Valine supplementation during late pregnancy in gilts increases colostral protein synthesis through stimulating mTOR signaling pathway in mammary cells.
Abstract Mammary gland development during late pregnancy in sows is a major factor affecting the composition of colostrum and milk and the pre-weaning growth of piglets, while valine is essential for protein and nitrogen metabolism in mammary gland of sow. However, the effects of valine and its underlying mechanism on mammary gland development during late pregnancy are still unclear. Here, we hypothesized that dosage of dietary valine during late pregnancy will affect protein synthesis of colostrum in gilts. The results showed that supplementation of valine during late pregnancy significantly increased content of protein (P 
Source: Amino Acids - November 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Che L, Xu M, Gao K, Wang L, Yang X, Wen X, Xiao H, Jiang Z, Wu Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Mechanistic details of amino acid catalyzed two-component Mannich reaction: experimental study backed by density functional calculations.
Abstract The role of pH-dependent ionic structures of L-amino acids in catalysis has been investigated for the two-component Mannich reactions between dimethyl malonate (DMM)/ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) and imines. As catalysts, L-amino acids performed well, even better than corresponding base catalysts and provided the β-amino carbonyl compounds in very high yields. Density functional calculations were used to gain the mechanistic insight of the reaction. High catalytic efficiency of amino acids was attributed to the facile formation of carbanion intermediate through barrierless transition state TS1 (- 1...
Source: Amino Acids - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rani D, Thakur L, Khera M, Goel N, Agarwal J Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Effects of histidine load on ammonia, amino acid, and adenine nucleotide concentrations in rats.
We examined the effects of a large intravenous dose of HIS on ammonia and amino acid concentrations and energy status of the body. Rats received 198 mM HIS intravenously (20 ml/kg) or vehicle. Samples of blood plasma, urine, liver, and soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were analysed at 2 or 24 h after treatment. At 2 h after HIS load, we found higher HIS concentration in all examined tissues, higher urea and ammonia concentrations in blood and urine, lower ATP content and higher AMP/ATP ratio in the liver and muscles, higher concentrations of almost all examined amino acids in uri...
Source: Amino Acids - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Holeček M, Vodeničarovová M Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Protective effect of taurine against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: echocardiographical and histological findings.
S, Erdem A Abstract Doxorubicin (DOXO) may cause serious cardiotoxic effects that limit its use as an antineoplastic agent. We aimed to evaluate the protective role of taurine (TAU), a beta amino acid with antioxidant activity, against DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity in a rat model. Thirty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) were randomized into four groups: control (n = 7, intraperitoneal [ip] saline for 14 days), TAU (n = 8, 150 mg/kg body weight TAU ip for 14 days), DOXO (n = 8, 25 mg/kg body weight DOXO ip on 12th, 13th, and 14th days), and D...
Source: Amino Acids - October 31, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Barış VÖ, Gedikli E, Yersal N, Müftüoğlu S, Erdem A Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Correction to: Rapid acidolysis of benzyl group as a suitable approach for syntheses of peptides naturally produced by oxidative stress and containing 3-nitrotyrosine.
; E, Šebestík J Abstract This errata is for paper "Rapid acidolysis of benzyl group as a suitable approach for syntheses. PMID: 31654207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Amino Acids)
Source: Amino Acids - October 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Niederhafner P, Šafařík M, Brichtová E, Šebestík J Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Modulation of muscle protein synthesis by amino acids: what consequences for the secretome? A preliminary in vitro study.
In conclusion, the activation of protein synthesis by amino acids induces different modulations of the muscle secretome, proposing a new role of amino acids in the regulation of muscle function. PMID: 31654208 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Amino Acids)
Source: Amino Acids - October 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Goron A, Breuillard C, Cunin V, Bourgoin-Voillard S, Seve M, Moinard C Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Involvement of the biogenic active amine agmatine in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of pro-apoptotic factors.
ostinelli E Abstract Agmatine (AGM) produces a dual effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) mechanism in rat liver mitochondria: at low concentrations, it induces the phenomenon, at high ones, inhibits it. The prevention at high concentrations is evidenced by the significant inhibition of mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+ and phosphate; in this condition, AGM both prevents the release of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) and enhances the release of other pro-apoptotic factors, such as cytochrome c (cyt c) and Smac/DIABLO. As these factors are released without MPT induction, the involvement of ...
