Coronavirus Disease Contact Tracing Outcomes and Cost, Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, March-May 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 26;27(12). doi: 10.3201/eid2712.210505. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOutcomes and costs of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) contact tracing are limited. During March-May 2020, we constructed transmission chains from 184 index cases and 1,499 contacts in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, to assess outcomes and estimate staff time and salaries. We estimated 1,102 staff hours and $29,234 spent investigating index cases and contacts. Among contacts, 374 (25%) had COVID-19; secondary case detection rate was ≈31% among first-generation contacts, ≈16% among second- and third-generation contacts, a...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 26, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Victoria L Fields Ian T Kracalik Christina Carthel Adriana Lopez Amy Schwartz Nathaniel M Lewis Mackenzie Bray Carlene Claflin Kilee Jorgensen Ha Khong Walter Richards Ilene Risk Maureen Smithee Madison Clawson Lee Cherie Booth Tara Scribellito Jason Lowr Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Cats during First COVID-19 Wave, Europe
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 25;27(12). doi: 10.3201/eid2712.211252. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe conducted a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody seroprevalence study among>2,000 domestic cats from 4 countries during the first coronavirus disease wave in Europe. We found 4.4% seroprevalence using a virus neutralization test and 4.3% using a receptor-binding domain ELISA, demonstrating probable human-to-cat transmission.PMID:34695368 | DOI:10.3201/eid2712.211252 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Schulz Byron Martina Monica Mirolo Elisabeth M üller Ruth Klein Holger Volk Herman Egberink Mariana Gonzalez-Hernandez Franziska Kaiser Maren von K öckritz-Blickwede Albert Osterhaus Source Type: research

Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Households with Children, Southwest Germany, May-August 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 25;27(12). doi: 10.3201/eid2712.210978. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTResolving the role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in households with members from different generations is crucial for containing the current pandemic. We conducted a large-scale, multicenter, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic household transmission study in southwest Germany during May 11-August 1, 2020. We included 1,625 study participants from 405 households that each had ≥1 child and 1 reverse transcription PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected index case-patient. The overall sec...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maximilian Stich Roland Elling Hanna Renk Ale š Janda Sven F Garbade Barbara M üller Hans-Georg Kr äusslich Dorit Fabricius Maria Zernickel Peter Meissner Daniela Huzly J ürgen Grulich-Henn Anneke Haddad Tessa G örne Benedikt Spielberger Linus Fritsc Source Type: research

Feed or feed transport as a potential route for a porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreak in a 10,000-sow breeding herd in Mexico
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PMID:34694061 | DOI:10.1111/tbed.14354 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jorge Garrido-Mantilla Alicia Lara Ezequiel Guardado Jose Lopez Joel Nerem Gustavo Pizarro Jean Paul Cano Source Type: research

Feed or feed transport as a potential route for a porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreak in a 10,000-sow breeding herd in Mexico
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PMID:34694061 | DOI:10.1111/tbed.14354 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jorge Garrido-Mantilla Alicia Lara Ezequiel Guardado Jose Lopez Joel Nerem Gustavo Pizarro Jean Paul Cano Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Cats during First COVID-19 Wave, Europe
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 25;27(12). doi: 10.3201/eid2712.211252. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe conducted a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody seroprevalence study among>2,000 domestic cats from 4 countries during the first coronavirus disease wave in Europe. We found 4.4% seroprevalence using a virus neutralization test and 4.3% using a receptor-binding domain ELISA, demonstrating probable human-to-cat transmission.PMID:34695368 | DOI:10.3201/eid2712.211252 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Schulz Byron Martina Monica Mirolo Elisabeth M üller Ruth Klein Holger Volk Herman Egberink Mariana Gonzalez-Hernandez Franziska Kaiser Maren von K öckritz-Blickwede Albert Osterhaus Source Type: research

Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Households with Children, Southwest Germany, May-August 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 25;27(12). doi: 10.3201/eid2712.210978. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTResolving the role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in households with members from different generations is crucial for containing the current pandemic. We conducted a large-scale, multicenter, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic household transmission study in southwest Germany during May 11-August 1, 2020. We included 1,625 study participants from 405 households that each had ≥1 child and 1 reverse transcription PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected index case-patient. The overall sec...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maximilian Stich Roland Elling Hanna Renk Ale š Janda Sven F Garbade Barbara M üller Hans-Georg Kr äusslich Dorit Fabricius Maria Zernickel Peter Meissner Daniela Huzly J ürgen Grulich-Henn Anneke Haddad Tessa G örne Benedikt Spielberger Linus Fritsc Source Type: research

