Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
We report a male neonate suspected with a metabolic/mitochondrial disease and multi-organ involvement but who developed a fulminant hepatic failure and disseminated coagulopathy secondary to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The postmortem diagnosis was performed demonstrating HSV-1 in liver tissue by transmission electron microscopy and by retrospective detection of HSV specific antigens by immunohistochemistry.PMID:34302289 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_659 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Maria Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

A Common Molecular Switch for H < sub > 2 < /sub > S to Regulate Multiple Protein Targets
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:1-16. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_1.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide, a small molecule, produced by endogenous enzymes, such as CTH, CBS, and MPST using L-cysteine as substrates, has been reported to have numerous protective effects. However, the key problem that the target of H2S and how it can affect the structure and activity of biological molecules is still unknown. Till now, there are two main theories of its working mechanism. One is that H2S can modify the free thiol in cysteine to produce the persulfide state of the thiol and the sulfhydration of cysteine can significantly change the structur...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Bei-Bei Tao Yi-Chun Zhu Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and the Kidney
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:17-50. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_2.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is constitutively synthesized in the kidney. Recent investigations suggest a role for H2S in the regulation of fundamental kidney physiological events including arterial blood flow, glomerular filtration, and electrolyte and water transport. Deficiency of H2S generation has been implicated in acute kidney injury brought on by ischemia, administration of nephrotoxic medications, and obstruction. A role for impaired H2S expression has been shown in chronic kidney injury seen with chronic heart failure, obesity, and diabetes. De...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Balakuntalam S Kasinath Hak Joo Lee Source Type: research

The Role of H < sub > 2 < /sub > S in the Metabolism of Glucose and Lipids
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:51-66. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_3.ABSTRACTGlucose and lipids are essential elements for maintaining the body's homeostasis, and their dysfunction may participate in the pathologies of various diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular ailments, and cancers. Among numerous endogenous mediators, the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Current evidence from both pharmacological studies and transgenic animal models suggest a complex relationship between H2S and metabolic dysregulation...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Hai-Jian Sun Zhi-Yuan Wu Xiao-Wei Nie Jin-Song Bian Source Type: research

The Role of H < sub > 2 < /sub > S in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Microbiota
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:67-98. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_4.ABSTRACTThe pathways and mechanisms of the production of H2S in the gastrointestinal tract are briefly described, including endogenous H2S produced by the organism and H2S from microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the physiological regulatory functions of H2S on gastrointestinal motility, sensation, secretion and absorption, endocrine system, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, and the possible mechanisms involved are introduced. In view of the complexity of biosynthesis, physiological roles, and the mechanism of H2S, thi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Ailin Xiao Chuanyong Liu Jingxin Li Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and the Immune System
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:99-128. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_5.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the "third gasotransmitter" recognized alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). H2S exhibits an array of biological effects in mammalian cells as revealed by studies showing important roles in the cardiovascular system, in cell signalling processes, post-translational modifications and in the immune system. Regarding the latter, using pharmacological and genetic approaches scientists have shown this molecule to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in mammalian systems. The anti-inflammatory ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Peter Rose Yi-Zhun Zhu Philip K Moore Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and its Interaction with Other Players in Inflammation
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:129-159. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_6.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a vital role in human physiology and in the pathophysiology of several diseases. In addition, a substantial role of H2S in inflammation has emerged. This chapter will discuss the involvement of H2S in various inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), adhesion molecules, and leukocyte recruitment in H2S-mediated inflammation will be discussed. The interrelationship of H2S with other gasotransmitters in inflammation will also be examined. There is mixed literature on the cont...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sumeet Manandhar Priyanka Sinha Grace Ejiwale Madhav Bhatia Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide: a Novel Immunoinflammatory Regulator in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:161-179. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_7.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous, gaseous, signaling transmitter, has been shown to have vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activities. Increasing evidence also indicates that H2S can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells, for example, T cells and macrophages. Inflammation is closely related to an immune response in several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and cancer. Considering these biological effects of H2S...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: M Li Jian-Chun Mao Yi-Zhun Zhu Source Type: research