Source: Amino Acids - October 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Martinis P, Grancara S, Kanamori Y, García-Argáez AN, Pacella E, Dalla Via L, Toninello A, Agostinelli E Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

A synthetic peptide derived of the β2-β3 loop of the plant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds induces Leishmania amazonensis apoptosis-like cell death.
A synthetic peptide derived of the β2-β3 loop of the plant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds induces Leishmania amazonensis apoptosis-like cell death. Amino Acids. 2019 Oct 25;: Authors: Souza GS, de Carvalho LP, de Melo EJT, da Silva FCV, Machado OLT, Gomes VM, de Oliveira Carvalho A Abstract For medical use of proteins and peptide-based drugs, it is desirable to have small biologically active sequences because they improve stability, reduce side effects, and production costs. Several plant defensins have their biological activities imparted by a sequence named γ-core. Vu-Def, a V...
Source: Amino Acids - October 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Souza GS, de Carvalho LP, de Melo EJT, da Silva FCV, Machado OLT, Gomes VM, de Oliveira Carvalho A Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Molecular insights into the inhibitory mechanism of bi-functional bis-tryptoline triazole against β-secretase (BACE1) enzyme.
Molecular insights into the inhibitory mechanism of bi-functional bis-tryptoline triazole against β-secretase (BACE1) enzyme. Amino Acids. 2019 Oct 25;: Authors: Narang SS, Goyal D, Goyal B Abstract The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (β-secretase, BACE1) is involved in the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide that aggregates into soluble oligomers, amyloid fibrils, and plaques responsible for the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). BACE1 is one of the prime therapeutic targets for the design of inhibitors against AD as BACE1 participate in the rate-...
Source: Amino Acids - October 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Narang SS, Goyal D, Goyal B Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Preclinical evaluation of a 64Cu-labeled disintegrin for PET imaging of prostate cancer.
In this study, we synthesized a new 64Cu-labeled VCN probe and evaluated its imaging properties for prostate cancer in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice. Macrocyclic chelating agent 1,8-diamino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]-eicosine (DiAmSar) was conjugated with PEG unit and followed by coupling with VCN. The precursor was then radiolabeled with positron emitter 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) in ammonium acetate buffer to provide 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN, which was subsequently subjected to in vitro studies, small animal PET, and biodistribution studies. The PC-3 tumor-targeting efficacy of 64Cu-Sar-PEG-VCN was compared to ...
Source: Amino Acids - October 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jadvar H, Chen K, Park R, Yap LP, Vorobyova I, Swenson S, Markland FS Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Genes regulated by branched-chain polyamine in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis.
Abstract Branched-chain polyamine (BCPA) synthase (BpsA), encoded by the bpsA gene, is responsible for the biosynthesis of BCPA in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, which produces N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine and spermidine. Here, next-generation DNA sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to perform transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a T. kodakarensis strain (DBP1) lacking bpsA. Subsequently, the contributions of BCPA to gene transcription (or transcript stabilization) and translation (or protein stabilization) were analyzed. Compared with those in t...
Source: Amino Acids - October 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fukuda W, Yamori Y, Hamakawa M, Osaki M, Fukuda M, Hidese R, Kanesaki Y, Okamoto-Kainuma A, Kato S, Fujiwara S Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Evaluation of polyamines as marker of melanoma cell proliferation and differentiation by an improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method.
Abstract The differentiation therapy is focused on the identification of new agents able to impair the proliferative and metastatic potential of cancer cells through the induction of differentiation. Although several markers of cell differentiation on tumor cells have been identified, their causal relationship with neoplastic competence has not been characterized in sufficient detail to propose their use as new pharmacological targets useful for the design of new differentiation agents. Polyamine level in cancer cells and in body fluids was proposed as potential marker of cell proliferation and differentiation. Th...
Source: Amino Acids - October 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Provenzano B, Lentini A, Tatti R, De Martino A, Borromeo I, Mischiati C, Feriotto G, Forni C, Tabolacci C, Beninati S Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Cysteine homeostasis under inhibition of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli cells.
Abstract Increased intracellular cysteine poses a potential danger to cells due to the high ability of cysteine to reduce free iron and promote the Fenton reaction. Here, we studied ways to maintain cysteine homeostasis in E. coli cells while inhibiting protein synthesis with valine or chloramphenicol. When growing wild-type bacteria on minimal medium with sulfate, an excess of cysteine resulting from the inhibition of protein synthesis is mainly incorporated into glutathione (up to 90%), which, therefore, can be considered as cysteine buffer. The share of hydrogen sulfide, which is the product of cysteine degrada...