Changing Patterns of Disease Severity in Blastomyces dermatitidis Infection, Quebec, Canada
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2810-2817. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210552.ABSTRACTThis retrospective multicenter cohort study assessed temporal changes in the severity and mortality rate of blastomycosis in Quebec, Canada, and identified risk factors for death in patients with blastomycosis in 1988-2016. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause deaths. Among 185 patients, 122 (66%) needed hospitalization and 30 (16%) died. We noted increases in the proportion of severe cases, in age at diagnosis and in the proportion of diabetic and immunocompromised patients over time. Independent risk factors for death were age (adjusted ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alex Carignan Chiheb Boudhrioua Sandrine Moreira Andr ée Ann Pelletier Kevin Dufour Jacques P épin Catherine Allard Dominique Marcoux Philippe J Dufresne Source Type: research

Genomic Profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, Myanmar
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2847-2855. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210726.ABSTRACTMultidrug resistance is a major threat to global elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We performed phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing for 309 isolates from 342 consecutive patients who were given a diagnosis of TB in Yangon, Myanmar, during July 2016‒June 2018. We identified isolates by using the GeneXpert platform to evaluate drug-resistance profiles. A total of 191 (62%) of 309 isolates had rifampin resistance; 168 (88%) of these rifampin-resistant isolates were not genomically related, indicating the repeated ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Htin Lin Aung Wint Wint Nyunt Yang Fong Patrick J Biggs Richard C Winkworth Peter J Lockhart Tsin Wen Yeo Philip C Hill Gregory M Cook Si Thu Aung Source Type: research

Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Bacteremia and Monocyte Evasion, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(11):2825-2835. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210097.ABSTRACTWe typed 600 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected in 51 hospitals in the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, metropolitan area during 2014-2017. We found that multiple new clonal complex (CC) 5 sequence types had replaced previously dominant MRSA lineages in hospitals. Whole-genome analysis of 208 isolates revealed an emerging sublineage of multidrug-resistant MRSA, sequence type 105, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec II, spa t002, which we designated the Rio de Janeiro (RdJ) clone. Using molecular clock analysis, we hypo...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alice Slotfeldt Viana Ana Maria Nunes Botelho Ahmed M Moustafa Craig L K Boge Adriana Lucia Pires Ferreira Maria C ícera da Silva Carvalho M árcia Aparecida Guimarães Bruno de Souza Scramignon Costa Marcos Corr êa de Mattos Sabrina Pires Maciel Julian Source Type: research

Tracing the Origin, Spread, and Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus in Puerto Rico, 2016-2017
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2971-2973. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211575.ABSTRACTWe reconstructed the 2016-2017 Zika virus epidemic in Puerto Rico by using complete genomes to uncover the epidemic's origin, spread, and evolutionary dynamics. Our study revealed that the epidemic was propelled by multiple introductions that spread across the island, intricate evolutionary patterns, and ≈10 months of cryptic transmission.PMID:34670646 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211575 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gilberto A Santiago Chaney C Kalinich Fabiola Cruz-L ópez Glenda L Gonz ález Betzabel Flores Aaron Hentoff Keyla N Charriez Joseph R Fauver Laura E Adams Tyler M Sharp Allison Black Trevor Bedford Esther Ellis Brett Ellis Steve H Waterman Gabriela Paz-B Source Type: research

Encephalitis and Death in Wild Mammals at a Rehabilitation Center after Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, United Kingdom
We report a disease and mortality event involving swans, seals, and a fox at a wildlife rehabilitation center in the United Kingdom during late 2020. Five swans had onset of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection while in captivity. Subsequently, 5 seals and a fox died (or were euthanized) after onset of clinical disease. Avian-origin influenza A virus subtype H5N8 was retrospectively determined as the cause of disease. Infection in the seals manifested as seizures, and immunohistochemical and molecular testing on postmortem samples detected a neurologic distribution of viral products. The fox died overnight aft...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tobias Floyd Ashley C Banyard Fabian Z X Lean Alexander M P Byrne Edward Fullick Elliot Whittard Benjamin C Mollett Steve Bexton Vanessa Swinson Michele Macrelli Nicola S Lewis Scott M Reid Alejandro N úñez J Paul Duff Rowena Hansen Ian H Brown Source Type: research

