Oral Miltefosine as Adjunctive Treatment for Recalcitrant Acanthamoeba Keratitis
Conclusions: This case shows resolution of recalcitrant Acanthamoeba keratitis with oral miltefosine in an immunocompetent patient. Further clinical evidence would be needed to possibly incorporate this medication in the antiamoebic armamentarium. (Source: Cornea)
Source: Cornea - June 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

DVC-FISH to identify potentially pathogenic Legionella inside free-living amoebae from water sources.
cute;ndez J Abstract Despite all safety efforts, drinking and wastewater can still be contaminated by Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) since these microorganisms are capable of resisting disinfection treatments. An amoebae cyst harboring pathogenic Legionella spp. can be a transporter of this organism, protecting it and enhancing its infection abilities. Therefore, the aim of this work is to identify by DVC-FISH viable Legionella spp and Legionella pneumophila cells inside FLA from water sources in a specific and rapid way with the aim of assessing the real risk of these waters. A total of 55 water samples...
Source: Environmental Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Moreno Y, Moreno-Mesonero L, García-Hernández J Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Cobalt nanoparticles as novel nanotherapeutics against Acanthamoeba castellanii
Species of Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens which can cause sight threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis and a rare but deadly brain infection, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Due to conversion of Acanthamo... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ayaz Anwar, Arshid Numan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Mohammad Khalid and Naveed Ahmed Khan Tags: Research Source Type: research

Transcriptional analysis of flagellar and putative virulence genes of Arcobacter butzleri as an endocytobiont of Acanthamoeba castellanii.
dez H Abstract Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging foodborne zoonotic pathogen that has been isolated from environmental water sources. This pathogen establishes in vitro endosymbiotic relationships with Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba found in environmental matrices such as soil and water. The principal aim of this study was to analyse the transcriptional pattern of flagellar (flaA-flaB-flgH-motA) and other putative virulence genes (ciaB-cadF-mviN-pldA) of A. butzleri during its interaction with A. castellanii by quantitative real-time PCR. The transcriptional analysis showed up-regulation of all ge...
Source: Archives of Microbiology - May 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Medina G, Neves P, Flores-Martin S, Manosalva C, Andaur M, Otth C, Lincopan N, Fernández H Tags: Arch Microbiol Source Type: research

Notes from the Field: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Cases - Iowa, 2002-2017.
PMID: 31095535 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Scruggs BA, Quist TS, Salinas JL, Greiner MA Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

The most abundant cyst wall proteins of < i > Acanthamoeba castellanii < /i > are lectins that bind cellulose and localize to distinct structures in developing and mature cyst walls
Conclusions/SignificanceThe most abundantA.castellanii cyst wall proteins are three sets of lectins, which have carbohydrate-binding modules that are conserved (CBM49s of Luke), newly characterized (CAA of Jonah), or unique toAcanthamoebae (8-Cys of Leo). Cyst wall formation is a tightly choreographed event, in which lectins and glycopolymers combine to form a mature wall with a protected endocyst layer. Because of its accessibility in the ectocyst layer, an abundant Jonah lectin is an excellent diagnostic target. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - May 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pamela Magistrado-Coxen Source Type: research

Water Exposure and the Risk of Contact Lens–Related Disease
Conclusions: Consensus among stakeholders about water and CL care is needed. Guidelines should unequivocally advocate for the avoidance of any water exposure including handling CLs with wet hands, rinsing CLs or storage cases in tap water, showering while wearing CLs and swimming with CLs without wearing goggles. (Source: Cornea)
Source: Cornea - May 15, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Review Source Type: research

[ASAP] Neuroleptic Drug Targets a Brain-Eating Amoeba: Effects of Promethazine on Neurotropic < italic toggle="yes" > Acanthamoeba castellanii < /italic >
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00100 (Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience)
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abdul Mannan Baig, Preet Katyara, Mehdia Nadeem Rajabali, Areeba Khaleeq, Fizza Nazim, Salima Lalani Source Type: research

