Where to Target? The Precision Medicine Approach to Brain Stimulation
Across mental health disorders, there is a clear need to develop novel therapeutic strategies that are targeted to individual patient characteristics. Weigand et  al. (1) demonstrate the possible value of connectivity-based targeting approaches for brain stimulation treatment of depression. The use of imaging biomarkers to guide individualized treatments for patients is an active area of research with several promising leads (2,3). This approach fits within the precision medicine approach of linking biological variables of individual patients to treatment options (4). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David P. McMullen Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

Mifepristone as a Psychopharmacologic Agent: Consideration of Efficacy, Plasma Levels, and Mechanism of Action
The reanalysis by Block et  al. (1) of the major controlled trials of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone in the treatment of psychotic depression (PD) brings the field another step closer to being able to utilize this novel treatment. The five trials analyzed were sponsored by Corcept Therapeutics (Menl o Park, CA) and nearly identical with respect to inclusion criteria, assessments, and drug regimen (1 week experimental treatment before antidepressant treatment) but differed in mifepristone dosing (1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia A. Golier, Rachel Yehuda Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Molecular Changes in Depression
Transcriptional profiling of postmortem brain tissue provides detailed insight into the molecular and cellular basis of psychiatric illnesses that cannot be achieved in living patients. A recent large-scale analysis of cortical gene transcriptome profiles across five major psychiatric diseases revealed pathways of molecular convergence and specificity (1). Interestingly, bipolar disorder had more transcriptional overlap with schizophrenia than major depressive disorder (MDD). Furthermore, while autism spectrum disorder showed some genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, it showed its own module-level diffe...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Danielle M. Gerhard, Ronald S. Duman Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Hopes and Skepticism for Unraveling the Unique Mechanisms of Ketamine ’s Rapid Onset Antidepressant Actions in Rodent Models
Interest in ketamine and other potentially rapidly acting antidepressant medications has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although work dating back to the early 1990s suggested that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor –modulating drugs may generate antidepressant effects (1), major interest in this approach was truly ignited by the initial report of ketamine’s rapid-onset antidepressant action by Berman et al. in 2000 (2) and a second proof-of-concept study completed at the National Institute of Mental Healt h in 2006 (3). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gerard Sanacora Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 84, Number 1, July 1, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

