Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23;28(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2808.220617. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIllustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.PMID:35738346 | DOI:10.3201/eid2808.220617 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 23, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louis Nevejan Lize Cuypers Lies Laenen Liselotte Van Loo Fran çois Vermeulen Elke Wollants Ignace Van Hecke Stefanie Desmet Katrien Lagrou Piet Maes Emmanuel Andr é Source Type: research

Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23;28(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2808.220617. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIllustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.PMID:35738346 | DOI:10.3201/eid2808.220617 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 23, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louis Nevejan Lize Cuypers Lies Laenen Liselotte Van Loo Fran çois Vermeulen Elke Wollants Ignace Van Hecke Stefanie Desmet Katrien Lagrou Piet Maes Emmanuel Andr é Source Type: research

Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23;28(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2808.220617. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIllustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.PMID:35738346 | DOI:10.3201/eid2808.220617 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 23, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louis Nevejan Lize Cuypers Lies Laenen Liselotte Van Loo Fran çois Vermeulen Elke Wollants Ignace Van Hecke Stefanie Desmet Katrien Lagrou Piet Maes Emmanuel Andr é Source Type: research

Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23;28(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2808.220617. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIllustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.PMID:35738346 | DOI:10.3201/eid2808.220617 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 23, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louis Nevejan Lize Cuypers Lies Laenen Liselotte Van Loo Fran çois Vermeulen Elke Wollants Ignace Van Hecke Stefanie Desmet Katrien Lagrou Piet Maes Emmanuel Andr é Source Type: research

Early SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections within 60 Days and Implications for Retesting Policies
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23;28(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2808.220617. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIllustrated by a clinical case supplemented by epidemiologic data, early reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 after infection with Delta variant, and reinfection with Omicron BA.2 after Omicron BA.1 infection, can occur within 60 days, especially in young, unvaccinated persons. The case definition of reinfection, which influences retesting policies, should be reconsidered.PMID:35738346 | DOI:10.3201/eid2808.220617 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 23, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louis Nevejan Lize Cuypers Lies Laenen Liselotte Van Loo Fran çois Vermeulen Elke Wollants Ignace Van Hecke Stefanie Desmet Katrien Lagrou Piet Maes Emmanuel Andr é Source Type: research

Natural History of and Dynamic Changes in Clinical Manifestation, Serology, and Treatment of Brucellosis, China
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1460-1465. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.211766.ABSTRACTSerum agglutination test plus exposure history were used to diagnose most cases of human brucellosis in 2 China provinces. After appropriate treatment, 13.3% of acute brucellosis cases progressed to chronic disease; arthritis was an early predictor. Seropositivity can persist after symptoms disappear, which might cause physicians to subjectively extend therapeutic regimens.PMID:35731038 | DOI:10.3201/eid2807.211766 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hongyu Wang Hongyan Liu Qiran Zhang Xiaobo Lu Dan Li Haocheng Zhang Yan A Wang Rongjiong Zheng Yi Zhang Zhangfan Fu Ke Lin Chao Qiu Yan O Wang Ye Gu Jingwen Ai Wenhong Zhang Source Type: research

Updated Estimates and Mapping for Prevalence of Chagas Disease among Adults, United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1313-1320. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.212221.ABSTRACTWe combined American Community Survey data with age-specific Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence derived from US surveys and World Health Organization reports to yield estimates of Chagas disease in the United States, which we mapped at the local level. In addition, we used blood donor data to estimate the relative prevalence of autochthonous T. cruzi infection. Our estimates indicate that 288,000 infected persons, including 57,000 Chagas cardiomyopathy patients and 43,000 infected reproductive-age women, currently live in the United States; 22-108 co...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amanda Irish Jeffrey D Whitman Eva H Clark Rachel Marcus Caryn Bern Source Type: research

Nipah Virus Detection at Bat Roosts after Spillover Events, Bangladesh, 2012-2019
We report a series of investigations at Pteropus medius bat roosts identified near the locations of human Nipah cases in Bangladesh during 2012-2019. Pooled bat urine was collected from 23 roosts; 7 roosts (30%) had >1 sample in which Nipah RNA was detected from the first visit. In subsequent visits to these 7 roosts, RNA was detected in bat urine up to 52 days after the presumed exposure of the human case-patient, although the probability of detection declined rapidly with time. These results suggest that rapidly deployed investigations of Nipah virus shedding from bat roosts near human cases could increase the success...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clifton D McKee Ausraful Islam Mohammed Ziaur Rahman Salah Uddin Khan Mahmudur Rahman Syed M Satter Ariful Islam Claude Kwe Yinda Jonathan H Epstein Peter Daszak Vincent J Munster Peter J Hudson Raina K Plowright Stephen P Luby Emily S Gurley Source Type: research

Enterovirus D68 in Hospitalized Children, Barcelona, Spain, 2014-2021
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1327-1331. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.220264.ABSTRACTTo determine molecular epidemiology and clinical features of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections, we reviewed EV-D68-associated respiratory cases at a hospital in Barcelona, Spain, during 2014-2021. Respiratory samples were collected from hospitalized patients or outpatients with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection or suggestive of enterovirus infection. Enterovirus detection was performed by real-time multiplex reverse transcription PCR and characterization by phylogenetic analysis of the partial viral protein 1 coding region sequenc...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cristina Andr és Jorgina Vila Anna Creus-Costa Maria Pi ñana Alejandra Gonz ález-Sánchez Juliana Esperalba Maria Gema Codina Carla Castillo Maria Carmen Mart ín Francisco Fuentes Susana Rubio Karen Garc ía-Comuñas Rodrigo V ásquez-Mercado Narc ís Source Type: research