Clinical features and outcomes of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a tertiary hospital over 20- year period
ConclusionEven in advanced cases with ring infiltrate, eradication of infection with anti-amoebic drugs is possible. In those requiring keratoplasty, the surgical timing should be made meticulously considering graft size and signs of dilated pupil/iris atrophy in terms of post-operative glaucoma. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - May 8, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical features and outcomes of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a tertiary hospital over 20- year period.
CONCLUSION: Even in advanced cases with ring infiltrate, eradication of infection with anti-amoebic drugs is possible. In those requiring keratoplasty, the surgical timing should be made meticulously considering graft size and signs of dilated pupil/iris atrophy in terms of post-operative glaucoma. PMID: 31076316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Formos Med Assoc)
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - May 7, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu HY, Chu HS, Wang IJ, Chen WL, Hou YC, Hu FR Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research

Screening of the Pathogen Box for the identification of anti-Acanthamoeba agents.
This study was aimed to evaluate the activity of the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) compounds against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Sixteen compounds showed ≥ 90% inhibition of parasite growth in the initial screen (10 μM). Those set were further evaluated to determine the inhibitor concentration that inhibit the 50% of the initial population and cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Among the compounds included in the pathogen box, pentamidine and posaconazole were the most effective against this parasite with an of IC50 of 0.567 ± 0.04 and 0.630 ± 0.11, respectively. ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sifaoui I, Reyes-Batlle M, López-Arencibia A, Chiboub O, Bethencourt-Estrella CJ, San Nicolás-Hernández D, Rodríguez Expósito RL, Rizo-Liendo A, Piñero JE, Lorenzo-Morales J Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Steroidal antibiotics are antimetabolites of Acanthamoeba steroidogenesis with phylogenetic implications [Research Articles]
Pathogenic organisms may be sensitive to inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis, which carry antimetabolite properties, through manipulation of the key enzyme, sterol methyltransferase (SMT). Here, we isolated natural suicide substrates of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, cholesta-5,7,22,24-tetraenol (CHT) and ergosta-5,7,22,24(28)-tetraenol (ERGT), and demonstrated their interference in Acanthamoeba castellanii steroidogenesis: CHT and ERGT inhibit trophozoite growth (EC50 of 51 nM) without affecting cultured human cell growth. Washout experiments confirmed that the target for vulnerability was SMT. Chemical, kinetic, and ...
Source: The Journal of Lipid Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Lipidology Authors: Zhou, W., Ramos, E., Zhu, X., Fisher, P. M., Kidane, M. E., Vanderloop, B. H., Thomas, C. D., Yan, J., Singha, U., Chaudhuri, M., Nagel, M. T., Nes, W. D. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Lsr2 Is an Important Determinant of Intracellular Growth and Virulence in Mycobacterium abscessus
Vincent Le Moigne1, Audrey Bernut2†, Mélanie Cortès3, Albertus Viljoen2, Christian Dupont2, Alexandre Pawlik4, Jean-Louis Gaillard1,5, Fabienne Misguich1, Frédéric Crémazy1*, Laurent Kremer2,6 and Jean-Louis Herrmann1,5* 12I, UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France 2UMR 9004, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France 3VitamFero, Tours, France 4Unité de Pathogénomique Mycobactérienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biocidal Efficacy of a Hydrogen Peroxide Lens Care Solution Incorporating a Novel Wetting Agent
Conclusion: Both solutions eliminated or reduced populations of FDA/ISO compendial bacteria and fungi as well as clinically relevant microorganisms and Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. The addition of EOBO-21 to the 3% H2O2 lens care solution had no impact on antimicrobial activity. (Source: Eye and Contact Lens: Science and Clinical Practice)
Source: Eye and Contact Lens: Science and Clinical Practice - April 26, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Article Source Type: research

Long-term persistence of infectious Legionella with free-living amoebae in drinking water biofilms.
Abstract Prolific growth of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila within engineered water systems and premise plumbing, and human exposure to aerosols containing this bacterium results in the leading health burden of any water-related pathogen in developed regions. Ecologically, free-living amoebae (FLA) are an important group of the microbial community that influence biofilm bacterial diversity in the piped-water environment. Using fluorescent microscopy, we studied in-situ the colonization of L. pneumophila in the presence of two water-related FLA species, Willaertia magna and Acanthamoeba polyphaga in drinking wate...
Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental health - April 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Shaheen M, Scott C, Ashbolt NJ Tags: Int J Hyg Environ Health Source Type: research

