Retraction Note to: Effect of Adrenaline on Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Measured by NIRS in a Rat Asphyxia Cardiac Arrest Model
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1269:C1. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-48238-1_63.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34855163 | DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-48238-1_63 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - December 2, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Yu Okuma Tsukasa Yagi Tai Yin Takeyuki Kiguchi Taku Iwami Lance B Becker Koichiro Shinozaki Source Type: research

Identification of Small Molecules That Enhance the Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Originating from Bone Marrow
In conclusion, we have developed a new approach to facilitate the expansion of BM-MSCs. These results could enhance autologous and immunomodulation therapy involving BM-MSCs.PMID:34845672 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_677 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 30, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Lamia Yazgi Alyazici Fatih Kocabas Source Type: research

Achille Sclavo (1861-1930) and His Innovative Contributions to Italian Preventive Medicine and Healthcare Policy
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_673. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAchille Sclavo was a scientist with a multifaceted personality; throughout his life, he steadfastly maintained his commitment to research and teaching, while also gaining precious experience as an educator, politician and entrepreneur. He carried forward these various activities with the aim of bringing relief to a country smitten by epidemic diseases, of spreading the gospel of hygiene, and of creating and training medical and healthcare personnel that would be able to tackle the difficult problem of public health in Italy at the begi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Mariano Martini Davide Orsini Source Type: research

Correction to: Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_688. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34822144 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_688 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Mario Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

Achille Sclavo (1861-1930) and His Innovative Contributions to Italian Preventive Medicine and Healthcare Policy
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_673. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAchille Sclavo was a scientist with a multifaceted personality; throughout his life, he steadfastly maintained his commitment to research and teaching, while also gaining precious experience as an educator, politician and entrepreneur. He carried forward these various activities with the aim of bringing relief to a country smitten by epidemic diseases, of spreading the gospel of hygiene, and of creating and training medical and healthcare personnel that would be able to tackle the difficult problem of public health in Italy at the begi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Mariano Martini Davide Orsini Source Type: research

Correction to: Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_688. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34822144 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_688 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Mario Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

Achille Sclavo (1861-1930) and His Innovative Contributions to Italian Preventive Medicine and Healthcare Policy
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_673. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAchille Sclavo was a scientist with a multifaceted personality; throughout his life, he steadfastly maintained his commitment to research and teaching, while also gaining precious experience as an educator, politician and entrepreneur. He carried forward these various activities with the aim of bringing relief to a country smitten by epidemic diseases, of spreading the gospel of hygiene, and of creating and training medical and healthcare personnel that would be able to tackle the difficult problem of public health in Italy at the begi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Mariano Martini Davide Orsini Source Type: research

Correction to: Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_688. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34822144 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_688 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Mario Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

Achille Sclavo (1861-1930) and His Innovative Contributions to Italian Preventive Medicine and Healthcare Policy
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_673. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAchille Sclavo was a scientist with a multifaceted personality; throughout his life, he steadfastly maintained his commitment to research and teaching, while also gaining precious experience as an educator, politician and entrepreneur. He carried forward these various activities with the aim of bringing relief to a country smitten by epidemic diseases, of spreading the gospel of hygiene, and of creating and training medical and healthcare personnel that would be able to tackle the difficult problem of public health in Italy at the begi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Mariano Martini Davide Orsini Source Type: research

Correction to: Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_688. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34822144 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_688 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Mario Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

Achille Sclavo (1861-1930) and His Innovative Contributions to Italian Preventive Medicine and Healthcare Policy
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_673. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAchille Sclavo was a scientist with a multifaceted personality; throughout his life, he steadfastly maintained his commitment to research and teaching, while also gaining precious experience as an educator, politician and entrepreneur. He carried forward these various activities with the aim of bringing relief to a country smitten by epidemic diseases, of spreading the gospel of hygiene, and of creating and training medical and healthcare personnel that would be able to tackle the difficult problem of public health in Italy at the begi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Mariano Martini Davide Orsini Source Type: research

Correction to: Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_688. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34822144 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_688 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 25, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Mario Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

