Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Proangiogenic and Profibrotic Markers in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.
Authors: Tuleta I, Biener L, Pizarro C, Nickenig G, Skowasch D Abstract The aim of our study was to determine the blood levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB in different stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis. There were 92 patients in sarcoidosis stages I + II, III, and IV enrolled into the study. All the patients underwent lung diffusing capacity and blood sampling. We found that VEGF levels differed significantly between the stage groups with the peak VEGF concentrations in ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Estimates of Medication Expenditure for Ischemic Heart Disease Accompanying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
This study confirms that heart disease accompanying COPD is a frequent occurrence, generating high costs of treatment, which relates to the severity of this comorbidity. PMID: 29679364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Influence of Gaseous Pollutants on COPD Exacerbations in Patients with Cardiovascular Comorbidities.
In this study, 12,889 hospitalizations in the years 2006-2014 due to exacerbations of COPD in patients having a co-existing cardiovascular pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Cardiovascular disease was ruled out as the underlying reason of hospitalization. Data concerning the then accompanying gaseous pollutants and weather conditions were collected. The findings were that the impact of SO2 content was significantly associated with the relative risk (RR) of COPD exacerbation when the exposure took place at least 30 days or longer before hospital admission (RR 1.04-1.05; p 
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Blood Group and Incidence of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Authors: Mroczek B, Sitko Z, Sujewicz A, Wolińska W, Karpeta-Pawlak I, Kurpas D Abstract Chronic respiratory diseases are determined by genetic predisposition, and environmental and socioeconomic variables. One genetic factor underlying susceptibility to such diseases can be the ABO blood group system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that there would be a relationship between the blood group and risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We reviewed medical history files of patients with the diagnosis of COPD or asthma, including those suffering from a c...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Early Life Hypoxic or Hypoxic/Hypercapnic Stress Alters Acute Ventilatory Sensitivity in Adult Mice.
Authors: Xu K, Bhupanapadu Sunkesula SR, Huang P, Tsipis CP, Radford T, Babcock G, Boron WF, LaManna JC PMID: 29651782 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 18, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Percutaneous Mitral Valve Interventions and Heart Failure.
Authors: Sharma A, Goel S, Agrawal S PMID: 29644574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Management of Bradyarrhythmias in Heart Failure: A Tailored Approach.
Authors: Masarone D, Ammendola E, Rago A, Gravino R, Salerno G, Rubino M, Marrazzo T, Molino A, Calabrò P, Pacileo G, Limongelli G PMID: 29644575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Updates on Clostridium difficile in Europe.
Authors: Mastrantonio P, Rupnik M PMID: 29633195 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 12, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6: Molecular Mechanisms and Calcium Channel Genetics.
Authors: Du X, Gomez CM PMID: 29637516 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 12, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Bioactive Oleic Derivatives of Dopamine: A Review of the Therapeutic Potential.
Authors: Pokorski M, Zajac D Abstract Lipid derivatives of dopamine are a novel class of compounds raising a research interest due to the potential of their being a vehicle for dopamine delivery to the brain. The aim of the present paper is to review the main features of the two most prominent bioactive members of this family, namely, N-oleoyl-dopamine (OLDA) and 3'-O-methyl-N-oleoyl-dopamine (OMe-OLDA), with emphasis on the possible therapeutic properties. PMID: 29623573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 8, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Does Patient-Specific Instrumentation Improve Femoral and Tibial Component Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty? A Prospective Randomized Study.
This study aimed to compare the rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components in TKA patients when performed with either conventional or PSI. Sixty patients with primary knee osteoarthritis were randomly divided into two groups treated surgically with TKA: one with conventional instrumentation and the other with the Visionaire PSI system (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN). Computerized tomography (CT) and X-ray imaging were performed preoperatively and 12 weeks after surgery. The rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial component in all patients was assessed postsurgically using CT imaging according to ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 8, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Relation Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and IgE-Dependent Allergy in Pediatric Patients.
