Chronic stress induces coordinated cortical microcircuit cell-type transcriptomic changes consistent with altered information processing
Information processing in cortical cell microcircuits involves regulation of excitatory pyramidal (PYR) cells by inhibitory Somatostatin- (SST), Parvalbumin- (PV), and Vasoactive intestinal peptide- (VIP) expressing interneurons. Human post-mortem and rodent studies show impaired PYR-cell dendritic morphology and decreased SST-cell markers in MDD or after chronic stress. However, knowledge of coordinated changes across microcircuit cell-types is virtually absent. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dwight F. Newton, Hyunjung Oh, Rammohan Shukla, Keith Misquitta, Corey Fee, Mounira Banasr, Etienne Sibille Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Interrogating Associations between Polygenic Liabilities and Electroconvulsive Therapy Effectiveness
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe major depressive episodes (MDE). Nonetheless, firmly established associations between ECT outcomes and biological variables are currently lacking. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) carry clinical potential but associations with treatment response in psychiatry are seldom reported. Here, we examined whether PRSs for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, cross-disorder, and pharmacological antidepressant response are associated with ECT effectiveness. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jurjen J. Luykx, Dore Loef, Bochao Lin, Linda van Diermen, Jasper O. Nuninga, Eric van Exel, Mardien L. Oudega, Didi Rhebergen, Sigfried N.T.M. Schouws, Philip van Eijndhoven, Esm ée Verwijk, Didier Schrijvers, Tom K. Birkenhager, Karen M. Ryan, Baer Art Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

Behavioral engagement with playable objects resolves stress-induced adaptive changes by reshaping the reward system
The reward system regulates motivated behavior, and repeated practice of specific motivated behavior might conversely modify the reward system. However, the detailed mechanisms by which they reciprocally regulate each other are not clearly understood. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jin-Young Park, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Jin Kwon, In-Sun Baek, Ji-Seon Seo, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Pyung-Lim Han Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Astrocytes render memory flexible by releasing D-serine and regulating NMDAR tone in the hippocampus
NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders with an impairment of cognitive flexibility. However, the molecular mechanism of how NMDAR hypofunction with decreased NMDAR tone causes the impairment of cognitive flexibility has been minimally understood. Furthermore, it has been unclear whether hippocampal astrocytes regulate NMDAR tone and cognitive flexibility. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wuhyun Koh, Mijeong Park, Ye Eun Chun, Jaekwang Lee, Hyun Soo Shim, Mingu Gordon Park, Sunpil Kim, Moonsun Sa, Jinhyeong Joo, Hyunji Kang, Soo-Jin Oh, Junsung Woo, Heejung Chun, Seung Eun Lee, Jinpyo Hong, Jiesi Feng, Yulong Li, Hoon Ryu, Jeiwon Cho, C. J Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Mining Clinical Data for Novel PTSD Medications
Despite the prevalence and negative impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few medications approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment, and approved medications do not work well enough. We leveraged large-scale electronic health record data to identify existing medications that may be repurposed as PTSD treatments. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brian Shiner, Jenna A. Forehand, Luke Rozema, Martin Kulldorff, Bradley V. Watts, Marina Trefethen, Tammy Jiang, Krista F. Huybrechts, Paula P. Schnurr, Matthew Vincenti, Jiang Gui, Jaimie L. Gradus Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Negative urgency exacerbates relapse to cocaine seeking after abstinence.