Population Genomics and Inference of Mycobacterium avium Complex Clusters in Cystic Fibrosis Care Centers, United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2836-2846. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210124.ABSTRACTMycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species constitute most mycobacteria infections in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States, but little is known about their genomic diversity or transmission. During 2016-2020, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 364 MAC isolates from 186 persons with CF from 42 cystic fibrosis care centers (CFCCs) across 23 states. We compared isolate genomes to identify instances of shared strains between persons with CF. Among persons with multiple isolates sequenced, 15/56 (27%) had>1 MAC strain type....
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nabeeh A Hasan Rebecca M Davidson L Elaine Epperson Sara M Kammlade Sean Beagle Adrah R Levin Vinicius Calado de Moura Joshua J Hunkins Natalia Weakly Scott D Sagel Stacey L Martiniano Max Salfinger Charles L Daley Jerry A Nick Michael Strong Source Type: research

Co-Infection with 4 Species of Mycobacteria Identified by Using Next-Generation Sequencing
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2948-2950. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.203458.ABSTRACTWe identified co-infection with 4 species of mycobacteria in a woman in New York, New York, USA, by using next-generation sequencing. This procedure is useful for identifying co-infections with multiple mycobacteria, tracing the geographic origin of strains, investigating transmission dynamics in susceptible populations, and gaining insight into prevention and control.PMID:34670649 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203458 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lulan Wang Dakai Liu Lok Yung George David Rodriguez Nishant Prasad Sorana Segal-Maurer Vishnu Singh Ellee Vikram Angela Zou Genhong Cheng William Harry Rodgers Source Type: research

Genetically Divergent Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Wild Birds, Eastern China
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(11):2940-2943. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204893.ABSTRACTIn late 2020, we detected 32 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses in migratory ducks in Shanghai, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 5 representative isolates identified 2 sublineages of clade 2.3.4.4b. Each sublineage formed separate clusters with isolates from East Asia and Europe.PMID:34670650 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204893 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guimei He Le Ming Xiang Li Yuhe Song Ling Tang Min Ma Jie Cui Tianhou Wang Source Type: research

Association of Shared Living Spaces and COVID-19 in University Students, Wisconsin, USA, 2020
We describe characteristics associated with having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among students residing on a university campus. Of 2,187 students, 528 (24.1%) received a COVID-19 diagnosis during fall semester 2020. Students sharing a bedroom or suite had approximately twice the odds of contracting COVID-19 as those living alone.PMID:34670651 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211000 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John Paul Bigouette Laura Ford Hannah E Segaloff Kimberly Langolf Juliana Kahrs Tara Zochert Jacqueline E Tate Douglas Gieryn Hannah L Kirking Ryan P Westergaard Marie E Killerby Source Type: research

Epidemiologic Analysis of Efforts to Achieve and Sustain Malaria Elimination along the China-Myanmar Border
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2869-2873. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204428.ABSTRACTMalaria cases have dramatically declined in China along the Myanmar border, attributed mainly to adoption of the 1-3-7 surveillance and response approach. No indigenous cases have been reported in China since 2017. Counties in the middle and southern part of the border area have a higher risk for malaria importation and reestablishment after elimination.PMID:34670652 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204428 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fang Huang Li Zhang Hong Tu Yan-Wen Cui Shui-Sen Zhou Zhi-Gui Xia Hong-Ning Zhou Source Type: research

Isolation of Novel Mycobacterium Species from Skin Infection in an Immunocompromised Person
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2944-2947. doi: 10.3201//eid2711.210426.ABSTRACTWe investigated a case of cutaneous infection in an immunocompromised patient in China that was caused by a novel species within the Mycobacterium gordonae complex. Results of whole-genome sequencing indicated that some strains considered to be M. gordonae complex are actually polyphyletic and should be designated as closely related species.PMID:34670653 | DOI:10.3201//eid2711.210426 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: You-Ming Mei Qian Zhang Wen-Yue Zhang Hai-Qin Jiang Ying Shi Jing-Shu Xiong Le Wang Yan-Qing Chen Si-Yu Long Chun Pan Gai Ge Zhen-Zhen Wang Zi-Wei Wu Yan Wang Yi-Qun Jiang Hong-Sheng Wang Source Type: research