The objective of this study was to compile and assess available studies on the comorbidity or causality between ADHD and atopic food allergy in children. We discuss epidemiology, interrelated mechanisms, and potential dietary interventions in the management of children with ADHD. PMID: 29623610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 8, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Preoperative Rehabilitation in Lung Cancer Patients: Yoga Approach.
In this study, we have recruited 32 active smokers affected by lung cancer and being candidates for pulmonary surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: one treated by standard breathing and the other treated by yoga breathing (YB). The groups were evaluated at times T0 (baseline) and T1 (after 7 days of treatment) to compare the effects of the two breathing treatments on pulmonary performance in a presurgery setting. Pulmonary and cardiocirculatory functions have been tested using a self-calibrating computerized spirometer and a portable pulse oximetry device. The findings demonstrate appreciable sho...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 6, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Effects of Breast and Prostate Cancer Metastases on Lumbar Spine Biomechanics: Rapid In Silico Evaluation.
The objective of this study was to apply a numerical modeling, using a finite element method (FEM), for the evaluation of deformation and stress in lumbar spine in bone metastases to the spine. We investigated 20 patients (10 women and 10 men) aged 38-81 years. In women, osteolytic lesions in lumbar spine accompanied breast cancer, in men it was prostate cancer. Geometry of FEM models were built based on CT scans of metastatic lumbar spine. We made the models for osteolytic metastases, osteosclerotic metastases, and metastases after surgery. Images were compared. We found a considerable concentration of strain, especi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 2, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Sexual Dimorphism and Estrogen Action in Mouse Liver.
Authors: Della Torre S, Lolli F, Ciana P, Maggi A PMID: 29594763 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump (PMCA): Regulation of Cytosolic Ca2+, Genetic Diversities and Its Role in Sub-plasma Membrane Microdomains.
Authors: Krebs J Abstract In this chapter the four different genes of the mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and their spliced isoforms are discussed with respect to the structural and functional properties of PMCA, the tissue distribution of the different isoforms, including their differences during development. The importance of PMCA for regulating Ca2+ signaling in microdomains under different conditions is also discussed. PMID: 29594855 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Structure-Function Relationship of the Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Cav1.1 Complex.
This article summarized the recent advances in the structural elucidation of Cav1.1 and the mechanistic insights derived from the 3.6 Å structure obtained using single-particle, electron cryomicroscopy. The structure of the Cav1.1 complex established the framework for mechanistic understanding of excitation-contraction coupling and provides the template for molecular interpretations of the functions and disease mechanisms of Cav and Nav channels. PMID: 29594856 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Structure-Dynamic Coupling Through Ca2+-Binding Regulatory Domains of Mammalian NCX Isoform/Splice Variants.
Authors: Khananshvili D Abstract Mammalian Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3) and their splice variants are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are regulated by Ca2+ binding CBD1 and CBD2 domains. NCX2 does not undergo splicing, whereas in NCX1 and NCX3, the splicing segment (with mutually exclusive and cassette exons) is located in CBD2. Ca2+ binding to CBD1 results in Ca2+-dependent tethering of CBDs through the network of interdomain salt-bridges, which is associated with NCX activation, whereas a slow dissociation of "occluded" Ca2+ inactivates NCX. Although NCX variants share a common s...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Cellular Reticular Network.
Authors: Agellon LB, Michalak M Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum and the other organelles of the eukaryotic cell are membrane-bound structures that carry out specialized functions. In this chapter, we discuss strategies that the cell has adopted to link and coordinate the different activities occurring within its various organelles as the cell carries out its physiological role. PMID: 29594858 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Structure-Function Relationship of the SERCA Pump and Its Regulation by Phospholamban and Sarcolipin.
Authors: Gorski PA, Ceholski DK, Young HS Abstract Calcium is a universal second messenger involved in diverse cellular processes, including excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. The contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle cells are regulated by the cyclic movement of calcium primarily between the extracellular space, the cytoplasm and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The rapid removal of calcium from the cytosol is primarily facilitated by the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which pumps calcium back into the SR lumen and thereby controls the amount of calcium in the SR. The most studi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Structural Insights into IP3R Function.