Analysis from a year of increased cases of Acanthamoeba Keratitis in a large teaching hospital in the UK
Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK) is a relatively uncommon but sight-threatening infection of the cornea [1]. Historically, the strongest risk factor for AK has been contact lens (CL) wear though AK can still occur in non-CL wearers. (Source: Contact Lens and Anterior Eye)
Source: Contact Lens and Anterior Eye - April 22, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Faaiq Hassan, Ahsan Bhatti, Ryan Desai, Ankur Barua Source Type: research

Antidiabetic drugs and their nanoconjugates repurposed as novel antimicrobial agents against Acanthamoeba castellanii.
Abstract Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype may cause fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and vision-threatening eye infection Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiamoebic effects of three clinically available antidiabetic drugs Glimepiride, Vildagliptin and Repaglinide against A. castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, these drugs were attempted to conjugate with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance antiamoebic effects. Amoebicidal, encystation, excystation, and host cells cytotoxicity assays were performed to unr...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Anwar A, Siddiqui R, Raza Shah M, Khan NA Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Virus Control of Cell Metabolism for Replication and Evasion of Host Immune Responses
María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

GSE125876 Symbiont-mediated defense against Legionella pneumophila in amoebae
In this study we used a ubiquitous amoeba and their bacterial endosymbiont to investigate the impact of this common association on L. pneumophila infection. We demonstrate that Acanthamoeba castellanii harboring the chlamydial symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila were able to erase L. pneumophila and, in contrast to symbiont-free amoebae, survived the infection and were able to resume growth. Environmental amoeba isolates harboring P. amoebophila were equally well-protected, and fresh environmental isolates of L. pneumophila were equally well-erased, suggesting ecological relevance of this symbiont-mediated protection. We f...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - April 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Acanthamoeba castellanii Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila Legionella pneumophila Source Type: research

Proposals for Amendments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Encephalitis caused by Free-living Amoebae.
Abstract Encephalitis caused by Free-living amoebae (FLA) has a mortality rate of around 95-98%, a fraction that has not changed in the past decades. Pathogenic FLA include Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri that are known to target the brain after an extra cerebral infection in the case of Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris, or directly the brain, as in the case of the Naegleria fowleri. The Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) while Naegleria fowleri, the so termed "brain eating amoeba" causes primary amoebic mening...
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baig AM Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 312: Discovery and Further Studies on Giant Viruses at the IHU Mediterranee Infection That Modified the Perception of the Virosphere
elle Pagnier Christelle Desnues Anthony Levasseur Philippe Colson Jônatas Abrahão Bernard Scola The history of giant viruses began in 2003 with the identification of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. Since then, giant viruses of amoeba enlightened an unknown part of the viral world, and every discovery and characterization of a new giant virus modifies our perception of the virosphere. This notably includes their exceptional virion sizes from 200 nm to 2 µm and their genomic complexity with length, number of genes, and functions such as translational components never seen before. Even more ...
Source: Viruses - March 30, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Clara Rolland Julien Andreani Amina Louazani Sarah Aherfi Rania Francis Rodrigo Rodrigues Ludmila Silva Dehia Sahmi Said Mougari Nisrine Chelkha Meriem Bekliz Lorena Silva Felipe Assis F ábio Dornas Jacques Khalil Isabelle Pagnier Christelle Desnues Anth Tags: Review Source Type: research

