Alterations in enteric calcitonin gene-related peptide in patients with colonic diverticular disease
Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the large bowel. Lately, imbalance of neuro-muscular transmission has been recognized as a major etiological factor for DD. Neuronal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxant shown to have a widespread effect within the alimentary tract. Nevertheless, CGRPergic innervation of the enteric ganglia has never been considered in the context of motility impairment observed in DD patients. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A.G. Pauza, K. Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, M. Malinauskas, J.I. Lukosiene, P. Alaburda, E. Stankevicius, J. Kupcinskas, Z. Saladzinskas, A. Tamelis, N. Pauziene Source Type: research

Association of autonomic symptoms with presynaptic striatal dopamine depletion in drug-naive Parkinson's disease: An analysis of the PPMI data
While the involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks is thought to play an integral role in the development of autonomic symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is little evidence for an association between autonomic symptoms and striatal dopaminergic depletion. We compared dopamine transporter activity in striatal subregions with various autonomic symptoms covered by the SCOPA-AUT domains including gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual symptoms in 418 untreated patients with PD. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryul Kim, Jin-Sun Jun Source Type: research

Direct neurophysiological evidence for a role of the human anterior cingulate cortex in central command
The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is still controversial. The ACC has been implicated in such diverse functions as cognition, arousal and emotion in addition to motor and autonomic control. Therefore the ACC is the ideal candidate to orchestrate cardiovascular performance in anticipation of perceived skeletal activity. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether the ACC forms part of the neural network of central command whereby cardiovascular performance is governed by a top-down mechanism. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martin J. Gillies, Yongzhi Huang, Jonathan A. Hyam, Tipu Z. Aziz, Alexander L. Green Source Type: research

The gastrointestinal symptoms present in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome: A review of the literature and overview of treatment
Orthostatic intolerance, including postural tachycardia syndrome, is often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. In the vast majority of the cases, the gastrointestinal symptoms are not secondary to the orthostatic disorder, but rather just a comorbid condition. This concept is critical, since treatment aimed at the orthostatic condition will not improve the gastrointestinal symptoms. Only when the gastrointestinal symptoms develop in the upright position and improve or resolve in the supine position, they may be related to the orthostatic stress. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gisela Chelimsky, Thomas Chelimsky Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cardiac chronotropic hypo-responsiveness and atrial fibrosis in rats chronically treated with lithium
In this study we explored the potential adverse effects of lithium on cardiac chronotropic responsiveness, atrial tissue histology and gene expression in rats that were chronically treated with therapeutic doses of lithium. Male Wistar albino rats were given lithium chloride (2.5  g/kg) orally for 2 or 3 months. Following treatment, the atria were isolated and spontaneously beating rate and chronotropic responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation was evaluated in an organ bath. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Somayeh Moradi, Atefeh Aminian, Alireza Abdollahi, Amin Jazayeri, Giti Ghamami, Vahid Nikoui, Azam Bakhtiarian, Farahnaz Jazaeri Source Type: research

Central activation of cardiac vagal nerve by α2-adrenergic stimulation is impaired in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats
To elucidate the abnormality of cardiac vagal control in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats, we measured left ventricular myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) release in response to α2-adrenergic stimulation as an index of in vivo cardiac vagal nerve activity. A cardiac microdialysis technique was applied to the rat left ventricle, and the effect of α2-adrenergic stimulation by intravenous medetomidine (100 μg/kg) on myocardial interstitial ACh levels was examined in anest hetized diabetic rats (4–6 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin) and age-matched control rats (protocol 1...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Takashi Sonobe, Shuji Shimizu, Yohsuke Hayama, James T. Pearson, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi Source Type: research

