Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Purinergic neurotransmission in the gustatory system
Taste buds consist of specialized epithelial cells which detect particular tastants and synapse onto the afferent taste nerve innervating the endorgan. The nature of the neurotransmitter released by taste cells onto the nerve fiber was enigmatic early in this century although neurotransmitters for other sensory receptor cell types, e.g. hair cells, photoreceptors, was known for at least a decade. A 1999 paper by Burnstock and co-workers (Bo et al., 1999) showing the presence of P2X receptors on the afferent nerves served as a springboard for research that ultimately led to the discovery of ATP as the crucial neurotransmitt...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 10, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: T. Finger, Sue Kinnamon Source Type: research

Brain plasticity and vagus nerve stimulation
After damage to the central nervous system, caused by traumatic injury or ischemia, plasticity becomes critically important for functional recovery. When this inherent capacity to adapt is limited despite training, external stimulation may support this process.Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective method to enhance the effect of motor rehabilitation training on functional recovery. However, the mechanisms by which VNS exerts beneficial effects on cortical plasticity are not completely understood. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Marius Keute, Alireza Gharabaghi Source Type: research

Differential influences of dietary sodium on blood pressure regulation based on race and sex
There are clear differences between men and women, and differences among races, in the incidence and prevalence of hypertension. Furthermore, there is extensive inter-individual variability among humans in the extent to which sodium ingestion alters blood pressure. Orthostatic intolerance and orthostatic hypotension are more common in women; these are often treated with a high salt diet, which has variable efficacy in increasing blood volume and blood pressure. Conversely, people with certain forms of hypertension are often counseled to decrease their sodium intake. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - September 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Austin T. Robinson, Megan M. Wenner, Nisha Charkoudian Source Type: research

tVNS in the management of headache and pain
First clinical observations of the therapeutic effect of vagus nerve stimulation were of patients who were treated for refractory epilepsy with a fully implanted vagus nerve stimulator, who also reported an improvement of their migraine and cluster headache. With the development of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation, first clinical studies concerning a possible therapeutic effect in migraine and cluster headache were performed. In a controlled study, transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation (tcVNS) showed a significant but limited effect in acute treatment of a migraine attack. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 31, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andreas Straube, Ozan Eren Source Type: research

Genetic markers of vasovagal syncope
Vasovagal syncope may have a genetic predisposition. It has a high prevalence in some families, and children of a fainting parent are more likely to faint than those without a parent who faints. Having two fainting parents or a fainting twin increases the likelihood even further. Several genotypes appear to associate with the phenotype of positive tilt tests, but the control subjects are usually those who faint and have negative tilt tests. Twin studies, highly focused genome-wide association studies, and copy number variation studies all suggest there are loci in the genome that associate with vasovagal syncope, although ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Robert S. Sheldon, Brenda Gerull Source Type: research

Syncope and COVID-19 disease – A systematic review
In this report, we aimed to examine the current frequency and etiology of syncope in COVID-19. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Raquel Falc ão de Freitas, Sofia Cardoso Torres, Francisco Javier Martín-Sánchez, Adrián Valls Carbó, Giuseppe Lauria, José Pedro L. Nunes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Stress and central autonomic network
The central autonomic network (CAN) plays a critical role in the stress response, which is triggered by challenges on the homeostasis (physiological stressors) or unpleasant social or environmental situations. This review focuses on the role of areas of the CAN including the insular and anterior cingulate cortices, extended amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray and locus coeruleus in the stress response. These areas are interconnected and affect sympathetic or parasympathetic output via their influence on premotor or preganglionic autonomic neurons in the lower brainstem and spinal cord. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscien...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guillaume Lamotte, Kamal Shouman, Eduardo E. Benarroch Source Type: research