Acute Chagas Disease Manifesting as Orbital Cellulitis, Texas, USA
We report a case of acute, vectorborne Chagas disease, acquired locally in central Texas, USA, manifesting as Romaña's sign, which was initially mistaken for orbital cellulitis. After the infection failed to respond to antibiotics, DNA-based next generation sequencing on plasma yielded high levels of Trypanasoma cruzi; results were confirmed by PCR.PMID:34670654 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203698 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: F Parker Hudson Natalie Homer Aliza Epstein Kristin Mondy Source Type: research

Toward Cholera Elimination, Haiti
This study describes the apparent discontinuation of cholera transmission in Haiti since February 2019. Because vulnerabilities persist and vaccination remains limited, our findings suggest that case-area targeted interventions conducted by rapid response teams played a key role. We question the presence of environmental reservoirs in Haiti and discuss progress toward elimination.PMID:34670655 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203372 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stanislas Rebaudet Patrick D ély Jacques Boncy Jean Hugues Henrys Renaud Piarroux Source Type: research

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Wild Red Foxes, the Netherlands, 2021
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2960-2962. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211281.ABSTRACTWe detected infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus clade 2.3.4.4b in 2 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cubs found in the wild with neurologic signs in the Netherlands. The virus is related to avian influenza viruses found in wild birds in the same area.PMID:34670656 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211281 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jolianne M Rijks Hanna Hesselink Pim Lollinga Renee Wesselman Pier Prins Eefke Weesendorp Marc Engelsma Rene Heutink Frank Harders Marja Kik Harry Rozendaal Hans van den Kerkhof Nancy Beerens Source Type: research

Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75, South Africa, 2018-2020
We describe the molecular epidemiology of cholera in South Africa during 2018-2020. Vibrio cholerae O1 sequence type (ST) 75 recently emerged and became more prevalent than the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor pandemic clone. ST75 isolates were found across large spatial and temporal distances, suggesting local ST75 spread.PMID:34670657 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211144 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anthony M Smith Fran çois-Xavier Weill Elisabeth Njamkepo Hlengiwe M Ngomane Ntsieni Ramalwa Phuti Sekwadi Juno Thomas Source Type: research

Invasive Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes in Sudan, 2016-2018
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2952-2954. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210040.ABSTRACTAnopheles stephensi mosquitoes are urban malaria vectors in Asia that have recently invaded the Horn of Africa. We detected emergence of An. stephensi mosquitoes in 2 noncontiguous states of eastern Sudan. Results of mitochondrial DNA sequencing suggest the possibility of distinct invasions, potentially from a neighboring country.PMID:34670658 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.210040 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ayman Ahmed Patricia Pignatelli Arwa Elaagip Muzamil M Abdel Hamid Omnia Fateh Alrahman David Weetman Source Type: research

Hepatitis A Virus Incidence Rates and Biomarker Dynamics for Plasma Donors, United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2718-2824. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204642.ABSTRACTThe United States is currently affected by widespread hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. We investigated HAV incidence rates among source plasma donors in the United States since 2016. Serial donations from HAV-positive frequent donors were analyzed for common biologic markers to obtain a detailed picture of the course of infection. We found a considerable increase in incidence rates with shifting outbreak hotspots over time. Although individual biomarker profiles were highly variable, HAV RNA typically had a high peak and a biphasic decrease ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stephanie Schoch Martin W älti Mathias Schemmerer Rick Alexander Bj örn Keiner Carol Kralicek Keith Bycholski Kelley Hyatt Jon Knowles Denis Klochkov Toby Simon J ürgen J Wenzel Nathan J Roth Eleonora Widmer Source Type: research

Fatal Co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and Legionella pneumophila, England
We report 2 fatal cases of L. pneumophila and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in England. Clinicians should be aware of possible L. pneumophila infections among SARS-CoV-2 patients.PMID:34670660 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204121 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Victoria J Chalker Hugh Adler Robert Ball Falguni Naik Jessica Day Baharak Afshar Amit K Amin Source Type: research

Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis among Transfusion and Transplant Recipients in the United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2768-2775. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211127.ABSTRACTEhrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are emerging tickborne diseases that can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants. Since 2000, ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis cases in the United States have increased substantially, resulting in potential risk to transplant and transfusion recipients. We reviewed ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis cases among blood transfusion and solid organ transplant recipients in the United States from peer-reviewed literature and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigations. We identified 13...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sanjida J Mowla Naomi A Drexler Cara C Cherry Pallavi D Annambholta Ian T Kracalik Sridhar V Basavaraju Source Type: research

