Adaptation of African swine fever virus to HEK293T cells
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021 Jul 27. doi: 10.1111/tbed.14242. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAfrican swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs. Although adaptation of ASFV to Vero cells has been investigated, the phenotypic changes and the corresponding genomic variations during adaptation of ASFV to other cell lines remain unclear. To obtain a cell-adapted ASFV strain, different cell lines were tested to determine whether they support ASFV infection. Interestingly, the ASFV wild-type strain ASFV-HLJ/18 can infect HEK293T ce...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tao Wang Liang Wang Yu Han Li Pan Jing Yang Maowen Sun Pingping Zhou Yuan Sun Yuhai Bi Hua-Ji Qiu Source Type: research

Emergence of SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein Escape Mutation Q493R after Treatment for COVID-19
We report in vivo selection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike mutation (Q493R) conferring simultaneous resistance to bamlanivimab and etesivimab. This mutation was isolated from a patient who had coronavirus disease and was treated with these drugs.PMID:34314668 | DOI:10.3201/eid2710.211538 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Daniele Focosi Federica Novazzi Angelo Genoni Francesco Dentali Daniela Dalla Gasperina Andreina Baj Fabrizio Maggi Source Type: research

Fatal Exacerbations of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome Complicating Coronavirus Disease
We report 2 fatal exacerbations of systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS), also known as Clarkson disease, associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the United States. One patient carried an established diagnosis of SCLS and the other sought treatment for new-onset hypotensive shock, hemoconcentration, and anasarca, classic symptoms indicative of an SCLS flare. Both patients had only mild-to-moderate symptoms of COVID-19. This clinical picture suggests that these patients succumbed to complications of SCLS induced by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Persons with known or suspected SC...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patricia C Cheung A Robin Eisch Noble Maleque Derek M Polly Sara C Auld Kirk M Druey Source Type: research

Direct and Indirect Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccination against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Long-Term Care Facilities, Spain
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 27;27(10). doi: 10.3201/eid2710.211184. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe conducted a registries-based cohort study of long-term care facility residents>65 years of age offered vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 before March 10, 2021, in Spain. Risk for infection in vaccinated and nonvaccinated persons was compared with risk in the same persons in a period before the vaccination campaign, adjusted by daily-varying incidence and reproduction number. We selected 299,209 persons; 99.0% had>1 dose, 92.6% had 2 doses, and 99.8% of vaccines were Pfizer/BioNTech (BN...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Susana Monge Carmen Olmedo Bel én Alejos Mar ía Fé Lapeña Mar ía José Sierra Aurora Limia COVID-19 Registries Study Group2 Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Resistance Mutations in Patient with HIV/AIDS, California, USA
We report persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in a patient with HIV/AIDS; the virus developed spike N terminal domain and receptor binding domain neutralization resistance mutations. Our findings suggest that immunocompromised patients can harbor emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.PMID:34296992 | DOI:10.3201/eid2710.211461 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seth A Hoffman Cristina Costales Malaya K Sahoo Srikanth Palanisamy Fumiko Yamamoto ChunHong Huang Michelle Verghese Daniel C Solis Mamdouh Sibai Aruna Subramanian Lucy S Tompkins Philip Grant Robert W Shafer Benjamin A Pinsky Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Resistance Mutations in Patient with HIV/AIDS, California, USA
We report persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in a patient with HIV/AIDS; the virus developed spike N terminal domain and receptor binding domain neutralization resistance mutations. Our findings suggest that immunocompromised patients can harbor emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.PMID:34296992 | DOI:10.3201/eid2710.211461 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seth A Hoffman Cristina Costales Malaya K Sahoo Srikanth Palanisamy Fumiko Yamamoto ChunHong Huang Michelle Verghese Daniel C Solis Mamdouh Sibai Aruna Subramanian Lucy S Tompkins Philip Grant Robert W Shafer Benjamin A Pinsky Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Resistance Mutations in Patient with HIV/AIDS, California, USA
We report persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in a patient with HIV/AIDS; the virus developed spike N terminal domain and receptor binding domain neutralization resistance mutations. Our findings suggest that immunocompromised patients can harbor emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.PMID:34296992 | DOI:10.3201/eid2710.211461 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seth A Hoffman Cristina Costales Malaya K Sahoo Srikanth Palanisamy Fumiko Yamamoto ChunHong Huang Michelle Verghese Daniel C Solis Mamdouh Sibai Aruna Subramanian Lucy S Tompkins Philip Grant Robert W Shafer Benjamin A Pinsky Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Resistance Mutations in Patient with HIV/AIDS, California, USA
We report persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in a patient with HIV/AIDS; the virus developed spike N terminal domain and receptor binding domain neutralization resistance mutations. Our findings suggest that immunocompromised patients can harbor emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.PMID:34296992 | DOI:10.3201/eid2710.211461 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seth A Hoffman Cristina Costales Malaya K Sahoo Srikanth Palanisamy Fumiko Yamamoto ChunHong Huang Michelle Verghese Daniel C Solis Mamdouh Sibai Aruna Subramanian Lucy S Tompkins Philip Grant Robert W Shafer Benjamin A Pinsky Source Type: research