Antimycobacterial activity in a single-cell infection assay of ellagitannins from Combretum aculeatum and their bioavailable metabolites
ConclusionThe observed antimycobacterial properties of the traditional water decoction of Combretum aculeatum might be related to the activity of Ets derivatives (1–3) and their metabolites, such as ellagic acid (4) and urolithin D (7). Despite the relatively weak activity of these metabolites, the high consumption of tannins achieved by taking the usual traditional decoction doses should lead to an important increase in the plasmatic concentrations of these active and bioavailable metabolites. These results support to some extent the traditional use of Combretum aculeatum to treat tuberculosis.Graphical abstract (So...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - March 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of bacterial, viral and fungal endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolates in keratitis patients of Iran.
Abstract Free-living amoebae belong to the genus Acanthamoeba; can feed on microbial population by phagocytosis, and with the capability to act as a reservoir and a vehicle of microorganisms to susceptible host. Therefore, the role of endosymbiosis in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is complex and not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to identify bacterial, fungal, and human adenovirus (HADV) endosymbionts as well as evaluating the endosymbionts role of such organisms in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba in keratitis patients living in Iran. Fifteen Acanthamoeba (T4 genotype) isolates were recover...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - March 24, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hajialilo E, Rezaeian M, Niyyati M, Pourmand MR, Mohebali M, Norouzi M, Pashabeyg KR, Rezaie S, Khodavaisy S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of in vitro effect of selected contact lens solutions conjugated with nanoparticles in terms of preventive approach to public health risk generated by Acanthamoeba strains.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study showed that conjugation of selected contact lens solutions with silver nanoparticles might be a promising approach to prevent Acanthamoeba keratitis among contact lens users. PMID: 30922053 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - March 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Padzik M, Hendiger EB, Żochowska A, Szczepaniak J, Baltaza W, Pietruczuk-Padzik A, Olędzka G, Chomicz L Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research

Phylogenetic Characterization of Viable but-not-yet Cultured Legionella Groups Grown in Amoebic Cocultures: A Case Study using Various Cooling Tower Water Samples.
Authors: Inoue H, Agata K, Ohta H Abstract  Legionella spp. exist naturally in association with amoeba in water environments and are known to be the etiological agent of a severe form of pneumonia. To detect diverse Legionella populations in cooling tower water systems, amoebic coculturing was performed for 15 water samples obtained from five different kinds of facilities in six geographically different locations. The growth of Legionella in coculture with Acanthamoeba sp. cells was monitored by quantitative PCR targeting Legionella-specific 16S rRNA genes. Seven out of the 15 samples were positive for Legionella...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1078: Derivatization of Rosmarinic Acid Enhances its in vitro Antitumor, Antimicrobial and Antiprotozoal Properties
In this study, two quaternary phosphonium salts of rosmarinic acid were prepared for the purpose of increasing its penetration into biological systems with the aim of improving its antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and antitumor activity. The synthetized molecules, the triphenylphosphonium and tricyclohexylphosphonium salts of rosmarinic acid, exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects on the growth of HCT116 cells with IC50 values of 7.28 or 8.13 &amp;mu;M in comparison to the initial substance, rosmarinic acid (&amp;gt;300 &amp;mu;M). For the synthesized derivatives, we detected a greater than...
Source: Molecules - March 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Silvia Bittner Fialov á Martin Kello Mat úš Čoma L ívia Slobodníková Eva Drobn á Ivana Holkov á M ária Garajová Martin Mrva Vlastimil Zachar Milo š Lukáč Tags: Article Source Type: research

Fate of internalized Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium avium from encysted and excysted Acanthamoeba polyphaga.
Abstract Association of the water- and foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni with free-living Acanthamoeba spp. trophozoites enhances C. jejuni survival and resistance to biocides and starvation. When facing less than optimal environmental conditions, however, the Acanthamoeba spp. host can temporarily transform from trophozoite to cyst and back to trophozoite, calling the survival of the internalized symbiont and resulting public health risk into question. Studies investigating internalized C. jejuni survival after A. castellanii trophozoite transformation have neither been able to detect its presence inside th...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - March 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Maal-Bared R, Dixon B, Axelsson-Olsson D Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Special issue on Free Living Amoebae (FLA): Recent Advances presented at the XVIIth International Meeting on the Biology and Pathogenicity of Free-Living Amoebae (FLAM 2017), Zarzis, Tunisia.
Maciver SK PMID: 30902622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - March 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lorenzo-Morales J, Sifaoui I, Reyes-Batlle M, Lares-Villa F, Lares-Jiménez LF, Omaña-Molina M, Khan NA, Maciver SK Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 267: Gram-Positive Bacteria-Like DNA Binding Machineries Involved in Replication Initiation and Termination Mechanisms of Mimivirus
ura The detailed mechanisms of replication initiation, termination and segregation events were not yet known in Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). Here, we show detailed bioinformatics-based analyses of chromosomal replication in APMV from initiation to termination mediated by proteins bound to specific DNA sequences. Using GC/AT skew and coding sequence skew analysis, we estimated that the replication origin is located at 382 kb in the APMV genome. We performed homology-modeling analysis of the gamma domain of APMV-FtsK (DNA translocase coordinating chromosome segregation) related to FtsK-orienting polar sequenc...
Source: Viruses - March 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Motohiro Akashi Masaharu Takemura Tags: Article Source Type: research

