Differential diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common clinical manifestation characterized by a significant fall in blood pressure with postural change and is frequently accompanied by debilitating symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. The reported prevalence of OH ranges between 5 and 10% in middle-aged adults with a burden that increases concomitantly with age; in those over 60  years of age, the prevalence is estimated to be over 20%. Unfortunately, the clinical course of OH is not necessarily benign. OH patients are at an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes including death, falls, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events,...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lucy Y. Lei, Derek S. Chew, Satish R. Raj Source Type: research

Recent advances in exercise pressor reflex function in health and disease
Autonomic alterations at the onset of exercise are critical to redistribute cardiac output towards the contracting muscles while preventing a fall in arterial pressure due to excessive vasodilation within the contracting muscles. Neural mechanisms responsible for these adjustments include central command, the exercise pressor reflex, and arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. The exercise pressor reflex evokes reflex increases in sympathetic activity to the heart and systemic vessels and decreases in parasympathetic activity to the heart, which increases blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and total peripheral resistance ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ann-Katrin Grotle, Vaughan G. Macefield, William B. Farquhar, Donal S. O'Leary, Audrey J. Stone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Orexin A and B in the rat superior salivatory nucleus
In this study, the distribution of OXA and OXB was examined in the rat superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemical and methods. OXA- and OXB-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve fibers were seen throughout the SSN. These nerve fibers surrounded SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with Fast blue (FB) from the corda-lingual nerve. FB-positive neurons had pericellular OXA- (47.5%) and OXB-ir (49.0%) nerve fibers. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Masako Fujita, Motoi Kobashi, Hiroyuki Ichikawa, Ryusuke Yoshida, Yoshihiro Mitoh Source Type: research

The ectopy-triggering ganglionated plexuses in atrial fibrillation
In this study, we hypothesised that “ET-GP” are upstream triggers of atrial ectopy/AF and have different anatomical distribution to AVD-GP. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Min-Young Kim, Belinda Sandler, Markus B. Sikkel, Christopher D. Cantwell, Kevin M. Leong, Vishal Luther, Louisa Malcolme-Lawes, Michael Koa-Wing, Fu Siong Ng, Norman Qureshi, Afzal Sohaib, Zachary I. Whinnett, Michael Fudge, Elaine Lim, Michelle Todd, Ia Source Type: research

Obituary for Geoff Burnstock
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Morphological and neurochemical characterisation of anterogradely labelled spinal sensory and autonomic nerve endings in the mouse bladder
The objective was to characterise anatomically and immunohistochemically the terminal endings of sensory and autonomic motor nerve endings in wholemount preparations of the mouse bladder. We used both anterograde labelling of pelvic and hypogastric nerves ex vivo and anterograde labelling from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in vivo in male and female mice. These were combined with immunohistochemistry for major markers of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Harman Sharma, Melinda Kyloh, Simon J.H. Brookes, Marcello Costa, Nick J. Spencer, Vladimir P. Zagorodnyuk Source Type: research

Association between reduced heart rate variability components and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a systemic right ventricle
Patients with a systemic right ventricle are prone to develop heart failure. Abnormal heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic dysfunction, is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with left ventricular failure. The association between HRV and supraventricular arrhythmias (SVTs), which are associated with adverse events in this population, was assessed. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tjitske Zandstra, Philippine Ki ès, Arie Maan, Sum-Che Man, Marianne Bootsma, Hubert Vliegen, Anastasia Egorova, Bart Mertens, Eduard Holman, Martin Schalij, Monique Jongbloed Source Type: research

Autonomic and cardiovascular consequences resulting from experimental hemorrhagic stroke in the left or right intermediate insular cortex in rats
Damage to the insular cortex (IC) results in serious cardiovascular consequences and evidence indicates that the characteristics are lateralized. However, a study comparing the effects of focal experimental hemorrhage between IC sides was never performed. We compared the cardiovascular, autonomic and cardiac changes produced by focal experimental hemorrhage (ICH) into the left (L) or right (R) IC. Wistar rats were submitted to microinjection of autologous blood (ICH) or saline (n  = 6 each side/group) into the R or L IC. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Marcelo Limbor ço-Filho, Bárbara Flecha D'Abreu, Pedro W. Machado de Almeida, Mariana Gavioli, Carlos Henrique Xavier, Stephen M. Oppenheimer, Sílvia Guatimosim, Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes Source Type: research