Detection of opioid effect with pupillometry
Opioids produce pupillary constriction but their impact on pupillary unrest and the dynamic parameters of the pupillary light reflex have not been characterized. Given the increasing use of portable pupillometers for care of critically ill patients, it is important to distinguish between opioid effects on the pupil versus those that have been reported to arise from traumatic and ischemic brain insults. We undertook this study to determine which pupillary responses are most profoundly and consistently affected by a progressive infusion of remifentanil. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rachel Eshima McKay, Merl ín D. Larson Source Type: research

Markers of susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia in experimental spinal cord injury and the impact of sympathetic stimulation and exercise training
Injury to descending autonomic (sympathetic) pathways is common after high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated with abnormal blood pressure and heart rate regulation. In individuals with high-level SCI, abnormal sympathovagal balance (such as during autonomic dysreflexia; paroxysmal hypertension provoked by sensory stimuli below the injury) is proarrhythmogenic. Exercise training is a key component of SCI rehabilitation and management of cardiovascular disease risk, but it is unclear whether exercise training influences susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vera-Ellen M. Lucci, Emma L. Harrison, Kathryn M. DeVeau, Kathryn A. Harman, Jordan W. Squair, Andrei Krassioukov, David S.K. Magnuson, Christopher R. West, Victoria E. Claydon Source Type: research

The innervation of the bladder, the pelvic floor, and emotion: A review
The innervation of the pelvic region is complex and includes extensive neurologic pathways. The higher centres' organisation determining the pelvic floor and organs' function remains a challenge understanding the physiological and pain mechanisms. Psychological and emotional factors have a profound influence on the pelvic floor and organ dysfunction such as LUTS. LUTS are associated with stress, depression, and anxiety. Neuroception is a subconscious neuronal system for detecting threats and safety and might explain the permanent disturbance of higher brain centres maintaining functional urological and gastrointestinal dis...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J örgen Quaghebeur, Peter Petros, Jean-Jacques Wyndaele, Stefan De Wachter Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation associated with an aerobic exercise bout on blood pressure and autonomic modulation of hypertensive patients: A pilot randomized clinical trial
The objective of this article was to evaluate the effects of an aerobic exercise bout associated with a single session of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left temporal lobe on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in hypertensive people. After met the inclusion criteria, twenty hypertensive people were randomized to active-tDCS or sham-tDCS group. Initially, they provided their sociodemographic data, a blood sample, and went through an evaluation of the cardiorespiratory performance. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Edson Silva-Filho, J éssica Albuquerque, Marom Bikson, Rodrigo Pegado, Amilton da Cruz Santos, Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos Source Type: research

Acute and chronic cardiorespiratory consequences of focal intrahippocampal administration of seizure-inducing agents. Implications for SUDEP
The risk factors for SUDEP are undoubtedly heterogenous but the main factor is the frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures with apnoea and/or cardiac abnormalities likely precipitating the lethal event. By its very nature modelling SUDEP experimentally is challenging, yet insights into the nature of the lethal event and precipitating factors are vital in order to understand and prevent fatalities. Acute animal models, which induce status epilepticus (SE), can be used to help understand pathophysiological processes during and following seizures, which sometimes lead to death. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Thelma A. Lovick, John G.R. Jefferys Source Type: research

The discovery and development of gefapixant
Gefapixant is the approved generic name for a compound also known as MK-7264, and prior to that AF-219 and RO-4926219. It is the first-in-class clinically developed antagonist for the P2X3 subtype of trimeric ionotropic purinergic receptors, a family of ATP-gated excitatory ion channels, showing nanomolar potency for the human P2X3 homotrimeric channel and essentially no activity at related channels devoid of P2X3 subunits. As the first P2X3 antagonist to have progressed into clinical studies it has now progressed to the point of successful completion of Phase 3 investigations for the treatment of cough, and the NDA applic...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Anthony P. Ford, Michael P. Dillon, Michael M. Kitt, Joel R. Gever Source Type: research

