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Risks for Major Depression: Searching for Stable Traits
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Scifo et  al. (1) follow a reasonable clinical and epidemiologic classification to separate biological traits and states. They base their hypothesis on existing strong findings that patients often have lifelong recurring episodes of major depression of increasing severity, shorter remission periods, and red uced therapeutic response. Based on these observations, they reason that patients with differing clinical courses (single episodes, single episodes in remission, recurrent episodes, recurrent episodes in remission, and control subjects) should show differing biological traits...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Myrna M. Weissman, Ardesheer Talati, Xuejun Hao, Jonathan Posner Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Erratum
to: “805. Associations Between Heart Rate Variability and Emotion Regulation Among Adolescents With Psychiatric Disorders” (Biol Psychiatry 2017; 81(10S): S327); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.02.872. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Small RNAs May Answer Big Questions in Mental Illness
One of the most difficult questions that clinicians face is “Why does my loved one have a mental illness?” The answer has changed dramatically over time. We have come a long way from blaming mental illness on poor parenting. Yet despite our increased discernment of potential causative factors in recent years, providing a satisfying answer is still a near insuperable task. Researchers are hopeful that continued breakthroughs in our understanding of the genetic basis of these illnesses may soon enable more complete answers. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carrie Wight, David A. Ross, Daniel R. Weinberger Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

Stress, Depression, and Inflammation: Molecular and Microglial Mechanisms
A range of evidence points to increased inflammation in stress-related and mood disorders (1,2). Relevant data have emerged from both animal models and clinical research (3) and include work on alterations in inflammatory markers and responses of such biomarkers to treatments with anti-inflammatory agents and other psychiatric interventions (4,5). Indeed, exciting advances in psychoneuroimmunology have raised hopes of improving the diagnosis and treatment of stress-related and mood disorders. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dan J. Stein, Petrus J. Naud é, Michael Berk Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Intracellular Signaling Pathways Involved in (S)- and (R)-Ketamine Antidepressant Actions
A number of placebo-controlled trials have provided evidence of rapid and sustained antidepressant actions after the administration of a single, subanesthetic dose of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine in treatment-refractory depressed patients. Ketamine is a racemic mixture comprised of the (S)-  and (R)-ketamine enantiomers, with (S)-ketamine being approximately fourfold more potent at inhibiting the NMDAR. Similar to racemic ketamine, clinical studies in depressed patients have indicated that a 40-minute intravenous infusion of (S)-ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant actio...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Panos Zanos, Todd D. Gould Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

New Insight Into the Mechanisms of Fast-Acting Antidepressants: What We Learn From Scopolamine
For a depressed patient, a single day without symptom improvement means yet another day of suffering. The currently available antidepressants require weeks or months to achieve appreciable symptom remission and remain ineffective in a large number of patients. Severely depressed patients are at high risk of suicide, making delayed symptom improvement a life-threatening unresolved problem in psychiatry. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to treat depression more rapidly and more effectively to achieve fast and sustained symptom relief. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christoph Anacker Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 83, Number 1, January 1, 2018 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Response to the Consensus Statement of the PTSD Psychopharmacology Working Group
We are writing in response to the Letter to the Editor by John Krystal and colleagues, entitled “It is Time to Address the Crisis in the Pharmacotherapy of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Consensus Statement of the PTSD Psychopharmacology Working Group" (1). This timely research statement pointed out some of the barriers to translating a wealth of PTSD research into effective pharmacologica l strategies. The group didn’t review all potential agents currently being assessed for PTSD, thus the addition of two promising candidates – cannabis and MDMA - would make this report more comprehensive. (Source...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allison A. Feduccia, Michael C. Mithoefer, Lisa Jerome, Julie Holland, Amy Emerson, Rick Doblin Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Prion protein as a toxic acceptor of amyloid- β oligomers
The initial report that cellular prion protein (PrPC) mediates toxicity of Amyloid- β (Aβ) species linked to Alzheimer’s disease was initially treated with scepticism, but growing evidence supports this claim. That there is a high-affinity interaction is now clear and its molecular basis is being unravelled whilst recent studies have identified possible down-stream toxic mechan isms. Determination of the clinical significance of such interactions between PrPC and disease-associated Aβ species will require experimental medicine studies in humans. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Silvia A. Purro, Andrew J. Nicoll, John Collinge Tags: Review Source Type: research