From traumatic childhood to cocaine abuse: the critical function of the immune system
Experiencing traumatic childhood is a risk factor for developing substance use disorder (SUD), but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship have not been determined. Adverse childhood experiences affect the immune system and the immune system mediates the effects of psychostimulants. However, whether this system is involved in the etiology of SUD in individuals who have experience early life stress is unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luisa Lo Iacono, Clarissa Catale, Alessandro Martini, Alessandro Valzania, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Valerio Chiurchi ù, Ezia Guatteo, Silvia Bussone, Fabiana Perrone, Paola Di Sabato, Eleonora Aricò, Alberto D’Argenio, Alfonso Troisi, Nicola B. Mercuri, Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Differential valuation and learning from social and non-social cues in Borderline Personality Disorder
In this study, we tested BPD and control subject weighting of social versus non-social information, and their learning about choices un der stable and volatile conditions. We compared behavior using quantitative models. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah K. Fineberg, Jacob Leavitt, Dylan S. Stahl, Sharif Kronemer, Christopher D. Landry, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Laurence T. Hunt, Philip R. Corlett Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Microstructural Changes in Higher-order Nuclei of the Thalamus in Patients with First-episode Psychosis
Disruption in the thalamus, such as volume, shape and cortical connectivity, is regarded as an important pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia. However, there is little evidence of nuclei-specific structural alterations in the thalamus during early-stage psychosis, mainly due to the methodological limitations of conventional structural imaging in identifying the thalamic nuclei. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kang Ik K. Cho, Yoo Bin Kwak, Wu Jeong Hwang, Junhee Lee, Minah Kim, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Volume of the human hippocampus and clinical response following electroconvulsive therapy.
Hippocampal enlargements are commonly reported following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To clarify mechanisms, we examined if ECT-induced hippocampal volume change relates to dose (number of ECT sessions and electrode placement) and acts as a biomarker of clinical outcome. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leif Oltedal, Katherine L. Narr, Christopher Abbott, Amit Anand, Miklos Argyelan, Hauke Bartsch, Udo Dannlowski, Annemieke Dols, Philip van Eijndhoven, Louise Emsell, Vera Jane Erchinger, Randall Espinoza, Tim Hahn, Lars G. Hanson, Gerhard Hellemann, Mart Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The Control of Reward Seeking
Seeking reward and avoiding punishment are two fundamental processes that together guide the appropriate selection of an action from complex choices. Dysfunctional interaction between the two processes can lead to the aberrant situation of reward seeking despite punishment, a maladaptive behavior that characterizes several psychiatric conditions and notably substance abuse disorders (1). Reward seeking has been extensively investigated in brain circuits subserving hedonic control, motivation, and self-control; however, mechanisms that would suppress this behavior are similarly important but are much less known. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emmanuel Darcq, Brigitte L. Kieffer Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Alterations of the Biological Clock May Contribute to the Emergence of Mental Disorders During Adolescence
Oscar is 16 years old and for a while has been driving his parents crazy. An impulsive guy, socially connected only to his peers, he recently started smoking pot. He is always up late, and it becomes increasingly impossible to wake him up early enough for school. On weekends he parties late and sleeps until at least noon. His parents have only one consolation —that he will get over it when he reaches early adulthood. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rainer Spanagel Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Bridging Molecular Genetics and Epidemiology to Better Understand Sex Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Sex differences exist in the prevalence, presentation, and trajectory of several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the subject of the article by Martin et  al. (1) in the current issue of Biological Psychiatry. The underlying causes of this sex bias have eluded researchers for decades and have recently become the focus of greater research efforts, thanks in part to funding agencies heeding the call of women’s health advocates. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lea Karatheodoris Davis Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

Searching for Replicable Dopamine-Related Findings in Gambling Disorder
van Holst et  al. (1) used [18F]flouro-levo-diphenylalanine ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) to study individuals with and without pathological gambling (PG). They report that the PG group, as compared with the healthy control (HC) group, demonstrated higher dopamine synthesis capacity in three st riatal regions (the caudate body, dorsal putamen, and ventral striatum) and that dopamine synthesis capacity in two striatal regions (the caudate head and dorsal putamen) correlated with gambling-related distortions in the PG group. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marc N. Potenza Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 83, Number 12, June 15, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
The editors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following: (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Acknowledgments Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopamine release in antidepressant-na ïve major depressive disorder: a multimodal [11C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study
This study used an agonist radioligand with agonist challenge to assess dopamine release capacity and D2/D3 receptor availability in MDD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Franklin R. Schneier, Mark Slifstein, Alexis E. Whitton, Diego A. Pizzagalli, Jenna Reinen, Patrick J. McGrath, Dan V. Iosifescu, Anissa Abi-Dargham Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The predictive coding account of psychosis
Fueled by developments in computational neuroscience, there has been increasing interest in the underlying neuro-computational mechanisms of psychosis. One successful approach involves predictive coding and Bayesian inference. Here, inferences regarding the current state of the world are made by combining prior beliefs with incoming sensory signals. Mismatches between prior beliefs and incoming signals constitute prediction errors that drive new learning. Psychosis has been suggested to result from a decreased precision in the encoding of prior beliefs relative to the sensory data, thereby garnering maladaptive inferences....
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philipp Sterzer, Rick A. Adams, Paul Fletcher, Chris Frith, Stephen M. Lawrie, Lars Muckli, Predrag Petrovic, Peter Uhlhaas, Martin Voss, Philip R. Corlett Tags: Review Source Type: research

