Autonomic nerves and circadian control of renal function
Cardiovascular and renal physiology follow strong circadian rhythms. For instance, renal excretion of solutes and water is higher during the active period compared to the inactive period, and blood pressure peaks early in the beginning of the active period of both diurnal and nocturnal animals. The control of these rhythms is largely dependent on the expression of clock genes both in the central nervous system and within peripheral organs themselves. Although it is understood that the central and peripheral clocks interact and communicate, few studies have explored the specific mechanism by which various organ systems with...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bryan K. Becker, Dingguo Zhang, Reham Soliman, David M. Pollock Tags: Review Source Type: research

Microglia and brain angiotensin type 1 receptors are involved in desensitising baroreflex by intracerebroventricular hypertonic saline in male Sprague-Dawley rats
High salt diet alters cardiovascular control by increasing concentration of sodium ions (Na+) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is a risk factor for hypertension. Hypernatremic conditions activate microglia and upregulate renin-angiotensin system in the brain. Thus, we checked if chronic elevation of CSF Na+ affects neural control of circulatory system via microglia and brain angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs).Normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received two-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of either isoosmotic saline (0.9% NaCl); hyperosmotic saline (5% NaCl); 5% NaCl with minocycline – inhibitor...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tymoteusz Żera, Artur Nowiński, Agnieszka Segiet, Paweł Smykiewicz Source Type: research

Cortical morphometric predictors of autonomic dysfunction in generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with both autonomic dysfunction, notably decreased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), and neurostructural abnormalities. Regional differences in brain morphometry correlate with vmHRV in healthy individuals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific focal abnormalities in cortical structure in GAD underpin decreased vmHRV. Adult female patients with GAD (n  = 17) and matched controls (n = 18) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging after characterization of symptoms and quantification of resting vmHRV derived from continuous pulse oximetry. (...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - January 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luca Carnevali, Matteo Mancini, Julian Koenig, Elena Makovac, David R. Watson, Frances Meeten, Hugo D. Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural interrelationships of autonomic ganglia from the pelvic region of male rats
The aims of the present study were to describe, in male rats, the anatomical organization of the major and accessory pelvic ganglia (MPG, AG; respectively), the interrelationship of the pelvic plexus components, and the morphometry of the pelvic postganglionic neurons. Anatomical, histochemical and histological studies were performed in anesthetized adult Wistar male rats. We found that the pelvic plexus consists of intricate neural circuits composed of two MPG, and three pairs of AG (AGI, AGII, AGIII) anatomically interrelated through ipsilateral and contralateral commissural nerves. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jorge Arellano, Nicte Xelhuantzi, Nancy Mirto, Maria Elena Hern ández, Yolanda Cruz Source Type: research

A time to fight: Circadian control of aggression and associated autonomic support
The central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus (SCN), regulates daily behavioral rhythms including the temporal propensity for aggressive behavior. Such aggression propensity rhythms are regulated by a functional circuit from the SCN to neurons that drive attack behavior in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), via a relay in the subparaventricular zone (SPZ). In addition to this pathway, the SCN also regulates sleep-wake and locomotor activity rhythms, via the SPZ, in a circuit to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a structure that is also known to play a key role in auto...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: William D. Todd, Natalia L. Machado Tags: Review Source Type: research

Exercise-induced sympathetic dilatation in arterioles of the guinea pig tibial periosteum
Strength training induces not only muscle growth but also increased bone strength, a change that is expected to be associated with increased bone blood flow. However, the effects of exercise on contractile properties of bone microvascultaure have not been investigated. Once-a-week strength training with electrical muscle stimulation was applied unilaterally to tibialis anterior muscle of guinea pigs, while muscle force was measured from both legs to compare their muscle strength and endurance. After 10  weeks of training, changes in the arteriolar diameters of isolated periosteum taken from both trained and non-trained l...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hiroyasu Fukuta, Retsu Mitsui, Hiromichi Takano, Hikaru Hashitani Source Type: research

I1-imidazoline receptor-mediated cardiovascular and metabolic effects in high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a new I1-imidazoline receptor-selective pyrroline compound on the hemodynamic, metabolic and microvascular alterations in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alessandro R. Nascimento, Fabiana Gomes, Marcus V. Machado, Cassiano Gon çalves-de-Albuquerque, Pascal Bousquet, Eduardo Tibiriçá Source Type: research

