Astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicle-mediated activation of primary ciliary signaling contributes to the development of morphine tolerance
Morphine is used extensively in the clinical setting owing to its beneficial effects, such as pain relief; its therapeutic utility is limited as the prolonged use of morphine often results in tolerance and addiction. Astrocytes in the brain are a direct target of morphine action and play an essential role in the development of morphine tolerance. Primary cilia and the cilia-mediated sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathways have been shown to play a role in drug resistance and morphine tolerance, respectively. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rong Ma, Naseer A. Kutchy, Guoku Hu Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Relationship Between Serum NMDA Receptor Antibodies and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Psychosis,” by Pollak et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021; 90:9-15); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.11.014. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

A Different Outlook at Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases: Brain Somatic Mutations Are Implicated in Schizophrenia
In a groundbreaking article in the current issue of Biological Psychiatry, Kim et  al. (1) present results of deep whole exome sequencing in the brain (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and peripheral tissues from 27 patients with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched control subjects, discovering 286 somatic single nucleotide variations in postmortem brains and 340 variations in p eripheral tissues. Independent ultradeep targeted amplicon sequencing was used for validation. Glutamatergic synapse, dopaminergic synapse, and long-term potentiation pathways were affected by the newly identified somatic mutations including t...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Illana Gozes Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Serum NMDA Receptor Antibodies Do Not Predict Treatment Response in a Sample of People With First-Episode Psychosis
Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare but potentially life-changing illness in which antibodies damage healthy brain cells. It can present with a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, from seizures and autonomic instability to depression and anxiety (1). It can also mimic schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses (1). Since the 1950s, an array of potentially causative autoantibodies has been identified (1), but the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibody is the type most consistently associated with psychosis (2). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Natalie Shoham Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Regulates Central Effects of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Involvement of Tyramine and Glutamate
Trace amines constitute a group of endogenous molecules found in both invertebrates and vertebrates, bearing strong similarities with the monoamine neurotransmitters. The physiological significance of these molecules remained elusive until the discovery in 2001 of a large subfamily of GPCRs (G protein –coupled receptors) interacting with these compounds, the trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) (1,2). This major breakthrough spurred renewed interest in trace amines and their role in the brain. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sophie Gautron Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Cognition in Schizophrenia
The risk of schizophrenia has both genetic and environmental components. While common variants explain more of the population attributable risk (disease in our society) (1), alleles of certain copy number variants (CNVs) (2) and loss-of-function variants in certain constrained genes (3,4) also contribute to its pathogenesis. Genes associated with schizophrenia are expressed in central nervous system neurons and implicated in particular processes related to synaptic organization (1). It has been suggested that the diverse psychopathology and cognitive impairments may indicate that abnormal neuronal function in schizophrenia...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hreinn Stefansson, Kari Stefansson Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 90, Number 1, July 1, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. The Journal rapidly publishes reports of novel results on a broad range of topics related to the pathophysiology and treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Both basic and clinical neuroscience contributions are encouraged, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lessons learnt from neuroimaging studies of Copy Number Variants, a systematic review
Pathogenic Copy Number Variants (CNVs) and aneuploidies alter gene dosage and are associated with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders (NPDs) such as autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia.Brain mechanisms mediating genetic risk for NPDs remain largely unknown, but there is a rapid increase in morphometry studies of CNVs using T1-weighted structural MRI. Studies have been conducted one mutation at a time, leaving the field with a complex catalog of brain alterations linked to different genomic loci. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Claudia Modenato, Sandra Martin-Brevet, Clara A. Moreau, Borja Rodriguez-Herreros, Kuldeep Kumar, Bogdan Draganski, Ida Elken S ønderby, Sebastien Jacquemont Tags: Review Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Biomarkers of New-Onset Psychiatric Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has traditionally been associated with cognitive and behavioral changes during both the acute and chronic phases of injury. Due to its non-invasive nature, neuroimaging has the potential to provide unique information on underlying macroscopic and microscopic biological mechanisms that may serve as causative agents for these neuropsychiatric sequelae. The current broad scoping review identifies at least four common macroscopic pathways that exist between TBI and new-onset psychiatric disorders, as well as several examples of how neuroimaging is currently being utilized in clinical research. (Sou...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew R. Mayer, Davin K. Quinn Tags: Review Source Type: research