The Cardiovascular Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide: The Epigenetic Mechanisms
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:181-203. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_8.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as a gas signal molecule, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) through mechanisms such as angiogenesis, vasodilation, and anti-vascular endothelial cell senescence. Current studies have shown that H2S can regulate cardiac function through epigenetic regulation. The regulation has opened up a new avenue for the study of CVD development mechanism and H2S related drug discoveries.PMID:34302693 | DOI:10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_8 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Qian Ding Yi-Zhun Zhu Source Type: research

Interaction among Hydrogen Sulfide and Other Gasotransmitters in Mammalian Physiology and Pathophysiology
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:205-236. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_9.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were previously considered as toxic gases, but now they are found to be members of mammalian gasotransmitters family. Both H2S and SO2 are endogenously produced in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway in vivo. The enzymes catalyzing the formation of H2S are mainly CBS, CSE, and 3-MST, and the key enzymes for SO2 production are AAT1 and AAT2. Endogenous NO is produced from L-arginine under catalysis of three isoforms of NOS (eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS). H...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Ya-Qian Huang Hong-Fang Jin Heng Zhang Chao-Shu Tang Jun-Bao Du Source Type: research

Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
We report a male neonate suspected with a metabolic/mitochondrial disease and multi-organ involvement but who developed a fulminant hepatic failure and disseminated coagulopathy secondary to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The postmortem diagnosis was performed demonstrating HSV-1 in liver tissue by transmission electron microscopy and by retrospective detection of HSV specific antigens by immunohistochemistry.PMID:34302289 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_659 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Maria Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

A Common Molecular Switch for H < sub > 2 < /sub > S to Regulate Multiple Protein Targets
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:1-16. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_1.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide, a small molecule, produced by endogenous enzymes, such as CTH, CBS, and MPST using L-cysteine as substrates, has been reported to have numerous protective effects. However, the key problem that the target of H2S and how it can affect the structure and activity of biological molecules is still unknown. Till now, there are two main theories of its working mechanism. One is that H2S can modify the free thiol in cysteine to produce the persulfide state of the thiol and the sulfhydration of cysteine can significantly change the structur...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Bei-Bei Tao Yi-Chun Zhu Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and the Kidney
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:17-50. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_2.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is constitutively synthesized in the kidney. Recent investigations suggest a role for H2S in the regulation of fundamental kidney physiological events including arterial blood flow, glomerular filtration, and electrolyte and water transport. Deficiency of H2S generation has been implicated in acute kidney injury brought on by ischemia, administration of nephrotoxic medications, and obstruction. A role for impaired H2S expression has been shown in chronic kidney injury seen with chronic heart failure, obesity, and diabetes. De...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Balakuntalam S Kasinath Hak Joo Lee Source Type: research

The Role of H < sub > 2 < /sub > S in the Metabolism of Glucose and Lipids
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:51-66. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_3.ABSTRACTGlucose and lipids are essential elements for maintaining the body's homeostasis, and their dysfunction may participate in the pathologies of various diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular ailments, and cancers. Among numerous endogenous mediators, the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Current evidence from both pharmacological studies and transgenic animal models suggest a complex relationship between H2S and metabolic dysregulation...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Hai-Jian Sun Zhi-Yuan Wu Xiao-Wei Nie Jin-Song Bian Source Type: research