Intermittent calf compression reverses lower limb pooling and improves cardiovascular control during passive orthostasis
When upright, venous pooling and capillary filtration reduce the effective circulating volume and are key contributors to susceptibility to syncope (fainting). Recurrent syncope has a devastating impact on quality of life. Static calf compression garments are frequently prescribed for patients with syncope, but have questionable efficacy. Intermittent calf compression, which mimics the skeletal muscle pump to minimize pooling and filtration, is a potential alternative that holds promise for the management of syncope. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brooke C.D. Hockin, Ian A. Ruiz, Garveen K. Brar, Victoria E. Claydon Source Type: research

Self-reported urinary impairment identifies ‘fast progressors’ in terms of neuronal loss in multiple system atrophy
MSA is an adult-onset, sporadic, progressive parkinsonian syndrome characterised by the presence of akinesia, cerebellar dysfunction, autonomic failure and pyramidal signs. Annualized-whole-brain atrophy rate (a-WBAR) is an informative way to quantify disease progression. In this longitudinal work we investigate the correlations of a-WBAR with clinical scales for motor impairment, autonomic disability and cognitive decline in MSA and explore how atrophy progresses within the brain. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carlos Guevara, Jos é de Grazia, Pablo Baabor, Wendy Soruco Source Type: research

Microglia in the RVLM of SHR have reduced P2Y12R and CX3CR1 expression, shorter processes, and lower cell density
The RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) contains over-active C1 neurons, which model the pathology of essential hypertension. Hypertension involves chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. Inflammation in the brain is produced and maintained primarily by microglia. We assessed microglial gene expression (P2Y12R and CX3CR1) and morphology in the RVLM of SHR compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The gene expression of the metabotropic purinergic receptor P2Y12 and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was downregulated in the RVLM of SHR compared to WKY (by 37.3% and 30.9% respectively). (Source: Autonomic Neuros...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Myfanwy Cohen, Suja Mohammed, Mary Kavurma, Polina E. Nedoboy, Si ân Cartland, Melissa M.J. Farnham, Paul M. Pilowsky Source Type: research

Interaction between baroreflex and chemoreflex in the cardiorespiratory responses to stimulation of the carotid sinus/nerve in conscious rats
Electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex has been thoroughly investigated for treating drug-resistant hypertension in humans. However, a previous study from our laboratory, performed in conscious rats, has demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus/nerve (CS) activated both the carotid baroreflex as well as the carotid chemoreflex, resulting in hypotension. Additionally, we also demonstrated that the carotid chemoreceptor deactivation potentiated this hypotensive response. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pedro L. Katayama, Jaci A. Castania, Rubens Fazan, Helio C. Salgado Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - December 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is metabolic syndrome related to exercise cardiac autonomic modulation in obese adults?
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wendell Arthur Lopes, Jo ão Carlos Locateli, Higor Reck, Fernanda Errero Porto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Response to the letter to the editor: “Is metabolic syndrome related to exercise autonomic modulation in obese adults? (Lopes et al., 2018)”
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L ívia P. Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Renata G. Mendes, Ramona Cabiddu, Paula A. Ricci, Renata P. Basso-Vanelli, Manoel C. Oliveira-Junior, Rodolfo P. Vieira, José C. Bonjorno-Junior, Cláudio R. Oliveira, Rafael L. Luporini, Audrey Borghi-S Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical and experimental aspects of breathing modulation by inflammation
Neuroinflammation is produced by local or systemic alterations and mediated mainly by glia, affecting the activity of various neural circuits including those involved in breathing rhythm generation and control. Several pathological conditions, such as sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and asthma exert an inflammatory influence on breathing-related circuits. Consequently breathing (both resting and ventilatory responses to physiological challenges), is affected; e.g., responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia are compromised. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - November 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fernando Pe ña-Ortega Tags: Review Source Type: research