Source: Amino Acids - October 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Smirnova GV, Tyulenev AV, Bezmaternykh KV, Muzyka NG, Ushakov VY, Oktyabrsky ON Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

PlantAFP: a curated database of plant-origin antifungal peptides.
Abstract Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a severe problem caused by fungi in human and plant species across the world. They pose a worldwide threat to food security as well as human health. Fungal infections are increasing now day by day worldwide, and the current antimycotic drugs are not effective due to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, it is an urgent need for the finding of new plant-origin antifungal peptides (PhytoAFPs). Huge numbers of peptides were extracted from different plant species which play a protective role against fungal infection. Hundreds of plant-origin peptides with antif...
Source: Amino Acids - October 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tyagi A, Pankaj V, Singh S, Roy S, Semwal M, Shasany AK, Sharma A Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Susceptibility of protein therapeutics to spontaneous chemical modifications by oxidation, cyclization, and elimination reactions.
Abstract Peptides and proteins are preponderantly emerging in the drug market, as shown by the increasing number of biopharmaceutics already approved or under development. Biomolecules like recombinant monoclonal antibodies have high therapeutic efficacy and offer a valuable alternative to small-molecule drugs. However, due to their complex three-dimensional structure and the presence of many functional groups, the occurrence of spontaneous conformational and chemical changes is much higher for peptides and proteins than for small molecules. The characterization of biotherapeutics with modern and sophisticated ana...
Source: Amino Acids - October 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Grassi L, Cabrele C Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterization and anticonvulsant activity of new series of N-modified analogues of VV-hemorphin-5 with aminophosphonate moiety.
Abstract A new series of N-modified analogues of the VV-hemorphin-5 with aminophosphonate moiety have been synthesized, characterized and investigated for anticonvulsant activity. The novel peptide analogues were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis-Fmoc-strategy and were evaluated in the timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole infusion test (ivPTZ) and 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in mice. The acute neurological toxicity was determined using the rotarod test. The redox potentials at glass carbonic electrode (GC) and the acid/base properties as pKa values of these peptide analogues were compared with the electr...
Source: Amino Acids - October 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Todorov P, Peneva P, Tchekalarova J, Rangelov M, Georgieva S, Todorova N Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Asymmetric dimethylarginine aggravates blood-retinal barrier breakdown of diabetic retinopathy via inhibition of intercellular communication in retinal pericytes.
In this study, we observed the dynamic profile of ADMA, retinal morphology and permeability of BRB at 2, 4 or 8 week of diabetic rats induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60 mg/kg) and in cultured rat retinal pericytes pretreated with D-glucose (30 mM) for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days or ADMA (3, 10, 30 μM) for 24, 48 and 72 h, trying to explore the effects of ADMA on blood-retinal barrier in DR. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and the expression of blood-retinal barrier-specific component connexin 43 (Cx43) were examined in diabetic rats or cultured retinal peric...
Source: Amino Acids - October 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Huang CY, Zhou T, Li G, Li MY, Xiong XM, Wu MT, Jiang JL Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

GC-MS measurement of spermidine and putrescine in serum of elderly subjects: intriguing association between spermidine and homoarginine.
Abstract Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods were developed, validated and used to measure serum spermidine (SPD) and putrescine (PUT) in 9 seropositive Helicobacter pylori (Hp +) and 18 seronegative Helicobacter pylori (Hp -) subjects (31-105 years). Homoarginine (hArg) was also measured by GC-MS. There were no statistical differences (unpaired t test) between the Hp + and Hp - subjects with respect to the serum concentrations of SPD (67.6 ± 40.3 vs. 93.7 ± 37.7 nM, P = 0.109), PUT (220 ±&t...
Source: Amino Acids - September 20, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hanff E, Bollenbach A, Beckmann B, Brunner G, Tsikas D Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

High plasma guanidinoacetate-to-homoarginine ratio is associated with high all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rate in adult renal transplant recipients.