Authors: Serysheva II, Baker MR, Fan G Abstract Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are ubiquitously expressed intracellular ligand-gated Ca2+ channels present on the endoplasmic reticulum of virtually all eukaryotic cells. These channels mediate the Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in response to activation by the signaling molecule IP3, which functions to transmit diverse signals received by the cell, e.g. from hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and hypertrophic stimuli, to various signaling pathways within the cell. Thus, IP3R channels can be conceptualized as highly dynamic scaffold me...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

IP3 Receptor Properties and Function at Membrane Contact Sites.
Authors: Roest G, La Rovere RM, Bultynck G, Parys JB Abstract The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is a ubiquitously expressed Ca2+-release channel localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The intracellular Ca2+ signals originating from the activation of the IP3R regulate multiple cellular processes including the control of cell death versus cell survival via their action on apoptosis and autophagy. The exact role of the IP3Rs in these two processes does not only depend on their activity, which is modulated by the cytosolic composition (Ca2+, ATP, redox status, …) and by various types o...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Structural Details of the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel and Its Gating Mechanism.
Authors: Willegems K, Efremov RG Abstract Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are large intracellular calcium release channels that play a crucial role in coupling excitation to contraction in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. In addition, they are expressed in other cell types where their function is less well understood. Hundreds of mutations in the different isoforms of RyR have been associated with inherited myopathies and cardiac arrhythmia disorders. The structure of these important drug targets remained elusive for a long time, despite decades of intensive research. In the recent years, a technical revolution i...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Store-Operated Calcium Entry: An Historical Overview.
Authors: Putney JW Abstract Store-operated calcium entry is a mechanism of Ca2+ signaling that has evolved from theory to molecules over a period of 30 years. This brief overview summarizes the major milestones that have led to the current concepts regarding the mechanisms and regulation of this most widely encountered of calcium signaling mechanisms. PMID: 29594863 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

From Stores to Sinks: Structural Mechanisms of Cytosolic Calcium Regulation.
Authors: Enomoto M, Nishikawa T, Siddiqui N, Chung S, Ikura M, Stathopulos PB Abstract All eukaryotic cells have adapted the use of the calcium ion (Ca2+) as a universal signaling element through the evolution of a toolkit of Ca2+ sensor, buffer and effector proteins. Among these toolkit components, integral and peripheral proteins decorate biomembranes and coordinate the movement of Ca2+ between compartments, sense these concentration changes and elicit physiological signals. These changes in compartmentalized Ca2+ levels are not mutually exclusive as signals propagate between compartments. For example, agonist in...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Assembly of ER-PM Junctions: A Critical Determinant in the Regulation of SOCE and TRPC1.
Authors: Subedi KP, Ong HL, Ambudkar IS Abstract Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a unique plasma membrane Ca2+ entry mechanism, is activated when ER-[Ca2+] is decreased. SOCE is mediated via the primary channel, Orai1, as well as others such as TRPC1. STIM1 and STIM2 are ER-Ca2+ sensor proteins that regulate Orai1 and TRPC1. SOCE requires assembly of STIM proteins with the plasma membrane channels which occurs within distinct regions in the cell that have been termed as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions. The PM and ER are in close proximity to each other within this region, which allows...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Beyond Intracellular Signaling: The Ins and Outs of Second Messengers Microdomains.
Authors: Filadi R, Basso E, Lefkimmiatis K, Pozzan T Abstract A typical characteristic of eukaryotic cells compared to prokaryotes is represented by the spatial heterogeneity of the different structural and functional components: for example, most of the genetic material is surrounded by a highly specific membrane structure (the nuclear membrane), continuous with, yet largely different from, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); oxidative phosphorylation is carried out by organelles enclosed by a double membrane, the mitochondria; in addition, distinct domains, enriched in specific proteins, are present in the plasma mem...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial VDAC, the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger, and the Ca2+ Uniporter in Ca2+ Dynamics and Signaling.