Introduction
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:1-3. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_1.ABSTRACTJust like the first edition of this widely successful book the second edition provides latest updates of our understanding of pathophysiology, pathology, clinical presentation and treatment of heritable soft connective tissue diseases. In addition, new knowledge of not only structures but also of functions of basic components of connective tissues (e.g., collagen), and of organs such as tendons has been added as well. Moreover, readers will learn more about new syndromes and new subgroups of previously described syndromes and disorders as well. The a...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Jaroslava Halper Source Type: research

Basic Structure, Physiology, and Biochemistry of Connective Tissues and Extracellular Matrix Collagens
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:5-43. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_2.ABSTRACTThe physiology of connective tissues like tendons and ligaments is highly dependent upon the collagens and other such extracellular matrix molecules hierarchically organized within the tissues. By dry weight, connective tissues are mostly composed of fibrillar collagens. However, several other forms of collagens play essential roles in the regulation of fibrillar collagen organization and assembly, in the establishment of basement membrane networks that provide support for vasculature for connective tissues, and in the formation of extensive filamen...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Michael J Mienaltowski Nicole L Gonzales Jessica M Beall Monica Y Pechanec Source Type: research

Tendon Extracellular Matrix Assembly, Maintenance and Dysregulation Throughout Life
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:45-103. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_3.ABSTRACTIn his Lissner Award medal lecture in 2000, Stephen Cowin asked the question: "How is a tissue built?" It is not a new question, but it remains as relevant today as it did when it was asked 20 years ago. In fact, research on the organization and development of tissue structure has been a primary focus of tendon and ligament research for over two centuries. The tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to overall tissue function; it gives the tissue its unique mechanical properties, exhibiting complex non-linear responses, viscoelasti...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Seyed Mohammad Siadat Danae E Zamboulis Chavaunne T Thorpe Jeffrey W Ruberti Brianne K Connizzo Source Type: research

Basic Components of Connective Tissues and Extracellular Matrix: Fibronectin, Fibrinogen, Laminin, Elastin, Fibrillins, Fibulins, Matrilins, Tenascins and Thrombospondins
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:105-126. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_4.ABSTRACTCollagens are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and many types of soft tissues. Elastin is another major component of certain soft tissues, such as arterial walls and ligaments. It is an insoluble polymer of the monomeric soluble precursor tropoelastin, and the main component of elastic fibers in matrix tissue where it provides elastic recoil and resilience to a variety of connective tissues, e.g., aorta and ligaments. Elastic fibers regulate activity of transforming growth factors β (TGFβ) through their ass...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Jaroslava Halper Source Type: research

Proteoglycans and Diseases of Soft Tissues
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:127-138. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_5.ABSTRACTProteoglycans consist of protein cores to which at least one glycosaminoglycan chain is attached. They play important roles in the physiology and biomechanical function of tendons, ligaments, cardiovascular system, and other systems through their involvement in regulation of assembly and maintenance of extracellular matrix, and through their participation in cell proliferation together with growth factors. They can be divided into two main groups, small and large proteoglycans. The small proteoglycans are also known as small leucine-rich proteogl...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Chloe Taejoo Hwang Jaroslava Halper Source Type: research

Growth Factor Roles in Soft Tissue Physiology and Pathophysiology
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:139-159. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_6.ABSTRACTRepair and healing of injured and diseased tendons has been traditionally fraught with apprehension and difficulties, and often led to rather unsatisfactory results. The burgeoning research field of growth factors has opened new venues for treatment of tendon disorders and injuries, and possibly for treatment of disorders of the aorta and major arteries as well. Several chapters in this volume elucidate the role of transforming growth factor β (TGFß) in pathogenesis of several heritable disorders affecting soft tissues, such as aorta, ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Jennifer H Roberts Jaroslava Halper Source Type: research

Connective Tissue Disorders and Cardiovascular Complications: The Indomitable Role of Transforming Growth Factor- β Signaling
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:161-184. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_7.ABSTRACTMarfan Syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) represent heritable connective tissue disorders that segregate with a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects (thoracic aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapse/regurgitation, and aortic dilatation with regurgitation). This pattern of cardiovascular defects appears to be expressed along a spectrum of severity in many heritable connective tissue disorders and raises suspicion of a relationship between the normal development of connective tissues and the cardiovascular system. With overwhelming e...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Jason B Wheeler John S Ikonomidis Jeffrey A Jones Source Type: research

Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Marfan Syndrome
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:185-206. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_8.ABSTRACTMarfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder that is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable penetrance. While clinically this disease manifests in many different ways, the most life-threatening manifestations are related to cardiovascular complications including mitral valve prolapse, aortic insufficiency, dilatation of the aortic root, and aortic dissection. In the past 30 years, research efforts have not only identified the genetic locus responsible but have begun to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis under...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sanford M Zeigler Brandon Sloan Jeffrey A Jones Source Type: research

Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes, Joint Hypermobility and Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:207-233. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_9.ABSTRACTEhlers-Danlos syndrome is an umbrella term for a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary soft connective tissue disorders mainly featuring abnormal cutaneous texture (doughy/velvety, soft, thin, and/or variably hyperextensible skin), easy bruising, and joint hypermobility. Currently, musculoskeletal manifestations related to joint hypermobility are perceived as the most prevalent determinants of the quality of life of affected individuals. The 2017 International Classification of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and related disorders ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Lucia Micale Carmela Fusco Marco Castori Source Type: research

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome with Glycosaminoglycan Abnormalities
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:235-249. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_10.ABSTRACTEhlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders that typically present with skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility. The major cause of EDS appears to be impaired biosynthesis and enzymatic modification of collagen. In this chapter, we discuss two types of EDS that are associated with proteoglycan abnormalities: spondylodysplastic EDS and musculocontractural EDS. Spondylodysplastic EDS is caused by pathogenic variants in B4GALT7 or B3GALT6, both of which e...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Noriko Miyake Tomoki Kosho Naomichi Matsumoto Source Type: research

Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:251-264. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_11.ABSTRACTLoeys-Dietz syndrome is an autosomal dominant aortic aneurysm syndrome characterized by multisystemic involvement. The most typical clinical triad includes hypertelorism, bifid uvula or cleft palate and aortic aneurysm with tortuosity. Natural history is significant for aortic dissection at smaller aortic diameter and arterial aneurysms throughout the arterial tree. The genetic cause is heterogeneous and includes mutations in genes encoding for components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling pathway: TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Joe D Velchev Lut Van Laer Ilse Luyckx Harry Dietz Bart Loeys Source Type: research

Meester-Loeys Syndrome
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:265-272. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_12.ABSTRACTMeester-Loeys syndrome is an X-linked form of syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysm, characterized by the involvement of multiple organ systems. More specifically, the cardiovascular, skeletal, craniofacial, cutaneous and neurological systems are affected. Clear clinical overlap with Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome is observed. Aortic dissections occur typically at young ages and are most often observed in males. Meester-Loeys syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in BGN, encoding the small leucine-rich proteoglycan biglycan. Al...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Josephina A N Meester Pauline De Kinderen Aline Verstraeten Bart Loeys Source Type: research

Clinical and Molecular Delineation of Cutis Laxa Syndromes: Paradigms for Homeostasis
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:273-309. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_13.ABSTRACTCutis laxa (CL) syndromes are a large and heterogeneous group of rare connective tissue disorders that share loose redundant skin as a hallmark clinical feature, which reflects dermal elastic fiber fragmentation. Both acquired and congenital-Mendelian- forms exist. Acquired forms are progressive and often preceded by inflammatory triggers in the skin, but may show systemic elastolysis. Mendelian forms are often pleiotropic in nature and classified upon systemic manifestations and mode of inheritance. Though impaired elastogenesis is a common den...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Aude Beyens Lore Pottie Patrick Sips Bert Callewaert Source Type: research

Collagen VI Muscle Disorders: Mutation Types, Pathogenic Mechanisms and Approaches to Therapy
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:311-323. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_14.ABSTRACTMutations in the genes encoding the major collagen VI isoform, COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3, are responsible for the muscle disorders Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. These disorders form a disease spectrum from mild to severe. Dominant and recessive mutations are found along the entire spectrum and the clinical phenotype is strongly influenced by the way mutations impede collagen VI protein assembly. Most mutations are in the triple helical domain, towards the N-terminus and they compromise microfibril assembly. Some mut...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Shireen R Lamand é Source Type: research

