Sex-specific role for SLIT1 in regulating stress susceptibility
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pervasive and debilitating syndrome characterized by mood disturbances, anhedonia, and alterations in cognition. While the prevalence of MDD is twice as high for women compared to men, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that drive sex differences in depression susceptibility. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yentl Y. van der Zee, Casey K. Lardner, Eric M. Parise, Philipp Mews, Aarthi Ramakrishnan, Vishwendra Patel, Collin D. Teague, Marine Salery, Deena M. Walker, Caleb J. Browne, Benoit Labont é, Lyonna F. Parise, Hope Kronman, Catherine J. Penã, Angélica Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Establishing Evidence for Clinical Utility of a Neuroimaging Biomarker in Major Depressive Disorder: Prospective Testing and Implementation Challenges.
Although a number of neuroimaging biomarkers for response have been proposed, none have been tested prospectively for direct effects on treament outcomes. This is the first prospective test of the clinical utility of the use of an imaging biomarker to select treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mary E. Kelley, Ki Sueng Choi, Justin K. Rajendra, W. Edward Craighead, Jeffrey J. Rakofsky, Boadie W. Dunlop, Helen S. Mayberg Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes in Response to Adolescent Social Stress in the Brain ’s Reward Circuitry
Sex differences in addiction have been described in humans and animal models. A key factor that influences addiction in both males and females is adolescent experience. Adolescence is associated with higher vulnerability to substance use disorders, and male rodents subjected to adolescent social isolation stress (SI) form stronger preferences for drugs of abuse in adulthood. However, little is known about how females respond to SI, and few studies have investigated the transcriptional changes induced by SI in the brain ’s reward circuitry. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Deena M. Walker, Xianxiao Zhou, Ashley M. Cunningham, Andrew P. Lipschultz, Aarthi Ramakrishnan, Hannah M. Cates, Rosemary C. Bagot, Li Shen, Bin Zhang, Eric J. Nestler Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Chronic stress induces sex-specific functional and morphological alterations in cortico-accumbal and cortico-tegmental pathways
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is part of a complex circuit controlling stress responses by sending projections to different limbic structures including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, the impact of chronic stress on NAc- and VTA-projecting mPFC neurons is still unknown and the distinct contribution of these pathways to stress responses in males and females is unclear. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thibault P. Bittar, Mari Carmen Pelaez, Jose Cesar Hernandez Silva, Francis Quessy, Andr ée-Anne Lavigne, Daphnée Morency, Léa-Jeanne Blanchette, Eric Arsenault, Yoan Cherasse, Josée Seigneur, Igor Timofeev, Chantelle F. Sephton, Christophe D. Proulx, Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

A Second Wave for the Neurokinin Tac2 Pathway in Brain Research.
Despite promising advances in basic research of the Neurokinin B/Tac2 pathway in both animals and humans, clinical applications are yet to be implemented. This is likely due to our limited understanding of the action of the pathway in the brain. While this system controls neuronal activity in multiple regions, the precise impact of Tac2-induced cellular responses on behavior remains unclear. Recently, elegant studies revealed a key contribution to stress-related behaviors and memory. Here, we discuss the crucial importance of bridging the gap between the Tac2 pathway ’s involvement in cell physiology and cognition, i...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Shaam Al Abed, Nathan J. Reynolds, Nathalie Dehorter Tags: Review Source Type: research

Identification of novel neurocircuitry through which leptin targets multiple inputs to the dopamine system to reduce food reward seeking
Leptin reduces the motivation to obtain food by modulating activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system upon presentation of cues that predict a food reward. Although leptin directly reduces activity of ventral tegmental (VTA) dopamine neurons, the majority of leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing dopamine neurons do not project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the projection implicated in driving food reward seeking. Therefore, the precise locus of leptin action to modulate motivation for a food reward is unresolved. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Azar Omrani, Veronne A.J. de Vrind, Bart Lodder, Iris Stoltenborg, Karlijn Kooij, Inge G. Wolterink-Donselaar, Mieneke C.M. Luijendijk-Berg, Keith M. Garner, Lisanne J. van ’t Sant, Annemieke Rozeboom, Suzanne L. Dickson, Frank J. Meye, Roger A.H. Adan Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