Lethal encounters: The evolving spectrum of amoebic meningoencephalitis
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Sandra G. Gompf, Cristina GarciaAbstractThe free-living amoebae are thermophilic organisms that may play an increasing role among diseases of a warming world. They are uncommon, accidental, yet high consequence pathogens, with differing pathologic syndromes. New prospects for diagnosis and life-saving treatment make early disease recognition imperative. We review the three most commonly diagnosed species that infect humans: Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba species, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. (Source: IDCases)
Source: IDCases - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

'Meiotic genes' are constitutively expressed in an asexual amoeba and are not necessarily involved in sexual reproduction.
lle A Abstract The amoebae (and many other protists) have traditionally been considered as asexual organisms, but suspicion has been growing that these organisms are cryptically sexual or are at least related to sexual lineages. This contention is mainly based on genome studies in which the presence of 'meiotic genes' has been discovered. Using RNA-seq (next-generation shotgun sequencing, identifying and quantifying the RNA species in a sample), we have found that the entire repertoire of meiotic genes is expressed in exponentially growing Acanthamoeba and we argue that these so-called meiotic genes are involved i...
Source: Biology Letters - March 8, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Maciver SK, Koutsogiannis Z, de Obeso Fernández Del Valle A Tags: Biol Lett Source Type: research

Reduction of Acanthamoeba Cyst Density Associated With Treatment Detected by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Acanthamoeba Keratitis
Conclusions: Reduction in Acanthamoeba cyst density with treatment can be monitored by IVCM, which in turn can be used clinically in prognostication and disease monitoring of AK. (Source: Cornea)
Source: Cornea - March 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Detection of Acanthamoeba spp. from dust phenomenon in Ilam Province, West Iran.
This study aimed to represent the existence and genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. in dust phenomenon in Ilam Province, Iran. In this study, 55 dust samples were collected and by targeting the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene, the genotypes were determined. Utilizing the tolerance ability test, the pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was also recognized. Eighteen samples of Acanthamoeba (32.7%) were detected in the sampling areas. According to sequencing analysis, the isolates related to T4 (77.7%) and T2 (22.3%) genotypes were reported. It was revealed by thermo- and osmotolerance tests in which si...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saberi R, Najafi A, Naserifar R Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Clinical course of Acanthamoeba keratitis by genotypes T4 and T8 in Hungary.
This study reports seven CL wearer, Acanthamoeba PCR-positive patients with AK, diagnosed between January 2015 and 2018. Patients had the diagnosis of AK 1.36 months after first symptoms. Genotyping allowed the identification of six isolates of the T4 and one of the T8 genotypes. At first presentation, pseudendritiformic epithelopathy/dirty epithelium (four eyes, 57.1%), multifocal stromal infiltrates (five eyes, 71.4%), ring infiltrate (three eyes, 42.8%), and perineuritis (one eye, 14.3%) were observed. AK was healed without later recurrence in two eyes (28.5%) using triple-topical therapy, in three eyes (42.8%) followin...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - March 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Orosz E, Kriskó D, Shi L, Sándor GL, Kiss HJ, Seitz B, Nagy ZZ, Szentmáry N Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

The impact of vinegar on pathogenic Acanthamoeba astronyxis isolate
AbstractAcanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a severe corneal disease that was reported by WHO as the second most common infectious cause of blindness after trachoma; contact lens wear is considered one of the main risk factors in its transmission. Thus, the treatment of AK is crucial but, the inability of medical agents to completely eradicate the resistant cyst, together with their toxic effects, suggest that new agents are needed. Vinegar has been known long ago as a simple and available disinfectant with antimicrobial effects, so the present study aimed to test the effect of different concentrations of vinegar solution onAca...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - February 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