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2/3 as Targets for Treating Nicotine Addiction
Tobacco smoking, driven by the addictive properties of nicotine, continues to be a worldwide health problem. Based on the well-established role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in drug addiction, novel medication development strategies seek to halt nicotine consumption and prevent relapse to tobacco smoking by modulating glutamate transmission. The presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) 2/3 are key autoreceptors on glutamatergic terminals that maintain glutamate homeostasis. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alan Cross, Robert Anthenelli, Xia Li Tags: Review Source Type: research

The multifaceted role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in emotion, decision-making, social cognition, and psychopathology
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward and value-based decision-making, through interactions with ventral striatum and amygdala. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs Tags: Review Source Type: research

Specificity in etiology of subtypes of bipolar disorder: Evidence from a Swedish population-based family study
Uncertainty remains whether bipolar I disorder (BDI) and bipolar II disorder (BDII) differ etiologically. We used a population-based family sample to examine the etiological boundaries between BDI and BDII, by assessing their familial aggregation/co-aggregation, and by assessing the co-aggregation between them and schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jie Song, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Arvid Sj ölander, Sarah E. Bergen, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén, Paul Lichtenstein Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The candidate schizophrenia risk gene DGCR2 regulates early steps of corticogenesis
Alterations in early steps of cortical circuit assembly are thought to play a critical role in vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), but the pathogenic impact of SZ-risk mutations on corticogenesis remains to be determined. DiGeorge Critical Region 2 (DGCR2) is located in the 22q11.2 locus, whose deletion is a major risk factor for SZ. Moreover, exome sequencing of individuals with idiopathic SZ identified a rare missense mutation in DGCR2, further suggesting that DGCR2 is involved in SZ. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aude Molinard-Chenu, Alexandre Dayer Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Fear and PTSD
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared to males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific non-biological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Median and dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons control moderate versus compulsive cocaine intake
Reduced expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) promotes anxiety and cocaine intake in both humans and rats. We tested the hypothesis that median raphe nucleus (MRN) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonergic projections differentially mediate these phenotypes. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michel M.M. Verheij, Candice Contet, Peter Karel, Judith Latour, Rick H.A. van der Doelen, Bram Geenen, Josephus A. van Hulten, Francisca Meyer, Tamas Kozicz, Olivier George, George F. Koob, Judith R. Homberg Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Etiology of Neuropsychiatric Disorders
The brain has the highest mitochondrial energy demand of any organ. Therefore, subtle changes in mitochondrial energy production will preferentially affect the brain. Considerable biochemical evidence has accumulated revealing mitochondrial defects associated with neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, the mitochondrial genome encompasses over a thousand nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes plus hundreds to thousands of copies of the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, partial defects in either the nDNA or mtDNA genes or combinations of the two can be sufficient to cause neuropsychiatric disorders. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liming Pei, Douglas C. Wallace Tags: Review Source Type: research

Current status of animal models of PTSD: behavioral and biological phenotypes, and future challenges in improving translation
Increasing predictability of animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has required active collaboration between clinical and preclinical scientists. Modeling PTSD is challenging as it is heterogeneous disorder with 20+ symptoms. Clinical research is increasingly utilizing objective biological measures (e.g. imaging, peripheral biomarkers) or non-verbal behaviors/physiological responses to complement verbally reported symptoms. This shift toward more objectively measurable phenotypes enables refinement of current animal models of PTSD, and supports incorporation of homologous measures across species. (Source: B...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica Deslauriers, Mate Toth, Andre Der-Avakian, Victoria B. Risbrough Tags: Review Source Type: research

