An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Health and Performance.
An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Health and Performance. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1228:3-22 Authors: Kramer A Abstract Life expectancy is steadily increasing in modern societies, and so are noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and cancer, accounting for more than 70% of all deaths globally. The costs associated with these diseases are enormous, but it has been estimated that the majority of these noncommunicable diseases are preventable. In addition to an unhealthy diet, tobacco use, and harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity is a key risk factor. Consequently, physical activity is a logical remedy, and in this chapter an overview of the numerous beneficial effects of physical activity on health and performance is given.The chapter is divided into three parts: First, the basics of physical activity and exercise are discussed, for instance exercise classification, exercise intensity operationalization, energy supply, and the acute effects of exercise such as blood flow redistribution and increased cardiac output. In the second part, the effects of exercise on physical performance are summarized. Specifically, it is discussed how endurance, strength, power, and balance can be improved. This discussion includes recommendations regarding the type, intensity, and duration of the exercise leading to improvements in one of these aspects of physical performance, as well as the mechanisms causing these...
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