Nutritional status affects cortical folding: Lessons learned from anorexia nervosa
Cortical folding is thought to remain relatively invariant after birth. Therefore, differences seen in psychiatric disorders have been proposed as early biomarkers or used as intermediate phenotypes in imaging genetics studies. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with drastic and rapid structural brain alterations and may thus be an ideal model disorder to study environmental influences on cortical folding. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fabio Bernardoni, Joseph A. King, Daniel Geisler, Julian Birkenstock, Friederike I. Tam, Kerstin Weidner, Veit Roessner, Tonya White, Stefan Ehrlich Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Endogenous Cell Type-Specific DISC1 Interactomes Reveal Protein Networks Associated to Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric diseases along with neurodevelopmental phenotypes such as the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. While there has been significant effort directed towards understanding the function of DISC1 through the determination of its protein-protein interactions within an in-vitro setting, endogenous interactions involving DISC1 within a cell-type specific setting relevant to neural development remain unclear. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brent Wilkinson, Oleg Evgrafov, DongQing Zheng, Nicolas Hartel, James A. Knowles, Nicholas A. Graham, Justin Ichida, Marcelo P. Coba Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Differential effects of deep-brain stimulation of the internal capsule and the striatum on excessive grooming in Sapap3 mutant mice.
Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that do not respond to conventional therapies. Although the precise mechanism of action of DBS remains unknown, modulation of activity in corticofugal fibers originating in the prefrontal cortex is thought to underlie its beneficial effects in OCD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy M. Pinhal, Bastijn J.G. van den Boom, Fabiana Santana-Kragelund, Lizz Fellinger, Pol Bech, Ralph Hamelink, Guoping Feng, Ingo Willuhn, Matthijs G.P. Feenstra, Damiaan Denys Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Cortical brain abnormalities in 4474 individuals with schizophrenia and 5098 controls via the ENIGMA consortium
This study presents the first meta-analysis of cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities in schizophrenia conducted by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis) Schizophrenia Working Group. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theo GM. van Erp, Esther Walton, Derrek P. Hibar, Lianne Schmaal, Wenhao Jiang, David C. Glahn, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Nailin Yao, Masaki Fukunaga, Ryota Hashimoto, Naohiro Okada, Hidenaga Yamamori, Juan R. Bustillo, Vincent P. Clark, Ingrid Agartz, Bryon A Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

AMPA receptor activation-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolite (S)-norketamine
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, exerts robust antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. The precise mechanisms underlying ketamine ’s antidepressant actions remain unclear, although previous research suggests that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activation plays a role. Here, we investigated whether (S)-norketamine and (R)-norketamine, the two main metabolites of (R,S)-ketamine, also pla y a significant role in ketamine’s antidepressant effects and whether the effects are mediated by AMPAR. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chun Yang, Shizuka Kobayashi, Kazuhito Nakao, Chao Dong, Mei Han, Youge Qu, Qian Ren, Ji-chun Zhang, Min Ma, Hidetoh Toki, Jun-ichi Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki Chaki, Yukihiko Shirayama, Kazu Nakazawa, Toshiya Manabe, Kenji Hashimoto Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Scores: What Are They Good For?
Matt was in many ways the stereotypical “all-American” teenager: a multisport athlete, class president, and valedictorian of his high school. It seemed preordained that he would attend his dream college and continue this extraordinary trajectory. But something went wrong. In his first year of college, he struggled academically and bec ame increasing withdrawn. He sought treatment through the university’s health services. He was diagnosed with depression but engaged ambivalently with the clinic, with intermittent adherence with his medications and therapy appointments. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amanda B. Zheutlin, David A. Ross Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 83, Number 11, June 1, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Consequences of Pharmacological BACE Inhibition on Synaptic Structure and Function
Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly. Overt accumulation and aggregation of the Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is thought to be the initial causative factor for AD. Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Beta-sit e amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the initial and rate-limiting protease for the generation of Aβ. Therefore, BACE inhibition is considered as one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for potential treatment of AD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kaichuan Zhu, Finn Peters, Severin Filser, Jochen Herms Tags: Review Source Type: research