Obituary: Sir Roger Bannister (1929 –2018)
Sir Roger Bannister died on March 3, 2018, at the age of 88. For most, it is for his iconic achievement of 1954, running the first sub-four minute mile, that he will be remembered. Even today, it is impossible to watch footage of that achievement and not be moved by his grace and determination - qualities that he embodied throughout his life. But, as he would often say, it was his scientific work that made him proudest, and we, in the autonomic field continue to be the beneficiaries of that work. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - October 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roy Freeman, Philip Low, Mike Joyner Source Type: research

Circadian regulation of endocrine systems
Hormones are major systemic regulators of homeostatic functions. Not surprisingly, most endocrine signals show some extent of variation across the day. This holds true for the three major hormonal axes of the body originating from the hypothalamus, relayed by the pituitary and terminating in the adrenal (HPA axis), the thyroid (HPT axis), and the gonads (HPG axis), respectively. The rhythmicity of endocrine axis formation has important functions for the maintenance of homeostasis and stabilizes physiological functions against external perturbations. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Anne-Marie Neumann, Cosima Xenia Schmidt, Ruth Merle Brockmann, Henrik Oster Source Type: research

Alterations in enteric calcitonin gene-related peptide in patients with colonic diverticular disease
Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the large bowel. Lately, imbalance of neuro-muscular transmission has been recognized as a major etiological factor for DD. Neuronal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxant shown to have a widespread effect within the alimentary tract. Nevertheless, CGRPergic innervation of the enteric ganglia has never been considered in the context of motility impairment observed in DD patients. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A.G. Pauza, K. Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, M. Malinauskas, J.I. Lukosiene, P. Alaburda, E. Stankevicius, J. Kupcinskas, Z. Saladzinskas, A. Tamelis, N. Pauziene Source Type: research

Association of autonomic symptoms with presynaptic striatal dopamine depletion in drug-naive Parkinson's disease: An analysis of the PPMI data
While the involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks is thought to play an integral role in the development of autonomic symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is little evidence for an association between autonomic symptoms and striatal dopaminergic depletion. We compared dopamine transporter activity in striatal subregions with various autonomic symptoms covered by the SCOPA-AUT domains including gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual symptoms in 418 untreated patients with PD. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryul Kim, Jin-Sun Jun Source Type: research

Direct neurophysiological evidence for a role of the human anterior cingulate cortex in central command
The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is still controversial. The ACC has been implicated in such diverse functions as cognition, arousal and emotion in addition to motor and autonomic control. Therefore the ACC is the ideal candidate to orchestrate cardiovascular performance in anticipation of perceived skeletal activity. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether the ACC forms part of the neural network of central command whereby cardiovascular performance is governed by a top-down mechanism. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martin J. Gillies, Yongzhi Huang, Jonathan A. Hyam, Tipu Z. Aziz, Alexander L. Green Source Type: research

The gastrointestinal symptoms present in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome: A review of the literature and overview of treatment
Orthostatic intolerance, including postural tachycardia syndrome, is often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. In the vast majority of the cases, the gastrointestinal symptoms are not secondary to the orthostatic disorder, but rather just a comorbid condition. This concept is critical, since treatment aimed at the orthostatic condition will not improve the gastrointestinal symptoms. Only when the gastrointestinal symptoms develop in the upright position and improve or resolve in the supine position, they may be related to the orthostatic stress. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cardiac chronotropic hypo-responsiveness and atrial fibrosis in rats chronically treated with lithium
In this study we explored the potential adverse effects of lithium on cardiac chronotropic responsiveness, atrial tissue histology and gene expression in rats that were chronically treated with therapeutic doses of lithium. Male Wistar albino rats were given lithium chloride (2.5  g/kg) orally for 2 or 3 months. Following treatment, the atria were isolated and spontaneously beating rate and chronotropic responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation was evaluated in an organ bath. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Somayeh Moradi, Atefeh Aminian, Alireza Abdollahi, Amin Jazayeri, Giti Ghamami, Vahid Nikoui, Azam Bakhtiarian, Farahnaz Jazaeri Source Type: research

