Protective effects of quercetin-loaded microcapsules on the enteric nervous system of diabetic rats
Quercetin-loaded microcapsules (QLM) promote controlled release and higher bioavailability of quercetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent. We evaluated the antioxidant effect of QLM on enteric innervation and in the oxidative status of the ileum of diabetic rats. Wistar adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used in six groups containing normoglycemic (N), diabetic (D) and either normoglycemic or diabetic groups treated with QLM at a dose of 10  mg/kg (NQ10 and DQ10, respectively) or 100 mg/kg (NQ100 and DQ100, respectively). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Camila Cavicchioli Sehaber-Sierakowski, Fl ávia Cristina Vieira-Frez, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Heber Amilcar Martins, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Mariana Machado Lima, Fernanda Paschoal Blegniski, Flávia Alessandra Guarnier, Marcela Maria Baracat, Source Type: research

Using a radiopaque marker with radiography for evaluating colonic transit by geometric center in conscious rats: A novel method
This study developed a new method using radiopaque markers under X-ray to measure rat colonic transit by geometric center repeatedly and/or over a time series in the same individually. Additionally, the utility of this method was shown by elucidating the innervation of the autonomic nerve on colonic transit in detail with a pharmacological technique in conscious rats.An in-dwelling silastic cannula was inserted into the cecum and the proximal part was moved through the abdominal wall, where it was fixed to the posterior neck skin. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Misaki Okada, Sazu Taniguchi, Chiaki Takeshima, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hiroshi Kitakoji, Kazunori Itoh, Toku Takahashi, Kenji Imai Source Type: research

Cardioprotective effects of acute sleep deprivation on ischemia/reperfusion injury
Modulation of sympathetic activity during acute sleep deprivation can produce various effects on body functions. We studied the effects of acute sleep deprivation before ischemia/reperfusion on myocardial injury in isolated rat hearts, and the role of sympathetic nervous system that may mediate these sleep deprivation induced effects. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zohreh Edalatyzadeh, Marjan Aghajani, Alireza Imani, Mahdieh Faghihi, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Sahar Askari, Samira Choopani Source Type: research

Decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased albuminuria for identification of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in subjects with and without diabetes
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ying-Chuen Lai, Hung-Yuan Li, Yi-Dier Jiang, Tien-Jyun Chang, Lee-Ming Chuang Source Type: research

Autonomic response after hemorrhagic stroke in the right insular cortex: What is the common pathophysiology in rat and human?
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Michiaki Nagai, Keigo Dote, Masaya Kato Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Purinergic receptor antagonism: A viable strategy for the management of autonomic dysreflexia?
The purinergic receptor ligand, ATP, may participate in reflex induced vasoconstriction through sympathetic efferent and sensory afferent mechanisms. However, the role of the purinergic system in contributing to autonomic dysreflexia following spinal cord injury is unclear. The present study investigates the involvement of P2X receptors in contributing to pressor responses during autonomic dysreflexia. Twenty rats were subjected to spinal cord injury and 24  h later hemodynamic responses to colorectal distension were recorded. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zeljka Minic, Donal S. O'Leary, Christian A. Reynolds Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Inhibition of the dorsomedial hypothalamus substantially decreases brown adipose tissue sympathetic discharge induced by activation of the lateral habenula
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an evolutionarily ancient nucleus that plays an important role in the detection of salient/adverse environmental events. We have previously shown that the LHb is involved in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis elicited by stressful situations, and that the medullary raph é, a key lower brainstem sympathetic control centre, mediates BAT thermogenesis elicited by stimulating the LHb. Since there are no direct projections from the LHb to the medullary raphé, it is plausible that the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a brain region known to be important for thermoregula tory respo...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mariana Brizuela, Youichirou Ootsuka Source Type: research

Distinct cardiovascular and respiratory responses to short-term sustained hypoxia in juvenile Sprague Dawley and Wistar Hannover rats
Short-term sustained hypoxia (SH) elicits active expiration, augmented late-expiratory (late-E) sympathetic activity, increased arterial pressure and ventilation, and amplified sympathetic and abdominal expiratory responses to chemoreflex activation in rats of the Wistar-Ribeir ão Preto (WRP) strain. Herein, we investigated whether SH can differentially affect the cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar Hannover (WH) rats and compared the results with previous data using WRP rats. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Darlan S. Bazilio, Karla L. Rodrigues, Davi J.A. Moraes, Benedito H. Machado Source Type: research