Authors: Shoshan-Barmatz V, De S Abstract Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release play pivotal roles in cellular physiology by regulating intracellular Ca2+ signaling, energy metabolism, and cell death. Ca2+ transport across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM, OMM, respectively), is mediated by several proteins, including the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in the OMM, and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) and Na+-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux transporter, (the NCLX), both in the IMM. By transporting Ca2+ across the OMM to the mitochondrial inner-membrane space (IMS), VDAC1 allows C...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Annexins: Ca2+ Effectors Determining Membrane Trafficking in the Late Endocytic Compartment.
Authors: Enrich C, Rentero C, Meneses-Salas E, Tebar F, Grewal T Abstract Despite the discovery of annexins 40 years ago, we are just beginning to understand some of the functions of these still enigmatic proteins. Defined and characterized by their ability to bind anionic membrane lipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner, each annexin has to be considered a multifunctional protein, with a multitude of cellular locations and diverse activities. Underlying causes for this considerable functional diversity include their capability to associate with multiple cytosolic and membrane proteins. In recent years, the increasingly ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Ca2+ Signalling and Membrane Dynamics During Cytokinesis in Animal Cells.
Authors: Webb SE, Miller AL Abstract Interest in the role of Ca2+ signalling as a possible regulator of the combinatorial processes that result in the separation of the daughter cells during cytokinesis, extend back almost a 100 years. One of the key processes required for the successful completion of cytokinesis in animal cells (especially in the large holoblastically and meroblastically dividing embryonic cells of a number of amphibian and fish species), is the dynamic remodelling of the plasma membrane. Ca2+ signalling was subsequently demonstrated to regulate various different aspects of cytokinesis in animal c...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Psychological Determinants of Attitude Toward Euthanasia: A Comparative Study of Female Nurses and Female Nonmedical Professionals.
Authors: Głębocka A Abstract Moral, legal, and psychological aspects of the legality of euthanasia are subject to debates and studies of various communities. Diagnosing attitudes toward euthanasia should involve not only determining the proportion between its supporters and opponents but also the describing of mechanisms behind the development of particular views. The aim of the present study was to determine the psychological determinants of attitudes, such as fear of death-dying, self-esteem, and mood. The methods consisted of using the following questionnaires: the Głębocka-Gawor Attitudes Toward Euthanasia ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Next-Generation Sequencing of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Mixed-Genotype Infections in Anti-HCV-Negative Blood Donors.
In conclusion, NGS is a sensitive method for HCV genotyping. The prevalence of mixed-genotype HCV infections in blood donors is low. PMID: 29594753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Improvement in Gait Pattern After Knee Arthroplasty Followed by Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Physiotherapy.
Authors: Jaczewska-Bogacka J, Stolarczyk A Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a physiotherapy program based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on kinematic gait pattern after total knee arthroplasty. This comparative study included two groups of patients qualified for total surgical knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis: a study group and a control group, either consisting of 28 patients of a matched age range of 55-90 years. Following surgery, 4 days after standard postoperative rehabilitation, the study patients were subjected to a 3-week-long therapist-a...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Perspective on Broad-Acting Clinical Physiological Effects of Photobiomodulation.
Authors: Shanks S, Leisman G Abstract Research into photobiomodulation reveals beneficial effects of light therapy for a rapidly expanding list of medical conditions and illnesses. Although it has become more widely accepted by the mainstream medicine, the effects and mechanisms of action appear to be poorly understood. The therapeutic benefits of photobiomodulation using low-energy red lasers extend far beyond superficial applications, with a well-described physics allowing an understanding of how red lasers of certain optimum intensities may cross the cranium. We now have a model for explaining potential therapeu...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 27, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Copeptin Blood Content as a Diagnostic Marker of Chronic Kidney Disease.
Authors: Niemczyk S, Niemczyk L, Żmudzki W, Saracyn M, Czarzasta K, Szamotulska K, Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska A Abstract Plasma content of copeptin increases with the advancement of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate copeptin content as a potential marker of CKD, as a single pathology or with coexisting heart failure. Seventy-six patients were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (control), without CKD and heart failure; Group 2, CKD stage 3a; Group 3, CKD stage 3b; Group 4, CKD stage 4; Group 5, CKD stage 5; and Group 6, CKD stage 3b and heart failure. For all patients, plasm...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 27, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Improvement in Hand Trajectory of Reaching Movements by Error-Augmentation.