The mechanisms through which drug-cue induced negative affective states are involved in relapse have not been defined. We tested the hypothesis that in individuals having developed a dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent cue-controlled cocaine seeking habit, the loss of the opportunity to enact the drug seeking response during abstinence results in an urge to act that exacerbates relapse severity mediated by negative urgency. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maxime Fouyssac, Yolanda Pe ña-Oliver, Mickaёl Puaud, Nicole Lim, Chiara Giuliano, Barry J. Everitt, David Belin Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Neurochemical markers of traumatic brain injury – relevance to acute diagnostics, disease monitoring, and neuropsychiatric outcome prediction
Considerable advancements have been made in the quantification of biofluid-based biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which provide a clinically accessible window to investigate disease mechanisms and progression. Methods with improved analytical sensitivity compared with standard immunoassays are increasingly utilized, which has opened for the use of blood tests in the diagnosis, monitoring, and outcome prediction of TBI. Most work to date has focused on acute TBI diagnostics, whilst the literature on biomarkers for long-term sequelae is relatively scarce. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pashtun Shahim, Henrik Zetterberg Tags: Review Source Type: research

Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Why Anatomy Matters
It has now been 21 years since the first publication discussed deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (1), which targeted a well-established ablation site, the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC). Building on the hypothesis that high-frequency stimulation equals ablation, first introduced for tremor in Parkinson ’s disease in the late 1980s, the application of DBS for a variety of neuropsychiatry disorders has been evolving ever since. The initial and somewhat naïve hypothesis was that DBS merely provided a safer, adjustable, and reversible lesion. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martijn Figee, Helen Mayberg Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Neuromodulation via Deep Brain Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder —Present and Perspectives
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly heterogeneous condition. Obsessions and compulsions can vary substantially between patients (e.g., washing, checking, mental rituals, hoarding). Likewise, the neuropsychological mechanism underlying compulsivity can be manifold (e.g., harm avoidance, habit formation, cognitive inflexibility, behavioral disinhibition). While some patients experience a mild waxing and waning of symptoms in adulthood, others develop a severe chronic disorder from early childhood. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jens Kuhn, Juan Carlos Baldermann Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Combining Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation With Behavioral Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Reasons for Optimism Despite Negative Findings
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious problem that impacts civilians and veterans worldwide. Despite significant strides in efficacious treatments, symptoms tend to persist in a large portion of individuals. This is sometimes due to the lack of completing often lengthy treatment protocols or because symptoms persist even after successful treatment completion. For first-line evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for PTSD, such as cognitive processing therapy or prolonged exposure, studies have found that approximately one third of those seeking treatment drop out before completion, with higher rates in Veterans ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Crystal Lantrip Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 90, Number 10, November 15, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry, founded in 1969, is an official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry and the first in the Biological Psychiatry family of journals. Companion titles include Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging and Biological Psychiatry: Global Open Science. The Society ’s purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms, and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, and behavior. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reply to: Multiple Comparisons and Inappropriate Statistical Testing Lead to Spurious Sex Differences in Gene Expression
In our recent publication (1), we used RNA sequencing of several limbic brain regions to identify sex-specific transcriptional profiles in response to cocaine that are disrupted by adolescent experience. RNA sequencing provides a powerful approach to investigate transcription on a global scale and has been instrumental in contributing to an improved understanding of brain function in recent years. For example, our laboratories have successfully employed transcriptomic analyses to identify novel key drivers important for regulating behavioral and neural abnormalities associated with stress- and addiction-related disorders [...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Deena M. Walker, Ashley M. Cunningham, Eric J. Nestler Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Multiple Comparisons and Inappropriate Statistical Testing Lead to Spurious Sex Differences in Gene Expression
The substantial differences in the incidence and symptoms of stress, depression, and addiction between males and females have motivated studies of sex differences in the brain ’s molecular responses to environmental stimuli. In a study of three mouse brain regions from the Nestler laboratory, Walker et al. (1) reported sex-specific transcriptional responses to cocaine and baseline sex differences. They further examined the impact of social isolation on these brain gene expression patterns. However, the transcriptome data (RNA sequencing) and analysis in this study do not support the authors’ conclusions. (...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eran A. Mukamel Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Accumbal Histamine Signaling Engages Discrete Interneuron Microcircuits