Brain stimulation over frontopolar cortex enhances motivation to exert effort for reward
Loss of motivation is a characteristic feature of several psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the neural mechanisms underlying human motivation are far from being understood. Here, we show that frontopolar cortex (FPC) plays a crucial role in motivating cognitive and physical effort exertion by computing subjective effort equivalents. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexander Soutschek, Pyungwon Kang, Christian C. Ruff, Todd A. Hare, Philippe N. Tobler Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The Mediodorsal Thalamus: An Essential Partner of Prefrontal Cortex for Cognition
Deficits in cognition are a core feature of many psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, where the severity of such deficits is a strong predictor of long-term outcome. Impairment in cognitive domains, such as working memory and behavioral flexibility, have classically been associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. However, there is increasing evidence that the PFC cannot be dissociated from its main thalamic counterpart, the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Since the causal relationships between MD-PFC abnormalities and cognitive impairment, as well as the neuronal mechanisms underlying them, are difficult t...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sebastien Parnaudeau, Scott S. Bolkan, Christoph Kellendonk Tags: Review Source Type: research

Reproducibility in Imaging Genetics: The Case of Threat-Related Amygdala Reactivity
Low reproducibility rates are a concern in most, if not all, scientific disciplines. In psychiatric genetics specifically, intermediate brain phenotypes more proximal to putative genetic effects were touted as a strategy leading to increased power and reproducibility. Here we attempt to replicate previously published associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and threat-related amygdala reactivity, which represents a robust brain phenotype not only implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple disorders, but also as a biomarker of future risk. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Reut Avinun, Adam Nevo, Annchen R. Knodt, Maxwell L. Elliott, Ahmad R. Hariri Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Psychiatry in a Dish: Stem Cells and Brain Organoids Modeling Autism Spectrum Disorders (Asd)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disease, the neurobiological links remain unclear. A large amount of evidence suggests that pathological processes, taking place in the early embryonic neurodevelopment, might be responsible for later manifestation of autistic symptoms. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mirolyba Ilieva, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Morten Thorsen, Tanja Maria Michel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Maternal Immune Activation Delays Excitatory-to-Inhibitory Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Switch in Offspring
The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Understanding neurodevelopmental disorders: the promise of regulatory variation in the 3 ’UTRome
Neurodevelopmental disorders have a strong genetic component, but despite widespread efforts, the specific genetic factors underlying these disorders remain undefined for a large proportion of affected individuals. Given the accessibility of exome-sequencing, this problem has thus far been addressed from a protein-centric standpoint; however, protein-coding regions only make up ∼1-2% of the human genome. With the advent of whole-genome sequencing we are in the midst of a paradigm shift as it is now possible to interrogate the entire sequence of the human genome (coding and non-coding) to fill in the missing heritabilit...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kai Wanke, Paolo Devanna, Sonja C. Vernes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Toward Comprehensive Understanding of the Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on the Human Amygdala
This study opened wide avenues for research using OXT in human subjects and demonstrated that OXT can be safely and effectively administered to human subjects intranasally, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and the blood-brain barrier, where it is thought to accumulate in cerebrospinal fluids. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Milly Kritman, Mouna Maroun Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Associations of Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Inflammation and Endothelial Function: On Timing, Specificity, and Mechanisms
Exposure to traumatic psychological stress can increase risk for numerous physical and mental health problems. Exciting discoveries from trauma research have identified alterations in peripheral biological systems, including the immune and cardiovascular systems, as potential contributors to trauma-related ill health. Importantly, such discoveries are pointing us in new directions in the search for interventions to reduce the negative physical and mental health effects of trauma. However, there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of when, how, and in whom trauma leads to long-term altered functioning of key per...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aoife O ’Donovan, Thomas C. Neylan Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