Abstract L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is the main producer of the creatine precursor, guanidinoacetate (GAA), and L-homoarginine (hArg). We and others previously reported lower levels of circulating and urinary hArg in renal transplant recipients (RTR) compared to healthy subjects. In adults, hArg emerged as a novel risk factor for renal and cardiovascular adverse outcome. Urinary GAA was found to be lower in children and adolescents with kidney transplants compared to healthy controls. Whether GAA is also a risk factor in the renal and cardiovascular systems of adults, is not yet known. In the pre...
Source: Amino Acids - September 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hanff E, Said MY, Kayacelebi AA, Post A, Minovic I, van den Berg E, de Borst MH, van Goor H, Bakker SJL, Tsikas D Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Moderate protective effect of Kyotorphin against the late consequences of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The established decrease in the level of endogenous kyotorphin (KTP) into the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with an advanced stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the found neuroprotective activity of KTP suggested its participation in the pathophysiology of the disease. We aimed to study the effects of subchronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment (14 days) with KTP on the behavioral, biochemical and histological changes in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-ICV)-induced model of sporadic AD (sAD). Three months after the administration of STZ-ICV, rats developed increased locomotor activity, decre...
Source: Amino Acids - September 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Angelova H, Pechlivanova D, Krumova E, Miteva-Staleva J, Kostadinova N, Dzhambazova E, Landzhov B Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

The investigation of structure-activity relationship of polyamine-targeted synthetic compounds from different chemical groups.
Abstract The polyamine (PA) metabolism is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Increased cellular PA levels are observed in different types of cancers. Products of PA oxidation induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These observations open a perspective to exploit the enzymes of PA catabolism as a target for anticancer drug design. The substances capable to enhance PA oxidation may become potential anticancer agents. The goal of our study was to explore how the mode of ligand binding with a PA catabolic enzyme is associated with its stimulatory or inhibitory effect upon PA oxidation. Murine N1-acetylpoly...
Source: Amino Acids - September 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Syatkin SP, Neborak EV, Khlebnikov AI, Komarova MV, Shevkun NA, Kravtsov EG, Blagonravov ML, Agostinelli E Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic α-dehydro-β-amino acids as scaffolds for bioactive compounds.
Synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic α-dehydro-β-amino acids as scaffolds for bioactive compounds. Amino Acids. 2019 Sep 13;: Authors: Ferrazzano L, Corbisiero D, Greco R, Potenza E, De Seriis G, Garelli A, Tolomelli A Abstract The synthesis of α/β dipeptides containing linear or cyclic α-dehydro-β-amino acids has been performed starting from alkylidene acetacetamides, which were obtained from α-amino esters via Ir-catalyzed allylic amination. Differently hindered carbonates were synthesized via a protocol involving chemoselective Lu...
Source: Amino Acids - September 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ferrazzano L, Corbisiero D, Greco R, Potenza E, De Seriis G, Garelli A, Tolomelli A Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Design of therapeutically improved analogue of the antimicrobial peptide, indolicidin, using a glycosylation strategy.
Abstract Indolicidin is a member of cathelicidin family which displays broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Severe toxicity and aggregation propensity associated with indolicidin pose a huge limitation to its probable therapeutic application. We are reporting the use of glycosylation strategy to design an analogue of indolicidin and subsequently explore structural and functional effects of sugar on it. Our study led to the design of a potent antibacterial glycosylated peptide, [βGlc-T9,K7]indolicidin, which showed decreased toxicity against erythrocytes and macrophage cells and thus a higher therapeutic sel...
Source: Amino Acids - September 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dwivedi R, Aggarwal P, Bhavesh NS, Kaur KJ Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Insights into the molecular features of the von Hippel-Lindau-like protein.
We present an in silico characterization of the von Hippel-Lindau-like protein (VLP), the only known human paralog of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). Phylogenetic investigation showed VLP to be mostly conserved in upper mammals and specifically expressed in brain and testis. Structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations show VLP to be very similar to pVHL three-dimensional organization and binding dynamics. In particular, conservation of elements at the protein interfaces suggests VLP to be a functional pVHL homolog potentially possessing multiple functions beyond HIF-1α-dependent bind...
Source: Amino Acids - September 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Minervini G, Quaglia F, Tabaro F, Tosatto SCE Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Oral taurine improves critical power and severe-intensity exercise tolerance.