Spinal interneurons of the lower urinary tract circuits
The storage and elimination of urine requires coordinated activity between muscles of the bladder and the urethra. This coordination is orchestrated by a complex system containing spinal, midbrain and forebrain networks. Normally there is a reciprocity between patterns of activity in urinary bladder sacral parasympathetic efferents and somatic motoneurons innervating the striatal external urethral sphincter muscle. At the spinal level this reciprocity is mediated by ensembles of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons located in the lumbar-sacral segments. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sergei Karnup Tags: Review Source Type: research

Review: Neuropathology findings in autonomic brain regions in SUDEP and future research directions
Autonomic dysfunction is implicated from clinical, neuroimaging and experimental studies in sudden and unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Neuropathological analysis in SUDEP series enable exploration of acquired, seizure-related cellular adaptations in autonomic and brainstem autonomic centres of relevance to dysfunction in the peri-ictal period. Alterations in SUDEP compared to control groups have been identified in the ventrolateral medulla, amygdala, hippocampus and central autonomic regions. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smriti Patodia, Alyma Somani, Maria Thom Source Type: research

Exertional heat stress and sodium balance: Leaders, followers, and adaptations
Exertional heat stress presents a different acute challenge to salt balance compared to at rest. Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl −) losses during exercise are overwhelmingly driven by eccrine sweat glands (the “leader”), with minimal urinary excretion. Total salt losses are therefore largely influenced by thermoregulatory need, although adaptations from prior heat exposure or altered dietary intake influences sweat glan d ion reabsorption, and therefore sweat Na+ ([Na+]sweat) and Cl− concentrations. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alan J. McCubbin Source Type: research

Tachykinin NK2 antagonist for treatments of various disease states
Tachykinin NK2 receptors are distributed in periphery, in the smooth muscle of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary tract, and within the brain. Substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB) are endogenous ligands for NK2 receptors and are active in the peripheral and central nervous systems. NK2 antagonists have the potential to reduce airway motor responses and prevent hyperactivity by inhibiting NKA-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. Due to its abundance, peripherally and centrally, tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists have high potential in treating various disease states rangi...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - August 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hyun Jin Jung, Ronny Priefer Tags: Review Source Type: research

The role of convulsive seizures in SUDEP
This article reviews the physiologic changes that occur during and after convulsive seizures and how these may contribute to SUDEP. Seizures activate specific cortical and subcortical regions that can cause potentially lethal cardiorespiratory changes. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Maromi Nei, Allyson Pickard Source Type: research

Electrical vagus nerve stimulation as a prophylaxis for SIRS and postoperative ileus
Abdominal surgery results in an activation of immune cells of the bowel wall and a consecutive cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) release leading to an inflammation of the muscularis externa and a bowel paralysis, the so-called postoperative ileus (POI).In addition to the local inflammation, major surgical trauma can also lead to a variable pronounced systemic inflammation up to its maximum variant, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), with hypotension, capillary leak and a breakdown of the intestinal barrier function followed by multi-organ dysfunction (MODS). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cornelius J. van Beekum, Maria A. Willis, Martin W. von Websky, Nils P. Sommer, J örg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner, Tim O. Vilz Source Type: research

ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves - another Burnstock legacy
Geoff Burnstock created an outstanding scientific legacy that includes identification of adenosine 5 ′-triphosphate (ATP) as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gut, the discovery and characterisation of a large family of purine and uridine nucleotide-sensitive ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and the demonstration that ATP is as an excitatory cotransmitter in autonomic nerves. The evidence for cotransmission includes that: 1) ATP is costored with noradrenaline in synaptic vesicles in postganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating smooth muscle tissues, including the vas deferens and most arteries. (Sou...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Charles Kennedy Source Type: research

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) as a potential therapeutic application for neurodegenerative disorders – A focus on dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease
The understandings of pathogenic processes in major neurodegenerative diseases has significantly advanced in recent years, with evidence showing pathological spread of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusions as a fundamental factor. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the culprit protein has been identified as α-synuclein as the main component for mediating progressive neurodegeneration. With severe pathology evident in the autonomic nervous system prior to clinical manifestations of PD, pathogenic spread can occur from the peripheral nervous system through key nuclei, such as the anterior olfactory nucl eus and dorsal motor...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Daniel W.K. Ko Source Type: research