Utility of salivary gland biopsy in diagnosing Sjogren's syndrome in a POTS patient population
POTS patients undergo labial salivary gland biopsies (LSGB) for histologic confirmation of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Predictive features of positive results are unknown. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Selena R. Pasadyn, Christine B. Warren, Robert G. Wilson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Functional atropine sensitive purinergic responses in the healthy rat bladder
While acetylcholine is regarded to be the main directly contractile transmitter substance in the urinary bladder, interactions with other transmitters likely occur. Presently, the interplay between purinergic and cholinergic signalling was investigated to unravel the involvement of the urothelium and efferent neurons in the functionally important purinergically evoked release of acetylcholine in vitro. Functional characterization of receptor subtypes involved in this interplay was also performed. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johanna Stenqvist, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Patrik Aronsson Source Type: research

Psychological correlates of patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)
Psychological symptoms are frequently reported in patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS); however, the nature of these symptoms is not well understood. The current study described baseline psychological symptoms in patients with POTS, and examined associations between psychological and self-report autonomic symptoms. Participants reported mild anxiety symptoms, moderate depressive symptoms, severe somatization, and elevated anxiety sensitivity. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with autonomic symptoms. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carolyn J. Fisher, Irene Katzan, Leslie J. Heinberg, Andrew T. Schuster, Nicolas R. Thompson, Robert Wilson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in the heart failure patient
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a common comorbidity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is associated with an increased risk of falls, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. There are over 5 million individuals in the U.S. with heart failure (HF) with an associated 50% mortality rate at 5  years. The prevalence of nOH and HF increase with age and, as the population continues to age, will be increasingly common comorbid conditions. Thus, the effective management of these conditions has important implications for public health. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Debra D. Dixon, James A.S. Muldowney Tags: Review Source Type: research

Attention and executive function are impaired during active standing in postural tachycardia syndrome
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic form of orthostatic intolerance associated with cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized executive function and attention is impaired in POTS during active standing. Eighty-seven POTS participants and 39 healthy controls of similar age, sex, and education level completed executive function (Stroop word-color) and attention (CogState Identification) tests in supine and standing postures in a cross-sectional study. POTS participants had lower executive function (t-score: 48  ± 11 vs. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Amanda J. Miller, Timothy Sheehan, Kate M. Bourne, Monica Feeley, Amy C. Arnold Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord
The central adrenergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems diffusively affect the operation of the spinal neural network and dynamically gauge central sympathetic outflow. Using in vitro splanchnic nerve –thoracic spinal cord preparations as an experimental model, this study examined the intraspinal α1-adrenoceptor-meidated modulation of sympathetic firing behaviors. Several sympathetic single-fiber activities were simultaneously recorded. Application of phenylephrine (Phe, an α1-adrenoceptor ag onist) increased, decreased or did not affect spontaneous firing. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chun-Kuei Su Source Type: research