The modulatory effect of Artemisia annua L. on toll-like receptor expression in Acanthamoeba infected mouse lungs.
In conclusion, we confirmed that a plant extract of A. annua has a modulatory effect on components of the immune system such as TLR2 and TLR4. PMID: 30796912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - February 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wojtkowiak-Giera A, Derda M, Kosik-Bogacka D, Kolasa-Wołosiuk A, Wandurska-Nowak E, Jagodziński PP, Hadaś E Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Occurrence of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria) in water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.
Authors: Gabriel S, Khan NA, Siddiqui R Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in Peninsular Malaysia and to compare different methodologies to detect them from water samples. Water samples were collected from tap water, recreational places, water dispensers, filtered water, etc. and tested for FLA using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) via plating assays and centrifugation methods. Amoebae DNA was extracted using Instagene matrix and PCR was performed using genus-specific primers. Of 250 samples, 142 (56.8%) samples were positive for presence...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Accelerated collagen cross-linking in the management of advanced Acanthamoeba keratitis
Conclusion: This study suggests a beneficial effect of accelerated collagen cross-linking in cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis with corneal melting. Thus, collagen cross-linking may be considered as adjuvant treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis.RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar nossa experi ência inicial no tra tamento da ceratite por Acanthamoeba com reticulação acelerada de colágeno corneano. Métodos: Revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com ceratite por Acanthamoeba, com deformação progressiva da córnea, tratados com reticulaç&a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - February 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Acanthamoeba- Fungal keratitis study
To ascertain the incidence of Acanthamoeba Keratitis, and the co-existence of Acanthamoeba& fungi in microbial keratitisDesign; A prospective cross-sectional study (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology - February 2, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Anita Raghavan, Shaffie Baidwal, Narendran Venkatapathy, Ram Rammohan Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Acanthamoeba –Fungal Keratitis Study
To ascertain the incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis and the coexistence of Acanthamoeba and fungi in microbial keratitis. (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology - February 2, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Anita Raghavan, Shaffie Baidwal, Narendran Venkatapathy, Ram Rammohan Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Promising in vitro effects of selected antiseptics against Acanthamoeba Polyphaga strain - the etiological agent of vision-threatening keratitis identified in polish patient
In this study, A. polyphagaisolate of T4 genotype from patient with complicated keratitis, a history of swimming in a lake, not using contact lensesand A. castellanii Neff strain were evaluated in terms of their in vitro susceptibility to selected antiseptics. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: W. Baltaza, M. Padzik, M. Dybicz, J. Szaflik, L. Chomicz Tags: 20.134 Source Type: research

Effect of sequential UV/free chlorine disinfection on opportunistic pathogens and microbial community structure in simulated drinking water distribution systems.
In this study, two simulated DWDS inoculated with groundwater were treated with chlorine (Cl2) and ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/Cl2) respectively to compare their effects on the OPs distributed in four different phases (bulk water, biofilms, corrosion products, and loose deposits) of DWDS. 16S rRNA genes sequencing and qPCR were used to profile microbial community and quantify target genes of OPs, respectively. Results showed that UV/Cl2 was more effective than single Cl2 to control the regrowth of OPs in the water with the same residual chlorine concentration. However, the OPs inhabiting the biofilms, corrosion products, and ...
Source: Chemosphere - January 28, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Liu L, Xing X, Hu C, Wang H, Lyu L Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Recovery of an Acanthamoeba strain with two group I introns in the nuclear 18S rRNA gene.
We reported herein the characterization of an A. lenticulata strain containing two introns in its 18S rDNA. They are located to already known sites and show basal relationships with respective homologous introns present in the other T5 strains. This is the first and unique reported case of multiple nuclear introns in Acanthamoeba. PMID: 30743186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Protistology)
Source: European Journal of Protistology - January 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Corsaro D, Köhsler M, Venditti D, Rott MB, Walochnik J Tags: Eur J Protistol Source Type: research