Central activation of cardiac vagal nerve by α2-adrenergic stimulation is impaired in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats
To elucidate the abnormality of cardiac vagal control in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats, we measured left ventricular myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) release in response to α2-adrenergic stimulation as an index of in vivo cardiac vagal nerve activity. A cardiac microdialysis technique was applied to the rat left ventricle, and the effect of α2-adrenergic stimulation by intravenous medetomidine (100 μg/kg) on myocardial interstitial ACh levels was examined in anest hetized diabetic rats (4–6 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin) and age-matched control rats (protocol 1...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Takashi Sonobe, Shuji Shimizu, Yohsuke Hayama, James T. Pearson, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi Source Type: research

Nicotine is neuroprotective to neonatal neurons of sympathetic ganglion in rat
Sympathetic neurons of SCG are dependent on availability of nerve growth factor (NGF) for their survival. SCG neurons express nicotinic receptors (nAChR) whose expression levels are modulated by nicotine. Nicotine exerts multiple effects on neurons, including neuroprotection, through nAChR binding. Although sympathetic neurons express robust levels of nAChR, a possible neuroprotective role for nicotine in these neurons is not well-understood. Therefore we determined the effect of nicotine exposure on survival of SCG neurons during NGF withdrawal in a well-established cell culture system. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mahadevappa P. Badanavalu, Malathi Srivatsan Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced colonic smooth muscle cholinergic responsiveness is associated with impaired bowel motility after chronic experimental high-level spinal cord injury
The mechanisms underlying bowel dysfunction after high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. However, impaired supraspinal sympathetic and parasympathetic control is likely a major contributing factor. Disruption of the descending autonomic pathways traversing the spinal cord was achieved by a T3 complete spinal cord transection, and colonic function was examined in vivo and ex vivo four weeks post-injury. Total gastrointestinal transit time (TGTT) was reduced and contractility of the proximal and distal colon was impaired due to reduced M3 receptor sensitivity. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: B. Frias, A.A. Phillips, J.W. Squair, A.H.X. Lee, I. Laher, A.V. Krassioukov Source Type: research

Glia and central cardiorespiratory pathology
Respiration and blood pressure are primarily controlled by somatic and autonomic motor neurones, respectively. Central cardiorespiratory control is critical in moment-to-moment survival, but it also has a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pathological conditions such as hypertension. The glial cells of the brain are non-neuronal cells with metabolic, immune, and developmental functions. Recent evidence shows that glia play an active role in supporting and regulating the neuronal circuitry which drives the cardiorespiratory system. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M.J. Farnham, Zohra Kakall, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E. Nedoboy, Paul M. Pilowsky Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cardiac and behavioral effects of social isolation and experimental manipulation of autonomic balance
Improved understanding of how depression and social isolation interact to increase cardiac morbidity and mortality will improve public health. This experiment evaluated the effect of pharmacological autonomic blockade on cardiac and behavioral reactivity following social isolation in prairie voles. Experiment 1 validated the dose and time course of pharmacological autonomic antagonism of peripheral β-adrenergic (atenolol) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (atropine methyl nitrate), and Experiment 2 used a novel protocol to investigate behavioral responses in the tail suspension test during pharmacological autonomic...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Angela J. Grippo, Melissa-Ann L. Scotti, Joshua Wardwell, Neal McNeal, Suzanne L. Bates, Danielle L. Chandler, Elliott Ihm, Nalini Jadia Source Type: research

Neuropilin 1 ameliorates electrical remodeling at infarct border zones in rats after myocardial infarction
Electrical remodeling at infarct border zone (IBZ) has been shown to contribute to the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction (MI). Sema3A has been demonstrated to reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is the receptor of Sema3A. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with NRP1 can ameliorate electrical remodeling at IBZ after MI. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hua-Zhi Wen, Ping Xie, Fu Zhang, Yu Ma, Yan-Ling Li, Sheng-Kai Xu Source Type: research

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease)
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical syndrome of agitation and involuntary motor activity that particularly occurs in patients with severe acquired brain injury. The aim of the present study is to substantiate the assertion that paroxysmal non-epileptic attacks resembling PSH also occur in patients with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease), which is the most common neurodegenerative disease in children.The paper describes a case series of five patients with JNCL which during a period of fifteen years have been followed clinically and by consecutive investigations of the autonom...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: John R. Ostergaard Source Type: research