This study investigated the effects of acute oral taurine ingestion on: (1) the power-time relationship using the 3-min all-out test (3MAOT); (2) time to exhaustion (TTE) 5% > critical power (CP) and (3) the estimated time to complete (Tlim) a range of fixed target intensities. Twelve males completed a baseline 3MAOT test on a cycle ergometer. Following this, a double-blind, randomised cross-over design was followed, where participants were allocated to one of four conditions, separated by 72 h: TTE + taurine; TTE + placebo; 3MAOT + taurine; 3MAOT +&thi...
Source: Amino Acids - September 3, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Waldron M, Patterson SD, Jeffries O Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

A metabolic study to decipher amino acid catabolism-directed biofuel synthesis in Acetoanaerobium sticklandii DSM 519.
This study revealed that apart from Stickland reactions, a specialized system was established in A. sticklandii for protein catabolism-directed biofuel production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), acetic acid, and butyric acid were the most important biofuel components produced by this organism. The production of these components was achieved much more on gelatin than amino acids. Thus, A. sticklandii is suggested herein as a potential organism to produce butyric acid along with ABE from protein-based wastes (gelatin) in bio-energy sectors. PMID: 31471743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Amino Acids)
Source: Amino Acids - August 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sangavai C, Chellapandi P Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Modified cysteine S-phosphopeptide standards for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
Abstract The regulatory role of protein cysteine phosphorylation is an under-researched area. The difficulty of accessing reference S-phosphorylated peptides (pCys-peptides) hampers progress in MS-driven cysteine phosphoproteomics, which requires targeted analytical procedures. This work describes an uncomplicated process for the conversion of disulfide-bridged protein into a complex model mixture of combinatorially modified peptides. Hen egg-white lysozyme was reduced with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) followed by alkylation of cysteine with (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride (APTA) and subseq...
Source: Amino Acids - August 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Buchowiecka AK Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Branched-chain amino acids do not improve muscle recovery from resistance exercise in untrained young adults.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle recovery from resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adults. Twenty-four young adults (24.0 ± 4.3 years old) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 12 per group): a placebo-supplement group or a BCAA-supplement group. The groups were supplemented for a period of 5 days. On day 1 and 3, both groups underwent a RE session involving two lower body exercises (hack squat and leg press) and then were evaluated for muscle recovery on the 3 subsequent moments after the RE sessi...
Source: Amino Acids - August 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Estoche JM, Jacinto JL, Roveratti MC, Gabardo JM, Buzzachera CF, de Oliveira EP, Ribeiro AS, da Silva RA, Aguiar AF Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

The self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) via column chromatography of β-amino-α,α-difluorophosphonic acid derivatives.
The self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) via column chromatography of β-amino-α,α-difluorophosphonic acid derivatives. Amino Acids. 2019 Aug 29;: Authors: Kwiatkowska M, Marcinkowska M, Wzorek A, Pajkert R, Han J, Klika KD, Soloshonok VA, Röschenthaler GV Abstract This work presents the first study of the self-disproportionation of enantiomers via chromatography (SDEvC) of β-aminophosphonic acid esters, several of which have been synthesized for the first time. Three types of structures were examined, N-acetylated, dipeptide construction with N-Cbz glycine, and a fre...
Source: Amino Acids - August 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kwiatkowska M, Marcinkowska M, Wzorek A, Pajkert R, Han J, Klika KD, Soloshonok VA, Röschenthaler GV Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

The application of HPLC/MS analysis with a multi-enzyme digest strategy to characterize different interferon product variants produced from Pichia pastoris.
In this study we have applied advanced analytical methods for the characterization of IFNα2b and IFN γ produced from Pichia pastoris. The multi-enzyme digestion approach has been developed to allow measurement of 100% sequence coverage and detailed analysis of post-translational variants and degradation products. In this manner, we identified the following variants in IFN α2b: N-terminal residual leader sequence, an amino acid substitution, oxidation of methionine residues and two sites of high mannose N-glycosylation. In the Pichia IFN γ produced material, our approach detected variants resulting f...
Source: Amino Acids - August 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang Y, Liu D, Crowell LE, Love KR, Wu SL, Hancock WS Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Involvement of non-coding RNAs and transcription factors in the induction of Transglutaminase isoforms by ATRA.