Nicotine is neuroprotective to neonatal neurons of sympathetic ganglion in rat
Sympathetic neurons of SCG are dependent on availability of nerve growth factor (NGF) for their survival. SCG neurons express nicotinic receptors (nAChR) whose expression levels are modulated by nicotine. Nicotine exerts multiple effects on neurons, including neuroprotection, through nAChR binding. Although sympathetic neurons express robust levels of nAChR, a possible neuroprotective role for nicotine in these neurons is not well-understood. Therefore we determined the effect of nicotine exposure on survival of SCG neurons during NGF withdrawal in a well-established cell culture system. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mahadevappa P. Badanavalu, Malathi Srivatsan Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced colonic smooth muscle cholinergic responsiveness is associated with impaired bowel motility after chronic experimental high-level spinal cord injury
The mechanisms underlying bowel dysfunction after high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. However, impaired supraspinal sympathetic and parasympathetic control is likely a major contributing factor. Disruption of the descending autonomic pathways traversing the spinal cord was achieved by a T3 complete spinal cord transection, and colonic function was examined in vivo and ex vivo four weeks post-injury. Total gastrointestinal transit time (TGTT) was reduced and contractility of the proximal and distal colon was impaired due to reduced M3 receptor sensitivity. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: B. Frias, A.A. Phillips, J.W. Squair, A.H.X. Lee, I. Laher, A.V. Krassioukov Source Type: research

Glia and central cardiorespiratory pathology
Respiration and blood pressure are primarily controlled by somatic and autonomic motor neurones, respectively. Central cardiorespiratory control is critical in moment-to-moment survival, but it also has a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pathological conditions such as hypertension. The glial cells of the brain are non-neuronal cells with metabolic, immune, and developmental functions. Recent evidence shows that glia play an active role in supporting and regulating the neuronal circuitry which drives the cardiorespiratory system. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M.J. Farnham, Zohra Kakall, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E. Nedoboy, Paul M. Pilowsky Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cardiac and behavioral effects of social isolation and experimental manipulation of autonomic balance
Improved understanding of how depression and social isolation interact to increase cardiac morbidity and mortality will improve public health. This experiment evaluated the effect of pharmacological autonomic blockade on cardiac and behavioral reactivity following social isolation in prairie voles. Experiment 1 validated the dose and time course of pharmacological autonomic antagonism of peripheral β-adrenergic (atenolol) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (atropine methyl nitrate), and Experiment 2 used a novel protocol to investigate behavioral responses in the tail suspension test during pharmacological autonomic...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Angela J. Grippo, Melissa-Ann L. Scotti, Joshua Wardwell, Neal McNeal, Suzanne L. Bates, Danielle L. Chandler, Elliott Ihm, Nalini Jadia Source Type: research

Neuropilin 1 ameliorates electrical remodeling at infarct border zones in rats after myocardial infarction
Electrical remodeling at infarct border zone (IBZ) has been shown to contribute to the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction (MI). Sema3A has been demonstrated to reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is the receptor of Sema3A. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with NRP1 can ameliorate electrical remodeling at IBZ after MI. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hua-Zhi Wen, Ping Xie, Fu Zhang, Yu Ma, Yan-Ling Li, Sheng-Kai Xu Source Type: research

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease)
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical syndrome of agitation and involuntary motor activity that particularly occurs in patients with severe acquired brain injury. The aim of the present study is to substantiate the assertion that paroxysmal non-epileptic attacks resembling PSH also occur in patients with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease), which is the most common neurodegenerative disease in children.The paper describes a case series of five patients with JNCL which during a period of fifteen years have been followed clinically and by consecutive investigations of the autonom...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: John R. Ostergaard Source Type: research

The role of physiological arousal for self-reported emotional empathy
The capacity to represent the emotional and mental states of others is referred to by the concept of empathy. Empathy further differentiates into an emotional and a cognitive subcomponent, which in turn is known to require a tacit perspective-taking process. However, whether the empathizer by himself needs to enter an affective state as a necessary precondition for emotional empathy remains a matter of debate. If empathy would require a vicarious emotional reaction, specific physiological markers of affective responding should be detectable in the empathizing person. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Christian E. Deuter, Jan Nowacki, Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K. K ühl, Johannes B. Finke, Isabel Dziobek, Christian Otte Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exercise and non-pharmacological treatment of POTS
Recent research has demonstrated that cardiovascular deconditioning (i.e., cardiac atrophy and hypovolemia) contributes significantly to the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and its functional disability. Therefore, physical reconditioning with exercise training and volume expansion via increased salt and fluid intake should be initiated early in the course of treatment for patients with POTS if possible. The use of horizontal exercise (e.g., rowing, swimming, recumbent bike, etc.) at the beginning is a critical strategy, allowing patients to exercise while avoiding the upright posture that elicits their PO...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qi Fu, Benjamin D. Levine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Moving from the present to the future of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome – What we need
Our understanding about Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) has advanced significantly over the last 25  years. Despite the significant advances that have been made in defining the syndrome and finding some treatments for our patients, there is much work to be done to significantly improve our understanding of the disorder and improve therapeutics. In this article, 5 NEEDS are identified that will b e required over the next several years if we want future care to move beyond where we are in the present. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Satish R. Raj, David Robertson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Imbalance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and increase of ventricular repolarization dynamicity induced by thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism
To investigate the effects of thyroid hormones on cardiac autonomic nervous activity and ventricular repolarization dynamicity in hyperthyroidism. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhongxiang Cai, Mingyan Dai, Yijie Zhang, Hui Zhong, Tuantuan Tan, Mingwei Bao Source Type: research