Validation of the new index of baroreflex function to identify neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
According to expert opinion, orthostatic hypotension (OH) associated to a change in heart rate ( ΔHR) less than 15 bpm suggests neurogenic OH (NOH). Recently, the ratio between HR and systolic blood pressure changes at 3 min of tilt test (ΔHR/ΔSBP) has been proposed as a better index than the ΔHR cut-off of 17 bpm. Our aim was to validate these indexes based on HR in an independent co hort of patients who performed cardiovascular reflex tests according to standardized procedures at our Institution. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pietro Guaraldi, Francesca Baschieri, Giorgio Barletta, Annagrazia Cecere, Pietro Cortelli, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura Source Type: research

Sex differences in the autonomic and cerebrovascular responses to upright tilt
The objectives of this study were to concurrently investigate autonomic control and cerebrovascular resistance indices, including critical closing pressure (CrCP) and resistance area product (RAP), during upright tilt in men and women. In 13 women and 14 men (18 –29 years), ECG, non-invasive blood pressure, middle cerebral artery blood velocity, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) were continuously measured during supine rest and 70° tilt. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andrew D. Robertson, Ismina Papadhima, Heather Edgell Source Type: research

Action potential subpopulations within human muscle sympathetic nerve activity: Discharge properties and governing mechanisms
Sympathetic emissions directed towards the skeletal muscle circulation — muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) — represent a key mechanism for maintaining homeostasis and supporting human survival during physiological stress. Pulse-rhythmic bursts formed by the synchronous discharge of differently sized sympathetic action potentials (APs) represent the primary c haracteristic of MSNA. Of the APs firing under baseline conditions (reflecting low-threshold c-fibre activity), a range of subpopulations exist of which three general categories can be discussed based on their peak-to-peak amplitude in the filtered r...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stephen A. Klassen, J. Kevin Shoemaker Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of acute hyperglycemia on the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats
The exercise pressor reflex is exaggerated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia, a main characteristic of T2DM, likely contributes to this exaggerated response. However, the isolated effect of acute hyperglycemia, independent of T2DM, on the exercise pressor reflex is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute, local exposure to hyperglycemia on the exercise pressor reflex and its two components, namely the mechanoreflex and the metaboreflex, in healthy rats. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu Huo, Ann-Katrin Grotle, Kai M. Ybarbo, Junghoon Lee, Michelle L. Harrison, Audrey J. Stone Source Type: research

Regulatory effects of cervical sympathetic trunk and renal sympathetic nerve activities on cerebral blood flow during head-down postural rotations
This study attempts to clarify the neural control of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during head-down postural rotation, which induces a cephalad fluid shift in urethane-anesthetized rats. The animals were placed on a table, tilted to a 45 ° head-down position over 5 s and maintained in that position. Head-down rotation (HDR) induced a transient decrease (8 ± 3 mm Hg; mean ± SE) in mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) at 7.3 ± 0.3 s after the onset of HDR. The pressure returned to the pre-HDR level within 1 min in the head-down position. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noriko Matsuo, Satoshi Matsuo, Yosuke Nakamura, Felix Ojeiru Ezomo, Yasuaki Kawai Source Type: research

Global REACH 2018: Regional differences in cerebral blood velocity control during normoxic and hypoxic cold pressor tests
The impact of oxygen on the cerebral response to the cold pressor test (CPT) remains unknown. In 13 participants, blood pressure, middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv and PCAv, respectively) were measured during an isocapnic normoxic and hypoxic (SpO2  = 85%) CPT. The main findings were: 1) the MCAv response to the CPT was greater compared to the PCAv in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively); and, 2) hypoxia did not alter the cerebral response to the CPT (P = 0.141 and P = 0.150, respecti vely). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Michael M. Tymko, Ryan L. Hoiland, Philip N. Ainslie Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Adenosine A1 and A2a receptors modulate the nitrergic system in cell culture from dorsomedial medulla oblongata
In this study we evaluate the interaction between adenosinergic and nitrergic systems in cell culture from the dorsomedial medulla oblongata of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - October 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M.A. Costa, J.P.P. Matsumoto, D.C. Carrettiero, D.R. Fior-Chadi Source Type: research