Effects of Patient Characteristics on Diagnostic Performance of Self-Collected Samples for SARS-CoV-2 Testing
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(8):2081-2089. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210667.ABSTRACTWe evaluated the performance of self-collected anterior nasal swab (ANS) and saliva samples compared with healthcare worker-collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used the same PCR diagnostic panel to test all self-collected and healthcare worker-collected samples from participants at a public hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Among 1,076 participants, 51.9% were men, 57.1% were>50 years of age, 81.2% were Black (non-Hispanic), and 74.9% reported>1 chronic med...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah E Smith-Jeffcoat Mitsuki Koh Adam Hoffman Paulina A Rebolledo Marcos C Schechter Halie K Miller Sadia Sleweon Rebecca Rossetti Vyjayanti Kasinathan Talya Shragai Kevin O'Laughlin Catherine C Espinosa George M Khalil AdeSubomi O Adeyemo Anne Moorman Source Type: research

Modeling Immune Evasion and Vaccine Limitations by Targeted Nasopharyngeal Bordetella pertussis Inoculation in Mice
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2107-2116. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203566.ABSTRACTConventional pertussis animal models deliver hundreds of thousands of Bordetella pertussis bacteria deep into the lungs, rapidly inducing severe pneumonic pathology and a robust immune response. However, human infections usually begin with colonization and growth in the upper respiratory tract. We inoculated only the nasopharynx of mice to explore the course of infection in a more natural exposure model. Nasopharyngeal colonization resulted in robust growth in the upper respiratory tract but elicited little immune response, enabling prolonged a...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Illiassou Hamidou Soumana Bodo Linz Kalyan K Dewan Demba Sarr Monica C Gestal Laura K Howard Amanda D Caulfield Bal ázs Rada Eric T Harvill Source Type: research

Intense and Mild First Epidemic Wave of Coronavirus Disease, The Gambia
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2064-2072. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204954.ABSTRACTThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is evolving differently in Africa than in other regions. Africa has lower SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates and milder clinical manifestations. Detailed SARS-CoV-2 epidemiologic data are needed in Africa. We used publicly available data to calculate SARS-CoV-2 infections per 1,000 persons in The Gambia. We evaluated transmission rates among 1,366 employees of the Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia (MRCG), where systematic surveillance of symptomatic cases and contact tr...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baderinwa Abatan Orighomisan Agboghoroma Fatai Akemoke Martin Antonio Babatunde Awokola Mustapha Bittaye Abdoulie Bojang Kalifa Bojang Helen Brotherton Carla Cerami Ed Clarke Umberto D'Alessandro Thushan de Silva Mariama Drammeh Karen Forrest Natalie Hofm Source Type: research

Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses in Israel, 2010-2019
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2117-2126. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203661.ABSTRACTIn a multicenter, nationwide, retrospective study of patients hospitalized with spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Israel during 2010-2019, we identified 42 cases, of which 36 were autochthonous. The most prevalent species was the Rickettsia conorii Israeli tick typhus strain (n = 33, 79%); infection with this species necessitated intensive care for 52% of patients and was associated with a 30% fatality rate. A history of tick bite was rare, found for only 5% of patients; eschar was found in 12%; and leukocytosis was more common than leukopen...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Regev Cohen Talya Finn Frida Babushkin Yael Paran Ronen Ben Ami Alaa Atamna Sharon Reisfeld Gabriel Weber Neta Petersiel Hiba Zayyad Eyal Leshem Miriam Weinberger Yasmin Maor Nicola Makhoul Lior Nesher Galia Zaide Dar Klein Adi Beth-Din Yafit Atiya-Nasagi Source Type: research