PTSD Brain Transcriptomics: Convergent Genomic Signatures Across Biological Sex
While a definitive understanding of the molecular pathology of PTSD is far from current reality, it has become increasingly clear that many of the molecular effects of PTSD are sex-specific. Woman are twice as likely as men to develop PTSD after a traumatic event and neurobiological evidence suggest structural differences between the brains of males versus females with PTSD. Recent advances in genomic technologies have begun to shed light on the sex-specific molecular determinants of PTSD which seem to be governed predominantly by dysfunction of GABAergic signaling and immune function. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiawei Wang, Hongyu Zhao, Matthew J. Girgenti Tags: Review Source Type: research

Pharmacology of Anxiety or Pharmacology of Elevated Plus Maze?
A recent report by DeGroot et  al. (1) described how ventral tegmental area dopamine engages dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons in the caudal interpeduncular nucleus that innervate ventral neuronal populations of this nucleus, thereby amplifying the ventral tegmental area signal to modulate certain aspects of behavior in mice in the commonly used elevated plus maze and open field tests. Reported experiments employed cutting-edge technologies to deliver a convincing set of results. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anton Bespalov, Thomas Steckler Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Altered parvalbumin basket cell terminals in the cortical visuospatial working memory network in schizophrenia
Visuospatial working memory (vsWM), which is commonly impaired in schizophrenia, involves information processing across primary visual (V1), association visual (V2), posterior parietal (PPC), and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices. Within these regions, vsWM requires inhibition from parvalbumin (PV)-expressing basket cells (PVBCs). Here, we analyzed indices of PVBC axon terminals across regions of the vsWM network in schizophrenia. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenneth N. Fish, Brad R. Rocco, Adam M. DeDionisio, Samuel J. Dienel, Robert A. Sweet, David A. Lewis Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Potential of Maternal Diet During Pregnancy: A Promise to Promote the Mental Health of Children
Mental disorders are the leading cause of disability in young people and constitute a major public health concern worldwide. A growing body of evidence indicates that the neurodevelopmental trajectory, which determines future mental health and disease, is largely shaped during the prenatal period of life (1). A constellation of health conditions during pregnancy, such as obesity, diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and depression (referred to collectively here as prenatal environmental adversities), has been linked to a wide range of adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes in children (2). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Polina Girchenko, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Katri R äikkönen Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Dissecting Genetically Regulated Gene Expression in Major Depression
One of the major aims of complex trait and population genetics is to identify causal genes underlying disease onset and progression. Causal genes may then be used to identify disease mechanisms and subsequently inform the development of more effective drugs and treatment strategies. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which test millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for an association with a disease outcome, have greatly expanded the discovery of genetic risk loci underlying complex diseases. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zachary F. Gerring Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

Research Into Early Immune System Activity and Later Psychological Distress: Promises and Challenges Ahead
While it is both scientifically and clinically extremely relevant to investigate associations between early immune system activity and later psychological distress, it is, at the same time, a challenging endeavor considering the multiple factors that impact the above associations. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Soili M. Lehto Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