Connective Tissue Disorders in Domestic Animals
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:325-335. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_15.ABSTRACTThough soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, they remain uncommon. Because of their low prevalence, not much progress has been made not only in improved diagnosis but also in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats has only minor impact on the well-being of the dog as its effects on skin of these animals are rathe...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Jennifer Hope Roberts Jaroslava Halper Source Type: research

Nutrition and Metabolism: Foundations for Animal Growth, Development, Reproduction, and Health
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:1-24. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_1.ABSTRACTConsumption of high-quality animal protein plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, development, and health. With an exponential growth of the global population, demands for animal-sourced protein are expected to increase by 60% between 2021 and 2050. In addition to the production of food protein and fiber (wool), animals are useful models for biomedical research to prevent and treat human diseases and serve as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins. For a high efficiency to transform low-quality feedstuffs and forages into...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Guoyao Wu Source Type: research

Insights into the Regulation of Implantation and Placentation in Humans, Rodents, Sheep, and Pigs
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:25-48. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_2.ABSTRACTPrecise cell-specific spatio-temporal molecular signaling cascades regulate the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Importantly, the mechanisms regulating uterine receptivity, conceptus apposition and adhesion to the uterine luminal epithelia/superficial glandular epithelia and, in some species, invasion into the endometrial stroma and decidualization of stromal cells, are critical prerequisite events for placentation which is essential for the appropriate regulation of feto-placental growth for the remainder of pregnancy. Dysregulation of ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Claire Stenhouse Heewon Seo Guoyao Wu Gregory A Johnson Fuller W Bazer Source Type: research

A Role for Fructose Metabolism in Development of Sheep and Pig Conceptuses
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:49-62. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_3.ABSTRACTThe period of conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membrane) development between fertilization and implantation in mammalian species is critical as it sets the stage for placental and fetal development. The trophectoderm and endoderm of pre-implantation ovine and porcine conceptuses undergo elongation, which requires rapid proliferation, migration, and morphological modification of the trophectoderm cells. These complex events occur in a hypoxic intrauterine environment and are supported through the transport of secretions from maternal endometrial...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Robyn M Moses Avery C Kramer Heewon Seo Guoyao Wu Gregory A Johnson Fuller W Bazer Source Type: research

Nutritional Regulation of Embryonic Survival, Growth, and Development
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:63-76. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_4.ABSTRACTMaternal nutritional status affects conceptus development and, therefore, embryonic survival, growth, and development. These effects are apparent very early in pregnancy, which is when most embryonic losses occur. Maternal nutritional status has been shown to affect conceptus growth and gene expression throughout the periconceptual period of pregnancy (the period immediately before and after conception). Thus, the periconceptual period may be an important "window" during which the structure and function of the fetus and the placenta are &...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Lawrence P Reynolds Kyle J McLean Kacie L McCarthy Wellison J S Diniz Ana Clara B Menezes J Chris Forcherio Ronald R Scott Pawel P Borowicz Alison K Ward Carl R Dahlen Joel S Caton Source Type: research

Phosphate, Calcium, and Vitamin D: Key Regulators of Fetal and Placental Development in Mammals
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:77-107. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_5.ABSTRACTNormal calcium and bone homeostasis in the adult is virtually fully explained by the interactions of several key regulatory hormones, including parathyroid hormone, 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3, fibroblast growth factor-23, calcitonin, and sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone). In utero, bone and mineral metabolism is regulated differently from the adult. During development, it is the placenta and not the fetal kidneys, intestines, or skeleton that is the primary source of minerals for the fetus. The placenta is able to meet the almost inexhausti...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Claire Stenhouse Larry J Suva Dana Gaddy Guoyao Wu Fuller W Bazer Source Type: research

Nutritional and Physiological Regulation of Water Transport in the Conceptus
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:109-125. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_6.ABSTRACTWater transport during pregnancy is essential for maintaining normal growth and development of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and associated membranes). Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small integral plasma membrane proteins that primarily transport water across the plasma membrane. At least 11 isoforms of AQPs (AQPs 1-9, 11, and 12) are differentially expressed in the mammalian placenta (amnion, allantois, and chorion), and organs (kidney, lung, brain, heart, and skin) of embryos/fetuses during prenatal development. Available evidence suggests that...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Cui Zhu Zongyong Jiang Gregory A Johnson Robert C Burghardt Fuller W Bazer Guoyao Wu Source Type: research