Transcriptional alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens implicate neuroinflammation and synaptic remodeling in opioid use disorder
Prevalence rates of opioid use disorder (OUD) have increased dramatically, accompanied by a surge of overdose deaths. While opioid dependence has been extensively studied in preclinical models, an understanding of the biological alterations that occur in the brains of people who chronically use opioids and who are diagnosed with OUD remains limited. To address this limitation, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), regions heavily implicated in OUD, from postmortem brains in subjects with OUD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marianne L. Seney, Sam-Moon Kim, Jill R. Glausier, Mariah A. Hildebrand, Xiangning Xue, Wei Zong, Jiebiao Wang, Micah A. Shelton, BaDoi N. Phan, Chaitanya Srinivasan, Andreas R. Pfenning, George C. Tseng, David A. Lewis, Zachary Freyberg, Ryan W. Logan Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Medial Prefrontal Cortex Glutamate is Reduced in Schizophrenia and Moderated by Measurement Quality: A Meta-analysis of 1H-MRS Studies
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies measuring brain glutamate separately from glutamine are helping elucidate schizophrenia pathophysiology. An expanded literature and improved methodologies motivate an updated meta-analysis examining effects of measurement quality and other moderating factors in characterizing abnormal glutamate levels in schizophrenia. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jason Smucny, Cameron S. Carter, Richard J. Maddock Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Meta-analytic Evidence for Volume Increases in the Medial Temporal Lobe After Electroconvulsive Therapy
Since its introduction to psychiatric practice more than 8 decades ago, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is widely recognized as a highly effective treatment for severe psychiatric disorders, but the exact mechanisms underlying treatment response have remained elusive. Neuroimaging research has put a spotlight on structural brain changes (1), initially inspired by the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression that postulates neuroneogenesis as essential for antidepressant treatment response (2,3). Intriguingly, some longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies indeed reported localized brain volume changes in patients after ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hildegard Janouschek, Julia A. Camilleri, Zeru Peterson, Rachel J. Sharkey, Claudia R. Eickhoff, Michael Gr özinger, Simon B. Eickhoff, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Floating Rodents and Stress-Coping Neurobiology
To indicate the forced swim test (FST) as an animal model of depression is an anthropomorphic qualification. While this anthropomorphism excludes validity of the FST as a model of a complex mental disorder, progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic underpinning of the displayed passive coping response. In response to your invitation, we comment on the scientific merit of the forced swim stressor if the focus is on coping mechanisms, rather than on disease modeling. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edo Ronald de Kloet, Marc L. Molendijk Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Dynamics of Cortical Degeneration Over a Decade in Huntington’s Disease,” by Johnson et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021; 89:807–816); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.11.009. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Maternal metabolic programming of the developing central nervous system – unified pathways to metabolic and psychiatric disorders
The perinatal period presents a critical time in offspring development where environmental insults can have damaging impacts on the future health of the offspring. This can lead to sustained alterations in offspring development, metabolism, and predisposition to both metabolic and psychiatric diseases. The central nervous system is one of the most sensitive targets in response to maternal obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While many of the effects of obesity on brain function in adults are known, we are only now beginning to understand the multitude of changes that occur in the brain during development upon e...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel N. Lippert, Jens C. Br üning Tags: Review Source Type: research