Changing Patterns of Disease Severity in Blastomyces dermatitidis Infection, Quebec, Canada
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2810-2817. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210552.ABSTRACTThis retrospective multicenter cohort study assessed temporal changes in the severity and mortality rate of blastomycosis in Quebec, Canada, and identified risk factors for death in patients with blastomycosis in 1988-2016. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause deaths. Among 185 patients, 122 (66%) needed hospitalization and 30 (16%) died. We noted increases in the proportion of severe cases, in age at diagnosis and in the proportion of diabetic and immunocompromised patients over time. Independent risk factors for death were age (adjusted ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alex Carignan Chiheb Boudhrioua Sandrine Moreira Andr ée Ann Pelletier Kevin Dufour Jacques P épin Catherine Allard Dominique Marcoux Philippe J Dufresne Source Type: research

Genomic Profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, Myanmar
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2847-2855. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210726.ABSTRACTMultidrug resistance is a major threat to global elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We performed phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing for 309 isolates from 342 consecutive patients who were given a diagnosis of TB in Yangon, Myanmar, during July 2016‒June 2018. We identified isolates by using the GeneXpert platform to evaluate drug-resistance profiles. A total of 191 (62%) of 309 isolates had rifampin resistance; 168 (88%) of these rifampin-resistant isolates were not genomically related, indicating the repeated ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Htin Lin Aung Wint Wint Nyunt Yang Fong Patrick J Biggs Richard C Winkworth Peter J Lockhart Tsin Wen Yeo Philip C Hill Gregory M Cook Si Thu Aung Source Type: research

Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Bacteremia and Monocyte Evasion, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(11):2825-2835. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210097.ABSTRACTWe typed 600 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected in 51 hospitals in the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, metropolitan area during 2014-2017. We found that multiple new clonal complex (CC) 5 sequence types had replaced previously dominant MRSA lineages in hospitals. Whole-genome analysis of 208 isolates revealed an emerging sublineage of multidrug-resistant MRSA, sequence type 105, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec II, spa t002, which we designated the Rio de Janeiro (RdJ) clone. Using molecular clock analysis, we hypo...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alice Slotfeldt Viana Ana Maria Nunes Botelho Ahmed M Moustafa Craig L K Boge Adriana Lucia Pires Ferreira Maria C ícera da Silva Carvalho M árcia Aparecida Guimarães Bruno de Souza Scramignon Costa Marcos Corr êa de Mattos Sabrina Pires Maciel Julian Source Type: research

Tracing the Origin, Spread, and Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus in Puerto Rico, 2016-2017
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2971-2973. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211575.ABSTRACTWe reconstructed the 2016-2017 Zika virus epidemic in Puerto Rico by using complete genomes to uncover the epidemic's origin, spread, and evolutionary dynamics. Our study revealed that the epidemic was propelled by multiple introductions that spread across the island, intricate evolutionary patterns, and ≈10 months of cryptic transmission.PMID:34670646 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211575 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gilberto A Santiago Chaney C Kalinich Fabiola Cruz-L ópez Glenda L Gonz ález Betzabel Flores Aaron Hentoff Keyla N Charriez Joseph R Fauver Laura E Adams Tyler M Sharp Allison Black Trevor Bedford Esther Ellis Brett Ellis Steve H Waterman Gabriela Paz-B Source Type: research

Encephalitis and Death in Wild Mammals at a Rehabilitation Center after Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, United Kingdom
We report a disease and mortality event involving swans, seals, and a fox at a wildlife rehabilitation center in the United Kingdom during late 2020. Five swans had onset of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection while in captivity. Subsequently, 5 seals and a fox died (or were euthanized) after onset of clinical disease. Avian-origin influenza A virus subtype H5N8 was retrospectively determined as the cause of disease. Infection in the seals manifested as seizures, and immunohistochemical and molecular testing on postmortem samples detected a neurologic distribution of viral products. The fox died overnight aft...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tobias Floyd Ashley C Banyard Fabian Z X Lean Alexander M P Byrne Edward Fullick Elliot Whittard Benjamin C Mollett Steve Bexton Vanessa Swinson Michele Macrelli Nicola S Lewis Scott M Reid Alejandro N úñez J Paul Duff Rowena Hansen Ian H Brown Source Type: research