This study contributes to identify molecular mechanisms regulating the ratio among the variants and improves the knowledge about regulatory roles of the non-coding RNAs of the TGM2 gene. PMID: 31440819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Amino Acids)
Source: Amino Acids - August 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Franzese O, Minotti L, Aguiari G, Corrà F, Cervellati C, Ferrari C, Volinia S, Bergamini CM, Bianchi N Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Taurine modulates hepatic oxidative status and gut inflammatory markers of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed plant feedstuffs-based diets.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of taurine (tau) supplementation to low fishmeal (FM) diets on growth performance, oxidative status, and immune response of European seabass juveniles. Four isoproteic (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (19% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain either 25 or 12.5% FM and a mixture of plant feedstuffs, supplemented or not with 1% tau. Twelve groups of 20 fish (IBW = 9.4 g) were fed each diet for 9 weeks. Reduction of dietary FM from 25 to 12.5% impaired growth performance, feed efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio but had no effect on nitrogen reten...
Source: Amino Acids - August 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Martins N, Magalhães R, Castro C, Couto A, Díaz-Rosales P, Oliva-Teles A, Peres H Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Pregabalin peptides: conformational comparison of γ3- and γ4-substituted γ-amino acids in αγααα pentapeptides.
Pregabalin peptides: conformational comparison of γ3- and γ4-substituted γ-amino acids in αγααα pentapeptides. Amino Acids. 2019 Aug 19;: Authors: Basuroy K, Kantharaju K, Aravinda S, Shamala N, Balaram P Abstract Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, gammaAbu), an unsubstituted gamma-amino acid, is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. The role of GABA in the treatment of epilepsy has triggered a great deal of interest in substituted gamma-amino acids, which may serve as GABA analogs, acting as inhibitors of GABA aminotransferase. Pr...
Source: Amino Acids - August 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Basuroy K, Kantharaju K, Aravinda S, Shamala N, Balaram P Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Intracellular accumulation of amino acids increases synaptic potentials in rat hippocampal slices.
ernández-Guijo JM, Solís JM Abstract The application of high concentrations of taurine induces long-lasting potentiation of synaptic responses and axon excitability. This phenomenon seems to require the contribution of a transport system with a low affinity for taurine. The prototypic taurine transporter TauT (SLC6A6) was discarded by experimental evidence obtained in TauT-KO mice. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1; SLC36A1) which is a transport system with low affinity and high capacity for a great variety of amino acids inclu...
Source: Amino Acids - August 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Luengo JG, Muñoz MD, Álvarez-Merz I, Herranz AS, González JC, Martín Del Río R, Hernández-Guijo JM, Solís JM Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Non-isocyanate urethane linkage formation using l-lysine residues as amine sources.
do AV Abstract Bio-based polyurethane materials are broadly applied in medicine as drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, their synthesis comprises the use of petroleum-based toxic amines, isocyanates and polyols, and their biocompatibility or functionalization is limited. Therefore, the use of lysine residues as amine sources to create non-isocyanate urethane (NIU) linkages was investigated. Therefore, a five-membered biscyclic carbonate (BCC) was firstly synthetized and reacted with a protected lysine, a tripeptide and a heptapeptide to confirm the urethane linkage formation with lysine moiety and to optimize reac...
Source: Amino Acids - August 9, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Peixoto C, Soares AMS, Araújo A, Olsen BD, Machado AV Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

PaleAle 5.0: prediction of protein relative solvent accessibility by deep learning.
Abstract Predicting the three-dimensional structure of proteins is a long-standing challenge of computational biology, as the structure (or lack of a rigid structure) is well known to determine a protein's function. Predicting relative solvent accessibility (RSA) of amino acids within a protein is a significant step towards resolving the protein structure prediction challenge especially in cases in which structural information about a protein is not available by homology transfer. Today, arguably the core of the most powerful prediction methods for predicting RSA and other structural features of proteins is some f...
Source: Amino Acids - August 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kaleel M, Torrisi M, Mooney C, Pollastri G Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Establishment of reference values for the lysine acetylation marker N ɛ-acetyllysine in small volume human plasma samples by a multi-target LC-MS/MS method.
In this study, an analytical procedure to simultaneously quantify ten endogenous biomarkers for CVD and CKD is described. An easy-to-handle sample preparation requiring only 20 µL of human plasma is followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was successfully validated according to established guidelines meeting required criteria for accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, selectivity, and limits of quantification. The scalability of the method for application in larger cohorts was assessed using a set of plasma samples from healthy volunteers (n =&thinsp...