“Bone” in the Brain? Osteocalcin-Expressing Neurons in Adult Hippocampus Promote Neurogenesis and Suppress Anxiety
The ability of the dentate gyrus (DG) to generate new neurons, also known as neurogenesis, has been well established in rodents and nonhuman primates (1). How these adult-born neurons incorporate into hippocampal microcircuits and influence information processing has drawn tremendous attention over the past decade. Apart from learning and memory regulation, adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been proposed as a key regulator of depression and anxiety (2). A variety of rodent models for depression and anxiety (e.g., chronic social defeat, chronic immobilization, early-life stress) have exhibited impairments in neuroge...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bai Lu, Tianyi Zhang, Feng Yang Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 89, Number 6, March 15, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. The Journal rapidly publishes reports of novel results on a broad range of topics related to the pathophysiology and treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Both basic and clinical neuroscience contributions are encouraged, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Translating the transcriptome: Sex differences in the mechanisms of depression and stress revisited
The past decade has produced a plethora of studies examining sex differences in the transcriptional profiles of stress and mood disorders. As we move forward from accepting the existence of extensive molecular sex differences in the brain, to exploring the purpose of these sex differences, our approach must become more systemic and less reductionist. Earlier studies have examined specific brain regions and/or cell types. To use this knowledge to develop the next generation of personalized medicine, we need to comprehend how transcriptional changes across the brain and/or the body relate to each other. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer R. Rainville, Timothy Lipuma, Georgia E. Hodes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Socioeconomic disparities affect children ’s amygdala-prefrontal circuitry via stress hormone response
The socioeconomic status (SES) of a family can affect almost all aspects of a child ’s life, including current and future achievement, and health. The potential adverse effects of low-SES on children’s emotional development are thought to result from proximal factors such as stress. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms, however, remain elusive. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ting Tian, Christina B. Young, Yannan Zhu, Jiahua Xu, Ying He, Menglu Chen, Lei Hao, Min Jiang, Jiang Qiu, Xu Chen, Shaozheng Qin Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Low-level brain somatic mutations are implicated in schizophrenia
Somatic mutations arising from the brain have recently emerged as significant contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, including childhood intractable epilepsy and cortical malformations. However, whether brain somatic mutations are implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) is not well established. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Myeong-Heui Kim, Il Bin Kim, Junehawk Lee, Do Hyeon Cha, Sang Min Park, Ja Hye Kim, Ryunhee Kim, Jun Sung Park, Yohan An, Kyungdeok Kim, Seyeon Kim, Maree J. Webster, Sanghyeon Kim, Jeong Ho Lee Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Brain DNA Methylation Patterns in CLDN5 Associated with Cognitive Decline
Cognitive trajectory varies widely and can distinguish those that develop dementia from those that remain cognitively normal. Variation in cognitive trajectory is only partially explained by traditional neuropathologies. Here, we sought to identify novel genes associated with cognitive trajectory using DNA methylation profiles from human post-mortem brain. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anke H üls, Chloe Robins, Karen N. Conneely, Rachel Edgar, Philip L. De Jager, David A. Bennett, Aliza P. Wingo, Michael P. Epstein, Thomas S. Wingo Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Errata
Erratum to: “Network Effects of the 15q13.3 Microdeletion on the Transcriptome and Epigenome in Human-Induced Neurons,” by Zhang et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021; 89:497–509); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.06.021. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “The Neural Basis of Drug Stimulus Processing and Craving: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis,” by Chase et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2011; 70:785–793); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.05.025. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Cross-Platform Validation of 15q13.3 Microdeletion Network Effects in Human Neurons
Heterozygous copy number variants are highly penetrant and pleiotropic deletions or duplications that confer risk to a variety of neuropsychiatric disease (1). Among these, 15q13.3 microdeletions ( ∼1.5–2.0 Mbp) result in developmental/intellectual disability, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy, among other conditions, affecting a core set of 7 protein-coding genes (CHRNA7, FAN1, TRPM1, KLF13, OTUD7A, MTMR10, and ARHGAP11B), and 1 microRNA (MIR211) (2). While previous st udies nominated candidate genes to explain the psychiatric symptoms associated with the microdeletion, the network effects of...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael B. Fernando Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

The When and Where: Molecular and Cellular Convergence in Autism
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition that is among the most devastating disorders of childhood in terms of prevalence, morbidity, outcome, impact on the family, and cost to society. As a result, a great deal of scientific effort has been devoted to finding common biological substrates for ASD, but the genetic underpinnings and cellular mechanisms of this disorder remain poorly understood. Historically, this obstacle has stemmed from limited access to human neural tissue, a poor understanding of the temporal dynamics of ASD, and a lack of methods to connect combinatorial patterns...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon T. Schafer, Fred H. Gage Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Understanding the Role of a Molecularly Defined Social Circuit
Understanding social cognition is critical in psychiatry as social deficits can drive functional difficulty in conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, and depression (1). Likewise, the negative health impacts of increasing social isolation (SI) have become a major public health concern (2). Defining the neural circuit mechanisms underlying social cognition promises to provide insights to address social deficits in psychiatric conditions as well as the impact of SI in society. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: April Pruitt, AZA Stephen Allsop Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Cooperative Continua
Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is present, to some degree, in all of us. This is because ASDs are polygenic traits, meaning that they reflect the aggregate influence of many thousands of common, inherited variants across the genome. Individually, each of these common variants carry a small amount of ASD risk. This is by necessity, as any genetic difference that confers a large amount of risk for a fecundity-reducing outcome, like ASD, cannot be common in the population (1). Therefore, if a risk variant for ASD is common —present in many or most of us—its effect is small. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elise B. Robinson Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