The Role of H < sub > 2 < /sub > S in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Microbiota
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:67-98. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_4.ABSTRACTThe pathways and mechanisms of the production of H2S in the gastrointestinal tract are briefly described, including endogenous H2S produced by the organism and H2S from microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the physiological regulatory functions of H2S on gastrointestinal motility, sensation, secretion and absorption, endocrine system, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, and the possible mechanisms involved are introduced. In view of the complexity of biosynthesis, physiological roles, and the mechanism of H2S, thi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Ailin Xiao Chuanyong Liu Jingxin Li Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and the Immune System
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:99-128. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_5.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the "third gasotransmitter" recognized alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). H2S exhibits an array of biological effects in mammalian cells as revealed by studies showing important roles in the cardiovascular system, in cell signalling processes, post-translational modifications and in the immune system. Regarding the latter, using pharmacological and genetic approaches scientists have shown this molecule to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in mammalian systems. The anti-inflammatory ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Peter Rose Yi-Zhun Zhu Philip K Moore Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and its Interaction with Other Players in Inflammation
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:129-159. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_6.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a vital role in human physiology and in the pathophysiology of several diseases. In addition, a substantial role of H2S in inflammation has emerged. This chapter will discuss the involvement of H2S in various inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), adhesion molecules, and leukocyte recruitment in H2S-mediated inflammation will be discussed. The interrelationship of H2S with other gasotransmitters in inflammation will also be examined. There is mixed literature on the cont...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sumeet Manandhar Priyanka Sinha Grace Ejiwale Madhav Bhatia Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide: a Novel Immunoinflammatory Regulator in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:161-179. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_7.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous, gaseous, signaling transmitter, has been shown to have vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activities. Increasing evidence also indicates that H2S can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells, for example, T cells and macrophages. Inflammation is closely related to an immune response in several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and cancer. Considering these biological effects of H2S...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: M Li Jian-Chun Mao Yi-Zhun Zhu Source Type: research

The Cardiovascular Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide: The Epigenetic Mechanisms
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:181-203. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_8.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as a gas signal molecule, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) through mechanisms such as angiogenesis, vasodilation, and anti-vascular endothelial cell senescence. Current studies have shown that H2S can regulate cardiac function through epigenetic regulation. The regulation has opened up a new avenue for the study of CVD development mechanism and H2S related drug discoveries.PMID:34302693 | DOI:10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_8 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Qian Ding Yi-Zhun Zhu Source Type: research

Interaction among Hydrogen Sulfide and Other Gasotransmitters in Mammalian Physiology and Pathophysiology
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:205-236. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_9.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were previously considered as toxic gases, but now they are found to be members of mammalian gasotransmitters family. Both H2S and SO2 are endogenously produced in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway in vivo. The enzymes catalyzing the formation of H2S are mainly CBS, CSE, and 3-MST, and the key enzymes for SO2 production are AAT1 and AAT2. Endogenous NO is produced from L-arginine under catalysis of three isoforms of NOS (eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS). H...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Ya-Qian Huang Hong-Fang Jin Heng Zhang Chao-Shu Tang Jun-Bao Du Source Type: research

Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
We report a male neonate suspected with a metabolic/mitochondrial disease and multi-organ involvement but who developed a fulminant hepatic failure and disseminated coagulopathy secondary to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The postmortem diagnosis was performed demonstrating HSV-1 in liver tissue by transmission electron microscopy and by retrospective detection of HSV specific antigens by immunohistochemistry.PMID:34302289 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_659 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Maria Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

A Common Molecular Switch for H < sub > 2 < /sub > S to Regulate Multiple Protein Targets
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:1-16. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_1.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide, a small molecule, produced by endogenous enzymes, such as CTH, CBS, and MPST using L-cysteine as substrates, has been reported to have numerous protective effects. However, the key problem that the target of H2S and how it can affect the structure and activity of biological molecules is still unknown. Till now, there are two main theories of its working mechanism. One is that H2S can modify the free thiol in cysteine to produce the persulfide state of the thiol and the sulfhydration of cysteine can significantly change the structur...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Bei-Bei Tao Yi-Chun Zhu Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and the Kidney
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:17-50. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_2.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is constitutively synthesized in the kidney. Recent investigations suggest a role for H2S in the regulation of fundamental kidney physiological events including arterial blood flow, glomerular filtration, and electrolyte and water transport. Deficiency of H2S generation has been implicated in acute kidney injury brought on by ischemia, administration of nephrotoxic medications, and obstruction. A role for impaired H2S expression has been shown in chronic kidney injury seen with chronic heart failure, obesity, and diabetes. De...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Balakuntalam S Kasinath Hak Joo Lee Source Type: research