Central histamine (HA) signaling modulates diverse cortical and subcortical circuits throughout the brain, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc, a key striatal subregion directing reward-related behavior, expresses diverse HA receptor subtypes that elicit cellular and synaptic plasticity. However, the neuromodulatory capacity of HA within interneuron microcircuits in the NAc remains unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kevin M. Manz, Lillian J. Brady, Erin.S. Calipari, Brad A. Grueter Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Moment-to-moment brain signal variability reliably predicts psychiatric treatment outcome
Biomarkers of psychiatric treatment response remain elusive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown promise, but low reliability has limited the utility of typical fMRI measures (e.g., average brain signal) as harbingers of treatment success. Notably, although historically considered a source of “noise,” temporal brain signal variability continues to gain momentum as a sensitive and reliable indicator of individual differences in neural efficacy, yet has not been examined in relation to psychiatric treatment outcomes. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristoffer N.T. M ånsson, Leonhard Waschke, Amirhossain Manzouri, Tomas Furmark, Håkan Fischer, Douglas D. Garrett Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Attachment style moderates polygenic risk for incident posttraumatic stress in U.S. military veterans: A 7-year, nationally representative, prospective cohort study
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops consequent to complex gene-environment interactions beyond the precipitating trauma. To date, however, no known study has used a prospective design to examine how polygenic risk scores (PRS) interact with social-environmental factors such as attachment style to predict PTSD development. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amanda J.F. Tamman, Frank R. Wendt, Gita A. Pathak, John H. Krystal, Steven M. Southwick, Lauren M. Sippel, Joel Gelernter, Renato Polimanti, Robert H. Pietrzak Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Translation From Genes to Mechanism in Schizophrenia: Are Immune –Synaptic Interactions the Missing Link?
Schizophrenia is associated with a striking range of biological alterations across multiple systems, suggesting that it could be considered a multisystem disorder (1). This is seen at the genetic level, where more than 200 loci implicating disparate genes implicating multiple molecular pathways have been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia at a genome-wide significance level. It is also seen in the immune system, where a large and growing body of evidence demonstrates significant alterations in immune measures in schizophrenia (1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Oliver Howes, Connor Cummings, Meike Heurich Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Risk Prediction in Psychosis: Progress Made and Challenges Ahead
“It is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future,” goes a Danish proverb. Yet in recent decades, a growing number of researchers are attempting to rise to the challenge. For example, in the 25 years between 1995 and 2020, a total of 695,549 scientific publications on prediction modeling were published. In fact, the yearly publication count more than doubled each decade, from 7000 in 1995 to 17,000 in 2005, 42,000 in 2015, and 71,000 in 2020 (Figure 1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin I. Perry, Emanuele F. Osimo, Golam M. Khandaker Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Polygenic Scores for Psychiatric Disorders: One Important Piece of the Risk Prediction Puzzle
In the current issue of Biological Psychiatry, Ni et  al. (1) compare ten polygenic score methods for their ability to predict affection status of individuals diagnosed with either schizophrenia (SCZ) or major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, their work showcases methodological rigor by evaluating polygenic scores (PGSs) using real data from a set of cohorts from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. To evaluate performance, they leave out one cohort to test predictions and use the other cohorts for training and, when required by the method, tuning of parameters. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maria Jalbrzikowski Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

Genetics Awakens the Complex Relationship Between Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders
The complex relationship between mental health and sleep disturbances was recognized by Hippocrates, who argued that sleeplessness is a sign of suffering and may lead to mental illness, while daytime sleepiness is an indication of malady (Hippocratic Corpus, about 400 bc). However, with sleep disturbances  common among patients with psychiatric disorders, the prevailing modern view has been that psychiatric disorders have a major impact on sleep; indeed, sleep problems are listed as symptoms and diagnostic criteria for many psychiatric conditions (1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gianluca Ursini, Giovanna Punzi Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 90, Number 9, November 1, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry, founded in 1969, is an official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry and the first in the Biological Psychiatry family of journals. Companion titles include Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging and Biological Psychiatry: Global Open Science. The Society ’s purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms, and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, and behavior. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental health consequences of traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a host of psychiatric and neurobehavioral problems. As mortality rates have declined for severe TBI, attention has turned to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral sequelae of injuries across the severity spectrum, which are often more disabling than residual physical effects. Moderate and severe TBI can cause personality changes including impulsivity, severe irritability, affective instability, and apathy. Mild TBI, once considered a largely benign phenomenon, is now known to be associated with a range of affective symptoms, with suicidality, and with worsening or new onse...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonathon R. Howlett, Lindsay D. Nelson, Murray B. Stein Tags: Review Source Type: research

A Neuroeconomics Approach to Obesity
Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, affected by physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Value-based decision-making is a useful framework for integrating these factors at the individual level. The disciplines of behavioral economics and reinforcement learning provide tools for identifying specific cognitive and motivational processes that may contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity. Neuroeconomics complements these disciplines by studying the neural mechanisms underlying these processes. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ohad Dan, Emily Wertheimer, Ifat Levy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Novel ADNP syndrome mice reveal dramatic sex-specific peripheral gene expression with brain synaptic and Tau pathologies
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is essential for embryonic development. As such, de novo ADNP mutations lead to an intractable autism/intellectual disability syndrome requiring investigation. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gidon Karmon, Shlomo Sragovich, Gal Hacohen-Kleiman, Inbar Ben-Horin-Hazak, Petr Kasparek, Bj örn Schuster, Radislav Sedlacek, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Paschalis Theotokis, Olga Touloumi, Sofia Zoidou, Linxuan Huang, Pei You Wu, Roy Shi, Oxana Kapitansky, Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Enhancing discovery of genetic variants for PTSD through integration of quantitative phenotypes and trauma exposure information
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWAS). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adam X. Maihofer, Karmel W. Choi, Jonathan R.I. Coleman, Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Christy A. Denckla, Elizabeth Ketema, Rajendra A. Morey, Renato Polimanti, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Katy Torres, Aliza P. Wingo, Clement C. Zai, Allison E. Aiello, Lynn M. Al Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Erratum
to Conference Abstract: “Increased Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Suicidal Ideation Severity in Acutely Suicidal Patients,” by Kim et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021; 89(9S):S349); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.870. Author Jaisy Lau’s name was inadvertently misspelled as Jaisy Lu. The error has now been correcte d. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Myocardial Perfusion and Myocardial Blood Flow: A Longitudinal Twin Study
The link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ischemic heart disease remains elusive due to a shortage of longitudinal studies with a clinical diagnosis of PTSD and objective measures of cardiac compromise. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Viola Vaccarino, Amit J. Shah, Valeria Moncayo, Jonathon Nye, Marina Piccinelli, Yi-An Ko, Xin Ma, Nancy Murrah, Lucy Shallenberger, Emily Driggers, Oleksiy M. Levantsevych, Muhammad Hammadah, Bruno B. Lima, An Young, Wesley O ’Neal, Mhmtjamil Alkhalaf, Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Prenatal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in males leads to motivational disturbances related to striatal epigenetic dysregulation
Cannabis remains one of the most widely abused drugs during pregnancy. In utero exposure to its principal psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can result in long-term neuropsychiatric risk for the progeny. The current study investigated epigenetic signatures underlying these enduring consequences. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Randall J. Ellis, Anissa Bara, Claudia A. Vargas, Amy L. Frick, Eddie Loh, Joseph Landry, Teddy O. Uzamere, James E. Callens, Qammarah Martin, Prashanth Rajarajan, Kristen Brennand, Aarthi Ramakrishnan, Li Shen, Henrietta Szutorisz, Yasmin L. Hurd Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Dynamic Alterations in Neural Networks Supporting Aversive Learning in Children Exposed to Trauma: Neural Mechanisms Underlying Psychopathology
This study examines the temporal dynamics of neural activation and patterns of functional connectivity during aversive learning in children with and without exposure to CT involving interpersonal violence, and evaluates whether these neural patterns mediate the association of CT with psychopathology in a longitudinal design. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephanie N. DeCross, Kelly A. Sambrook, Margaret A. Sheridan, Nim Tottenham, Katie A. McLaughlin Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Identification of vulnerable interneuron subtypes in 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome using single-cell transcriptomics