Population Genomics and Inference of Mycobacterium avium Complex Clusters in Cystic Fibrosis Care Centers, United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2836-2846. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210124.ABSTRACTMycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species constitute most mycobacteria infections in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States, but little is known about their genomic diversity or transmission. During 2016-2020, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 364 MAC isolates from 186 persons with CF from 42 cystic fibrosis care centers (CFCCs) across 23 states. We compared isolate genomes to identify instances of shared strains between persons with CF. Among persons with multiple isolates sequenced, 15/56 (27%) had>1 MAC strain type....
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nabeeh A Hasan Rebecca M Davidson L Elaine Epperson Sara M Kammlade Sean Beagle Adrah R Levin Vinicius Calado de Moura Joshua J Hunkins Natalia Weakly Scott D Sagel Stacey L Martiniano Max Salfinger Charles L Daley Jerry A Nick Michael Strong Source Type: research

Co-Infection with 4 Species of Mycobacteria Identified by Using Next-Generation Sequencing
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2948-2950. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.203458.ABSTRACTWe identified co-infection with 4 species of mycobacteria in a woman in New York, New York, USA, by using next-generation sequencing. This procedure is useful for identifying co-infections with multiple mycobacteria, tracing the geographic origin of strains, investigating transmission dynamics in susceptible populations, and gaining insight into prevention and control.PMID:34670649 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203458 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lulan Wang Dakai Liu Lok Yung George David Rodriguez Nishant Prasad Sorana Segal-Maurer Vishnu Singh Ellee Vikram Angela Zou Genhong Cheng William Harry Rodgers Source Type: research

Genetically Divergent Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Wild Birds, Eastern China
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(11):2940-2943. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204893.ABSTRACTIn late 2020, we detected 32 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses in migratory ducks in Shanghai, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 5 representative isolates identified 2 sublineages of clade 2.3.4.4b. Each sublineage formed separate clusters with isolates from East Asia and Europe.PMID:34670650 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204893 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guimei He Le Ming Xiang Li Yuhe Song Ling Tang Min Ma Jie Cui Tianhou Wang Source Type: research

Association of Shared Living Spaces and COVID-19 in University Students, Wisconsin, USA, 2020
We describe characteristics associated with having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among students residing on a university campus. Of 2,187 students, 528 (24.1%) received a COVID-19 diagnosis during fall semester 2020. Students sharing a bedroom or suite had approximately twice the odds of contracting COVID-19 as those living alone.PMID:34670651 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211000 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John Paul Bigouette Laura Ford Hannah E Segaloff Kimberly Langolf Juliana Kahrs Tara Zochert Jacqueline E Tate Douglas Gieryn Hannah L Kirking Ryan P Westergaard Marie E Killerby Source Type: research

Epidemiologic Analysis of Efforts to Achieve and Sustain Malaria Elimination along the China-Myanmar Border
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2869-2873. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204428.ABSTRACTMalaria cases have dramatically declined in China along the Myanmar border, attributed mainly to adoption of the 1-3-7 surveillance and response approach. No indigenous cases have been reported in China since 2017. Counties in the middle and southern part of the border area have a higher risk for malaria importation and reestablishment after elimination.PMID:34670652 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204428 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fang Huang Li Zhang Hong Tu Yan-Wen Cui Shui-Sen Zhou Zhi-Gui Xia Hong-Ning Zhou Source Type: research

Isolation of Novel Mycobacterium Species from Skin Infection in an Immunocompromised Person
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2944-2947. doi: 10.3201//eid2711.210426.ABSTRACTWe investigated a case of cutaneous infection in an immunocompromised patient in China that was caused by a novel species within the Mycobacterium gordonae complex. Results of whole-genome sequencing indicated that some strains considered to be M. gordonae complex are actually polyphyletic and should be designated as closely related species.PMID:34670653 | DOI:10.3201//eid2711.210426 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: You-Ming Mei Qian Zhang Wen-Yue Zhang Hai-Qin Jiang Ying Shi Jing-Shu Xiong Le Wang Yan-Qing Chen Si-Yu Long Chun Pan Gai Ge Zhen-Zhen Wang Zi-Wei Wu Yan Wang Yi-Qun Jiang Hong-Sheng Wang Source Type: research