Impaired Midline Theta Power and Connectivity During Proactive Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia
Disrupted proactive cognitive control, a form of early selection and active goal maintenance, is hypothesized to underlie the broad cognitive deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia (SP). Current research suggests the disrupted activation within and connectivity between regions of the cognitive control network contribute to disrupted proactive cognitive control; however, no study has examined these mechanisms using an AX-CPT task in schizophrenia. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sephira G. Ryman, James F. Cavanagh, Christopher J. Wertz, Nicholas A. Shaff, Andrew B. Dodd, Brigitte Stevens, Josef Ling, Ronald A. Yeo, Faith M. Hanlon, Juan Bustillo, Shannon F. Stromberg, Denise S. Lin, Swala Abrams, Andrew R. Mayer Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Cocaine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Input Regions to Distinct Cell Types in Nucleus Accumbens
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region implicated in pathological motivated behaviors such as drug addiction and is composed predominantly of two discrete populations of neurons, dopamine receptor-1 – and dopamine receptor-2–expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs, respectively). It is unclear whether these populations receive inputs from different brain areas and whether input regions to these cell types undergo distinct structural adaptations in response to the administration of addictive drugs such as cocaine. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy Barrientos, Daniel Knowland, Mingche M.J. Wu, Varoth Lilascharoen, Kee Wui Huang, Robert C. Malenka, Byung Kook Lim Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Cocaine induced structural plasticity in input regions to distinct cell types in nucleus accumbens
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region implicated in pathological motivated behaviors such as drug addiction and is comprised predominantly of two discrete populations of neurons, dopamine receptor-1 and dopamine receptor-2 expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs, respectively). It is unclear whether these populations receive inputs from different brain areas and whether input regions to these cell-types undergo distinct structural adaptations in response to administration of addictive drugs such as cocaine. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy Barrientos, Daniel Knowland, Mingche MJ. Wu, Varoth Lilascharoen, Kee Wui Huang, Robert C. Malenka, Byung Kook Lim Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol at Retrieval Drives False Recollection of Neutral and Emotional Memories
It is well established that the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs episodic memory encoding and modulates emotional processing, but little is known about the impact of THC during the retrieval of emotional episodic memories. With the rise of cannabis to treat medical conditions, including those characterized by emotional and episodic memory disturbances, there is an urgent need to determine the effects of THC on memory accuracy and distortion. Here, we report the first study investigating the effects of THC during retrieval of neutral and emotional episodic memories. (So...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Manoj K. Doss, Jessica Weafer, David A. Gallo, Harriet de Wit Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Imaging Genetics Study of Neuroanatomical Asymmetry in Alzheimer ’s Disease
Neuroanatomical asymmetries have recently been associated with the progression of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) but the biological basis of asymmetric brain changes in disease remains unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christian Wachinger, Kwangsik Nho, Andrew J. Saykin, Martin Reuter, Anna Rieckmann, Alzheimer ’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The lateral habenula directs coping styles under conditions of stress via recruitment of the endocannabinoid system
The ability to effectively cope with stress is a critical determinant of disease susceptibility. The lateral habenula (LHb) and the endocannabinoid (ECB) system have independently been shown to be involved in the selection of stress coping strategies, yet the role of ECB signaling in the LHb remains unknown. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anthony L. Berger, Angela M. Henricks, Janelle M. Lugo, Hayden R. Wright, Collin R. Warrick, Martin A. Sticht, Maria Morena, Itziar Bonilla, Sarah A. Laredo, Rebecca M. Craft, Loren H. Parsons, Pedro R. Grandes, Cecilia J. Hillard, Matthew N. Hill, Ryan J Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is a Novel Prodepressant
While downregulation of several growth factors in major depressive disorder is well established, less attention has been paid to the upregulation of other growth factors. Yet, upregulated growth factors may offer better therapeutic targets. We show that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) represents a target based on its upregulation in major depressive disorder and studies in animal models implicating it in negative affect. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cortney A. Turner, Vikram Sharma, Megan H. Hagenauer, Sraboni Chaudhury, Angela M. O ’Connor, Elaine K. Hebda-Bauer, Robert C. Thompson, Richard M. Myers, William E. Bunney, Jack D. Barchas, Francis S. Lee, Alan F. Schatzberg, Stanley J. Watson, Huda Ak Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