Autonomic neuropathy and urologic complications in diabetes
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy affects the entire autonomic nervous system and can lead to dysfunction of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary organ systems. Genitourinary dysfunction associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy includes diabetic bladder dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Urological complications in diabetes mellitus are very common; in fact, genitourinary complications are more common than diabetic neuropathy or nephropathy. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - October 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nnenaya Agochukwu-Mmonu, Rodica Pop-Busui, Hunter Wessells, Aruna V. Sarma Source Type: research

Exaggerated potassium current reduction by oxytocin in visceral sensory neurons following chronic intermittent hypoxia
Oxytocin (OT) from the hypothalamus is increased in several cardiorespiratory nuclei and systemically in response to a variety of stimuli and stressors, including hypoxia. Within the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), the first integration site for cardiorespiratory reflexes, OT enhances synaptic transmission, action potential (AP) discharge, and cardiac baroreflex gain. The hypoxic stressor obstructive sleep apnea, and its CIH animal model, elevates blood pressure and alters heart rate variability. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Heather A. Dantzler, David D. Kline Source Type: research

Syncope at SARS-CoV-2 onset
We describe clinical and laboratory findings in 35 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab experiencing one or multiple syncope at disease onset. Clinical neurologic and cardiologic examination, and electrocardiographic findings were normal. Chest computed tomography showed findings consistent with interstitial pneumonia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ciro Canetta, Silvia Accordino, Elisabetta Buscarini, Gianpaolo Benelli, Giuseppe La Piana, Alessandro Scartabellati, Giovanni Vigan ò, Roberto Assandri, Alberto Astengo, Chiara Benzoni, Gianfranco Gaudiano, Daniele Cazzato, Davide Sebastiano Rossi, Susa Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Effects of optogenetic activation of the enteric nervous system on gastrointestinal motility in mouse small intestine
Recently, it was demonstrated that optogenetics could be used to stimulate enteric calretinin neurons, leading to increased colonic transit in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the current study was to determine if similar approaches could be used to stimulate the isolated mouse small intestine, with the aim of potentially also improving transit in the small bowel. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nick J. Spencer, Lee Travis, Tim Hibberd, Nigel Kelly, Jing Feng, Hongzhen Hu Source Type: research

Non-pharmacologic management of orthostatic hypotension
The non-pharmacologic management of orthostatic hypotension includes: 1) review medications that may exacerbate the symptoms such as α- blockers, antihypertensives, narcotics, vasodilators such as nitrates and hydralazine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, levodopa, bromocriptine and phosphodiestarase inhibitors; 2) increase fluids and salt aiming at of 2-2.5 L of fluid per day with a diet rich in salt in the range of>10  g/day; 3) avoid large meals, encourage small and more frequent meals; 4) encourage mobilization, avoiding prolonged bedrest; encourage recumbent aerobic exercise and strength training to increase...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is there cardiac autonomic neuropathy in prediabetes?
Although there is considerably more data showing an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and autonomic neuropathy, accumulating evidence indicates that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is common in persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Furthermore, CAN may occur early after a metabolic insult and obesity, especially among men, seems to play an important role in the early pathogenesis of CAN. Autonomic symptoms are common in subjects with IGT. In addition to defects in CAN, in subjects with IGT, there is impaired sudomotor function and abnormalities of endothelial peripheral vasoreactivity. ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lindsay A. Zilliox, James W. Russell Source Type: research

Delayed orthostatic hypotension
is a fall in blood pressure beyond 3  min of standing or upright tilt table testing. The prevalence, clinical features and pathophysiology are reviewed. To date, there is little data to support a standardized or recommended treatment. However, the 10-year mortality rates of individuals with delayed orthostatic hypotension are approxi mately 50%. Despite the fact that delayed orthostatic hypotension carries the same symptoms, risks and high mortality rate as classical orthostatic hypotension, but is under-recognized. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Christopher H. Gibbons, Roy Freeman Source Type: research