Acute Chagas Disease Manifesting as Orbital Cellulitis, Texas, USA
We report a case of acute, vectorborne Chagas disease, acquired locally in central Texas, USA, manifesting as Romaña's sign, which was initially mistaken for orbital cellulitis. After the infection failed to respond to antibiotics, DNA-based next generation sequencing on plasma yielded high levels of Trypanasoma cruzi; results were confirmed by PCR.PMID:34670654 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203698 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: F Parker Hudson Natalie Homer Aliza Epstein Kristin Mondy Source Type: research

Toward Cholera Elimination, Haiti
This study describes the apparent discontinuation of cholera transmission in Haiti since February 2019. Because vulnerabilities persist and vaccination remains limited, our findings suggest that case-area targeted interventions conducted by rapid response teams played a key role. We question the presence of environmental reservoirs in Haiti and discuss progress toward elimination.PMID:34670655 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203372 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stanislas Rebaudet Patrick D ély Jacques Boncy Jean Hugues Henrys Renaud Piarroux Source Type: research

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Wild Red Foxes, the Netherlands, 2021
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2960-2962. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211281.ABSTRACTWe detected infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus clade 2.3.4.4b in 2 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cubs found in the wild with neurologic signs in the Netherlands. The virus is related to avian influenza viruses found in wild birds in the same area.PMID:34670656 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211281 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jolianne M Rijks Hanna Hesselink Pim Lollinga Renee Wesselman Pier Prins Eefke Weesendorp Marc Engelsma Rene Heutink Frank Harders Marja Kik Harry Rozendaal Hans van den Kerkhof Nancy Beerens Source Type: research

Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75, South Africa, 2018-2020
We describe the molecular epidemiology of cholera in South Africa during 2018-2020. Vibrio cholerae O1 sequence type (ST) 75 recently emerged and became more prevalent than the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor pandemic clone. ST75 isolates were found across large spatial and temporal distances, suggesting local ST75 spread.PMID:34670657 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211144 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anthony M Smith Fran çois-Xavier Weill Elisabeth Njamkepo Hlengiwe M Ngomane Ntsieni Ramalwa Phuti Sekwadi Juno Thomas Source Type: research

Invasive Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes in Sudan, 2016-2018
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2952-2954. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210040.ABSTRACTAnopheles stephensi mosquitoes are urban malaria vectors in Asia that have recently invaded the Horn of Africa. We detected emergence of An. stephensi mosquitoes in 2 noncontiguous states of eastern Sudan. Results of mitochondrial DNA sequencing suggest the possibility of distinct invasions, potentially from a neighboring country.PMID:34670658 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.210040 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ayman Ahmed Patricia Pignatelli Arwa Elaagip Muzamil M Abdel Hamid Omnia Fateh Alrahman David Weetman Source Type: research

Hepatitis A Virus Incidence Rates and Biomarker Dynamics for Plasma Donors, United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2718-2824. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204642.ABSTRACTThe United States is currently affected by widespread hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. We investigated HAV incidence rates among source plasma donors in the United States since 2016. Serial donations from HAV-positive frequent donors were analyzed for common biologic markers to obtain a detailed picture of the course of infection. We found a considerable increase in incidence rates with shifting outbreak hotspots over time. Although individual biomarker profiles were highly variable, HAV RNA typically had a high peak and a biphasic decrease ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stephanie Schoch Martin W älti Mathias Schemmerer Rick Alexander Bj örn Keiner Carol Kralicek Keith Bycholski Kelley Hyatt Jon Knowles Denis Klochkov Toby Simon J ürgen J Wenzel Nathan J Roth Eleonora Widmer Source Type: research

Fatal Co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and Legionella pneumophila, England
We report 2 fatal cases of L. pneumophila and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in England. Clinicians should be aware of possible L. pneumophila infections among SARS-CoV-2 patients.PMID:34670660 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204121 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Victoria J Chalker Hugh Adler Robert Ball Falguni Naik Jessica Day Baharak Afshar Amit K Amin Source Type: research

Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis among Transfusion and Transplant Recipients in the United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2768-2775. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211127.ABSTRACTEhrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are emerging tickborne diseases that can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants. Since 2000, ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis cases in the United States have increased substantially, resulting in potential risk to transplant and transfusion recipients. We reviewed ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis cases among blood transfusion and solid organ transplant recipients in the United States from peer-reviewed literature and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigations. We identified 13...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sanjida J Mowla Naomi A Drexler Cara C Cherry Pallavi D Annambholta Ian T Kracalik Sridhar V Basavaraju Source Type: research