A Forgotten Rose: Embracing the Complexity of Neuroimmune Function
In 1885, a young woman presented to the office of Dr. John Noland Mackenzie with a peculiar chief complaint: an allergy to roses so severe that she couldn ’t even be in the same room with the flower (a condition known at the time as “rose cold”). Dr. Mackenzie was skeptical of the woman’s claims but, nevertheless, agreed to see her. After a brief conversation, he conducted a physical exam and found no evidence of an allergic reaction. As they continued speaking, he then produced a rose that he had hidden behind a screen in the room, no more than a few feet away. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Safwan K. Elkhatib, David A. Ross, Adam J. Case Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 89, Number 5, March 1, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. The Journal rapidly publishes reports of novel results on a broad range of topics related to the pathophysiology and treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Both basic and clinical neuroscience contributions are encouraged, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Translating Interventional Neuroscience to Suicide – It’s About Time
Despite significant advances in psychiatric and psychological treatment over the last 30 years, suicide deaths have increased. Unfortunately, neuroscience insights have yielded few translational interventions that specifically target suicidal thoughts and behaviors. In our view, this is attributable to two factors. The first is our limited integration of neurocircuitry models with contemporary suicide theory. The second challenge is inherent to the variable nature of suicide risk over time. Few interventional neuroscience studies evaluate how temporal fluctuations in risk impact treatment, despite evidence that temporality...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer Barredo, Melanie Bozzay, Jennifer Primack, Heather Schatten, Michael Armey, Linda L. Carpenter, Noah S. Philip Tags: Review Source Type: research

Reward Processing in Novelty Seekers: A Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Imaging Biomarker
Dysfunctional reward processing is implicated in multiple mental disorders. Novelty seeking (NS) assesses preference for seeking novel experiences, which is linked to sensitivity to reward environmental cues. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 30, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shile Qi, Gunter Schumann, Juan Bustillo, Jessica A. Turner, Rongtao Jiang, Dongmei Zhi, Zening Fu, Andrew R. Mayer, Victor Vergara, Rogers Silva, Armin Iraji, Jiayu Chen, Eswar Damaraju, Xiaohong Ma, Xiao Yang, Mike Stevens, Daniel H. Mathalon, Judith M. Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The PI3-kinase p110 β isoform controls severity of cocaine-induced sequelae and alters the striatal transcriptome
The PI3-kinase (PI3K) complex is a well-validated target for mitigating cocaine-elicited sequelae, but pan-PI3-kinase inhibitors are not viable long-term treatment options. The PI3K complex is composed of p110 catalytic and regulatory subunits, which can be individually manipulated for therapeutic purposes. This possibility has largely not, however, been explored in behavioral contexts. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lauren P. Shapiro, Elizabeth G. Pitts, Dan C. Li, Britton R. Barbee, Elizabeth A. Hinton, Gary J. Bassell, Christina Gross, Shannon L. Gourley Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