To Bend and Not Break: The Neurobiology of Stress, Resilience, and Recovery
As a young boy walks out of a theater with his two wealthy parents, his life is changed in an instant: a mugging goes awry, shots are fired in the night, and his parents are murdered in front of his eyes. He becomes an orphan, haunted by the memory of the event. He retreats inward, struggling for years to come to term with the events, before ultimately learning to channel his anguish constructively. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Erik A. Levinsohn, David A. Ross Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptor Antagonists for Stress-Related Disorders: Time  to Call It Quits?
The recent study by Dunlop et  al. (1) reports the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral dosing of a corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1 receptor) antagonist, GSK561679 (GlaxoSmithKline; also known as Verucerfont), in women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (1). In the trial, 1 28 women with current PTSD of at least moderate severity were randomized to a fixed daily dose of GSK561679 or matching placebo over a 6-week treatment period. There was no difference between GSK561679 and placebo on PTSD symptom severity as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: James W. Murrough, Dennis S. Charney Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Stress-Induced Hippocampal Volume Loss Is Adult Neurogenesis Independent
Depression is one of the leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. Understandably, a considerable amount of research has focused on identifying relevant biomarkers of the disorder. Early studies using magnetic resonance imaging showed reduced hippocampal volumes in patients with major depression (1). These findings have been corroborated by multiple reports, and meta-analyses confirm that depression-associated hippocampal volume loss of up to about 10% is a significant phenomenon. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sahana Murthy Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 82, Number 12, December 15, 2017 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
The editors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following: (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial Board Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subscribers Page
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
(Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Exploring the Role of Astroglial Glutamate Release and Association with Synapses in Neuronal Function and Behavior
Astrocytes are stellate cells whose appearance can resemble a pointed star, especially when visualizing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a canonical marker for astrocytes. Accordingly, there is a commonly made connection between the points of light that shine in the night sky and the diffuse and abundant cells that buffer ions and provide support for neurons. An exceptional amount of function has been attributed to, negated and potentially reaffirmed for these cells, especially regarding their ability to release neuroactive molecules and influence synaptic plasticity. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael D. Scofield Tags: Review Source Type: research

Prospective validation that subgenual connectivity predicts antidepressant efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation sites
The optimal target in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treating depression with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) remains unknown. Better efficacy has been associated with stimulation sites that are 1) more anterior and lateral and 2) more functionally connected to the subgenual cingulate. Here we prospectively test whether these factors predict response in individual patients. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne Weigand, Andreas Horn, Ruth Caballero, Danielle Cooke, Adam P. Stern, Stephan F. Taylor, Daniel Press, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Michael D. Fox Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Modeling the Interplay Between Neurons and Astrocytes in Autism Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unclear etiology and imprecise genetic causes. The main goal of this work was to investigate neuronal connectivity and the interplay between neurons and astrocytes from individuals with nonsyndromic ASD using induced pluripotent stem cells. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fabiele Baldino Russo, Beatriz Camille Freitas, Graciela Concei ção Pignatari, Isabella Rodrigues Fernandes, Jonathan Sebat, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

A schizophrenia-linked KALRN coding variant alters neuron morphology, protein function, and transcript stability
Large-scale genetic studies have revealed that rare sequence variants, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), in glutamatergic synaptic genes are enriched in schizophrenia (SZ) patients. However, the majority are too rare to show any association with disease, and have not been examined functionally. One such SNV, KALRN-P2255T displays a penetrance which greatly exceeds that of previously identified SZ-associated SNVs. Therefore, we sought to characterize its effects on the function of Kalirin-9 (Kal9), a dual Rac1 and RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), upregulated in human SZ brain tissue. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theron A. Russell, Melanie J. Grubisha, Christine L. Remmers, Seok Kyu Kang, Marc P. Forrest, Katharine R. Smith, Katherine J. Kopeikina, Ruoqi Gao, Robert A. Sweet, Peter Penzes Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances fear extinction memory in humans
Animal fear conditioning studies have illuminated neuronal mechanisms of learned associations between sensory stimuli and fear responses. In rats, brief electrical stimulation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex has been shown to reduce conditioned freezing during recall of extinction memory. Here, we translate this finding to humans with MRI-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tommi Raij, Aapo Nummenmaa, Marie-France Marin, Daria Porter, Sharon Furtak, Kawin Setsompop, Mohammed Milad Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