Source: Amino Acids - August 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gessner A, Mieth M, Auge D, Chafai A, Müller F, Fromm MF, Maas R Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Synthesis, in vitro biological activity and docking of new analogs of BIM-23052 containing unnatural amino acids.
Abstract Somatostatin (SST) is an endogenous cyclic tetradecapeptide hormone that exerts multiple biological activities via a family of five receptors. BIM-23052 (DC-23-99) D-Phe-Phe-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe-Thr-NH2 is a linear SST analog with established in vitro GH-inhibitory activity and high affinity to sstr5, sstr3 and sstr2. The different SSTR subtypes are expressed in different tissues and in some tumor cells. Based on this finding, a series of new analogs of BIM-23052 with expected antitumor activity have been synthesized. The Thr at position 6 in BIM-23052 was replaced by the conformationally hindered Tle, A...
Source: Amino Acids - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Naydenova E, Wesselinova D, Staykova S, Danalev D, Dzimbova T Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Enzymatic activity and thermoresistance of improved microbial transglutaminase variants.
h M Abstract Microbial transglutaminase (MTG, EC 2.3.2.13) of Streptomyces mobaraensis is widely used in industry for its ability to synthesize isopeptide bonds between the proteinogenic side chains of glutamine and lysine. The activated wild-type enzyme irreversibly denatures at 60 °C with a pseudo-first-order kinetics and a half-life time (t1/2) of 2 min. To increase the thermoresistance of MTG for higher temperature applications, we generated 31 variants based on previous results obtained by random mutagenesis, DNA shuffling and saturation mutagenesis. The best variant TG16 with a specific combina...
Source: Amino Acids - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Böhme B, Moritz B, Wendler J, Hertel TC, Ihling C, Brandt W, Pietzsch M Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Quantitative sequence-activity modeling of ACE peptide originated from milk using ACC-QTMS amino acid indices.
Abstract Up to now, numerous peptides/hydrolysates derived from casein and whey protein have shown angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. In this research, quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) indices of amino acids were utilized in quantitative sequence-activity modeling (QSAM) to predict the activity of a set of milk-driven peptides with ACE inhibition. Since the derived peptides have not the same number of residues, we overcame this issue by auto cross covariance (ACC) methodology. Then, some QSAMs were built to predict the pIC50 value of ACE peptides derived from Bovine Casein and Whey. T...
Source: Amino Acids - July 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bahadori M, Hemmateenejad B, Yousefinejad S Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

1-Substituted sialorphin analogues-synthesis, molecular modelling and in vitro effect on enkephalins degradation by NEP.
Abstract Rat sialorphin (Gln-His-Asn-Pro-Arg) is a natural blocker of neprilysin (NEP) that belongs to the family of endogenous opioid peptide-degrading enzymes. Studies have confirmed the efficiency of sialorphin in blocking the activity of NEP, both in vitro and in vivo. It has been demonstrated that this inhibitor has a strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunological and metabolic effect either directly or indirectly by affecting the level of Met/Leu-enkephalins. In this work, sialorphin and their 12 analogues were synthesised using the solid-phase method. The effect of the peptides on the degradation of Met...
Source: Amino Acids - July 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sobocińska M, Giełdoń A, Fichna J, Kamysz E Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the dietary non-proteinogenic amino acid L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze).
Abstract In addition to the 20 protein amino acids that are vital to human health, hundreds of naturally occurring amino acids, known as non-proteinogenic amino acids (NPAAs), exist and can enter the human food chain. Some NPAAs are toxic through their ability to mimic protein amino acids and this property is utilised by NPAA-containing plants to inhibit the growth of other plants or kill herbivores. The NPAA L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) enters the food chain through the use of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by-products as feed in the livestock industry and may also be found in sugar beet by-product fibre suppl...
Source: Amino Acids - July 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Samardzic K, Rodgers KJ Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Central regulation of feeding behavior through neuropeptides and amino acids in neonatal chicks.
In conclusion, endogenous neuropeptides and endogenous and/or exogenous nutrients like amino acids collaborate to regulate feeding behavior in neonatal chicks. PMID: 31302780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Amino Acids)
Source: Amino Acids - July 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tran PV, Chowdhury VS, Furuse M Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Up-regulation of HIF-1 α is associated with neuroprotective effects of agmatine against rotenone-induced toxicity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.