In vivo paracrine effects of ATP-induced urothelial acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder
Mechanical stretch of the urothelium induces the release of ATP that activates bladder afferent nerves. In the rat urinary bladder, ATP is also a contractile co-transmitter in the parasympathetic innervation. In isolated preparations, ATP evokes a urothelial release of acetylcholine that substantially contributes to ATP-evoked contractile responses. Currently we aimed to further examine the interactions of ATP and acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder in two in vivo models. In the whole bladder preparation, atropine reduced ATP-evoked responses by about 50% in intact but denervated bladders, while atropine had no effect...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johanna Stenqvist, Patrik Aronsson, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Gunnar Tobin Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human adult cardiac autonomic innervation: Controversies in anatomical knowledge and relevance for cardiac neuromodulation
Cardiac sympathetic blockade is a therapeutic approach for arrhythmias and heart failure and may be a beneficial effect of high thoracic epidural anesthesia. These treatments require detailed knowledge of the spatial location and distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, however, there are controversies on this subject in humans. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Wink, R. van Delft, R.G.E. Notenboom, P.F. Wouters, M.C. deRuiter, J.W.M. Plevier, M.R.M. Jongbloed Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on isolated jejunum: A very useful tool to study the interaction between neurons in the enteric nervous system
Scorpion envenomation is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. In Brazil, Tityus serrulatus is the biggest cause of accidents with venomous animals. Tityus serrulatus venom causes symptoms related to a great activation of the autonomic system attributed to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic mediators. This effect is attributed to the presence of toxins acting in Na+ and K+ ion channels, leading to an increase in cell excitability. Although gastrointestinal symptoms, like diarrhoea and sialorrhea, is observed in moderate to severe cases, little attention is given in clinical reports. (...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gisele S.G. Louza, L úcia Lameirão Garcez do Carmo, Isaltino Marcelo Conceição Source Type: research

Quercetin increases bioavailability of nitric oxide in the jejunum of euglycemic and diabetic rats and induces neuronal plasticity in the myenteric plexus
Considering the antioxidant, neuroprotective, inflammatory and nitric oxide modulatory actions of quercetin, the aim of this study was to test the effect of quercetin administration in drinking water (40  mg/day/rat) on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), overall population of myenteric neurons (HuC/D) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the jejunal samples from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (8 rats per group): euglycemic (E), euglycemic administered with quercetin (E + Q), diabetic (D) and diabetic administered with quercetin (D + Q). (Sourc...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juliana Vanessa Colombo Martins-Perles, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Isabela Zignani, Sara Raquel Garcia de Souza, Fl ávia Cristina Vieira Frez, Carina Guimarães de Souza Melo, Emerson Barili, Fernando Pinheiro de Souza Neto, Flávia Alessandra Gu Source Type: research

Selective abolition of Mayer waves in conscious endotoxemic rats
The relation between vascular sympathetic tone and the amplitude of arterial pressure (AP) Mayer waves was examined by analyzing 60-min recordings of AP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) obtained in conscious rats before and after lipopolysaccharide administration, which results in strong sympathoexcitation. Mayer waves completely disappeared together with accompanying oscillations of RSNA. Meanwhile, the gain of the sympathetic baroreceptor reflex was increased, thus suggesting that abolition of Mayer waves resulted from the previously reported reduction of vascular reactivity to α-adrenoceptor stimulation...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claude Julien, Bruno Chapuis, Christian Barr ès Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Transecting the hypogastric nerve to uncover the bladder-inhibitory pathways involved with saphenous nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats
Saphenous (SAFN) nerve stimulation was recently shown in anesthetized rats to elicit bladder-inhibitory responses in a frequency-dependent manner; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential role of the hypogastric nerve (HGN) in this inhibitory pathway by examining stimulation-evoked changes in bladder function under four different experimental conditions: (1) HGN intact, saline infusion (HGNi-s), (2) HGN transected, saline infusion (HGNt-s), (3) HGN intact, acetic acid (AA) infusion (HGNi-a), and (4) HGN transected, AA infusion (HGNt-a). (Source: Autonomic Neurosci...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karly S. Franz, Paul B. Yoo Source Type: research

Intracerebroventricularly injected nesfatin-1 activates central cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways
Nesfatin-1 is a multifunctional neuropeptide having crucial autonomic roles. It is well known that nesfatin-1 collaborates with other central neuromodulatory systems, such as central corticotropin-releasing hormone, melanocortin, oxytocin, and cholinergic systems to show its autonomic effects. Central arachidonic acid cascade plays an important role to provide the homeostasis by exhibiting similar autonomic effects to nesfatin-1. Based on these similarities, the current study was designed to show the effects of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected nesfatin-1 on the hypothalamic arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. (Source: A...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gokcen Guvenc, Burcin Altinbas, Awais Iqbal, Ece Cerci, Duygu Udum, Mustafa Sertac Yilmaz, Hatice Erdost, Ebru Yalcin-Ulger, Tuncay Ilhan, Figen Ersoy, Elif Uz, Murat Yalcin Source Type: research