Purinergic signalling in the urinary bladder – When function becomes dysfunction
Knowledge of the participation of ATP and related purines in urinary tract physiology has been established over the last five decades through the work of many independent groups, inspired by, and building on the pioneering studies of Professor Geoffrey Burnstock and his coworkers. As part of a series of reviews in this tribute edition, the present article summarises our current understanding of purines and purinergic signalling in modulating and regulating urinary tract function. Purinergic mechanisms underlying the origin of bladder pain; sensations of bladder filling and urinary tract motility; and regulation of detrusor...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Christopher H. Fry, Karen D. McCloskey Source Type: research

The role of enteric inhibitory neurons in intestinal motility
The enteric nervous system controls much of the mixing and propulsion of nutrients along the digestive tract. Enteric neural circuits involve intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons. While the role of the excitatory motor neurons is well established, the role of the enteric inhibitory motor neurons (IMNs) is less clear. The discovery of inhibitory transmission in the intestine in the 1960 in the laboratory of Geoff Burnstock triggered the search for the unknown neurotransmitter. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Marcello Costa, Nick J. Spencer, Simon J.H. Brookes Source Type: research

Characteristics and predictors for silent hypoxemia in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
An intriguing feature recently unveiled in some COVID-19 patients is the “silent hypoxemia” phenomenon, which refers to the discrepancy of subjective well-being sensation while suffering hypoxia, manifested as the absence of dyspnea. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miguel Garc ía-Grimshaw, Fernando Daniel Flores-Silva, Erwin Chiquete, Carlos Cantú-Brito, Anaclara Michel-Chávez, Alma Poema Vigueras-Hernández, Rogelio Domínguez-Moreno, Oswaldo Alan Chávez-Martínez, Samantha Sánchez-Torres, Osvaldo Alexis March Source Type: research

Leptin treatment prevents impaired hypoglycemic counterregulation induced by exposure to severe caloric restriction or exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is a maladaptive failure in glucose counterregulation in persons with diabetes (PWD) that is caused by recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia. The adipokine leptin is known to regulate glucose homeostasis, and leptin levels fall following exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia. Yet, little is known regarding how reduced leptin levels influence glucose counterregulation, or if low leptin levels are involved in the development of HAAF. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypoleptinemia on the neuroendocrine responses to hypoglycemia. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscienc...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Marina A. DuVall, Carolyn E. Coulter, Jasmin L. Gosey, Matthew J. Herrera, Cristal Hill, Rajvi R. Jariwala, Lauren E. Maisano, Laura A. Moldovan, Christopher D. Morrison, Ngozi V. Nwabueze, Hunter X. Sikaffy, David H. McDougal Source Type: research