The Role of H < sub > 2 < /sub > S in the Metabolism of Glucose and Lipids
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:51-66. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_3.ABSTRACTGlucose and lipids are essential elements for maintaining the body's homeostasis, and their dysfunction may participate in the pathologies of various diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular ailments, and cancers. Among numerous endogenous mediators, the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Current evidence from both pharmacological studies and transgenic animal models suggest a complex relationship between H2S and metabolic dysregulation...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Hai-Jian Sun Zhi-Yuan Wu Xiao-Wei Nie Jin-Song Bian Source Type: research

The Role of H < sub > 2 < /sub > S in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Microbiota
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:67-98. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_4.ABSTRACTThe pathways and mechanisms of the production of H2S in the gastrointestinal tract are briefly described, including endogenous H2S produced by the organism and H2S from microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the physiological regulatory functions of H2S on gastrointestinal motility, sensation, secretion and absorption, endocrine system, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, and the possible mechanisms involved are introduced. In view of the complexity of biosynthesis, physiological roles, and the mechanism of H2S, thi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Ailin Xiao Chuanyong Liu Jingxin Li Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and the Immune System
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:99-128. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_5.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the "third gasotransmitter" recognized alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). H2S exhibits an array of biological effects in mammalian cells as revealed by studies showing important roles in the cardiovascular system, in cell signalling processes, post-translational modifications and in the immune system. Regarding the latter, using pharmacological and genetic approaches scientists have shown this molecule to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in mammalian systems. The anti-inflammatory ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Peter Rose Yi-Zhun Zhu Philip K Moore Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide and its Interaction with Other Players in Inflammation
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:129-159. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_6.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a vital role in human physiology and in the pathophysiology of several diseases. In addition, a substantial role of H2S in inflammation has emerged. This chapter will discuss the involvement of H2S in various inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), adhesion molecules, and leukocyte recruitment in H2S-mediated inflammation will be discussed. The interrelationship of H2S with other gasotransmitters in inflammation will also be examined. There is mixed literature on the cont...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sumeet Manandhar Priyanka Sinha Grace Ejiwale Madhav Bhatia Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide: a Novel Immunoinflammatory Regulator in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:161-179. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_7.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous, gaseous, signaling transmitter, has been shown to have vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activities. Increasing evidence also indicates that H2S can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells, for example, T cells and macrophages. Inflammation is closely related to an immune response in several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and cancer. Considering these biological effects of H2S...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: M Li Jian-Chun Mao Yi-Zhun Zhu Source Type: research

The Cardiovascular Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide: The Epigenetic Mechanisms
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:181-203. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_8.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as a gas signal molecule, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) through mechanisms such as angiogenesis, vasodilation, and anti-vascular endothelial cell senescence. Current studies have shown that H2S can regulate cardiac function through epigenetic regulation. The regulation has opened up a new avenue for the study of CVD development mechanism and H2S related drug discoveries.PMID:34302693 | DOI:10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_8 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Qian Ding Yi-Zhun Zhu Source Type: research

Interaction among Hydrogen Sulfide and Other Gasotransmitters in Mammalian Physiology and Pathophysiology
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1315:205-236. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-0991-6_9.ABSTRACTHydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were previously considered as toxic gases, but now they are found to be members of mammalian gasotransmitters family. Both H2S and SO2 are endogenously produced in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway in vivo. The enzymes catalyzing the formation of H2S are mainly CBS, CSE, and 3-MST, and the key enzymes for SO2 production are AAT1 and AAT2. Endogenous NO is produced from L-arginine under catalysis of three isoforms of NOS (eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS). H...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Ya-Qian Huang Hong-Fang Jin Heng Zhang Chao-Shu Tang Jun-Bao Du Source Type: research

Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of a Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Presenting as Fulminant Hepatitis: A Case Report
We report a male neonate suspected with a metabolic/mitochondrial disease and multi-organ involvement but who developed a fulminant hepatic failure and disseminated coagulopathy secondary to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The postmortem diagnosis was performed demonstrating HSV-1 in liver tissue by transmission electron microscopy and by retrospective detection of HSV specific antigens by immunohistochemistry.PMID:34302289 | DOI:10.1007/5584_2021_659 (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 24, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Valentina Papa Nunzio Cosimo Maria Salfi Roberta Costa Ilaria Bettocchi Emilia Ricci Duccio Maria Cordelli Francesca Locatelli Fabio Caramelli Giovanna Cenacchi Source Type: research

CCL2 in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:1-14. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_1.ABSTRACTThe C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a crucial mediator of immune cell recruitment during microbial infections and tissue damage. CCL2 is also frequently overexpressed in cancer cells and other cells in the tumor microenvironment, and a large body of evidence indicates that high CCL2 levels are associated with more aggressive malignancies, a higher probability of metastasis, and poorer outcomes in a wide range of cancers. CCL2 plays a role in recruiting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which adopt a pro-tumorigenic phenotype and support ca...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Tracy O'Connor Mathias Heikenwalder Source Type: research

CXCL3 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:15-24. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_2.ABSTRACTCancer progression is driven, to a large extent, by the action of immune cells that have been recruited to tumor sites through interactions between chemokines and their receptors. Chemokines of the CXC subfamily are secreted by both tumor and non-tumor cells within the microenvironment of the tumor, where they induce either antitumor or protumor activity that fosters either clearance or progression of the tumor, respectively. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important to envisage novel approaches targeting the essential components ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Niradiz Reyes Stephanie Figueroa Raj Tiwari Jan Geliebter Source Type: research

CXCL8 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:25-39. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_3.ABSTRACTThe tumor microenvironment represents a dynamic and complex cellular network involving intricate communications between the tumor and highly heterogeneous groups of cells, including tumor-supporting immune and inflammatory cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, tumor-associated macrophages, adipose cells, and pericytes. Associated with a variety of growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and other signaling molecules, the interaction between the tumor microenvironment and the tumor cells empowers aggressiveness of tumor by enhancin...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sahana Asokan Obul Reddy Bandapalli Source Type: research

CXCL11 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:41-50. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_4.ABSTRACTCXCL11 which can bind to two different chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CXCR7, has found a prominent place in current tumor research. In this chapter, we mainly discuss the current evidence on the role of the immune response of CXCL11 in tumor microenvironment (TME). The diverse functions of CXCL11 include inhibiting angiogenesis, affecting the proliferation of different cell types, playing a role in fibroblast directed carcinoma invasion, increasing adhesion properties, suppressing M2 macrophage polarization, and facilitating the migration of certai...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Qun Gao Yi Zhang Source Type: research

CXCL12 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:51-70. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_5.ABSTRACTTumor microenvironment (TME) is the local environment of tumor, composed of tumor cells and blood vessels, extracellular matrix (ECM), immune cells, and metabolic and signaling molecules. Chemokines and their receptors play a fundamental role in the crosstalk between tumor cells and TME, regulating tumor-related angiogenesis, specific leukocyte infiltration, and activation of the immune response and directly influencing tumor cell growth, invasion, and cancer progression. The chemokine CXCL12 is a homeostatic chemokine that regulates physiological ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Luigi Portella Anna Maria Bello Stefania Scala Source Type: research