Renal iodine123-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy relates to muscle sympathetic nervous activity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Renal denervation is effective for modulating augmented sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We have demonstrated that renal iodine123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy is associated with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in patients with hypertension. However, it is unclear whether renal 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is useful for assessment of SNA in HFrEF. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoshitaka Okabe, Hisayoshi Murai, Hideki Tokuhisa, Takuto Hamaoka, Yusuke Mukai, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Shin-ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Shinro Matsuo, Soichiro Usui, Hiroshi Furusho, Masayuki Takamura, Shuichi Kaneko Source Type: research

Acute inspiratory muscle exercise effect on glucose levels, glucose variability and autonomic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A crossover randomized trial
Inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) can be an alternative to conventional exercise. We aimed to evaluate the effect of IME on glucose, glucose variability, and autonomic cardiovascular control in type 2 diabetes. Fourteen diabetic subjects were randomly assigned to IME with 2% maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) or 60% PImax wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system for three days. Glucose variability [glucose variance (VAR), glucose coefficient of variation (CV%), glucose standard deviation (SD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE)] was evaluated. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andressa S.O. Schein, Ana P.S. Corr êa, Aline C.P. Macedo, Daniela R. Dartora, Anderson Donelli da Silveira, Mateus Dornelles Severo, Karina R. Casali, Beatriz D. Schaan Source Type: research

Cardiovagal baroreflex gain relates to sensory loss after spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to autonomic nervous system damage, resulting in loss of sympathetic control to the vasculature and the heart proportional to injury level. Given maintained cardiac parasympathetic control, we hypothesized that SCI demonstrates a compensatory, higher baroreflex gain compared to able-bodied that relates to injury level (neurological and/or sensory). We compared baroreflex gain (average and across 10 –20, 20–30, and 30–40 mmHg input stimuli) derived from neck chamber technique in SCI (N = 29; neurological level C1-T10, sensory zone of partial preservation C4–S4/5; ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Adina E. Draghici, J. Andrew Taylor Source Type: research

Treatment induced neuropathy of diabetes
(TIND) is an iatrogenic painful sensory and autonomic neuropathy. Although the prevalence is not known, it is seen in up to 10% of tertiary cases referred for evaluation of diabetic neuropathy. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Christopher H. Gibbons Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involuntary emotional expression disorder in postural tachycardia syndrome
To study the frequency of latent and overt involuntary emotional expression disorder (IEED) in postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ramesh K. Khurana Source Type: research

Real-world droxidopa or midodrine treatment persistence in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension or orthostatic hypotension
In this study, we compared the treatment persistence of droxidopa and midodrine. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Steven M. Kymes, Christine Sullivan, Kenneth Jackson, Satish R. Raj Source Type: research

Serotonin and substance P: Synergy or competition in the control of breathing
Numerous neurotransmitters identified in the central nervous system play role in ventilatory control. This mini-review focuses on the respiratory effects of two neurotransmitters: serotonin (5-HT) and substance P (SP). We discuss their co-localization in medullary raphe nuclei, expression of proper receptors within the specific regions of respiratory related structures and contribution to respiratory rhythmogenesis. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma łgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska, Katarzyna Kaczyńska Source Type: research