Up-regulation of HIF-1α is associated with neuroprotective effects of agmatine against rotenone-induced toxicity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Amino Acids. 2019 Jul 10;: Authors: Ferlazzo N, Currò M, Giunta ML, Longo D, Rizzo V, Caccamo D, Ientile R Abstract Agmatine, a metabolite generated by arginine decarboxylation, has been reported as neuromodulator and neuroactive substance. Several findings suggest that agmatine displays neuroprotective effects in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been hypothesized that biogenic amines may be...
Source: Amino Acids - July 10, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ferlazzo N, Currò M, Giunta ML, Longo D, Rizzo V, Caccamo D, Ientile R Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Automated feature engineering improves prediction of protein-protein interactions.
Abstract Over the last decade, various machine learning (ML) and statistical approaches for protein-protein interaction (PPI) predictions have been developed to help annotating functional interactions among proteins, essential for our system-level understanding of life. Efficient ML approaches require informative and non-redundant features. In this paper, we introduce novel types of expert-crafted sequence, evolutionary and graph features and apply automatic feature engineering to further expand feature space to improve predictive modeling. The two-step automatic feature-engineering process encompasses the hybrid ...
Source: Amino Acids - July 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sumonja N, Gemovic B, Veljkovic N, Perovic V Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Regulation of arginine biosynthesis, catabolism and transport in Escherichia coli.
Abstract Already very early, the study of microbial arginine biosynthesis and its regulation contributed significantly to the development of new ideas and concepts. Hence, the term "repression" was proposed by Vogel (The chemical basis of heredity, The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1957) (in opposition to induction) to describe the relative decrease in acetylornithinase production in Escherichia coli cells upon arginine supplementation, whereas the term "regulon" was coined by Maas and Clark (J Mol Biol 8:365-370, 1964) for the ensemble of arginine biosynthetic genes dispersed over the E. coli...
Source: Amino Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Charlier D, Bervoets I Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Synthetic peptide-labelled micelles for active targeting of cells overexpressing EGF receptors.
Abstract The goal of nanomedicine is to transport drugs to pathological tissues, reducing side effects while increasing targeting and efficacy. Aggregates grafted by bioactive molecules act as the active targeting agents. Among bioactive molecules, peptides, which are able to recognize overexpressed receptors on cancer cell membranes, appear to be very promising. The aim of this study was to formulate analog peptide-labeled micelles enabled to potentially deliver highly hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). The selected synthetic peptide sequences were anch...
Source: Amino Acids - June 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tesauro D, Mastro R, Cusimano A, Emma MR, Cervello M Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Components of the GABAergic signaling in the peripheral cholinergic synapses of vertebrates: a review.
Abstract Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Since the 1970s, many studies have focused on the role of GABA in the mammalian peripheral nervous system, and particularly in the cholinergic synapses. In this review, we present current findings for the cholinergic neurons of vegetative ganglia as well as for the neurons innervating smooth and striated muscles. Synaptic contacts formed by these neurons contain GABA and the enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, which catalyzes the synthesis of GABA from glutamate. Newly formed GABA is released i...
Source: Amino Acids - June 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Malomouzh A, Ilyin V, Nikolsky E Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Hydration of serine-metal cation complexes: implication for the role of water in the origin of homochirality on the Earth.
Abstract It may be taken for granted that the processes that occurred in water were of crucial importance for the origin of life. Therefore, it is quite likely that water was also important with respect to the origin of homochirality. Here, it is shown, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, that the efficiency of hydration of homochiral serine-metal cation complexes is different from that of heterochiral serine-metal cation complexes. The differences in the efficiency of hydration of homo and heterochiral metal cation-amino acid complexes could lead to the amplification of formation of homochiral peptid...
Source: Amino Acids - June 20, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Frański R Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research

Synthesis, in vitro and cellular antioxidant activity evaluation of novel peptides derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein hydrolysate: structure-function relationship : Antioxidant activity and synthetic peptides.
Abstract The relationship between structure and function of primary antioxidant peptide, YR-10 (YGKPVAVPAR) was considered by synthesizing three analogues including YHR-10 (YGKHVAVHAR), GA-8 (GKPVAVPA) and PAR-3 (PAR). Antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro and cellular assays. Substitution of Pro with His in the structure of YR-10 led to significant (P 
Source: Amino Acids - June 17, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mirzaei M, Mirdamadi S, Safavi M, Zare D, Hadizadeh M, Asadi MM Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research