Peridomestic Mammal Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2073-2080. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210180.ABSTRACTWild animals have been implicated as the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but it is largely unknown how the virus affects most wildlife species and if wildlife could ultimately serve as a reservoir for maintaining the virus outside the human population. We show that several common peridomestic species, including deer mice, bushy-tailed woodrats, and striped skunks, are susceptible to infection and can shed the virus in respiratory secretions. In contrast, we demonstrate that cottontail rabbits, fox squirre...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Angela M Bosco-Lauth J Jeffrey Root Stephanie M Porter Audrey E Walker Lauren Guilbert Daphne Hawvermale Aimee Pepper Rachel M Maison Airn E Hartwig Paul Gordy Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann Richard A Bowen Source Type: research

Plague Transmission from Corpses and Carcasses
We examined 3 potential sources of infection: body fluids of living plague patients, infected corpses and carcasses, and body fluids of infected corpses. We concluded that pneumonic plague can be transmitted by intensive handling of the corpse or carcass, presumably through the inhalation of respiratory droplets, and that bubonic plague can be transmitted by blood-to-blood contact with the body fluids of a corpse or carcass. These findings should inform precautions taken by those handling the bodies of persons or animals that died of plague.PMID:34286686 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.200136 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sophie Jullien Nipun Lakshitha de Silva Paul Garner Source Type: research

Estimates of Toxoplasmosis Incidence Based on Healthcare Claims Data, Germany, 2011-2016
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2097-2106. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203740.ABSTRACTToxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection contracted through Toxoplasma gondii-contaminated food, soil, or water. Seroprevalence in Germany is high, but estimates of disease incidence are scarce. We investigated incidences for various toxoplasmosis manifestations using anonymized healthcare claims data from Germany for 2011-2016. Patients with a toxoplasmosis diagnosis during the annual observational period were considered incident. The estimated incidence was adjusted to the general population age/sex distribution. We estimated an annual average o...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amrei Krings Josephine Jacob Frank Seeber Uwe Pleyer Jochen Walker Klaus Stark Hendrik Wilking Source Type: research

Mycobacterium microti Infections in Free-Ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)
We report 3 cases of M. microti infections in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) from western Austria and southern Germany. One diseased animal displayed severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and multifocal granulomas on the surface of the pericardium. Two other animals showed alterations of the lungs and associated lymph nodes compatible with parasitic infestation. Results of the phylogenetic analysis including multiple animal strains from the study area showed independent infection events, but no host-adapted genotype. Personnel involved in bovine tuberculosis-monitoring programs should be aware of the fastidious n...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Giovanni Ghielmetti Anne M Kupca Matthias Hanczaruk Ute Friedel Hubert Weinberger Sandra Revilla-Fern ández Erwin Hofer Julia M Riehm Roger Stephan Walter Glawischnig Source Type: research

Comparison of Lyme Disease in the United States and Europe
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2017-2024. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204763.ABSTRACTLyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is the most common tickborne disease in the United States and Europe. In both locations, Ixodes species ticks transmit the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria species responsible for causing the infection. The diversity of Borrelia species that cause human infection is greater in Europe; the 2 B. burgdorferi s.l. species collectively responsible for most infections in Europe, B. afzelii and B. garinii, are not found in the United States, where most infections are caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. St...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adriana R Marques Franc Strle Gary P Wormser Source Type: research

Spatial, Ecologic, and Clinical Epidemiology of Community-Onset, Ceftriaxone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Cook County, Illinois, USA
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2127-2134. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204235.ABSTRACTWe performed a spatial and mixed ecologic study of community-onset Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from a public healthcare system in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Individual-level data were collected from the electronic medical record and census tract-level data from the US Census Bureau. Associations between individual- and population-level characteristics and presence of ceftriaxone resistance were determined by logistic regression analysis. Spatial analysis confirmed nonrandom distribution of ceftriaxone resistance across census tracts,...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vanessa Sard á William E Trick Huiyuan Zhang David N Schwartz Source Type: research