Threshold and saturation pressures of baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial acetylcholine release in rats
Cardiac microdialysis allows the assessment of cardiac efferent vagal nerve activity from myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels with minimal influence on the neural control of the heart; however, a total picture of the baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial ACh release including the threshold and saturation pressures has yet to be quantified. In eight anesthetized Wistar –Kyoto rats, we implanted microdialysis probes in the left ventricular free wall and measured the myocardial interstitial ACh release simultaneously with efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during a carotid sinus baroreceptor ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Toru Kawada, Yusuke Sata, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Takashi Sonobe, James T. Pearson, Masaru Sugimachi Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Central sensory-motor crosstalk in the neural gut-brain axis
The neural gut-brain axis consists of viscerosensory and autonomic motor neurons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Sensory neurons transmit nutrient-related and non-nutrient-related information to the brain, while motor neurons regulate GI motility and secretion. Previous research provides an incomplete picture of the brain nuclei that are directly connected with the neural gut-brain axis, and no studies have thoroughly assessed sensory-motor overlap in those nuclei. Our goal in this study was to comprehensively characterize the central sensory and motor circuitry associated with the neural gut-brain axis linked...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey, Heidi Phillips, Elizabeth A. Davis Source Type: research

Attenuated baroreflex in a Parkinson's disease animal model coincides with impaired activation of non-C1 neurons
Orthostatic hypotension is one of the most common symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and it is associated with denervation of the heart and impairment of the baroreflex. Here, we aimed to investigate if the impaired baroreflex was associated with lower activation of cardiovascular brainstem areas in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD. The PD model was generated with male Wistar rats by injection of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the striatum. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: La ís M. Cabral, Thiago S. Moreira, Ana C. Takakura, Bárbara Falquetto Source Type: research

A novel role of cardiac inwardly rectifying potassium channels explaining autonomic cardiovascular dysfunctions in a cuprizone-induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), believed to have an autoimmune etiology. MS patients showed an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk probably related to an impairment in the autonomic control of CV functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have been not completely elucidated. Inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a key role in cardiac excitability by contributing to the repolarization phase of action potential and were recently identified as target of the autoantibody response in MS patients. (Source: Autono...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Enes Akyuz, Chiara Villa Source Type: research

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: A silent killer with long reach
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common and deadly complication of diabetes mellitus, which is frequently overlooked in clinical practice due to its characteristic subtle presentation earlier in disease. Yet, timely detection of CAN may help implementation of tailored interventions to prevent its progression and mitigate the risk of associated complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure and all-cause mortality. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - February 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lynn Ang, Brendan Dillon, Kara Mizokami-Stout, Rodica Pop-Busui Tags: Review Source Type: research

Quantitative sudomotor abnormalities in clinically isolated rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
Post-ganglionic sudomotor abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), however data in clinically isolated REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are limited. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Zitser, S. Muppidi, D.I. Sinn, S. Jaradeh, M.G. Miglis Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Quantitative sudomotor abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
Post-ganglionic sudomotor abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), however data in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are limited. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Zitser, S. Muppidi, D.I. Sinn, S. Jaradeh, M.G. Miglis Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Muscle vasodilator response via potential adrenaline secretion to L-cysteine microinjected in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats
We previously found that the thiol amino acid L-cysteine microinjected into rat medullary autonomic areas produces changes in arterial blood pressure (AP) via ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (iEAAr), but its effect on vascular beds is still unknown. Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) pressor area includes adrenal and lumbar presympathetic neurons which activation could cause opposite muscle vascular responses: vasodilation versus vasoconstriction. However, there are few data on the vasodilator response in rats. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yumi Takemoto Source Type: research

Risk factors and clinical features of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a rare complication of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).We aimed to evaluate the risk factors and clinical features for PSH after ICH. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhenxing Li, Wen Chen, Yibai Zhu, Kaiwei Han, Junyu Wang, Jigang Chen, Danfeng Zhang, Mingkun Yu, Liquan Lv, Lijun Hou Source Type: research

A 12-month lifestyle intervention does not improve cardiac autonomic function in patients with chronic kidney disease
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a high risk of future autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-month lifestyle intervention (LI) involving regular aerobic exercise on cardiac autonomic function in CKD patients. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nina Huppertz, Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Anthony S. Leicht, Nicole M. Isbel, Jeff S. Coombes Source Type: research