The role of physiological arousal for self-reported emotional empathy
The capacity to represent the emotional and mental states of others is referred to by the concept of empathy. Empathy further differentiates into an emotional and a cognitive subcomponent, which in turn is known to require a tacit perspective-taking process. However, whether the empathizer by himself needs to enter an affective state as a necessary precondition for emotional empathy remains a matter of debate. If empathy would require a vicarious emotional reaction, specific physiological markers of affective responding should be detectable in the empathizing person. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Christian E. Deuter, Jan Nowacki, Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K. K ühl, Johannes B. Finke, Isabel Dziobek, Christian Otte Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exercise and non-pharmacological treatment of POTS
Recent research has demonstrated that cardiovascular deconditioning (i.e., cardiac atrophy and hypovolemia) contributes significantly to the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and its functional disability. Therefore, physical reconditioning with exercise training and volume expansion via increased salt and fluid intake should be initiated early in the course of treatment for patients with POTS if possible. The use of horizontal exercise (e.g., rowing, swimming, recumbent bike, etc.) at the beginning is a critical strategy, allowing patients to exercise while avoiding the upright posture that elicits their PO...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qi Fu, Benjamin D. Levine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Moving from the present to the future of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome – What we need
Our understanding about Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) has advanced significantly over the last 25  years. Despite the significant advances that have been made in defining the syndrome and finding some treatments for our patients, there is much work to be done to significantly improve our understanding of the disorder and improve therapeutics. In this article, 5 NEEDS are identified that will b e required over the next several years if we want future care to move beyond where we are in the present. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Satish R. Raj, David Robertson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Imbalance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and increase of ventricular repolarization dynamicity induced by thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism
To investigate the effects of thyroid hormones on cardiac autonomic nervous activity and ventricular repolarization dynamicity in hyperthyroidism. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhongxiang Cai, Mingyan Dai, Yijie Zhang, Hui Zhong, Tuantuan Tan, Mingwei Bao Source Type: research

Delayed orthostatic hypotension: Severity of clinical symptoms and response to medical treatment
This study aimed to compare the symptom severity between classic and delayed OH and evaluate the efficacy of midodrine or pyridostigmine in patients with delayed OH. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jung-Ick Byun, Jangsup Moon, Do-Yong Kim, Hyerim Shin, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Woo-Jin Lee, Han-Sang Lee, Jin-Sun Jun, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu Source Type: research

Management of headache and chronic pain in POTS
Primary headache syndromes and chronic pain syndromes are common in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). There is overlap in potential mechanisms for migraine, chronic pain, and POTS symptomatology. Management of chronic pain and headaches in POTS requires a judicious use of pharmacotherapies that takes into account patient comorbidities and co-existing symptoms. Patient-centric, non-pharmacologic modalities include physical exercise, cognitive behavioral therapies, and treatment of sleep disorders. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Glen A. Cook, Paola Sandroni Tags: Review Source Type: research

Role of microglia M1/M2 polarisation in the paraventricular nucleus: New insight into the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats
The lack of precise therapies for stress-induced hypertension highlights the need to explore the process of blood pressure changes. Studies have shown that neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is associated with hypertension, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Microglia, are known to play dualistic protective and destructive roles, representing logical but challenging targets for improving stress-induced hypertension. Here, as a model, we used rats with stress-induced hypertension, and found that a switch from an immunoregulatory (M2) to a pro-inflammatory (M1) dominant response occurred in microglia during...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang Mi, Qin Wu, Wanru Yuan, Fuxue Chen, Dongshu Du Source Type: research

S. Typhimurium challenge in juvenile pigs modulates the expression and localization of enteric cholinergic proteins and correlates with mucosal injury and inflammation
The objective of this study was to determine the intrinsic expression of the enteric cholinergic system in pig ileum following an acute challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (S. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Calvin S. Pohl, Elizabeth M. Lennon, Yihang Li, Morgan P. DeWilde, Adam J. Moeser Source Type: research