A Model of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Self-administration and Reinstatement That Alters Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, but knowledge of the neurological consequences of cannabis use is deficient. Two primary components of cannabis are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We established a THC+CBD model of self-administration and reinstated drug seeking to determine if, similar to other addictive drugs, cannabis produces enduring synaptic changes in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) thought to contribute vulnerabilit y to drug reinstatement. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sade Spencer, Daniela Neuhofer, Vivian C. Chioma, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Danielle J. Schwartz, Nicholas Allen, Michael D. Scofield, Tara Ortiz-Ithier, Peter W. Kalivas Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Scores, School Achievement, and Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study
Studies have suggested that poor school achievement is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia; however, the possible genetic contribution to this association is unknown. We investigated the possible effect of the polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia (PRSSCZ) and for educational attainment (PRSEDU) on the association between school performance and later schizophrenia. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Holger J. S ørensen, Jean-Christophe Debost, Esben Agerbo, Michael E. Benros, John J. McGrath, Preben Bo Mortensen, Anne Ranning, Carsten Hjorthøj, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Liselotte Petersen Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Scores, School Achievement and Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-based Study
Studies have suggested that poor school achievement is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia; however, the possible genetic contribution to this association is unknown. We investigated the possible effect of the polygenic risk score (PRSSCZ) for schizophrenia and for educational attainment (PRSEDU) on the association between school performance and later schizophrenia. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Holger J. S ørensen, Jean-Christophe Debost, Esben Agerbo, Michael E. Benros, John J. McGrath, Preben Bo Mortensen, Anne Ranning, Carsten Hjorthøj, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Liselotte Petersen Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Connective Tissue Growth Factor is a Novel Pro-Depressant
While downregulation of several growth factors in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is well established, less attention has been paid to the upregulation of other growth factors. Yet, upregulated growth factors may offer better therapeutic targets. We show that Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) represents a target based on its upregulation in MDD and studies in animal models implicating it in negative affect. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cortney A. Turner, Vikram Sharma, Megan H. Hagenauer, Sraboni Chaudhury, Angela M. O ’Connor, Elaine K. Hebda-Bauer, Robert C. Thompson, Richard M. Myers, William E. Bunney, Jack D. Barchas, Francis S. Lee, Alan F. Schatzberg, Stanley J. Watson, Huda Ak Tags: Priority Communication Source Type: research

Aberrant Cortical Integration in First-Episode Psychosis During Natural Audiovisual Processing
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of psychotic disorders have reported both hypo- and hyperactivity in numerous brain regions. In line with the dysconnection hypothesis, these regions include cortical integrative hub regions. However, most earlier studies have focused on a single cognitive function at a time, assessed by delivering artificial stimuli to chronic patients. Thus, it remains unresolved whether these findings are present already in early psychosis and whether they translate to real-life-like conditions which require multisensory processing and integration. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Teemu M äntylä, Lauri Nummenmaa, Eva Rikandi, Maija Lindgren, Tuula Kieseppä, Riitta Hari, Jaana Suvisaari, Tuukka T. Raij Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

A model of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration and reinstatement that alters synaptic plasticity in nucleus accumbens
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, but knowledge of the neurological consequences of cannabis use is deficient. Two primary components of cannabis are Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and we established a THC+CBD model of self-administration and reinstated drug seeking to determine if like other addictive drugs, cannabis produces enduring synaptic changes in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) thought to contribute vulnerability to drug reinstatement. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sade Spencer, Daniela Neuhofer, Vivian Chioma, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Danielle Schwartz, Nicholas Allen, Michael Scofield, Tara Ortiz-Ithier, Peter W. Kalivas Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research