Changing Patterns of Disease Severity in Blastomyces dermatitidis Infection, Quebec, Canada
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2810-2817. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210552.ABSTRACTThis retrospective multicenter cohort study assessed temporal changes in the severity and mortality rate of blastomycosis in Quebec, Canada, and identified risk factors for death in patients with blastomycosis in 1988-2016. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause deaths. Among 185 patients, 122 (66%) needed hospitalization and 30 (16%) died. We noted increases in the proportion of severe cases, in age at diagnosis and in the proportion of diabetic and immunocompromised patients over time. Independent risk factors for death were age (adjusted ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alex Carignan Chiheb Boudhrioua Sandrine Moreira Andr ée Ann Pelletier Kevin Dufour Jacques P épin Catherine Allard Dominique Marcoux Philippe J Dufresne Source Type: research

Genomic Profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, Myanmar
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2847-2855. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210726.ABSTRACTMultidrug resistance is a major threat to global elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We performed phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing for 309 isolates from 342 consecutive patients who were given a diagnosis of TB in Yangon, Myanmar, during July 2016‒June 2018. We identified isolates by using the GeneXpert platform to evaluate drug-resistance profiles. A total of 191 (62%) of 309 isolates had rifampin resistance; 168 (88%) of these rifampin-resistant isolates were not genomically related, indicating the repeated ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Htin Lin Aung Wint Wint Nyunt Yang Fong Patrick J Biggs Richard C Winkworth Peter J Lockhart Tsin Wen Yeo Philip C Hill Gregory M Cook Si Thu Aung Source Type: research

Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Bacteremia and Monocyte Evasion, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(11):2825-2835. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.210097.ABSTRACTWe typed 600 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected in 51 hospitals in the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, metropolitan area during 2014-2017. We found that multiple new clonal complex (CC) 5 sequence types had replaced previously dominant MRSA lineages in hospitals. Whole-genome analysis of 208 isolates revealed an emerging sublineage of multidrug-resistant MRSA, sequence type 105, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec II, spa t002, which we designated the Rio de Janeiro (RdJ) clone. Using molecular clock analysis, we hypo...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alice Slotfeldt Viana Ana Maria Nunes Botelho Ahmed M Moustafa Craig L K Boge Adriana Lucia Pires Ferreira Maria C ícera da Silva Carvalho M árcia Aparecida Guimarães Bruno de Souza Scramignon Costa Marcos Corr êa de Mattos Sabrina Pires Maciel Julian Source Type: research

Tracing the Origin, Spread, and Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus in Puerto Rico, 2016-2017
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2971-2973. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.211575.ABSTRACTWe reconstructed the 2016-2017 Zika virus epidemic in Puerto Rico by using complete genomes to uncover the epidemic's origin, spread, and evolutionary dynamics. Our study revealed that the epidemic was propelled by multiple introductions that spread across the island, intricate evolutionary patterns, and ≈10 months of cryptic transmission.PMID:34670646 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211575 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gilberto A Santiago Chaney C Kalinich Fabiola Cruz-L ópez Glenda L Gonz ález Betzabel Flores Aaron Hentoff Keyla N Charriez Joseph R Fauver Laura E Adams Tyler M Sharp Allison Black Trevor Bedford Esther Ellis Brett Ellis Steve H Waterman Gabriela Paz-B Source Type: research

Encephalitis and Death in Wild Mammals at a Rehabilitation Center after Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, United Kingdom
We report a disease and mortality event involving swans, seals, and a fox at a wildlife rehabilitation center in the United Kingdom during late 2020. Five swans had onset of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection while in captivity. Subsequently, 5 seals and a fox died (or were euthanized) after onset of clinical disease. Avian-origin influenza A virus subtype H5N8 was retrospectively determined as the cause of disease. Infection in the seals manifested as seizures, and immunohistochemical and molecular testing on postmortem samples detected a neurologic distribution of viral products. The fox died overnight aft...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tobias Floyd Ashley C Banyard Fabian Z X Lean Alexander M P Byrne Edward Fullick Elliot Whittard Benjamin C Mollett Steve Bexton Vanessa Swinson Michele Macrelli Nicola S Lewis Scott M Reid Alejandro N úñez J Paul Duff Rowena Hansen Ian H Brown Source Type: research