Amino Acids in Microbial Metabolism and Function
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:127-143. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_7.ABSTRACTAmino acids (AAs) not only serve as building blocks for protein synthesis in microorganisms but also play important roles in their metabolism, survival, inter-species crosstalk, and virulence. Different AAs have their distinct functions in microbes of the digestive tract and this in turn has important impacts on host nutrition and physiology. Deconjugation and re-conjugation of glycine- or taurine- conjugated bile acids in the process of their enterohepatic recycling is a good example of the bacterial adaptation to harsh gut niches, inter-kingdom...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Zhaolai Dai Zhenlong Wu Weiyun Zhu Guoyao Wu Source Type: research

Potential Replacements for Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Poultry: Interactions at the Gut Level and Their Impact on Host Immunity
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:145-159. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_8.ABSTRACTThe chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has a complex, biodiverse microbial community of ~ 9 million bacterial genes plus archaea and fungi that links the host diet to its health. This microbial population contributes to host physiology through metabolite signaling while also providing local and systemic nutrients to multiple organ systems. In a homeostatic state, the host-microbial interaction is symbiotic; however, physiological issues are associated with dysregulated microbiota. Manipulating the microbiota is a therapeutic option, and the con...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Christina L Swaggerty Cristiano Bortoluzzi Annah Lee Cinthia Eyng Gabriela Dal Pont Michael H Kogut Source Type: research

Microbiomes in the Intestine of Developing Pigs: Implications for Nutrition and Health
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:161-176. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_9.ABSTRACTThe past decade has seen an expansion of studies on the role of gut microbiome in piglet nutrition and health. With the help of culture-independent sequencing techniques, the colonization of gut microbiota and their implication in physiology are being investigated in depth. Immediately after birth, the microbes begin to colonize following an age-dependent trajectory, which can be modified by maternal environment, diet, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. The early-life gut microbiome is relatively simple but enriched with huge meta...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Chunlong Mu Yu Pi Chuanjian Zhang Weiyun Zhu Source Type: research

L-Arginine Nutrition and Metabolism in Ruminants
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:177-206. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_10.ABSTRACTL-Arginine (Arg) plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (e.g., syntheses of protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine), blood flow, nutrient utilization, and health of ruminants. This amino acid is produced by ruminal bacteria and is also synthesized from L-glutamine, L-glutamate, and L-proline via the formation of L-citrulline (Cit) in the enterocytes of young and adult ruminants. In pre-weaning ruminants, most of the Cit formed de novo by the enterocytes is used locally for Arg production. In post-weaning ruminants, the small in...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Guoyao Wu Fuller W Bazer M Carey Satterfield Kyler R Gilbreath Erin A Posey Yuxiang Sun Source Type: research

Hepatic Glucose Metabolism and Its Disorders in Fish
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:207-236. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_11.ABSTRACTCarbohydrate, which is the most abundant nutrient in plant-sourced feedstuffs, is an economically indispensable component in commercial compound feeds for fish. This nutrient can enhance the physical quality of diets and allow for pellet expansion during extrusion. There is compelling evidence that an excess dietary intake of starch causes hepatic disorders, thereby further reducing the overall food consumption and growth performance of fish species. Among the severe metabolic disturbances are glycogenic hepatopathy (hepatomegaly caused by the e...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Xinyu Li Tao Han Shixuan Zheng Guoyao Wu Source Type: research

Protein-Sourced Feedstuffs for Aquatic Animals in Nutrition Research and Aquaculture
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:237-261. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_12.ABSTRACTAquatic animals have particularly high requirements for dietary amino acids (AAs) for health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction. These nutrients are usually provided from ingested proteins and may also be derived from supplemental crystalline AA. AAs are the building blocks of protein (a major component of tissue growth) and, therefore, are the determinants of the growth performance and feed efficiency of farmed fish. Because protein is generally the most expensive ingredient in aqua feeds, much attention has been directed to ensur...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sichao Jia Xinyu Li Wenliang He Guoyao Wu Source Type: research