CXCL13 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:71-90. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_6.ABSTRACTChemokines have emerged as important players in tumorigenic process. An extensive body of literature generated over the last two or three decades strongly implicate abnormally activated or functionally disrupted chemokine signaling in liaising most-if not all-hallmark processes of cancer. It is well-known that chemokine signaling networks within the tumor microenvironment are highly versatile and context-dependent: exert both pro-tumoral and antitumoral activities. The C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), and its cognate receptor CXCR5, repres...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Muzammal Hussain Jinsong Liu Gui-Zhen Wang Guang-Biao Zhou Source Type: research

CCL24 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:91-98. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_7.ABSTRACTChemokines with their network play an important role in cancer growth, metastasis, and host-tumor interactions. Of many chemokines, C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 (CCL24) has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis as well as inflammatory diseases like asthma, allergies, and eosinophilic esophagitis. CCL24 is expressed in some tumor cells such as colon cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cutaneous T cell lymphoma. CCL24 can be used as a potential biomarker in several cancers including colon cancer, non-small cell cancer, and nasopharyngeal carci...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sung-Jig Lim Source Type: research

CCL25 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:99-111. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_8.ABSTRACTMultiple checkpoint mechanisms are overridden by cancer cells in order to develop into a tumor. Neoplastic cells, while constantly changing during the course of cancer progression, also craft their surroundings to meet their growing needs. This crafting involves changing cell surface receptors, affecting response to extracellular signals and secretion of signals that affect the nearby cells and extracellular matrix architecture. This chapter briefly comprehends the non-cancer cells facilitating the cancer growth and elaborates on the notable role ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Hina Mir Shailesh Singh Source Type: research

CCL27 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:113-132. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_9.ABSTRACTChemokines are a group of small proteins which play an important role in leukocyte migration and invasion. They are also involved in the cellular proliferation and migration of tumor cells.Chemokine CCL27 (cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, CTACK) is mainly expressed by keratinocytes of the normal epidermis. It is well known that this chemokine plays an important role in several inflammatory diseases of the skin, such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and psoriasis. Moreover, several studies have shown an association between CCL27 exp...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Miguel Mart ínez-Rodríguez Carlos Monteagudo Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Drug Resistance and Use of Nanoparticle Delivery to Overcome Resistance in Breast Cancers
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021 Jul 22. doi: 10.1007/5584_2021_648. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBreast cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed among women in the world. Unfortunately, drug resistance to current breast cancer chemotherapeutics remains the main challenge for a higher survival rate. The recent progress in the nanoparticle platforms and distinct features of nanoparticles that enhance the efficacy of therapeutic agents, such as improved delivery efficacy, increased intracellular cytotoxicity, and reduced side effects, hold great promise to overcome the observed drug resistance. Currently, multifaceted investigatio...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Huseyin Beyaz Hasan Uludag Doga Kavaz Nahit Rizaner Source Type: research

CCL2 in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:1-14. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_1.ABSTRACTThe C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a crucial mediator of immune cell recruitment during microbial infections and tissue damage. CCL2 is also frequently overexpressed in cancer cells and other cells in the tumor microenvironment, and a large body of evidence indicates that high CCL2 levels are associated with more aggressive malignancies, a higher probability of metastasis, and poorer outcomes in a wide range of cancers. CCL2 plays a role in recruiting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which adopt a pro-tumorigenic phenotype and support ca...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Tracy O'Connor Mathias Heikenwalder Source Type: research

CXCL3 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:15-24. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_2.ABSTRACTCancer progression is driven, to a large extent, by the action of immune cells that have been recruited to tumor sites through interactions between chemokines and their receptors. Chemokines of the CXC subfamily are secreted by both tumor and non-tumor cells within the microenvironment of the tumor, where they induce either antitumor or protumor activity that fosters either clearance or progression of the tumor, respectively. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important to envisage novel approaches targeting the essential components ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Niradiz Reyes Stephanie Figueroa Raj Tiwari Jan Geliebter Source Type: research