Rostral ventrolateral medulla neuron activity is suppressed by Klotho and stimulated by FGF23 in newborn Wistar rats
Hypertension often occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Considering the decrease in serum Klotho and increase in serum FGF23 levels in such patients, decreased Klotho and increased FGF23 levels were thought to be associated with hypertension. Presympathetic neurons at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contribute to sympathetic activity and regulation of blood pressure. Therefore, we hypothesized that Klotho would reduce the activities of RVLM neurons and FGF23 would stimulate them. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Naoki Oshima, Hiroshi Onimaru, Akira Yamagata, Seigo Ito, Toshihiko Imakiire, Hiroo Kumagai Source Type: research

Long-term potentiation is differentially expressed in rostral and caudal neurons in the superior cervical ganglion of normal and hypertensive rats
Neurons in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) are classified as rostral and caudal according to their regional locations. Although diverse phenotypes have been reported for these two subpopulations, differences in neuroplasticity, like long-term potentiation (LTP), have not been characterized. Here, we explored possible regional differences of LTP expression in rostral and caudal neurons of the SCG in control rats, Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKy), and in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model of hypertension. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luis A. Mart ínez, Raúl Rodríguez-Cruces, Fredy Cifuentes, Miguel A. Morales Source Type: research

Severing the ventral funiculus in chronic spinal cord injury has the most deteriorating effect on spermatogenesis in rats
Sexual dysfunction, following spinal cord injury (SCI), is highly dependent on the extent of injury. SCI disrupts the supraspinal innervation of the reproductive organs; resulting in structural and functional deficits. Relating the extent of SCI to these changes could eventually improve diagnoses and treatment planning of sexual dysfunction following SCI. In the present study, following chronic SCI of different severities (1/3 dorsal SCI (1/3 SCI), 2/3 dorsal SCI (2/3 SCI), and complete transection (Tx)) at T8 spinal level, histological changes of seminiferous tubules parameters in testis were examined. (Source: Autonomic ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ezidin G. Kaddumi, Samya A. Omoush, Dalal A. Shuqair, Wesam Abdel-Razaq, Hakam H. Alkhateeb, Reem A. Kanaan Source Type: research

Autonomic impairment in sleep: An introduction to the special edition
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Pietro Cortelli, Mitchell Miglis, Jose-Alberto Palma Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Prevalence of hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
Despite well-established clinical associations between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), the precise prevalence is unknown. We therefore evaluated for hEDS in 91 POTS participants using the 2017 hEDS diagnostic checklist, which has three major criteria: 1) generalized joint hypermobility (Beighton score), 2) systemic features, family history, and 3) absence of exclusion criteria. Overall, 28 out of 91 POTS participants (31%) met clinical criteria for hEDS. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Amanda J. Miller, Lauren E. Stiles, Timothy Sheehan, Rebecca Bascom, Howard P. Levy, Clair Francomano, Amy C. Arnold Source Type: research

The short Sing-a-Song Stress Test: A practical and valid test of autonomic responses induced by social-evaluative stress
The Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST) was recently developed as an alternative to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to investigate autonomic nervous system responses to social-evaluative stress. In the SSST, participants are suddenly cued to sing a song in the presence of confederates. However, the SSST is still quite long (~15  min) and the requirement for confederates makes it labor-intensive. The current study tested whether a shorter (~6.5 min), single-experimenter, version of the SSST can still reliably elicit subjective and physiological stress reactivity. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: D.J. van der Mee, Q. Duivestein, M.J. Gevonden, J.H.D.M. Westerink, E.J.C. de Geus Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and autonomic disorders: a position statement from the American Autonomic Society
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been anecdotally connected to development of dysautonomia, chronic fatigue, complex regional pain syndrome and postural tachycardia syndrome. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alexandru Barboi, Christopher H. Gibbons, Felicia Axelrod, Eduardo E. Benarroch, Italo Biaggioni, Mark W. Chapleau, Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky, William P. Cheshire, Victoria E. Claydon, Roy Freeman, David S. Goldstein, Michael J. Joyner, Horacio K Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research