Model-based and model-free control predicts alcohol consumption developmental trajectory in young adults – a three-year prospective study
A shift from goal-directed toward habitual control has been associated with alcohol dependence. Whether such a shift predisposes risky drinking is not yet clear. We investigated how goal-directed and habitual control at age 18 predict alcohol use trajectories over the course of three years. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hao Chen, Negin Mojtahedzadeh, Matthew J. Belanger, Stephan Nebe, S ören Kuitunen-Paul, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Quentin J.M. Huys, Andreas Heinz, Michael A. Rapp, Michael N. Smolka Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Adult neurogenesis and antidepressant treatment; the surprise finding by Ron Duman and the field 20 years later
Out of Ron Duman ’s many influential findings, the finding that chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs produces an increase in neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the adult hippocampus may be one of the most enduring and far-reaching. This novel discovery and his decades of continued research in the field , led to a new hypothesis about the mechanism of action of antidepressants, providing a critical step in our understanding of the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression and synaptic plasticity. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica E. Malberg, Ren é Hen, Torsten Madsen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Activating corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis: Incentive motivation or aversive motivation?
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neural systems are important stress mechanisms in central amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and related structures. CRF-containing neural systems are traditionally posited to generate aversive distress states that motivate over-consumption of rewards and relapse in addiction. However, CRF-containing systems may alternatively promote incentive motivation to increase reward pursuit and consumption, without requiring aversive states. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hannah M. Baumgartner, Jay Schulkin, Kent C. Berridge Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The effects of alcohol and cannabis use on the cortical thickness of cognitive control and salience brain networks in emerging adulthood: a cotwin control study
Impairments in inhibitory control and its underlying brain networks (control/salience areas) are associated with substance misuse. Research often assumes a causal substance exposure effect on brain structure. This assumption remains largely untested and other factors (e.g., familial risk) may confound exposure effects. We leveraged a genetically-informative sample of 24-year-old twins and a quasi-experimental cotwin control design to separate alcohol or cannabis exposure effects during emerging adulthood from familial risk on control/salience network cortical thickness. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeremy Harper, Stephen M. Malone, Sylia Wilson, Ruskin H. Hunt, Kathleen M. Thomas, William G. Iacono Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Propranolol decreases fear expression by modulating fear memory traces
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following a traumatic event and results in heightened, inappropriate fear and anxiety. Although approximately 8% of the United States population suffers from PTSD, only two drugs have been approved by the FDA to treat it, both with limited efficacy. Propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic antagonist, has shown efficacy in decreasing exaggerated fear, and there has been renewed interest in using it to treat fear disorders. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sofia Leal Santos, Michelle Stackmann, Andrea Mu ñoz Zamora, Alessia Mastrodonato, Allegra V. De Landri, Nick Vaughan, Briana K. Chen, Marcos Lanio, Christine A. Denny Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Quiet on the Set! Astroglia Star in Silent Synaptogenesis and Cocaine Memory Formation
Once thought to simply be supporting cast for the brain ’s A-list actors (neurons), astroglia have established a starring role in brain function typified by their ability to actively respond to and regulate neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. One of the more daunting tasks of modern neuroscience has been unraveling the functional interplay bet ween neurons and non-neuronal cells as it relates to normal processes like learning and memory as well as pathological, maladaptive learning like addiction. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin M. Siemsen, Michael D. Scofield Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

A Basolateral Amygdala Microcircuit for Drug Craving: Is There a Craving Engram?
The basolateral amygdala is a subdivision of the amygdala that is located in the medial temporal lobe (1). The basolateral complex can be divided into lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala, which receive inputs from the prefrontal cortex, auditory cortex, thalamus, ventral pallidum, ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, and stria terminalis and send prominent outputs to the central nucleus of the amygdala, the prelimbic and infralimbic prefrontal cortices, the entorhinal cortex, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hippocampus, and the nucleus accumbens (1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: George F. Koob Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

The Ventral Tegmental Area to Accumbens GABAergic Projection: Promoting Prediction or Engineering Extinction?
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critical for setting the vigor of reward-seeking behavior and for learning to respond to reward-predictive cues. Aberrant NAc neuronal activity also contributes to neuropsychiatric diseases, such as drug and gambling addiction. Each of these processes depends critically on the projections to the NAc from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). Most studies of the VTA have focused on its dopamine neurons, which project mainly to the NAc and prefrontal cortex. Dopamine neurons both facilitate reward seeking and play a critical role in learning. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charles M. Crouse, Saleem M. Nicola Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Brain Structural Consequences of Chronic Cocaine Exposure and Their Effects on Behavior
Cocaine is a powerful addictive stimulant and its abuse is highly prevalent in young adults. Unfortunately, as of today no pharmacological treatment is available and behavioral interventions tend to have high relapse rates. Advancing the knowledge of brain structures that are susceptible to chronic cocaine exposure, the functional consequences of such structural alterations, and the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the long-lasting risk of relapse in cocaine-dependent populations could contribute toward understanding the neurocircuitry involved in this disorder. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xiaojie Wang Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 89, Number 4, February 15, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research