CXCL8 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:25-39. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_3.ABSTRACTThe tumor microenvironment represents a dynamic and complex cellular network involving intricate communications between the tumor and highly heterogeneous groups of cells, including tumor-supporting immune and inflammatory cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, tumor-associated macrophages, adipose cells, and pericytes. Associated with a variety of growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and other signaling molecules, the interaction between the tumor microenvironment and the tumor cells empowers aggressiveness of tumor by enhancin...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sahana Asokan Obul Reddy Bandapalli Source Type: research

CXCL11 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:41-50. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_4.ABSTRACTCXCL11 which can bind to two different chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CXCR7, has found a prominent place in current tumor research. In this chapter, we mainly discuss the current evidence on the role of the immune response of CXCL11 in tumor microenvironment (TME). The diverse functions of CXCL11 include inhibiting angiogenesis, affecting the proliferation of different cell types, playing a role in fibroblast directed carcinoma invasion, increasing adhesion properties, suppressing M2 macrophage polarization, and facilitating the migration of certai...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Qun Gao Yi Zhang Source Type: research

CXCL12 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:51-70. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_5.ABSTRACTTumor microenvironment (TME) is the local environment of tumor, composed of tumor cells and blood vessels, extracellular matrix (ECM), immune cells, and metabolic and signaling molecules. Chemokines and their receptors play a fundamental role in the crosstalk between tumor cells and TME, regulating tumor-related angiogenesis, specific leukocyte infiltration, and activation of the immune response and directly influencing tumor cell growth, invasion, and cancer progression. The chemokine CXCL12 is a homeostatic chemokine that regulates physiological ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Luigi Portella Anna Maria Bello Stefania Scala Source Type: research

CXCL13 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:71-90. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_6.ABSTRACTChemokines have emerged as important players in tumorigenic process. An extensive body of literature generated over the last two or three decades strongly implicate abnormally activated or functionally disrupted chemokine signaling in liaising most-if not all-hallmark processes of cancer. It is well-known that chemokine signaling networks within the tumor microenvironment are highly versatile and context-dependent: exert both pro-tumoral and antitumoral activities. The C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), and its cognate receptor CXCR5, repres...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Muzammal Hussain Jinsong Liu Gui-Zhen Wang Guang-Biao Zhou Source Type: research

CCL24 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:91-98. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_7.ABSTRACTChemokines with their network play an important role in cancer growth, metastasis, and host-tumor interactions. Of many chemokines, C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 (CCL24) has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis as well as inflammatory diseases like asthma, allergies, and eosinophilic esophagitis. CCL24 is expressed in some tumor cells such as colon cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cutaneous T cell lymphoma. CCL24 can be used as a potential biomarker in several cancers including colon cancer, non-small cell cancer, and nasopharyngeal carci...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Sung-Jig Lim Source Type: research

CCL25 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:99-111. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_8.ABSTRACTMultiple checkpoint mechanisms are overridden by cancer cells in order to develop into a tumor. Neoplastic cells, while constantly changing during the course of cancer progression, also craft their surroundings to meet their growing needs. This crafting involves changing cell surface receptors, affecting response to extracellular signals and secretion of signals that affect the nearby cells and extracellular matrix architecture. This chapter briefly comprehends the non-cancer cells facilitating the cancer growth and elaborates on the notable role ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Hina Mir Shailesh Singh Source Type: research

CCL27 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1302:113-132. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-62658-7_9.ABSTRACTChemokines are a group of small proteins which play an important role in leukocyte migration and invasion. They are also involved in the cellular proliferation and migration of tumor cells.Chemokine CCL27 (cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, CTACK) is mainly expressed by keratinocytes of the normal epidermis. It is well known that this chemokine plays an important role in several inflammatory diseases of the skin, such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and psoriasis. Moreover, several studies have shown an association between CCL27 exp...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Miguel Mart ínez-Rodríguez Carlos Monteagudo Source Type: research