Delayed orthostatic hypotension: Severity of clinical symptoms and response to medical treatment
This study aimed to compare the symptom severity between classic and delayed OH and evaluate the efficacy of midodrine or pyridostigmine in patients with delayed OH. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jung-Ick Byun, Jangsup Moon, Do-Yong Kim, Hyerim Shin, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Woo-Jin Lee, Han-Sang Lee, Jin-Sun Jun, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu Source Type: research

Management of headache and chronic pain in POTS
Primary headache syndromes and chronic pain syndromes are common in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). There is overlap in potential mechanisms for migraine, chronic pain, and POTS symptomatology. Management of chronic pain and headaches in POTS requires a judicious use of pharmacotherapies that takes into account patient comorbidities and co-existing symptoms. Patient-centric, non-pharmacologic modalities include physical exercise, cognitive behavioral therapies, and treatment of sleep disorders. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Glen A. Cook, Paola Sandroni Tags: Review Source Type: research

Role of microglia M1/M2 polarisation in the paraventricular nucleus: New insight into the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats
The lack of precise therapies for stress-induced hypertension highlights the need to explore the process of blood pressure changes. Studies have shown that neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is associated with hypertension, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Microglia, are known to play dualistic protective and destructive roles, representing logical but challenging targets for improving stress-induced hypertension. Here, as a model, we used rats with stress-induced hypertension, and found that a switch from an immunoregulatory (M2) to a pro-inflammatory (M1) dominant response occurred in microglia during...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang Mi, Qin Wu, Wanru Yuan, Fuxue Chen, Dongshu Du Source Type: research

S. Typhimurium challenge in juvenile pigs modulates the expression and localization of enteric cholinergic proteins and correlates with mucosal injury and inflammation
The objective of this study was to determine the intrinsic expression of the enteric cholinergic system in pig ileum following an acute challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (S. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Calvin S. Pohl, Elizabeth M. Lennon, Yihang Li, Morgan P. DeWilde, Adam J. Moeser Source Type: research

The patient perspective: What postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients want physicians to know
Diagnosing and treating postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) can be a frustrating experience for patients and physicians alike. Experienced patient leaders solicited input from the large online POTS community to identify patient suggestions and concerns, with the goal of improving the patient-physician relationship and outcomes in POTS. This review article offers practical tips to improve POTS patient care and links to credible resources for your patients. The authors emphasize the urgent need for improved physician education, a tailored treatment approach, and expanded research efforts. (Source: Autonomic Neur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lauren E. Stiles, Jaclyn Cinnamon, Irina Balan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of caveolae depletion and urothelial denudation on purinergic and cholinergic signaling in healthy and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in the rat bladder
Cholesterol rich membrane invaginations, caveolae, have important roles in various cellular activities, one of them being signal transduction. This signaling pathway seems to be affected during various bladder disorders and the current study aimed to elucidate the plausible involvement of caveolae mediated signal transduction during cyclophosphamide induced cystitis. Furthermore, the urothelial cholinergic part of ATP-evoked contractions and its possible link to caveolae were investigated.Cholinergic, as well as purinergic, contractile responses in rat urinary bladders were examined using a classic organ bath set-up with f...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johanna Stenqvist, Thomas Carlsson, Michael Winder, Patrik Aronsson Source Type: research