Cardiovascular responses to low-level transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation
The aim was to determine cardiovascular responses to an arbitrary protocol of transcutaneous low-level vagus nerve electrical stimulation (tVNS). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Matjaz Sinkovec, Roman Trobec, Bernard Meglic Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Syncope and silent hypoxemia in COVID-19: Implications for the autonomic field
Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), the infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has wreaked havoc across the globe since its emergence in December 2019. Reports of patients presenting with syncope and pre-syncope, as well as hypoxemia without symptoms of dyspnea ( “silent hypoxemia”), have led researchers to speculate whether SARS-CoV-2 can alter autonomic nervous system function. As viral infections are commonly reported triggers of altered autonomic control, we must consider whether SARS-CoV-2 can also interfere with autonomic activity, at least in some pati...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacquie Baker, Anthony V. Incognito, Richard J.A. Wilson, Satish R. Raj Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Preparing for the long-haul: Autonomic complications of COVID-19
As global numbers of COVID-19 grow, chronic neurological symptoms, including those of autonomic dysfunction, are being reported with increasing frequency. Mounting evidence suggests that many patients experience chronic and sometimes debilitating symptoms long after their acute infectious period, leading to the new diagnostic category of post-acute COVID syndrome. Many symptoms of post-acute COVID syndrome appear autonomic in nature, suggesting that autonomic impairment may play a central role in the underlying pathophysiology. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nicholas W. Larsen, Lauren E. Stiles, Mitchell G. Miglis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disease with a high burden of illness. Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) is a well-established treatment option in patients with epilepsy (PWE). More recently, transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) was introduced an alternative option which is particularly interesting because it does not require surgery and is instantaneously removable. Here, we thoroughly reviewed clinical data on efficacy and safety of tVNS in epilepsies.Five prospective trials in 118 patients with drug-resistant epilepsies and 3 randomized controlled trials in 280 patients with drug-resistant epile...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 30, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Randi von Wrede, Rainer Surges Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Priorities for POTS care and research from a 2019 National Institutes of Health Expert Consensus Meeting – Part 2
The National Institutes of Health hosted a workshop in 2019 to build consensus around the current state of understanding of the pathophysiology of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and to identify knowledge gaps that must be addressed to enhance clinical care of POTS patients through research. This second (of two) articles summarizes current knowledge gaps, and outlines the clinical and research priorities for POTS.POTS is a complex, multi-system, chronic disorder of the autonomic nervous system characterized by orthostatic intolerance and orthostatic tachycardia without hypotension. (Source: Autonomic Neuro...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 29, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Satish R. Raj, Kate M. Bourne, Lauren E. Stiles, Mitchell G. Miglis, Melissa M. Cortez, Amanda J. Miller, Roy Freeman, Italo Biaggioni, Peter C. Rowe, Robert S. Sheldon, Cyndya A. Shibao, Andre Diedrich, David M. Systrom, Glen A. Cook, Taylor A. Doherty, Source Type: research

Sympathoinhibitory effect of sacubitril-valsartan in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: A pilot study
Chronic sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity, characteristic of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), is associated with poor prognosis and contributes to increased mortality risk. Sacubitril-valsartan is a recently approved, first-in-class, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) drug that markedly reduces the risks of death from cardiovascular causes and hospitalization for HF in patients with HFrEF, but the physiologic mechanisms underlying these benefits are not fully understood. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kanokwan Bunsawat, Stephen M. Ratchford, Jeremy K. Alpenglow, Josef Stehlik, Adam S. Smith, Russell S. Richardson, D. Walter Wray Source Type: research

Cardioneuroablation changes the type of vasovagal response in patients with asystolic reflex syncope
Cardioneuroablation (CNA) has been recently proposed as a new therapy in patients with asystolic vasovagal syncope (VVS) caused by parasympathetic overactivity. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roman Piotrowski, Anna Żuk, Jakub Baran, Agnieszka Sikorska, Tomasz Kryński, Piotr Kułakowski Source Type: research

Stellate ganglionitis in sudden cardiac death: A case report
We present a SCD with stellate ganglionitis in which the inflammatory cells were characterized. The case was 37-year-old man who died from ischemic and hypertensive heart disease. The left stellate ganglion showed lymphocytic inflammation with features of humoral immune response. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Michael Duffy, Jack Garland, Benjamin Ondruschka, Julian F.R. Paton, Emma N. Bardsley, Christopher X. Wong, Simon Stables, Rexson Tse Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Geoff Burnstock, purinergic signalling, and chemosensory control of breathing
This article is the authors' contribution to the tribute issue in honour of Geoffrey Burnstock, the founder of this journal and the field of purinergic signalling. We give a brief account of the results of experimental studies which at the beginning received valuable input from Geoff, who both directly and indirectly influenced our research undertaken over the last two decades. Research into the mechanisms controlling breathing identified ATP as the common mediator of the central and peripheral chemosensory transduction. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alexander V. Gourine, K. Michael Spyer Source Type: research