Authors: Israely S, Leisman G, Carmeli E Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adaptive responses to error-augmentation force fields, would decrease the trajectory errors in hand-reaching movements in multiple directions in healthy individuals. The study was conducted, as a randomized controlled trial, in 41 healthy subjects. The study group trained on a 3D robotic system, applying error-augmenting forces on the hand during the execution of tasks. The control group carried out the same protocol in null-field conditions. A mixed-model ANOVA was implemented to investigate the interaction betwe...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 24, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Markers of Bone Metabolism in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women with Asthma and COPD.
Authors: Białek-Gosk K, Rubinsztajn R, Białek S, Paplińska-Goryca M, Krenke R, Chazan R Abstract Aging and menopause are closely related to hormonal and metabolic changes. Vitamin D is a crucial factor modulating several metabolic processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of bone metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women with obstructive lung diseases. Sixty two female patients, 27 with asthma and 35 with COPD, aged over 45 years (median age 58 and 64 years, respectively) were enrolled into the study. The evaluation included lung function, bone mineral density, serum concentration of vi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 24, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Airway Obstruction in Sleep Apnea Patients.
Authors: Kostrzewska M, Trafas T, Bromińska B, Batura-Gabryel H, Michalak S, Brajer-Luftmann B, Nowicka A, Grabicki M, Guzik P, Piorunek T Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition of breathing pathology occurring during sleep, characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of airway obstruction in smoking males with OSA in whom lung function tests had not been performed before. One hundred and four current smokers selected from 1241 patients were enrolled for the research. The subjects included in the study smoked minimum 20 cigaret...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 24, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Phox Homology (PX) Domain.
Authors: Chandra M, Collins BM Abstract The phox-homology (PX) domain is a phosphoinositide-binding domain conserved in all eukaryotes and present in 49 human proteins. Proteins containing PX domains, many of which are also known as sorting nexins (SNXs), have a large variety of functions in membrane trafficking, cell signaling, and lipid metabolism in association with membranes of the secretory and endocytic system. In this review we discuss the structural basis for both canonical lipid interactions with the endosome-enriched lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) as well as non-canonical lipids that pr...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 24, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Filamentous Phage: Structure and Biology.
Authors: Rakonjac J, Russel M, Khanum S, Brooke SJ, Rajič M Abstract Ff filamentous phage (fd, M13 and f1) of Escherichia coli have been the workhorse of phage display technology for the past 30 years. Dominance of Ff over other bacteriophage in display technology stems from the titres that are about 100-fold higher than any other known phage, efficacious transformation ensuring large library size and superior stability of the virion at high temperatures, detergents and pH extremes, allowing broad range of biopanning conditions in screening phage display libraries. Due to the excellent understanding of infect...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Antibody Phage Display.
Authors: Shim H Abstract Antibody phage display has become an indispensable tool for the discovery and optimization of target-specific monoclonal antibodies suitable for demanding applications including therapeutic reagents. The in vitro nature of the technology enables the rapid and efficient identification of specific binders, as well as greater control over selection parameters that facilitates the isolation of antibodies with unique, desirable functional characteristics. In this chapter, the technological background and the state of the art in the field of antibody phage display is discussed. PMID: 29549633...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Na ïve Human Antibody Libraries for Infectious Diseases.
Naïve Human Antibody Libraries for Infectious Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1053:35-59 Authors: Chan SK, Rahumatullah A, Lai JY, Lim TS Abstract Many countries are facing an uphill battle in combating the spread of infectious diseases. The constant evolution of microorganisms magnifies the problem as it facilitates the re-emergence of old infectious diseases as well as promote the introduction of new and more deadly variants. Evidently, infectious diseases have contributed to an alarming rate of mortality worldwide making it a growing concern. Historically, antibodies have been used successfull...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Immune Human Antibody Libraries for Infectious Diseases.