Natural Human Infections with Plasmodium cynomolgi, P. inui, and 4 other Simian Malaria Parasites, Malaysia
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2187-2191. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204502.ABSTRACTWe detected the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. coatneyi, P. inui-like, and P. simiovale among forest fringe-living indigenous communities from various locations in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the importance of using molecular tools to identify newly emergent malaria parasites in humans.PMID:34287122 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204502 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nan Jiun Yap Hanisah Hossain Thamayanthi Nada-Raja Romano Ngui Azdayanti Muslim Boon-Peng Hoh Loke Tim Khaw Khamisah Abdul Kadir Paul Cliff Simon Divis Indra Vythilingam Balbir Singh Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim Source Type: research

Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Prisons, England, 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2183-2186. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204920.ABSTRACTUsing laboratory data and a novel address matching methodology, we identified 734 cases of coronavirus disease in 88 prisons in England during March 16-October 12, 2020. An additional 412 cases were identified in prison staff and household members. We identified 84 prison outbreaks involving 86% of all prison-associated cases.PMID:34287123 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204920 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wendy M Rice Dimple Y Chudasama James Lewis Francis Senyah Isaac Florence Simon Thelwall Lisa Glaser Maciej Czachorowski Emma Plugge Hilary Kirkbride Gavin Dabrera Theresa Lamagni Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Prevalence among Outpatients during Community Transmission, Zambia, July 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2166-2168. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210502.ABSTRACTDuring the July 2020 first wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Zambia, PCR-measured prevalence was 13.4% among outpatients at health facilities, an absolute difference of 5.7% compared with prevalence among community members. This finding suggests that facility testing might be an effective strategy during high community transmission.PMID:34287124 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210502 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Davies Kampamba Danielle T Barradas Dabwitso Banda James E Zulu Adam Wolkon Samuel Yingst Mary Adetinuke Boyd Mpanji Siwingwa Lameck Chirwa Muzala Kapina Nyambe Sinyange Victor Mukonka Kennedy Malama Lloyd B Mulenga Simon Agol Source Type: research

Parasitic Disease Surveillance, Mississippi, USA
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2201-2204. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204318.ABSTRACTSurveillance for soil-transmitted helminths, strongyloidiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and giardiasis was conducted in Mississippi, USA. PCR performed on 224 fecal samples for all soil-transmitted helminths and on 370 samples for only Necator americanus and Strongyloides stercoralis identified 1 S. stercoralis infection. Seroprevalences were 8.8% for Toxocara, 27.4% for Cryptosporidium, 5.7% for Giardia, and 0.2% for Strongyloides parasites.PMID:34287125 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204318 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Richard S Bradbury Meredith Lane Irene Arguello Sukwan Handali Gretchen Cooley Nils Pilotte John M Williams Sam Jameson Susan P Montgomery Kathryn Hellmann Michelle Tharp Lisa Haynie Regina Galloway Bruce Brackin Brian Kirmse Lisa Stempak Paul Byers Steve Source Type: research

African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 1 on Horse Farm, Thailand, 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2208-2211. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210004.ABSTRACTTo investigate an outbreak of African horse sickness (AHS) on a horse farm in northeastern Thailand, we used whole-genome sequencing to detect and characterize the virus. The viruses belonged to serotype 1 and contained unique amino acids (95V,166S, 660I in virus capsid protein 2), suggesting a single virus introduction to Thailand.PMID:34287126 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210004 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Napawan Bunpapong Kamonpan Charoenkul Chanakarn Nasamran Ekkapat Chamsai Kitikhun Udom Supanat Boonyapisitsopa Rachod Tantilertcharoen Sawang Kesdangsakonwut Navapon Techakriengkrai Sanipa Suradhat Roongroje Thanawongnuwech Alongkorn Amonsin Source Type: research