Vagus nerve ultrasonography in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Vagus nerve (VN) has been suggested as one of the major routes of Parkinson's disease (PD) progression from enteric nervous system to brain. Therefore, the recent studies have investigated the VN structurally, with a focus on the changes in its size in PD patients using high-frequency ultrasonography. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate VN size via ultrasound in PD compared to controls. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ramy Abdelnaby, Mohamed Elsayed, Khaled A. Mohamed, Khaled T. Dardeer, Yousef Tarek Sonbol, Anas ELgenidy, Mahmoud H. Barakat, Mariam M. Alwerdani, Andrea Maier Source Type: research

Metoprolol attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced cardiac damage by suppression of sympathetic overactivity in mice
In this study, we investigated the role of sympathetic overactivity in mediating cardiac dysfunction post ICH in mice. Collagenase-injection ICH model was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Neurological function was subsequently evaluated at multiple time points after ICH and cardiac function was measured by echocardiography on 3 and 14  days after ICH. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liqun Zhang, Jimusi Wuri, Lulu An, Xiaoxuan Liu, Ye Wu, Haotian Hu, Ruixia Wu, Yue Su, Quan Yuan, Tao Yan Source Type: research

Purinergic signalling in the kidney – A beginning with Geoffrey Burnstock
This not an original publication or a current and up-to-date review of purinergic signalling and kidney function, but rather a tribute to Professor Geoffrey Burnstock, written as a short and personal memoir of our early collaborative work together on this topic: our beginnings and the subsequent journey we took with our many valued collaborators along the way. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Robert J. Unwin Source Type: research

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): State of the science and clinical care from a 2019 National Institute of Health Expert Consensus Meeting
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic and often disabling disorder characterized by orthostatic intolerance with excessive heart rate increase without hypotension during upright posture. Patients often experience a constellation of other typical symptoms including fatigue, exercise intolerance and gastrointestinal distress. A typical patient with POTS is a female of child-bearing age, who often first displays symptoms in adolescence. The onset of POTS may be precipitated by immunological stressors such as a viral infection. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Steven Vernino, Kate M. Bourne, Lauren E. Stiles, Blair P. Grubb, Artur Fedorowski, Julian M. Stewart, Amy C. Arnold, Laura A. Pace, Jonas Axelsson, Jeffrey R. Boris, Jeffrey P. Moak, Brent P. Goodman, Kamal R. Ch émali, Tae H. Chung, David S. Goldstein, Source Type: research

P2X3 receptors participate in purinergic inhibition of gastrointestinal smooth muscle
The ATP analogue α,β-meATP is a potent relaxant of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but its molecular target is uncertain inside the gut. α,β-meATP relaxed the carbachol-precontracted guinea-pig taenia coli in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50, 2.0 ± 0.1 mM). A luciferase-based assay confirmed that α ,β-meATP solutions were minimally contaminated with ATP. α,β-meATP-evoked relaxations were inhibited by the competitive P2Y1 antagonist MRS2179 (pA2 = 5.36), but also by the competitive P2X3 antagonist, A-317491 (pA2 = 5.51). (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brian F. King Source Type: research

Neurotransmitters responsible for purinergic motor neurotransmission and regulation of GI motility
Classical concepts of peripheral neurotransmission were insufficient to explain enteric inhibitory neurotransmission. Geoffrey Burnstock and colleagues developed the idea that ATP or a related purine satisfies the criteria for a neurotransmitter and serves as an enteric inhibitory neurotransmitter in GI muscles. Cloning of purinergic receptors and development of specific drugs and transgenic mice have shown that enteric inhibitory responses depend upon P2Y1 receptors in post-junctional cells. The post-junctional cells that transduce purinergic neurotransmitters in the GI tract are PDGFR α+ cells and not smooth muscle...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - June 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kenton M. Sanders, Violeta N. Mutafova-Yambolieva Source Type: research