Autonomic and cardiac repolarization Lability in long QT syndrome patients
Long QT-Syndrome (LQTS) patients are at risk of arrhythmias and seizures. We investigated whether autonomic and cardiac repolarization measures differed based on LQTS genotypes, and in LQTS patients with vs. without arrhythmias and seizures. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Natalia DeMaria, Ahmed Selmi, Samuel Kashtan, Xiaojuan Xia, Matthew Wang, Wojciech Zareba, Jean-Phillippe Couderc, David S. Auerbach Source Type: research

Pharmacologic treatment of orthostatic hypotension
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a disabling disorder caused by impairment of the normal autonomic compensatory mechanisms that maintain upright blood pressure. Nonpharmacologic treatment is always the first step in the management of this condition, but a considerable number of patients will require pharmacologic therapies. Denervation hypersensitivity and impairment of baroreflex buffering makes these patients sensitive to small doses of pressor agents. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology can help in selecting between treatment options. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin-Woo Park, Luis E. Okamoto, Cyndya A. Shibao, Italo Biaggioni Tags: Review Source Type: research

Lower urinary tract function in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A preliminary observation
The urodynamics underlying lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) has not been reported. Herein, we investigated LUT function in FTLD patients by performing a urodynamics analysis. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryuji Sakakibara, Ayami Shimizu, Osamu Takahashi, Yosuke Aiba, Fuyuki Tateno, Yuuka Sugisaki, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Uchiyama, Tomonori Yamanishi Source Type: research

Topographic carotid vasoconstriction in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats
This study is the first to examine the response sites of CAR in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic area to chemical stimulation by the ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors activator l-cysteine. Arterial blood pressure and CAR were monitored in anesthetized rats which had a cranial window constructed above the ventral medulla. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yumi Takemoto Source Type: research

Morbidity and mortality in orthostatic hypotension
This review summarizes the current literature on the epidemiology of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in the elderly and in patients with autonomic impairment also known as neurogenic OH (nOH); these two conditions have distinct pathophysiologies and affect different patient populations. The prevalence of OH in the elderly varies depending on the study population. In community dwellers, OH prevalence is estimated at 16%, whereas in institutionalized patients, it may be as high as 60%. The prevalence of OH increases exponentially with age, particularly in those 75  years and older. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Maureen C. Farrell, Cyndya A. Shibao Tags: Review Source Type: research

Circadian rhythms of blood pressure and rate pressure product in children with postural tachycardia syndrome
To investigate circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) and rate pressure product (RPP) in children with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) by performing 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hong Cai, Shuo Wang, Runmei Zou, Yuwen Wang, Cheng Wang Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes
Gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy represents an important and diverse, but poorly appreciated, manifestation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy that impacts negatively on quality of life. There is no test to assess gastrointestinal autonomic nerve damage directly in humans; cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests are often used as a surrogate, but are suboptimal. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in diabetes, but usually correlate only weakly with disordered motility. Diabetic gastroparesis, or abnormally delayed gastric emptying, occurs frequently and is the best characterized manifestation of gastrointestinal autonomi...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chinmay S. Marathe, Karen L. Jones, Tongzhi Wu, Christopher K. Rayner, Michael Horowitz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sex differences in cardiac vagal reactivation from the end of isometric handgrip exercise and at the onset of muscle metaboreflex isolation
A parasympathetic reactivation is an underlying mechanism mediating the rapid fall in heart rate (HR) at the onset of post-exercise ischemia (PEI) in humans. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that, compared to men, women present a slower HR recovery at the cessation of isometric handgrip exercise (i.e., onset of PEI) due to an attenuated cardiac vagal reactivation. Forty-seven (23 women) young and healthy volunteers were recruited. Subjects performed 90s of isometric handgrip exercise at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction followed by 3-min of PEI. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Milena Samora, Andr é L. Teixeira, Jeann L. Sabino-Carvalho, Lauro C. Vianna Source Type: research

