consequences in young adulthood. Two measures, sleep and synchrony of phase (phase-locking, PL) of event-related oscillations (EROs) between frontal and parietal cortex were evaluated. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy Ehlers Source Type: research

31. Persistent Neuroimmune and Epigenetic Signaling in Adult Brain Following Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Mimics Findings in Human Alcoholics
Adolescence is a period of maturation of self-control, consideration of future consequences, planning, and socialization skills, and eventually reductions in risk taking and sensation seeking. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fulton Crews, Leon Coleman, Ryan Vetrino Source Type: research

32. Epigenetic Regulators of Molecular Changes in the Amygdala Caused by Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Humans and Rodents
This study investigated how adolescent drinking effects epigenetic mechanisms mediated by EZH2 (histone methyltransferase) in humans and rodents. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Subhash Pandey, John Peyton Bohnsack, Huaibo Zhang, Tara Teppen, Evan Kyzar, Svetlana Dzitoyeva Source Type: research

33. Quantifying the Axonal Pathways Directly Stimulated in Therapeutic Subcallosal Cingulate Deep Brain Stimulation
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is an emerging experimental therapy for treatment-resistant depression. New developments in SCC DBS surgical targeting are focused on identifying specific axonal pathways for stimulation that are estimated from patient-specific computational models. This connectomic-based biophysical modeling strategy has proven successful in improving the clinical response to SCC DBS therapy, but the DBS models used to date have been relatively simplistic, limiting the precision of the pathway activation estimates. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cameron McIntyre Tags: SYMPOSIUM Source Type: research

34. “Shoot First and Call Whatever You hit the Target” - How to Improve Outcomes in DBS for Depression
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising technique for modulating circuits underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Since its implementation in mood disorders, multiple case series demonstrated positive results in the subcallosal cingulate cortex. Unfortunately, an industry sponsored clinical trial in the subcallosal cingulate did not replicate these findings. The identification of biomarkers is crucial for the future of this treatment. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patricio Riva Posse, Kisueng Choi, Allison Waters, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg Source Type: research