The extraordinary partnership of Geoff Burnstock and Mollie Holman
Here, we recognise some of the extraordinary accomplishments of the partnership between Geoff Burnstock and Mollie Holman, and the everlasting impact they both made in autonomic neuroscience in Australia. Much of strength today in autonomic neuroscience can be traced back to a time when Geoff and Mollie commenced their seminal studies on autonomic neuroscience, initially at Oxford, then at The University of Melbourne in the mid 1960's. Mollie and Geoff published their first paper together, at Oxford, with their then mentor, and doyenne of smooth muscle, Professor Edith B ülbring. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 31, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nick J. Spencer, Marcello Costa Source Type: research

Visualizing the “internet of the body”: Winners of the NIH SPARC Art Contest
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Eugene F. Civillico, Kalyanam Shivkumar Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Postexercise hypotension due to resistance exercise is not mediated by autonomic control: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Changes in autonomic control have been suggested to mediate postexercise hypotension (PEH). We investigated through meta-analysis the after-effects of acute resistance exercise (RE) on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic activity in individuals with normal and elevated BP. Electronic databases were searched for trials including: adults; exclusive RE interventions; and BP and autonomic outcomes measured pre- and postintervention for at least 30  min. Analyses incorporated random-effects assumptions. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Paulo Farinatti, Marcos D. Polito, Renato Massaferri, Walace D. Monteiro, Denilson Vasconcelos, Blair T. Johnson, Linda S. Pescatello Tags: Review Source Type: research

Ten days of high dietary sodium does not impair cerebral blood flow regulation in healthy adults
High dietary sodium impairs cerebral blood flow regulation in rodents and is associated with increased stroke risk in humans. However, the effects of multiple days of high dietary sodium on cerebral blood flow regulation in humans is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether ten days of high dietary sodium impairs cerebral blood flow regulation. Ten participants (3F/7M; age: 30  ± 10 years; blood pressure (BP): 113 ± 8/62 ± 9 mmHg) participated in this randomized, cross-over design study. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kamila U. Migdal, Austin T. Robinson, Joseph C. Watso, Matthew C. Babcock, Shannon L. Lennon, Christopher R. Martens, Jorge M. Serrador, William B. Farquhar Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Autonomic neuromuscular junctions
This review traces the history of the discovery and subsequent understanding of smooth muscle cells and their motor innervation. Smooth muscle tissue is made up of thousands of very small, individual, electrically connected, muscle cells. Each axon that enters a smooth muscle tissue branches extensively to form a terminal arbour that comes close to hundreds of smooth muscle cells. The branches of the terminal arbour are varicose, and each varicosity, of which there can be thousands, contains numerous transmitter storage vesicles. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Madeleine R. Di Natale, Martin J. Stebbing, John B. Furness Source Type: research

The inevitability of ATP as a transmitter in the carotid body
Atmospheric oxygen concentrations rose markedly at several points in evolutionary history. Each of these increases was followed by an evolutionary leap in organismal complexity, and thus the cellular adaptions we see today have been shaped by the levels of oxygen within our atmosphere. In eukaryotic cells, oxygen is essential for the production of adenosine 5 ′-triphosphate (ATP) which is the ‘Universal Energy Currency’ of life. Aerobic organisms survived by evolving precise mechanisms for converting oxygen within the environment into energy. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Emma N. Bardsley, Dylan K. Pen, Fiona D. McBryde, Anthony P. Ford, Julian F.R. Paton Source Type: research

Alpha 1 adrenoceptor expression in skin, nerves and blood vessels of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathy (dNP) patients often suffer from severe neuropathic pain. It was suggested that alpha-1 adrenoceptor ( α1-AR) hyperresponsiveness contributes to pain in dNP. The aim of our study was to quantify α1-AR expression using immunohistochemistry in skin biopsies of nine patients with painful diabetic neuropathy compared to 10 healthy controls. Additionally, the association between α1-AR expression and ac tivation with spontaneous and sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) induced by intradermal injection of the α1-agonist phenylephrine was investigated. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - May 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tanja Schlereth, Natalie Morellini, No émie C.A.M. Lismont, Cassandra Lemper, Frank Birklein, Peter D. Drummond Source Type: research