Impaired pupillary control in “schizophrenia-like” WISKET rats
Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in autonomic regulation, including pupillomotor control. The aim of this study was to explore the changes of pupillary light reflex in a new substrain (WISKET) with several schizophrenia-like alterations.Male WISKET rats housed individually (for four weeks) and treated with ketamine (for 3  × 5 days) after weaning and naive group-housed Wistar rats (controls) were involved in the study. The pupillary light reflex was studied in two series after sedation (diazepam) or anesthesia (chloral hydrate). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alexandra B üki, György Kalmár, Gabriella Kekesi, Gyorgy Benedek, László G. Nyúl, Gyongyi Horvath Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome impact on cardiac autonomic modulation and exercise capacity in obese adults
Obesity is often associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic morbidities and mortality. However, evidence shows that some obese individuals are more likely to develop such risk factors early in life, including those with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Whether the presence of MetS in obese people impairs cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) remains to be investigated. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L ívia P. Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Renata G. Mendes, Ramona Cabiddu, Paula A. Ricci, Renata P. Basso-Vanelli, Manoel C. Oliveira-Junior, Rodolfo P. Vieira, José C. Bonjorno-Junior, Cláudio R. Oliveira, Rafael L. Luporini, Audrey Borghi-S Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in children and adolescents
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) affects up to 3,000,000 people in the United States, with at least one-third of them developing POTS before the age of 18. POTS as a disorder is similar in adult and pediatric populations, but there are factors specific to pediatric patients that affect how it presents and how it is experienced that make pediatric POTS different. This review discusses the both the similarities in this population to their adult counterparts and the unique challenges faced by pediatric POTS patients, including management of schooling and education as well as the complex interactions between th...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jeffrey R. Boris Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effect of electroacupuncture on porcine cardiac excitability induced by left stellate ganglion stimulation
Augmentation of cardiac sympathetic tone has been shown to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Acupuncture has been clinically used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and atrial arrhythmias. However, the effects of acupuncture on ventricular electrophysiology and autonomic tone remain unknown. We hypothesized that acupuncture attenuates cardiac excitability and corrects the imbalance of autonomic tone during sympathetic hyperactivity. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs were randomized to electroacupuncture (EA, 2  Hz, 0.3–0.5 mA, 0.5 ms duration) or control (without EA) groups. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tatsuo Takamiya, Yukiko Kubo, Peyman Benharash, Wei Zhou Source Type: research

Heart rate variability in individuals with Down syndrome – A systematic review and meta-analysis
Down syndrome (DS) results in many changes, including dysfunction in cardiac autonomic modulation. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis evaluates the autonomic function and it is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tatiana Dias de Carvalho, Thais Massetti, Talita Dias da Silva, T ânia Brusque Crocetta, Regiani Guarnieri, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro, David M. Garner, Celso Ferreira Tags: Review Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome during pregnancy: A systematic review of the literature
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome is most commonly seen in women of child bearing age, however little is known about its effects in pregnancy. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kate Morgan, Catherine Chojenta, Meredith Tavener, Angela Smith, Deb Loxton Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sleep disorders in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome: A review of the literature and guide for clinicians
This article will review the current literature on the prevalence of sleep disorders in POTS, their association with the underlying pathophysiology of POTS, and current treatment paradigms. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mitchell G. Miglis, Fiona Barwick Tags: Review Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and the potential role of mast cell activation
Though a sizeable amount of data connects mast cell activity to the neurologic system, less is known about the true clinical implications of this relationship. Even less is understood about treatment strategies in those with both allergic and neurologic complaints. This is particularly true in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a common type of dysautonomia, where patients are burdened by symptoms of orthostatic cerebral hypoperfusion and several other comorbidities that are likely influenced by autonomic tone. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Taylor A. Doherty, Andrew A. White Tags: Review Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for postural tachycardia syndrome
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disorder characterized by the presence of orthostatic symptoms (including lightheadedness, palpitations, nausea, dyspnea, and tremulousness) as well as excessive upright tachycardia. POTS predominantly affects women of childbearing age. Treating POTS involves a multi-faceted approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. There are no pharmacological treatments that are currently United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for POTS due to lack of randomized controlled trials. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Amanda J. Miller, Satish R. Raj Tags: Review Source Type: research