A number of rare copy-number variants (CNVs) have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. However, since CNVs encompass many genes, it is often difficult to identify the mechanisms that lead to developmental perturbations. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Susmita Malwade, Janina Gasthaus, Carmelo Bellardita, Matej Andelic, Borna Moric, Irina Korshunova, Ole Kiehn, Navneet A. Vasistha, Konstantin Khodosevich Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Patterns of Pre-Treatment Reward Task Brain Activation Predict Individual Antidepressant Response: Key Results from the EMBARC Randomized Clinical Trial
The lack of biomarkers to inform antidepressant selection is a key challenge in personalized depression treatment. This work identifies candidate biomarkers by building deep learning predictors of individual treatment outcomes using reward processing measures from functional MRI, clinical assessments, and demographics. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kevin P. Nguyen, Cherise Chin Fatt, Alex Treacher, Cooper Mellema, Crystal Cooper, Manish K. Jha, Benji Kurian, Maurizio Fava, Patrick J. McGrath, Myrna Weissman, Mary L. Phillips, Madhukar H. Trivedi, Albert Montillo Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Treatment of Psychiatric Problems After Traumatic Brain Injury,” by Fann et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.07.008. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Sex in the Nucleus Accumbens: ΔFosB, Addiction, and Affective States
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are neuropsychiatric diseases with complex etiologies that include genetic/individual predispositions to drug responses that are influenced by distinct environmental stressors (1). Because humans meet the criteria for SUDs only after repeated exposure to drugs, it has been suggested that these drugs may cause long-term neuroplastic changes secondary to epigenetic alterations and associated changes in gene expression. Therefore, recent efforts to dissect molecular responses to drugs have included discovery approaches using large-scale RNA sequencing to investigate the impact of drugs on gene e...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jean Lud Cadet Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Social Stress –Induced Behavioral Adaptations in Females: A Focus on Midline Thalamus Crh Neurons
Alcohol use disorder often co-occurs with other neuropsychiatric disorders, with an increased likelihood of coincidence in women compared with men (1). Furthermore, previous stress exposure has been linked to both mood and alcohol use disorders, but there remains little basic neuroscience research focusing on females in these behavioral domains. Adaptive (and thus stress-induced maladaptive) behaviors can be sexually dimorphic in their expression. As such, established behavioral paradigms that have been used for decades in males do not readily transfer to females, creating a major obstacle for researchers as the field embr...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sydney A. Rowson, Kristen E. Pleil Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation May Indeed Be a Major Player in Opioid Use Disorder in Humans
Opioid use disorder (OUD) has become one of the most significant public health problems of this century. This is not hyperbolic, but rather reflects the conditions on the ground, with some estimates of people living with OUD exceeding 26 million globally in 2016 (1). The etiology of this epidemic is complex and lies at the intersection of medical practice, social and economic factors, governmental policy, and the pressures of modern society (2). As such, treatment of OUD is similarly complex, with most researchers agreeing that a combination of pharmacological intervention, community-based harm reduction programs, and medi...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilia N. Karatsoreos Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicles and Ciliogenesis as Novel Targets to Stop Opioid Tolerance
The ongoing opioid crisis, centered in the United States, demands new insights into the complex and largely unknown mechanisms of opioid tolerance and addiction. Opioids, ranging from the natural opiates such as morphine to synthetic alternatives such as fentanyl, are widely used in the clinic as analgesics for acute and chronic pain. However, long-term administration of opioids may result in tolerance development and thus increase the risk of overdose and death. Broad availability of both prescription and illegal opioids has fueled substance use disorders. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yiyao Huang Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 90, Number 8, October 15, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry, founded in 1969, is an official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry and the first in the Biological Psychiatry family of journals. Companion titles include Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging and Biological Psychiatry: Global Open Science. The Society ’s purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms, and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, and behavior. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

From the group to the individual in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Biomarkers of social cognitive impairments and therapeutic translation
People with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) often experience persistent social cognitive impairments, associated with poor functional outcome. There are currently no approved treatment options for these debilitating symptoms, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Work to date has elucidated differential social processes and underlying neural circuitry affected in SSDs, which may be amenable to modulation using neurostimulation. Further, advances in functional connectivity mapping and electric field modeling may be utilized to identify individualized treatment targets to maximize the impact of brai...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - September 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lindsay D. Oliver, Colin Hawco, Joseph D. Viviano, Aristotle N. Voineskos Tags: Review Source Type: research