(-)-P7C3-S243 protects a rat model of Alzheimer ’s disease from neuropsychiatric deficits and neurodegeneration without altering amyloid deposition or reactive glia
In addition to cognitive deficits, Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) is also associated with other neuropsychiatric symptoms, including severe depression. Indeed, depression often precedes cognitive deficits in patients with AD. Unfortunately, the field has seen only minimal therapeutic advances, underscoring the critical need for new treatments. P7 C3 aminopropyl carbazoles promote neuronal survival by enhancing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide flux in injured neurons. Neuroprotection with P7C3 compounds has been demonstrated in preclinical models of neurodegeneration by virtue of promoting neuronal survival independently ...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jaymie R. Voorhees, Matthew T. Remy, Coral J. Cintr ón-Pérez, Eli El Rassi, Michael Z. Kahn, Laura M. Dutca, Terry C. Yin, Latisha M. McDaniel, Noelle S. Williams, Daniel J. Brat, Andrew A. Pieper Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Cocaine Rearranges the Neuronal Epigenome
Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse alters gene expression in the brain and produces long-term changes in neural networks that promote compulsive drug-taking and -seeking behaviors. It is clear that epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and small noncoding RNAs, contribute to persistent and dynamic changes in gene networks that underlie addiction-like phenotypes in laboratory animals (1,2). While recent studies have demonstrated causal roles for individual epigenetic marks in addiction-like behaviors, it is not clear how different types of epigenetic mechanisms act in concert to regulate c...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Heath D. Schmidt Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Forgetting to Be Addicted: Reconsolidation and the Disconnection of Things Past
Yea, from the table of my memoryI ’ll wipe away all trivial fond records,All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past,That youth and observation copied there,—William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 1, Scene 5 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alec Solway, Xiaosi Gu, P. Read Montague Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Rapid Cocaine-Induced Spine Changes in the Nucleus Accumbens
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Dos Santos et  al. (1) use sophisticated new technologies to observe rapid and long-lasting cocaine-induced alterations of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region important for cocaine’s rewarding effects, and identify key signaling proteins that promote a nd maintain dendritic spine structural plasticity. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rajtarun Madangopal Tags: Early Career Investigator Commentary Source Type: research

Metabolism and Memory: Obesity, Diabetes, and Dementia
When Michelle Obama launched her Let ’s Move! campaign against childhood obesity in 2010, it came on the heels of data showing that 36% of U.S. adults and 17% of U.S children and adolescents were obese (1). The associated health risks outlined by Ms. Obama’s team reflected the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s consensu s, which emphasized a myriad of adverse outcomes ranging from cancer to arthritis to coronary artery disease. Among these public health messages, the neuropsychiatric consequences of obesity have narrowly focused on cerebrovascular disease, such as stroke, and the psychological c...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Shalev, Melissa R. Arbuckle Tags: Clinical Commentary Source Type: research

Decision Making in Alcoholic Patients and Its Contribution to Relapse
It is not surprising that people who anticipate alcohol ’s positive effects (positive alcohol expectancies) are more likely to drink. More formally, alcohol expectancies are generated by the interoceptive experiences that alcohol consumption generates, giving rise to mental representations of its reinforcing effects. Thus, positive expectancies that re present the reinforcing properties of alcohol can result from strong interoceptive cues and lead to drug seeking and consumption according to pavlovian conditioning theories of addiction. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theodora Duka Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In This Issue
Volume 82, Number 11, December 1, 2017 (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - October 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research