Functional Molecules of Intestinal Mucosal Products and Peptones  in Animal Nutrition and Health
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:263-277. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_13.ABSTRACTThere is growing interest in the use of intestinal mucosal products and peptones (partial protein hydrolysates) to enhance the food intake, growth, development, and health of animals. The mucosa of the small intestine consists of the epithelium, the lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosa. The diverse population of cells (epithelial, immune, endocrine, neuronal, vascular, and elastic cells) in the intestinal mucosa contains not only high-quality food protein (e.g., collagen) but also a wide array of low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight fun...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Peng Li Guoyao Wu Source Type: research

Use of Genome Editing Techniques to Produce Transgenic Farm Animals
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:279-297. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_14.ABSTRACTRecombinant proteins are essential for the treatment and diagnosis of clinical human ailments. The availability and biological activity of recombinant proteins is heavily influenced by production platforms. Conventional production platforms such as yeast, bacteria, and mammalian cells have biological and economical challenges. Transgenic livestock species have been explored as an alternative production platform for recombinant proteins, predominantly through milk secretion; the strategy has been demonstrated to produce large quantities of biolog...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Alayna N Hay Kayla Farrell Caroline M Leeth Kiho Lee Source Type: research

Cows as Bioreactors for the Production of Nutritionally and Biomedically Significant Proteins
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:299-314. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_15.ABSTRACTDairy and beef cattle make a vital contribution to global nutrition, and since their domestication, they have been continuously exposed to natural and artificial selection to improve production characteristics. The technologies of transgenesis and gene editing used in cattle are responsible for generating news characteristics in bovine breeding, such as alteration of nutritional components of milk and meat enhancing human health benefits, disease resistance decreasing production costs and offering safe products for human food, as well as the rec...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: P S Monzani P R Adona S A Long M B Wheeler Source Type: research

Use of Agriculturally Important Animals as Models in Biomedical Research
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:315-333. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_16.ABSTRACTLivestock have contributed significantly to advances in biomedicine and offer unique advantages over rodent models. The human is the ideal biomedical model; however, ethical reasons limit the testing of hypotheses and treatments in humans. Rodent models are frequently used as alternatives to humans due to size, low cost, and ease of genetic manipulation, and have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human health and disease. However, the use of rodents in translational research pose challenges for researchers due to physiological dif...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Brandon I Smith Kristen E Govoni Source Type: research

Pigs (Sus Scrofa) in Biomedical Research
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:335-343. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-85686-1_17.ABSTRACTMuch of biomedical oriented research is conducted with animal models. Over the years, rodents (primarily rats and mice) have emerged as the preferred species for basic biochemistry, cell biology, physiology and nutrition studies. In the past, dogs have been used for the evaluation of dietary protein quality and other aspects of animal nitrogen metabolism and physiology, cardiovascular and endocrine research. At an increasing rate, pigs have also been used as a model species in biomedical research. Pigs are readily available in various mature siz...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Werner G Bergen Source Type: research

Introduction
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:1-3. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_1.ABSTRACTJust like the first edition of this widely successful book the second edition provides latest updates of our understanding of pathophysiology, pathology, clinical presentation and treatment of heritable soft connective tissue diseases. In addition, new knowledge of not only structures but also of functions of basic components of connective tissues (e.g., collagen), and of organs such as tendons has been added as well. Moreover, readers will learn more about new syndromes and new subgroups of previously described syndromes and disorders as well. The a...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Jaroslava Halper Source Type: research

Basic Structure, Physiology, and Biochemistry of Connective Tissues and Extracellular Matrix Collagens
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:5-43. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-80614-9_2.ABSTRACTThe physiology of connective tissues like tendons and ligaments is highly dependent upon the collagens and other such extracellular matrix molecules hierarchically organized within the tissues. By dry weight, connective tissues are mostly composed of fibrillar collagens. However, several other forms of collagens play essential roles in the regulation of fibrillar collagen organization and assembly, in the establishment of basement membrane networks that provide support for vasculature for connective tissues, and in the formation of extensive filamen...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Michael J Mienaltowski Nicole L Gonzales Jessica M Beall Monica Y Pechanec Source Type: research