Authors: Chan SK, Lim TS Abstract The incident of two children in Europe who died of diphtheria due to a shortage of anti-toxin drugs has highlighted the need for alternative anti-toxins. Historically, antiserum produced from immunised horses have been used to treat diphtheria. Despite the potential of antiserum, the economical and medial concerns associated with the use of animal antiserum has led to its slow market demise. Over the years, new and emerging infectious diseases have grown to be a major global health threat. The emergence of drug-resistant superbugs has also pushed the boundaries of available therape...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Synthetic Antibodies in Infectious Disease.
Authors: Chen G, Sidhu SS, Nilvebrant J Abstract Rapid spread of microbial resistance and recent outbreaks of viral disease have led to renewed interest in antibody-based therapies for infectious diseases. Synthetic antibody libraries displayed on phage offer unique advantages over traditional immunization-based antibody generation, including full control over library design and selection conditions. The technology has matured beyond natural antibodies and is capable of providing novel insights into infectious disease and can generate novel antibodies that cannot be produced by the natural immune system. This chapt...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Monoclonal Antibodies and Antibody Like Fragments Derived from Immunised Phage Display Libraries.
Authors: Ubah O, Palliyil S Abstract Morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases are always on the rise, especially in poorer countries and in the aging population. The inevitable, but unpredictable emergence of new infectious diseases has become a global threat. HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the more recent H1N1 influenza are only a few of the numerous examples of emerging infectious diseases in the modern era. However despite advances in diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, there is need for more specific, efficacious, cost-effective and less toxic treatment and preven...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Anti-bacterial Monoclonal Antibodies.
Authors: Nagy E, Nagy G, Power CA, Badarau A, Szijártó V Abstract The failing efficacy of antibiotics and the high mortality rate among high-risk patients calls for new treatment modalities for bacterial infections. Due to the vastly divergent pathogenesis of human pathogens, each microbe requires a tailored approach. The main modes of action of anti-bacterial antibodies are virulence factor neutralization, complement-mediated bacterial lysis and enhancement of opsonophagocytic uptake and killing (OPK). Gram-positive bacteria cannot be lysed by complement and their pathogenesis often involves secreted...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Anti-parasitic Antibodies from Phage Display.
Authors: Goulart LR, da S Ribeiro V, Costa-Cruz JM Abstract Parasite infections affect billions of people and their domesticated animals worldwide, and remain as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, but such diseases are still neglected in endemic countries. Therapeutic interventions consisted mostly of drugs, which are highly toxic and may lead to resistance. The immunopathology of parasites is very complex due to their multistage life cycles and long lifetime involving several hosts, leading many times to chronic infections and sometimes to death, by compromising nutritional status, affecting cognitive...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Antibodies for Biodefense.
Authors: Avril A Abstract Diseases can be caused naturally by biological agents such as bacteria, viruses and toxins (natural risk). However, such biological agents can be intentionally disseminated in the environment by a State (military context) or terrorists to cause diseases in a population or livestock, to destabilize a nation by creating a climate of terror, destabilizing the economy and undermining institutions. Biological agents can be classified according to the severity of illness they cause, its mortality and how easily the agent can be spread. The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) classi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Engineering Antibodies for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases.
Authors: Fan G, Li J Abstract Historically, serum therapy was previously used to combat infectious pathogens. However, serum sickness and anaphylaxis limited its broad application. The advancement of antibody engineering technologies has made it feasible to generate monoclonal antibodies. There are divergent methods for antibody engineering and optimization. In this chapter, we summarized the latest developments in engineering antibodies for infectious diseases. PMID: 29549641 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Antibody Design: An Overview.
Authors: Choong YS, Lee YV, Soong JX, Law CT, Lim YY Abstract The use of monoclonal antibody as the next generation protein therapeutics with remarkable success has surged the development of antibody engineering to design molecules for optimizing affinity, better efficacy, greater safety and therapeutic function. Therefore, computational methods have become increasingly important to generate hypotheses, interpret and guide experimental works. In this chapter, we discussed the overall antibody design by computational approches. PMID: 29549642 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research