Screening for Q Fever in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, Israel, June 2018-May 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2205-2207. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204963.ABSTRACTQ fever infective endocarditis frequently mimics degenerative valvular disease. We tested for Coxiella burnettii antibodies in 155 patients in Israel who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Q fever infective endocarditis was diagnosed and treated in 4 (2.6%) patients; follow-up at a median 12 months after valve implantation indicated preserved prosthetic valvular function.PMID:34287127 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204963 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nesrin Ghanem-Zoubi Mical Paul Moran Szwarcwort Yoram Agmon Arthur Kerner Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Spatial Emergence of Anaplasmosis, New York, USA, 2010 ‒2018
We describe the epidemiology and growing incidence of anaplasmosis cases reported during 2010-2018. Spatial analysis showed an expanding hot spot of anaplasmosis in the Capital Region, where incidence increased>8-fold. The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum increased greatly within tick populations in the Capital Region over the same period, and entomologic risk factors were correlated with disease incidence at a local level. These results indicate that anaplasmosis is rapidly emerging in a geographically focused area of NYS, likely driven by localized changes in exposure risk.PMID:34287128 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210133 (S...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alexis Russell Melissa Prusinski Jamie Sommer Collin O'Connor Jennifer White Richard Falco John Kokas Vanessa Vinci Wayne Gall Keith Tober Jamie Haight JoAnne Oliver Lisa Meehan Lee Ann Sporn Dustin Brisson P Bryon Backenson Source Type: research

Genomic Detection of Schmallenberg Virus, Israel
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2197-2200. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203705.ABSTRACTWe discuss genomic detection of Schmallenberg virus in both Culicoides midges and affected ruminants during June 2018-December 2019, demonstrating its circulation in Israel. This region is a geographic bridge between 3 continents and may serve as an epidemiologic bridge for potential Schmallenberg virus spread into Asia.PMID:34287129 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.203705 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adi Behar Omer Izhaki Asael Rot Tzvika Benor Mario Yankilevich Monica Leszkowicz-Mazuz Jacob Brenner Source Type: research

Endogenous Endophthalmitis Caused by ST66-K2 Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, United States
We describe a case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by sequence type 66-K2 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae in a diabetic patient with no travel history outside the United States. Genomic analysis showed the pathogen has remained highly conserved, retaining>98% genetic similarity to the original strain described in Indonesia in 1935.PMID:34287130 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210234 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Edwin Kamau Paul R Allyn Omer E Beaird Kevin W Ward Nancy Kwan Omai B Garner Shangxin Yang Source Type: research

Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids of Infectious Norovirus from Vomit Samples
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2212-2214. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210011.ABSTRACTA typical clinical symptom of human norovirus infection is projectile vomiting. Although norovirus RNA and viral particles have been detected in vomitus, infectivity has not yet been reported. We detected replication-competent norovirus in 25% of vomit samples with a 13-fold to 714-fold increase in genomic equivalents, confirming infectious norovirus.PMID:34287131 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210011 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marie Hagbom Jenny Lin Tina Falkeborn Lena Serrander Jan Albert Johan Nordgren Sumit Sharma Source Type: research

Zoonotic Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Free-Roaming Dogs, Kiribati
We report a 96.5% prevalence of zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths in dogs in Kiribati. We advocate for urgent implementation of treatment and prevention programs for these zoonotic pathogens, in line with the Kiribati-World Health Organization Cooperation Strategy 2018-2022.PMID:34287132 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204900 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patsy A Zendejas-Heredia Allison Crawley Helen Byrnes Rebecca J Traub Vito Colella Source Type: research

Costs and Outcomes of Integrated Human African Trypanosomiasis Surveillance System Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2144-2153. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.202399.ABSTRACTWe integrated sleeping sickness case detection into the primary healthcare system in 2 health districts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We replaced a less field-friendly serologic test with a rapid diagnostic test, which was followed up by human African trypanosomiasis microscopic testing, and used a mixed costing methodology to estimate costs from a healthcare provider perspective. We screened a total of 18,225 persons and identified 27 new cases. Average financial cost (i.e., actual expenditures) was US $6.70/person screened and $4,4...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rian Snijders Alain Fukinsia Yves Claeys Epco Hasker Alain Mpanya Erick Miaka Filip Meheus Marleen Boelaert Source Type: research