Erratum
to Conference Abstract: “Cross-Disorder Genetic Data Analysis Elucidates a Genetic Link Between Osteoarthritis and Major Depression,” by Lee et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021; 89(9S):S144); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.371. An author name was inadvertently misspelled. Sophie Barrowsky should instead be Soph ie Barowsky. This error has been corrected in the abstract. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum
to Conference Abstract: “Validation and Comparison of a Digital Digit Symbol Substitution (DSST) Task Performed on Smart Phones With a Traditional Paper-Pencil Version,” by Allen et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021; (9S):S132–S133); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.342. The authors identified an error in the last sentence of the Background, where “CANTAB-DST” should instead have been “Cognition Kit DSST.” In full, the corrected sentence reads: “In collaboration with Adams Clinical, participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent both digital and paper-pen...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Developmental and behavioral phenotypes in a mouse model of DDX3X syndrome
Mutations in the X-linked gene DDX3X account for ∼2% of intellectual disability in females, often co-morbid with behavioral problems, motor deficits, and brain malformations. DDX3X encodes an RNA helicase with emerging functions in corticogenesis and synaptogenesis. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea Boitnott, Marta Garcia-Forn, D évina C. Ung, Kristi Niblo, Danielle Mendonca, Yeaji Park, Michael Flores, Sylvia Maxwell, Jacob Ellegood, Lily R. Qiu, Dorothy E. Grice, Jason P. Lerch, Mladen-Roko Rasin, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Elodie Drapeau, Silvia D Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Reconciling Dimensional and Categorical Models of Autism Heterogeneity: A Brain Connectomics and Behavioral Study,” by Tang et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2020; 87:1071–1082); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.11.009. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Melanocortin signaling connecting systemic metabolism with mood disorders
Obesity and mood disorders are often overlapping pathologies that are prevalent public health concerns. Many studies have indicated a positive correlation between depression and obesity, although weight loss and decreased appetite are also recognized as features of depression. Accordingly, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM –5) defines two subtypes of depression associated with changes in feeding: melancholic depression, characterized by anhedonia and associated with decreased feeding and appetite, and atypical depression, characterized by fatigue, sleepiness, hyperphagia and weight gain. ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Francesca Copperi, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano Tags: Review Source Type: research

Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Neurodegenerative Disorder
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly of greater severity (i.e., moderate-to-severe), has been identified as a risk factor for all-cause dementia and Parkinson ’s disease (PD), with risk for specific dementia sub-types being more variable. Among the limited studies involving neuropathological (post-mortem) confirmation, the association between TBI and risk for neurodegenerative disease increases in complexity, with polypathology often reported on examina tion. The heterogeneous clinical and neuropathological outcomes associated with TBI are likely reflective of the multifaceted post-injury acute and chronic proc...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - June 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin L. Brett, Raquel C. Gardner, Jonathan Godbout, Kristen Dams-O ’Connor, C. Dirk Keene Tags: Review Source Type: research