Vaccine Effectiveness during Outbreak of COVID-19 Alpha (B.1.1.7) Variant in Men's Correctional Facility, United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1313-1320. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.220091.ABSTRACTIn April 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred at a correctional facility in rural Virginia, USA. Eighty-four infections were identified among 854 incarcerated persons by facilitywide testing with reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). We used whole-genome sequencing to link all infections to 2 employees infected with the B.1.1.7α (UK) variant. The relative risk comparing unvaccinated to fully vaccinated persons (mRNA-1273 [Moderna, https://www.modernatx.com]) was 7.8 (95% CI 4.8-12.7), corresponding to a vaccine effectiveness of 87.1%...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rachel A Silverman Alessandro Ceci Alasdair Cohen Meagan Helmick Erica Short Paige Bordwine Michael J Friedlander Carla V Finkielstein Source Type: research

Effect of Agroecosystems on Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Birds, La Pampa, Argentina, 2017-2019
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1393-1402. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.211485.ABSTRACTIn Argentina, the Pampa ecoregion has been almost completely transformed into agroecosystems. To evaluate the environmental (agricultural area, tree coverage, distance to the nearest water body and urban site) and biological (dove, cowbird, and sparrow abundance) effects on free-ranging bird exposure to St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), we used generalized linear mixed models. For 1,019 birds sampled during 2017-2019, neutralizing antibodies were found against SLEV in samples from 60 (5.8%) birds and against WNV for...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ana P Mansilla Juan M Grande Adri án Diaz Source Type: research

Targeted Screening for Chronic Q Fever, the Netherlands
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1403-1409. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.212273.ABSTRACTEarly detection of and treatment for chronic Q fever might prevent potentially life-threatening complications. We performed a chronic Q fever screening program in general practitioner practices in the Netherlands 10 years after a large Q fever outbreak. Thirteen general practitioner practices located in outbreak areas selected 3,419 patients who had specific underlying medical conditions, of whom 1,642 (48%) participated. Immunofluorescence assay of serum showed that 289 (18%) of 1,642 participants had a previous Coxiella burnetii infection (Ig...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Daphne F M Reukers Pieter T de Boer Alfons O Loohuis Peter C Wever Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber Wim van der Hoek Aura Timen Source Type: research

Outbreak of IncX8 Plasmid-Mediated KPC-3-Producing Enterobacterales Infection, China
We report an outbreak of KPC-3-producing Enterobacterales infection in China. During August 2020-June 2021, 25 blaKPC-3-positive Enterobacteriale isolates were detected from 24 patients in China. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the blaKPC-3 genes were harbored by IncX8 plasmids. The outbreak involved clonal expansion of KPC-3-producing Serratia marcescens and transmission of blaKPC-3 plasmids across different species. The blaKPC-3 plasmids demonstrated high conjugation frequencies (10-3 to 10-4). A Galleria mellonella infection model showed that 2 sequence type 65 K2 K. pneumoniae strains containing blaKPC-3...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lan Chen Wenxiu Ai Ying Zhou Chunyang Wu Yinjuan Guo Xiaocui Wu Bingjie Wang Lulin Rao Yanlei Xu Jiao Zhang Liang Chen Fangyou Yu Source Type: research

Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genotype Related to M. caprae
We report the unusual genotypic characterization of a bacterium isolated from a clinical sample of a patient who grew up in Bangladesh and lives in the United States. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified the bacterium as a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Phylogenetic placement of this strain suggests a new MTBC genotype. Even though it had the same spoligotype as M. caprae strains, single-nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate as a sister lineage distinct from M. caprae, most closely related to 5 previously sequenced genomes isolated from primates and elephan...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Joseph Shea Carol Smith Tanya A Halse Donna Kohlerschmidt Amy K Rourke Kimberlee A Musser Vincent Escuyer Pascal Lapierre Source Type: research

One Health Genomic Analysis of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase‒Producing Salmonella enterica, Canada, 2012‒2016
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1410-1420. doi: 10.3201/eid2807.211528.ABSTRACTExtended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a major class of clinical antimicrobial drugs. We used genomic analysis to investigate whether domestic food animals, retail meat, and pets were reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection in Canada. Of 30,303 Salmonella isolates tested during 2012-2016, we detected 95 ESBL producers. ESBL serotypes and alleles were mostly different between humans (n = 54) and animals/meat (n = 41). Two exceptions were blaSHV-2 and blaCTX-M-1 IncI1 pla...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amrita Bharat Laura Mataseje E Jane Parmley Brent P Avery Graham Cox Carolee A Carson Rebecca J Irwin Anne E Deckert Danielle Daignault David C Alexander Vanessa Allen Sameh El Bailey Sadjia Bekal Greg J German David Haldane Linda Hoang Linda Chui Jessica Source Type: research