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Rickettsia asembonensis in Human Blood, Zambia
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2237-2239. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203467.ABSTRACTRickettsia asembonensis is a flea-related Rickettsia with unknown pathogenicity to humans. We detected R. asembonensis DNA in 2 of 1,153 human blood samples in Zambia. Our findings suggest the possibility of R. asembonensis infection in humans despite its unknown pathogenicity.PMID:34287134 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.203467 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lavel C Moonga Kyoko Hayashida Namwiinga R Mulunda Yukiko Nakamura James Chipeta Hawela B Moonga Boniface Namangala Chihiro Sugimoto Zephaniah Mtonga Mable Mutengo Junya Yamagishi Source Type: research

Linezolid- and Multidrug-Resistant Enterococci in Raw Commercial Dog Food, Europe, 2019-2020
We describe enterococci in raw-frozen dog food commercialized in Europe as a source of genes encoding resistance to the antibiotic drug linezolid and of strains and plasmids enriched in antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in hospitalized patients. Whole-genome sequencing was fundamental to linking isolates from dog food to human cases across Europe.PMID:34287135 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204933 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ana R Freitas Liliana Finisterra Ana P Tedim B árbara Duarte Carla Novais Lu ísa Peixe from the ESCMID Study Group on Food- and Water-borne Infections (EFWISG) Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Consequences of Anchoring Bias
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2235-2236. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.211107.ABSTRACTSuspicion of coronavirus disease in febrile patients might lead to anchoring bias, causing misdiagnosis of other infections for which epidemiologic risks are present. This bias has potentially severe consequences, illustrated by cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme disease in a pregnant woman and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in another person.PMID:34287136 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.211107 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harold W Horowitz Caren Behar Jeffrey Greene Source Type: research

Post-13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dynamics in Young Children
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(8):2240-2241. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210037.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34287137 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210037 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Corinne Levy Naim Ouldali Emmanuelle Varon St éphane Béchet St éphane Bonacorsi Robert Cohen Source Type: research

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4b, Western Siberia, Russia, 2020
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2224-2227. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204969.ABSTRACTTwo variants of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus were detected in dead poultry in Western Siberia, Russia, during August and September 2020. One variant was represented by viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b and the other by a novel reassortant between clade 2.3.4.4b and Eurasian low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds.PMID:34287138 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204969 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ivan Sobolev Kirill Sharshov Nikita Dubovitskiy Olga Kurskaya Alexander Alekseev Sergey Leonov Yuriy Yushkov Victor Irza Andrey Komissarov Artem Fadeev Daria Danilenko Junki Mine Ryota Tsunekuni Yuko Uchida Takehiko Saito Alexander Shestopalov Source Type: research

Estimate of Burden and Direct Healthcare Cost of Infectious Waterborne Disease in the United States
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2241-2242. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210242.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34287139 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210242 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker Abhilasha Shrestha Samuel Dorevitch Source Type: research

Fungemia and Other Fungal Infections Associated with Use of Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic Supplements
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210018.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34287140 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210018 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Juha Rannikko Ville Holmberg Matti Karppelin Pertti Arvola Reetta Huttunen Eero Mattila Niina Kerttula Teija Puhto Ülle Tamm Irma Koivula Risto Vuento Jaana Syrj änen Ulla Hohenthal Source Type: research

Whole-Genome Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from Quarantine Hotel Outbreak
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2219-2221. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204875.ABSTRACTHotel quarantine for international travelers has been used to prevent coronavirus disease spread into Australia. A quarantine hotel-associated community outbreak was detected in South Australia. Real-time genomic sequencing enabled rapid confirmation tracking the outbreak to a recently returned traveler and linked 2 cases of infection in travelers at the same facility.PMID:34287141 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.204875 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lex E X Leong Julien Soubrier Mark Turra Emma Denehy Luke Walters Karin Kassahn Geoff Higgins Tom Dodd Robert Hall Katina D'Onise Nicola Spurrier Ivan Bastian Chuan K Lim Source Type: research

Tuberculosis-Associated Hospitalizations and Deaths after COVID-19 Shelter-In-Place, San Francisco, California, USA
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2227-2229. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210670.ABSTRACTA mandated shelter-in-place and other restrictions associated with the coronavirus disease pandemic precipitated a decline in tuberculosis diagnoses in San Francisco, California, USA. Several months into the pandemic, severe illness resulting in hospitalization or death increased compared with prepandemic levels, warranting heightened vigilance for tuberculosis in at-risk populations.PMID:34287142 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.210670 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Janice K Louie Rocio Agraz-Lara Laura Romo Felix Crespin Lisa Chen Susannah Graves Source Type: research