Erratum
to Conference Abstract: “Nucleus Accumbens Activation in Response to Threat in Traumatized Adolescents and Internalizing Symptoms: Role of Sex,” by France et al., (Biol Psychiatry 2020; 87(9S): S206–S207). An author was inadvertently left off the abstract. The missing author is Anaïs F. Stenson, affiliated with Way ne State University School of Medicine, who belongs in the second authorship position. The correct author list for this abstract is: John France, Anaïs F. Stenson, Mariam Reda, Hilary Marusak, Timothy Ely, Sanne van Rooij, Jennifer Stevens, Tanja Jovanovic. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance Give New Insight Into Stress Vulnerability
Current treatments for depression fail to adequately treat the disorder in many people. Even among those for whom treatment is effective, depression will often return, with each episode further increasing the risk for a subsequent episode, making prevention an important goal in developing new treatments. Stress can trigger depression, but there is considerable variability in how individuals respond, with some developing the disorder and others developing resilience. Recent work has identified brain region –specific metabolic profiles (1), neural activity (2), and preexisting behavioral alterations that associate with...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessie Muir, Rosemary C. Bagot Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Love it or Leave it: Differential Modulation of Incentive Motivation by Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Neurons
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide critical to behavioral and physiological responses to stressors. CRF was originally discovered as an initiator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, where it is released from neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus into the pituitary gland. CRF was subsequently detected in the central amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and was found to mediate negative valence associated with stress, anxiety, and drug withdrawal. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew B. Pomrenze, Michela Marinelli Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Propranolol Inhibits Reactivation of Fear Memory
Most of the U.S. population will experience a life-threatening and incredibly stressful experience at some point in their lives. Of these individuals, many will go on to develop the persistent and debilitating symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as anxiety, sleep disturbances, and intrusive thoughts (1). Individuals who suffer from PTSD often exhibit heightened fear responses and/or resistance to extinction learning. Cognitive behavioral therapy alone has proven ineffective for many patients, and there has been a surge of interest in whether pharmacological interventions can be used alongside cognitive b...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zachary T. Pennington, Denise J. Cai Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Sex-Differentiated Genetic Effects on Behavior
More than 35,000 peer-reviewed scientific articles have been published investigating human “sex differences” AND “behavior” OR “behaviour” in the fields of psychology, neuroscience, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology (according to an April 20, 2021, search of the Scopus database), yet the biological mechanisms underlying sex differences in complex traits are still n ot understood. Martin et al. (1) take on this interesting challenge in the current issue of Biological Psychiatry, reporting the results of a thorough investigation to test whether sex differences exist in the...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anna Gui Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 89, Number 12, June 15, 2021 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
The editors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following: (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. The Journal rapidly publishes reports of novel results on a broad range of topics related to the pathophysiology and treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Both basic and clinical neuroscience contributions are encouraged, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Chicken or Egg? Mental Illness as a Risk Factor and Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury
This special issue of Biological Psychiatry, devoted to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and expertly curated by Drs. Stein and Nelson, deserves attention not only for the content contained within but also for what it represents to the field of psychiatry. Understanding and treating the sequelae of TBI requires a full appreciation of the traits of individuals who are at risk for TBI, the brain regions and circuits most vulnerable to damage in such injuries, the meaning of the injury to the individual, the increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders conferred by such injuries, and the social environment in which that ind...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas W. McAllister Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Hypoactive thalamic Crh+ cells in a female mouse model of alcohol drinking after social trauma
Comorbid stress-induced mood and alcohol use disorders are increasingly prevalent among female patients. Stress exposure can disrupt salience processing and goal-directed decision making, contributing to persistent maladaptive behavioral patterns; these and other stress-sensitive cognitive and behavioral processes rely on dynamic and coordinated signaling by midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. Considering the role of social trauma in the trajectory of these debilitating psychopathologies, identifying vulnerable thalamic cells may provide guidance for targeting persistent stress-induced symptoms. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily L. Newman, Herbert E. Covington, Michael Z. Leonard, Kelly Burk, Klaus A. Miczek Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Chicken or egg? Mental illness as a risk factor and outcome of TBI
This special issue of Biological Psychiatry, devoted to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and expertly curated by Drs. Stein and Nelson, deserves attention not only for the content contained within, but also for what it represents to the field of psychiatry. Understanding and treating the sequelae of TBI requires a full appreciation of the traits of individuals at risk for TBI, the brain regions and circuits most vulnerable to damage in such injuries, the meaning of the injury to the individual, the increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders conferred by such injuries, as well as the social environment in which that ind...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas W. McAllister Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

The kynurenine pathway in traumatic brain injury: Implications for psychiatric outcomes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, especially depression and anxiety. Yet the mechanistic pathways underlying this risk remain unclear, limiting treatment options and hindering the identification of clinically-useful biomarkers. One salient pathophysiological process implicated in both primary psychiatric disorders and TBI is inflammation. An important consequence of inflammation is the increased breakdown of tryptophan to kynurenine and, subsequently, the metabolism of kynurenine into several neuroactive metabolites including the neurotoxic NMDA recepto...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 30, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Timothy B. Meier, Jonathan Savitz Tags: Review Source Type: research

The neurobiological effects of electroconvulsive therapy studied through magnetic resonance – what have we learnt and where do we go?
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is an established treatment choice for severe, treatment-resistant depression, yet its mechanisms of action remain elusive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain before and after treatment, has been crucial to aid our comprehension of the ECT neurobiological effects. However, to date the majority of MRI studies have been underpowered, used heterogeneous patient samples as well as different methodological approaches, altogether causing mixed results and poor clinical translation. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 30, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Olga Therese Ousdal, Giulio E. Brancati, Ute Kessler, Vera Erchinger, Anders M. Dale, Christopher Abbott, Leif Oltedal Tags: Review Source Type: research