Ventromedial medullary pathway mediating cardiac responses evoked from periaqueductal gray
Periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a midbrain region that projects to areas controlling behavioral and autonomic outputs and is involved in the behavioral and physiological components of defense reactions. Since Raphe Pallidus (RPa) is a medial medullary region comprising sympathetic premotor neurons governing heart function, it is worth considering the PAG-RPa path. We assessed: i) whether PAG projects to RPa; ii) the amplitude of cardiac responses evoked from PAG; iii) whether cardiovascular responses evoked from PAG rely on RPa. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: G.C.A. Moraes, M.M. Mendon ça, A.A. Mourão, D. Graziani, M.C.X. Pinto, P.M. Ferreira, G.R. Pedrino, M.A.P. Fontes, O.C. Oliveira-Lima, C.H. Xavier Source Type: research

Differential diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common clinical manifestation characterized by a significant fall in blood pressure with postural change and is frequently accompanied by debilitating symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. The reported prevalence of OH ranges between 5 and 10% in middle-aged adults with a burden that increases concomitantly with age; in those over 60  years of age, the prevalence is estimated to be over 20%. Unfortunately, the clinical course of OH is not necessarily benign. OH patients are at an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes including death, falls, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events,...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lucy Y. Lei, Derek S. Chew, Satish R. Raj Source Type: research

Recent advances in exercise pressor reflex function in health and disease
Autonomic alterations at the onset of exercise are critical to redistribute cardiac output towards the contracting muscles while preventing a fall in arterial pressure due to excessive vasodilation within the contracting muscles. Neural mechanisms responsible for these adjustments include central command, the exercise pressor reflex, and arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. The exercise pressor reflex evokes reflex increases in sympathetic activity to the heart and systemic vessels and decreases in parasympathetic activity to the heart, which increases blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and total peripheral resistance ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ann-Katrin Grotle, Vaughan G. Macefield, William B. Farquhar, Donal S. O'Leary, Audrey J. Stone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Orexin A and B in the rat superior salivatory nucleus
In this study, the distribution of OXA and OXB was examined in the rat superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemical and methods. OXA- and OXB-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve fibers were seen throughout the SSN. These nerve fibers surrounded SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with Fast blue (FB) from the corda-lingual nerve. FB-positive neurons had pericellular OXA- (47.5%) and OXB-ir (49.0%) nerve fibers. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Masako Fujita, Motoi Kobashi, Hiroyuki Ichikawa, Ryusuke Yoshida, Yoshihiro Mitoh Source Type: research

The ectopy-triggering ganglionated plexuses in atrial fibrillation
In this study, we hypothesised that “ET-GP” are upstream triggers of atrial ectopy/AF and have different anatomical distribution to AVD-GP. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Min-Young Kim, Belinda Sandler, Markus B. Sikkel, Christopher D. Cantwell, Kevin M. Leong, Vishal Luther, Louisa Malcolme-Lawes, Michael Koa-Wing, Fu Siong Ng, Norman Qureshi, Afzal Sohaib, Zachary I. Whinnett, Michael Fudge, Elaine Lim, Michelle Todd, Ia Source Type: research

Obituary for Geoff Burnstock
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Morphological and neurochemical characterisation of anterogradely labelled spinal sensory and autonomic nerve endings in the mouse bladder
The objective was to characterise anatomically and immunohistochemically the terminal endings of sensory and autonomic motor nerve endings in wholemount preparations of the mouse bladder. We used both anterograde labelling of pelvic and hypogastric nerves ex vivo and anterograde labelling from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in vivo in male and female mice. These were combined with immunohistochemistry for major markers of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Harman Sharma, Melinda Kyloh, Simon J.H. Brookes, Marcello Costa, Nick J. Spencer, Vladimir P. Zagorodnyuk Source Type: research

Association between reduced heart rate variability components and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a systemic right ventricle
Patients with a systemic right ventricle are prone to develop heart failure. Abnormal heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic dysfunction, is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with left ventricular failure. The association between HRV and supraventricular arrhythmias (SVTs), which are associated with adverse events in this population, was assessed. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tjitske Zandstra, Philippine Ki ès, Arie Maan, Sum-Che Man, Marianne Bootsma, Hubert Vliegen, Anastasia Egorova, Bart Mertens, Eduard Holman, Martin Schalij, Monique Jongbloed Source Type: research