The patient perspective: What postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients want physicians to know
Diagnosing and treating postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) can be a frustrating experience for patients and physicians alike. Experienced patient leaders solicited input from the large online POTS community to identify patient suggestions and concerns, with the goal of improving the patient-physician relationship and outcomes in POTS. This review article offers practical tips to improve POTS patient care and links to credible resources for your patients. The authors emphasize the urgent need for improved physician education, a tailored treatment approach, and expanded research efforts. (Source: Autonomic Neur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lauren E. Stiles, Jaclyn Cinnamon, Irina Balan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of caveolae depletion and urothelial denudation on purinergic and cholinergic signaling in healthy and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in the rat bladder
Cholesterol rich membrane invaginations, caveolae, have important roles in various cellular activities, one of them being signal transduction. This signaling pathway seems to be affected during various bladder disorders and the current study aimed to elucidate the plausible involvement of caveolae mediated signal transduction during cyclophosphamide induced cystitis. Furthermore, the urothelial cholinergic part of ATP-evoked contractions and its possible link to caveolae were investigated.Cholinergic, as well as purinergic, contractile responses in rat urinary bladders were examined using a classic organ bath set-up with f...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johanna Stenqvist, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Patrik Aronsson Source Type: research

Impaired pupillary control in “schizophrenia-like” WISKET rats
Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in autonomic regulation, including pupillomotor control. The aim of this study was to explore the changes of pupillary light reflex in a new substrain (WISKET) with several schizophrenia-like alterations.Male WISKET rats housed individually (for four weeks) and treated with ketamine (for 3  × 5 days) after weaning and naive group-housed Wistar rats (controls) were involved in the study. The pupillary light reflex was studied in two series after sedation (diazepam) or anesthesia (chloral hydrate). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alexandra B üki, György Kalmár, Gabriella Kekesi, Gyorgy Benedek, László G. Nyúl, Gyongyi Horvath Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome impact on cardiac autonomic modulation and exercise capacity in obese adults
Obesity is often associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic morbidities and mortality. However, evidence shows that some obese individuals are more likely to develop such risk factors early in life, including those with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Whether the presence of MetS in obese people impairs cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) remains to be investigated. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L ívia P. Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Renata G. Mendes, Ramona Cabiddu, Paula A. Ricci, Renata P. Basso-Vanelli, Manoel C. Oliveira-Junior, Rodolfo P. Vieira, José C. Bonjorno-Junior, Cláudio R. Oliveira, Rafael L. Luporini, Audrey Borghi-S Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in children and adolescents
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) affects up to 3,000,000 people in the United States, with at least one-third of them developing POTS before the age of 18. POTS as a disorder is similar in adult and pediatric populations, but there are factors specific to pediatric patients that affect how it presents and how it is experienced that make pediatric POTS different. This review discusses the both the similarities in this population to their adult counterparts and the unique challenges faced by pediatric POTS patients, including management of schooling and education as well as the complex interactions between th...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jeffrey R. Boris Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effect of electroacupuncture on porcine cardiac excitability induced by left stellate ganglion stimulation
Augmentation of cardiac sympathetic tone has been shown to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Acupuncture has been clinically used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and atrial arrhythmias. However, the effects of acupuncture on ventricular electrophysiology and autonomic tone remain unknown. We hypothesized that acupuncture attenuates cardiac excitability and corrects the imbalance of autonomic tone during sympathetic hyperactivity. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs were randomized to electroacupuncture (EA, 2  Hz, 0.3–0.5 mA, 0.5 ms duration) or control (without EA) groups. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tatsuo Takamiya, Yukiko Kubo, Peyman Benharash, Wei Zhou Source Type: research

Heart rate variability in individuals with Down syndrome – A systematic review and meta-analysis
Down syndrome (DS) results in many changes, including dysfunction in cardiac autonomic modulation. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis evaluates the autonomic function and it is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tatiana Dias de Carvalho, Thais Massetti, Talita Dias da Silva, T ânia Brusque Crocetta, Regiani Guarnieri, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro, David M. Garner, Celso Ferreira Tags: Review Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome during pregnancy: A systematic review of the literature
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome is most commonly seen in women of child bearing age, however little is known about its effects in pregnancy. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kate Morgan, Catherine Chojenta, Meredith Tavener, Angela Smith, Deb Loxton Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sleep disorders in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome: A review of the literature and guide for clinicians
This article will review the current literature on the prevalence of sleep disorders in POTS, their association with the underlying pathophysiology of POTS, and current treatment paradigms. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mitchell G. Miglis, Fiona Barwick Tags: Review Source Type: research