The modulatory role of serotonin on human impulsive aggression
The hypothesis of chronically low brain serotonin levels as pathophysiologically linked to impulsive aggression has been around for several decades. Whereas the theory was initially based on indirect methods to probe serotonin function, our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in impulsive aggression has progressed with recent advances in neuroimaging. The review integrates evidence based on data from several neuroimaging domains in humans. In vivo molecular neuroimaging findings demonstrate associations between impulsive aggression and high serotonin 1B and serotonin 4 receptor binding, high serotonin transport...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Gitte Moos Knudsen Tags: Review Source Type: research

How local and global metacognition shape mental health
Metacognition is the ability to reflect on our own cognition and mental states. It is a critical aspect of human subjective experience and operates across many hierarchical levels of abstraction —encompassing “local” confidence in isolated decisions and “global” self-beliefs about our abilities and skills. Alterations in metacognition are considered foundational to neurological and psychiatric disorders, but research has mostly focused on local metacognitive computations, missing out on the role of global aspects of metacognition. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tricia X.F. Seow, Marion Rouault, Claire M. Gillan, Stephen M. Fleming Tags: Review Source Type: research

Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist Losartan for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
This study tests the efficacy of the AT1R antagonist losartan, an antihypertensive drug, repurposed for the treatment of PTSD. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Murray B. Stein, Sonia Jain, Naomi M. Simon, James C. West, Paul J. Marvar, Eric Bui, Feng He, David M. Benedek, Paolo Cassano, James L. Griffith, Jonathan Howlett, Matteo Malgaroli, Andrew Melaragno, Antonia V. Seligowski, I-Wei Shu, Suzan Song, Kristin Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Corticostriatal circuit models of cognitive impairments induced by fetal exposure to alcohol
The term Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) includes a group of diseases caused by fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). FASD patients display heterogenous socio-emotional and cognitive deficits, particularly in the domain of executive function, which share symptoms with other neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the availability of several preclinical models, the developmental brain defects causally linked to behavioral deficits induced by FAE remain poorly understood. Here, we first review the effects of FAE on corticostriatal development and its impact on both corticostriatal pathway function and cognitive abilities. (Source...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sebastiano Bariselli, David M. Lovinger Tags: Review Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Establishing Evidence for Clinical Utility of a Neuroimaging Biomarker in Major Depressive Disorder: Prospective Testing and Implementation Challenges,” by Kelley et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.966. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “Deep Brain Stimulation of the Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Case Report,” by Cascella et al. (Biol Psychiatry 2021); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.03.007. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Ketamine for a Boost of Neural Plasticity: How, but Also When?
Major depressive disorder affects millions of people and leads to debilitating symptoms. Although conventional antidepressants have been available and are often beneficial, they have several limitations, including a slow onset of action and an inadequate response for a substantial fraction of patients. Recently, ketamine —primarily a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other actions—was approved as a novel treatment for treatment-resistant depression and suicidal ideation. This was an exciting development because ketamine can relieve depressive symptoms rapidly and with sustained effect. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hao Wu, Neil K. Savalia, Alex C. Kwan Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

The Convergence of Two Signaling Pathways Within the Striatum Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Neuropsychiatric Disease
The serine-threonine kinase mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) is the cornerstone of a signaling pathway that serves as an essential regulator of cellular processes such as protein synthesis and autophagy (1). Aberrant activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) has been identified both in neurodevelopmental disorders and in sporadic neurodegenerative disease (2). In particular, loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding negative regulators of mTORC1, such as TSC1, TSC2, and PTEN, result in syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders associated with a constellation of manifestations, which can include epilepsy, autism spectrum di...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katherine R. Cording, Helen S. Bateup Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Changing the Stars: Astrocytes Adapt to Coordinate Action Flexibility
The interaction between astrocytes and neurons is a rapidly growing research topic that continues to highlight the diverse roles astrocytes play in neuronal signal transduction. Astrocytes can influence synaptic transmission by coordinating synapse formation and elimination, facilitating changes in the strength of existing connections, regulating extracellular glutamate levels, and participating in homeostatic synaptic scaling. Such astrocyte –neuron interactions have been documented throughout the brain (1). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brandon D. Turner Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research