Autonomic and cardiovascular consequences resulting from experimental hemorrhagic stroke in the left or right intermediate insular cortex in rats
Damage to the insular cortex (IC) results in serious cardiovascular consequences and evidence indicates that the characteristics are lateralized. However, a study comparing the effects of focal experimental hemorrhage between IC sides was never performed. We compared the cardiovascular, autonomic and cardiac changes produced by focal experimental hemorrhage (ICH) into the left (L) or right (R) IC. Wistar rats were submitted to microinjection of autologous blood (ICH) or saline (n  = 6 each side/group) into the R or L IC. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Marcelo Limbor ço-Filho, Bárbara Flecha D'Abreu, Pedro W. Machado de Almeida, Mariana Gavioli, Carlos Henrique Xavier, Stephen M. Oppenheimer, Sílvia Guatimosim, Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes Source Type: research

Utility of salivary gland biopsy in diagnosing Sjogren's syndrome in a POTS patient population
POTS patients undergo labial salivary gland biopsies (LSGB) for histologic confirmation of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Predictive features of positive results are unknown. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Selena R. Pasadyn, Christine B. Warren, Robert G. Wilson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Functional atropine sensitive purinergic responses in the healthy rat bladder
While acetylcholine is regarded to be the main directly contractile transmitter substance in the urinary bladder, interactions with other transmitters likely occur. Presently, the interplay between purinergic and cholinergic signalling was investigated to unravel the involvement of the urothelium and efferent neurons in the functionally important purinergically evoked release of acetylcholine in vitro. Functional characterization of receptor subtypes involved in this interplay was also performed. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johanna Stenqvist, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Patrik Aronsson Source Type: research

Psychological correlates of patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)
Psychological symptoms are frequently reported in patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS); however, the nature of these symptoms is not well understood. The current study described baseline psychological symptoms in patients with POTS, and examined associations between psychological and self-report autonomic symptoms. Participants reported mild anxiety symptoms, moderate depressive symptoms, severe somatization, and elevated anxiety sensitivity. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with autonomic symptoms. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carolyn J. Fisher, Irene Katzan, Leslie J. Heinberg, Andrew T. Schuster, Nicolas R. Thompson, Robert Wilson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in the heart failure patient
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a common comorbidity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is associated with an increased risk of falls, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. There are over 5 million individuals in the U.S. with heart failure (HF) with an associated 50% mortality rate at 5  years. The prevalence of nOH and HF increase with age and, as the population continues to age, will be increasingly common comorbid conditions. Thus, the effective management of these conditions has important implications for public health. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Debra D. Dixon, James A.S. Muldowney Tags: Review Source Type: research

Attention and executive function are impaired during active standing in postural tachycardia syndrome
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic form of orthostatic intolerance associated with cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized executive function and attention is impaired in POTS during active standing. Eighty-seven POTS participants and 39 healthy controls of similar age, sex, and education level completed executive function (Stroop word-color) and attention (CogState Identification) tests in supine and standing postures in a cross-sectional study. POTS participants had lower executive function (t-score: 48  ± 11 vs. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Amanda J. Miller, Timothy Sheehan, Kate M. Bourne, Monica Feeley, Amy C. Arnold Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord
The central adrenergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems diffusively affect the operation of the spinal neural network and dynamically gauge central sympathetic outflow. Using in vitro splanchnic nerve –thoracic spinal cord preparations as an experimental model, this study examined the intraspinal α1-adrenoceptor-meidated modulation of sympathetic firing behaviors. Several sympathetic single-fiber activities were simultaneously recorded. Application of phenylephrine (Phe, an α1-adrenoceptor ag onist) increased, decreased or did not affect spontaneous firing. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chun-Kuei Su Source Type: research

In vivo paracrine effects of ATP-induced urothelial acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder
Mechanical stretch of the urothelium induces the release of ATP that activates bladder afferent nerves. In the rat urinary bladder, ATP is also a contractile co-transmitter in the parasympathetic innervation. In isolated preparations, ATP evokes a urothelial release of acetylcholine that substantially contributes to ATP-evoked contractile responses. Currently we aimed to further examine the interactions of ATP and acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder in two in vivo models. In the whole bladder preparation, atropine reduced ATP-evoked responses by about 50% in intact but denervated bladders, while atropine had no effect...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johanna Stenqvist, Patrik Aronsson, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Gunnar Tobin Source Type: research

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Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research