Four Human Cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Connecticut, USA, during a Larger Regional Outbreak, 2019
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203730.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34289334 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.203730 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stacy C Brown Justine Cormier Jessica Tuan Audun J Lier Declan McGuone Philip M Armstrong Firas Kaddouh Sunil Parikh Marie Louise Landry Kevin T Gobeske Source Type: research

Breakthrough Infections of SARS-CoV-2 Gamma Variant in Fully Vaccinated Gold Miners, French Guiana, 2021
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 21;27(10). doi: 10.3201/eid2710.211427. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 caused by the Gamma variant of concern infected 24/44 (55%) employees of a gold mine in French Guiana (87% symptomatic, no severe forms). The attack rate was 60% (15/25) among fully vaccinated miners and 75% (3/4) among unvaccinated miners without a history of infection.PMID:34289335 | DOI:10.3201/eid2710.211427 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nicolas Vignier Vincent B érot Nathalie Bonnave Sandrine Peugny Mathilde Ballet Estelle Jacoud C éline Michaud M élanie Gaillet F élix Djossou Denis Blanchet Anne Lavergne Magalie Demar Mathieu Nacher Dominique Rousset Lo ïc Epelboin Source Type: research

Effects of Patient Characteristics on Diagnostic Performance of Self-Collected Samples for SARS-CoV-2 Testing
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(8):2081-2089. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210667.ABSTRACTWe evaluated the performance of self-collected anterior nasal swab (ANS) and saliva samples compared with healthcare worker-collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used the same PCR diagnostic panel to test all self-collected and healthcare worker-collected samples from participants at a public hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Among 1,076 participants, 51.9% were men, 57.1% were>50 years of age, 81.2% were Black (non-Hispanic), and 74.9% reported>1 chronic med...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah E Smith-Jeffcoat Mitsuki Koh Adam Hoffman Paulina A Rebolledo Marcos C Schechter Halie K Miller Sadia Sleweon Rebecca Rossetti Vyjayanti Kasinathan Talya Shragai Kevin O'Laughlin Catherine C Espinosa George M Khalil AdeSubomi O Adeyemo Anne Moorman Source Type: research

Modeling Immune Evasion and Vaccine Limitations by Targeted Nasopharyngeal Bordetella pertussis Inoculation in Mice
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2107-2116. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203566.ABSTRACTConventional pertussis animal models deliver hundreds of thousands of Bordetella pertussis bacteria deep into the lungs, rapidly inducing severe pneumonic pathology and a robust immune response. However, human infections usually begin with colonization and growth in the upper respiratory tract. We inoculated only the nasopharynx of mice to explore the course of infection in a more natural exposure model. Nasopharyngeal colonization resulted in robust growth in the upper respiratory tract but elicited little immune response, enabling prolonged a...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Illiassou Hamidou Soumana Bodo Linz Kalyan K Dewan Demba Sarr Monica C Gestal Laura K Howard Amanda D Caulfield Bal ázs Rada Eric T Harvill Source Type: research

Intense and Mild First Epidemic Wave of Coronavirus Disease, The Gambia
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2064-2072. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204954.ABSTRACTThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is evolving differently in Africa than in other regions. Africa has lower SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates and milder clinical manifestations. Detailed SARS-CoV-2 epidemiologic data are needed in Africa. We used publicly available data to calculate SARS-CoV-2 infections per 1,000 persons in The Gambia. We evaluated transmission rates among 1,366 employees of the Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia (MRCG), where systematic surveillance of symptomatic cases and contact tr...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baderinwa Abatan Orighomisan Agboghoroma Fatai Akemoke Martin Antonio Babatunde Awokola Mustapha Bittaye Abdoulie Bojang Kalifa Bojang Helen Brotherton Carla Cerami Ed Clarke Umberto D'Alessandro Thushan de Silva Mariama Drammeh Karen Forrest Natalie Hofm Source Type: research

Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses in Israel, 2010-2019
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2117-2126. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203661.ABSTRACTIn a multicenter, nationwide, retrospective study of patients hospitalized with spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Israel during 2010-2019, we identified 42 cases, of which 36 were autochthonous. The most prevalent species was the Rickettsia conorii Israeli tick typhus strain (n = 33, 79%); infection with this species necessitated intensive care for 52% of patients and was associated with a 30% fatality rate. A history of tick bite was rare, found for only 5% of patients; eschar was found in 12%; and leukocytosis was more common than leukopen...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Regev Cohen Talya Finn Frida Babushkin Yael Paran Ronen Ben Ami Alaa Atamna Sharon Reisfeld Gabriel Weber Neta Petersiel Hiba Zayyad Eyal Leshem Miriam Weinberger Yasmin Maor Nicola Makhoul Lior Nesher Galia Zaide Dar Klein Adi Beth-Din Yafit Atiya-Nasagi Source Type: research

Peridomestic Mammal Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2073-2080. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.210180.ABSTRACTWild animals have been implicated as the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but it is largely unknown how the virus affects most wildlife species and if wildlife could ultimately serve as a reservoir for maintaining the virus outside the human population. We show that several common peridomestic species, including deer mice, bushy-tailed woodrats, and striped skunks, are susceptible to infection and can shed the virus in respiratory secretions. In contrast, we demonstrate that cottontail rabbits, fox squirre...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Angela M Bosco-Lauth J Jeffrey Root Stephanie M Porter Audrey E Walker Lauren Guilbert Daphne Hawvermale Aimee Pepper Rachel M Maison Airn E Hartwig Paul Gordy Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann Richard A Bowen Source Type: research

Plague Transmission from Corpses and Carcasses
We examined 3 potential sources of infection: body fluids of living plague patients, infected corpses and carcasses, and body fluids of infected corpses. We concluded that pneumonic plague can be transmitted by intensive handling of the corpse or carcass, presumably through the inhalation of respiratory droplets, and that bubonic plague can be transmitted by blood-to-blood contact with the body fluids of a corpse or carcass. These findings should inform precautions taken by those handling the bodies of persons or animals that died of plague.PMID:34286686 | DOI:10.3201/eid2708.200136 (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sophie Jullien Nipun Lakshitha de Silva Paul Garner Source Type: research

Estimates of Toxoplasmosis Incidence Based on Healthcare Claims Data, Germany, 2011-2016
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2097-2106. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.203740.ABSTRACTToxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection contracted through Toxoplasma gondii-contaminated food, soil, or water. Seroprevalence in Germany is high, but estimates of disease incidence are scarce. We investigated incidences for various toxoplasmosis manifestations using anonymized healthcare claims data from Germany for 2011-2016. Patients with a toxoplasmosis diagnosis during the annual observational period were considered incident. The estimated incidence was adjusted to the general population age/sex distribution. We estimated an annual average o...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amrei Krings Josephine Jacob Frank Seeber Uwe Pleyer Jochen Walker Klaus Stark Hendrik Wilking Source Type: research

Mycobacterium microti Infections in Free-Ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)
We report 3 cases of M. microti infections in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) from western Austria and southern Germany. One diseased animal displayed severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and multifocal granulomas on the surface of the pericardium. Two other animals showed alterations of the lungs and associated lymph nodes compatible with parasitic infestation. Results of the phylogenetic analysis including multiple animal strains from the study area showed independent infection events, but no host-adapted genotype. Personnel involved in bovine tuberculosis-monitoring programs should be aware of the fastidious n...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Giovanni Ghielmetti Anne M Kupca Matthias Hanczaruk Ute Friedel Hubert Weinberger Sandra Revilla-Fern ández Erwin Hofer Julia M Riehm Roger Stephan Walter Glawischnig Source Type: research

Comparison of Lyme Disease in the United States and Europe
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2017-2024. doi: 10.3201/eid2708.204763.ABSTRACTLyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is the most common tickborne disease in the United States and Europe. In both locations, Ixodes species ticks transmit the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria species responsible for causing the infection. The diversity of Borrelia species that cause human infection is greater in Europe; the 2 B. burgdorferi s.l. species collectively responsible for most infections in Europe, B. afzelii and B. garinii, are not found in the United States, where most infections are caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. St...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adriana R Marques Franc Strle Gary P Wormser Source Type: research