Inconsistent relation of nonlinear heart rate variability indices to increasing vagal tone in healthy humans
Prior work has found that linear heart rate variability (HRV) indices do not accurately reflect cardiac vagal control, and nonlinear indices of HRV have been proposed as alternative tools that may better capture cardiac vagal effects. We used progressive low dose atropine to induce changes in cardiac vagal tone to test the hypotheses that nonlinear HRV indices accurately reflect cardiac vagal control, and that their changes in response to low dose atropine correlate with those in RR interval. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Felipe X. Cepeda, Matthew Lapointe, Can Ozan Tan, J. Andrew Taylor Source Type: research

Differential effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction
Augmented sympathetic nerve activity is associated with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Lipophilic statins reduce sympathetic nerve activity in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. However, little is known about whether all types of statins, regardless of solubility, reduce sympathetic nerve activity in HFpEF. We evaluated the effect of atorvastatin, a lipophilic statin, and rosuvastatin, a hydrophilic statin, on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in HFpEF patients. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hideki Tokuhisa, Hisayoshi Murai, Yoshitaka Okabe, Takuto Hamaoka, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Yusuke Mukai, Oto Inoue, Shin-ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Soichiro Usui, Hiroshi Furusho, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: Current understanding
This article summarizes the current state of knowledge on the role of autoimmunity in POTS, the clinical implications of these findings, and prospects for future research. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Steven Vernino, Lauren Stiles Tags: Review Source Type: research

Evaluation of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS)
This article outlines the importance of a thorough history in identifying mechanism of symptom onset, clinical features, associated clinical conditions or disorders, and factors that may result in symptom exacerbation. The clinical examination involves an assessment of pupillary responses, an evaluation for sudomotor and vasomotor signs, and an assessment for joint hypermobility. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brent P. Goodman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Surgical and dental considerations in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms of orthostatic intolerance associated with an increase in heart rate (HR) ≥30 beat per minute (bpm) in adults within 10 min of standing or upright tilt-table test, in the absence of orthostatic hypotension (Grubb, 2008; Raj, 2013). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mohammed Ruzieh, Mark Dziuba, James P. Hofmann, Blair P. Grubb Source Type: research

Surgical and dental considerations in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mohammed Ruzieh, Mark Dziuba, James P. Hofmann, Blair P. Grubb Tags: Review Source Type: research

Contextual modulation of autonomic pain reactivity
Although modulation of cardiac activity may be influenced by several factors, interaction between autonomic nociceptive responses and the high-level of cortical processes is not clearly understood. Here, we studied in 26 subjects whether empathetic or unempathetic contexts could interact with autonomic pain responses. RR intervals variability was used to approach parasympathetic and sympathetic responses to painful thermal stimulations, according to contexts evoked by experimenters' comments. We observed that unempathetic context increased sympathetic reactivity to comments and to painful stimulations without any parasympa...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Camille Fauchon, Vincent Pichot, Isabelle Faillenot, Benjamin Pommier, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Roland Peyron, Florian Chouchou Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Cardiovascular responses to isometric handgrip exercise in young patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope
Arterial blood pressure (BP) increased in healthy humans in response to isometric handgrip (IHG), but the pattern of the relative contribution of cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) changes to the pressor response is different among individuals. We investigated weather patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) have a similar pattern of individual CO, TPR and pressor responses to IHG, as healthy subjects. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - April 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan Idiaquez, Juan Francisco Idiaquez, Rodrigo Iturriaga Source Type: research

The autonomic neural mechanism of right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are generally considered as benign arrhythmias, with ECG morphology showing LBBB pattern and inferior axis. Pathogenic mechanisms in the genesis of RVOT VT/VPC remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the neural mechanism in RVOT ventricular arrhythmias in canine model. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hung-Yu Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Ruey Chen, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Wei-Hsian Yin, An-Ning Feng, Shih-Ann Chen Source Type: research

Dual autonomic inhibitory action of central Apelin on gastric motor functions in rats
Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7  days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mehmet B ülbül, Osman Sinen Source Type: research

The autonomic neural mechanism of right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are generally considered as benign arrhythmias, with ECG morphology showing LBBB pattern and inferior axis. Pathogenic mechanisms in the genesis of RVOT VT/VPC remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the neural mechanism in RVOT ventricular arrhythmias in canine model. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hung-Yu Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Ruey Chen, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Wei-Hsian Yin, An-Ning Feng, Shih-Ann Chen Source Type: research

Dual autonomic inhibitory action of central Apelin on gastric motor functions in rats
Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7  days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mehmet B ülbül, Osman Sinen Source Type: research