Genotypic diversity of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from Chilean patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis
Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agents of a severe keratitis occurring mainly in contact lens wearers. The genus comprises more than 24 species that are currently divided into 20 different genotypes (T1-T20) ... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mar ía Isabel Jercic, Carolina Aguayo, Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Laura Muiño, Stella Maris Chenet, Jaime Lagos, Antonio Osuna and Jorge Fernández Tags: Short report Source Type: research

Chemical composition, in vitro antiparasitic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Frankenia thymifolia Desf.
This study was performed on the derived fractions [chloroform (FT-C), ethyl acetate (FT-E) and n-butanol (FT-B)] of the 70% ethanol extract prepared from Frankenia thymifolia, endemic to North Africa. The fractions showed high total phenolic and flavonoid contents particularly FT-E. These results agreed with their antioxidant effects. Indeed, all the fractions were able to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, with a better power of FT-E. These results were supported by the inhibition of β-carotene oxidation assay. The fractions showed moderate activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii and Leishmania amazone...
Source: Natural Product Research - January 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mennai I, Hanfer M, Esseid C, Benayache S, Ameddah S, Menad A, Benayache F Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research

Survival of Mycobacterium leprae and association with Acanthamoeba from environmental samples in the inhabitant areas of active leprosy cases: A cross sectional study from endemic pockets of Purulia, West Bengal.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the surrounding environment (soil and water) of leprosy patients contain viable M. leprae and the viability has association with Acanthamoeba which may provide a protective niche for M. leprae. This could play an important role in the focal transmission of the disease. PMID: 30658215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Turankar RP, Lavania M, Darlong J, Siva Sai KSR, Sengupta U, Jadhav RS Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Identification and Genotypic Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Acanthamoeba Isolated from Tap Water in Wuxi, China.
In this study, we isolated an Acanthamoeba CJW/W1 strain from tap water in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China. Its 18S rDNA was sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The isolated cysts belonged to morphologic group II. Comparison of 18S rDNA sequences of CJW/W1 strain and other isolates showed high similarity (99.7%) to a clinical isolate Asp, KA/E28. A phylogeny analysis confirmed this isolate belonged to the pathogenic genotype T4, the most common strain associated with Acanthamoeba-related diseases. This is the first report of an Acanthamoeba strain isolated from tap water in Wuxi, China. Acanthamoeba could be a...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - January 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparison of Proteins Secreted into Extracellular Space of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii.
Authors: Moon EK, Choi HS, Park SM, Kong HH, Quan FS Abstract Pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious ocular infection that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. However, pathogenic factors of AK remain unclear and treatment for AK is arduous. Expression levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space were compared between A. castellanii pathogenic (ACP) and non-pathogenic strains. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 123 differentially expressed proteins, including 34 increas...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - January 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine, voriconazole and itraconazole of T4 genotype Acanthamoeba isolated from Mexico.
In this study we report the morphological and molecular identification of three species of the genus Acanthamoeba, belonging to T4 group; A. polyphaga isolated from the corneal ulcer of a patient sample of AK case; A. castellanii isolated from the contact lens of an AK patient and A. palestinensis obtained from a soil sample. The in vitro activity of chlorhexidine, itraconazole and voriconazole drugs against trophic stage was also evaluated through a colorimetric assay based on the oxidation-reduction of alamar blue. The strains in the study were sensitive to the evaluated drugs; although when determining the 50% inhibitor...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hernández-Martínez D, Reyes-Batlle M, Castelan-Ramírez I, Hernández-Olmos P, Vanzzini-Zago V, Ramírez-Flores E, Sifaoui I, Piñero JE, Lorenzo-Morales J, Omaña-Molina M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Thermotolerant Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from recreational water in Gorgan City, north of Iran
This study was aimed to evaluate the presence ofAcanthamoeba spp. genotypes in the recreational water sources in Gorgan County, the capital of Golestan Province using both morphological and molecular approaches. Thirty water samples were collected from different recreational waters in Gorgan, the capital of Golestan Province, northern Iran during 2015 –2016. Samples were filtered and followed by culture in non-nutrient agar.Acanthamoeba were identified both by morphological and molecular analysis. The pathogenical potential of positive cloned samples were also determined using tolerance test. Twenty-six percent of re...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - January 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Source Type: research