Enhancing Teaching in Biomedical, Health and Exercise Science with Real-Time Physiological Visualisations.
Authors: Moro C, Stromberga Z, Moreland A Abstract Muscle physiology constitutes a core curriculum for students and researchers within biomedical, health and exercise science disciplines. The variations between skeletal and smooth muscle, mechanisms underlying excitation-contraction coupling, as well as the relationships between muscle anatomy and physiology are commonly taught from illustrations, static models or textbooks. However, this does not necessarily provide students with the required comprehension surrounding the dynamic nature of muscle contractions or neuromuscular activities. This chapter will explore ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Evolution of Educational Technology in Veterinary Anatomy Education.
Authors: Guevar J Abstract "All learning is in the learner, not the teacher." Plato was right. The adage has passed the test of time and is still true in an era where technology accompanies us in not only professional but also recreational life every day, everywhere. On the other hand, the learner has evolved and so have the sources being used to satisfy curiosity and learning. It therefore appears intuitive to embrace these technological advances to bring knowledge to our pupils with the aim to facilitate learning and improve performance. It must be clear that these technologies are not intended to repla...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Body Painting Plus: Art-Based Activities to Improve Visualisation in Clinical Education Settings.
Authors: Dueñas AN, Finn GM Abstract Art-based activities are increasingly being regarded as an accessible and engaging way to understand the human body and its processes. Such activities include body painting (both regular and ultraviolet [UV]), clay and materials-based modelling and drawing-focused activities. Integrating art-based approaches into curricula can offer many benefits and are often cost-effective ways to engage students, and improve on clinical acumen and visual understanding of the body. In this chapter, we will introduce various art-based visualisation methods, suggested uses for their integ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

TEL Methods Used for the Learning of Clinical Neuroanatomy.
Authors: Elmansouri A, Murray O, Hall S, Border S Abstract Ubiquity of information technology is undoubtedly the most substantial change to society in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries and has resulted in a paradigm shift in how business and social interactions are conducted universally. Information dissemination and acquisition is now effortless, and the way we visualise information is constantly evolving. The face of anatomy education has been altered by the advent of such innovation with Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) now commonplace in modern curricula.With the constant development of new computing s...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

From Scope to Screen: The Evolution of Histology Education.
Authors: Chapman JA, Lee LMJ, Swailes NT Abstract Histology, the branch of anatomy also known as microscopic anatomy, is the study of the structure and function of the body's tissues. To gain an understanding of the tissues of the body is to learn the foundational underpinnings of anatomy and achieve a deeper, more intimate insight into how the body is constructed, functions, and undergoes pathological change. Histology, therefore, is an integral element of basic science education within today's medical curricula. Its development as a discipline is inextricably linked to the evolution of the technology that allows ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Digital and Social Media in Anatomy Education.
Authors: Hennessy CM, Smith CF Abstract The use of images in various forms (drawing, photography, digital applications) has always been intrinsically associated with anatomy; however, the way in which anatomy educators and students create, access, view and interact with images has changed dramatically over the last 20 years. The method that anatomy educators use to engage with students and the wider public and how students engage with each other and faculty has also changed since the turn of the century, largely due to the emergence of social media. These two facets, the move towards digital images and the use...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Mixed Reality Interaction and Presentation Techniques for Medical Visualisations.
We present a summary of visualisation methods that employ these technologies in the medical domain with a diverse range of examples presented including diagnostic and exploration, intervention and clinical, interaction and gestures, and education. PMID: 33211310 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Pores, Pimples and Pathologies: 3D Capture and Detailing of the Human Skin for 3D Medical Visualisation and Fabrication.
Authors: Roughley M Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) scanning of the human skin for 3D medical visualisation and printing does not often produce the desired results due to a number of factors including the specularity of human skin, difficulties in scanning fine structures such as the hair and the capabilities of the scanning technologies utilised. Some additional 3D modelling may be required to make the surfaces more suitable for use in the production of anatomical and medical teaching resources, computerised facial depiction and design of bespoke prostheses. Three-dimensional scanned surfaces can be enhanced throu...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Extending the Reach and Task-Shifting Ophthalmology Diagnostics Through Remote Visualisation.
Authors: Giardini ME, Livingstone IAT Abstract Driven by the global increase in the size and median age of the world population, sight loss is becoming a major public health challenge. Furthermore, the increased survival of premature neonates in low- and middle-income countries is causing an increase in developmental paediatric ophthalmic disease. Finally, there is an ongoing change in health-seeking behaviour worldwide, with consequent demand for increased access to healthcare, including ophthalmology. There is therefore the need to maximise the reach of resource-limited ophthalmology expertise in the context of i...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Image Overlay Surgery Based on Augmented Reality: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Pérez-Pachón L, Poyade M, Lowe T, Gröning F Abstract Augmented Reality (AR) applied to surgical guidance is gaining relevance in clinical practice. AR-based image overlay surgery (i.e. the accurate overlay of patient-specific virtual images onto the body surface) helps surgeons to transfer image data produced during the planning of the surgery (e.g. the correct resection margins of tissue flaps) to the operating room, thus increasing accuracy and reducing surgery times. We systematically reviewed 76 studies published between 2004 and August 2018 to explore which existing tracking and reg...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Overview of Histone Modification.
Authors: Zhang Y, Sun Z, Jia J, Du T, Zhang N, Tang Y, Fang Y, Fang D Abstract Epigenetics is the epi-information beyond the DNA sequence that can be inherited from parents to offspring. From years of studies, people have found that histone modifications, DNA methylation, and RNA-based mechanism are the main means of epigenetic control. In this chapter, we will focus on the general introductions of epigenetics, which is important in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. With the development and expansion of high-throughput sequencing, various mutations of epigenetic regulators have been identif...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Histone H3 Family and Its Deposition Pathways.
Authors: Ray-Gallet D, Almouzni G Abstract Within the cell nucleus, the organization of the eukaryotic DNA into chromatin uses histones as components of its building block, the nucleosome. This chromatin organization contributes to the regulation of all DNA template-based reactions impacting genome function, stability, and plasticity. Histones and their variants endow chromatin with unique properties and show a distinct distribution into the genome that is regulated by dedicated deposition machineries. The histone variants have important roles during early development, cell differentiation, and chromosome segregati...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Histone H3K27M Mutation in Brain Tumors.
Authors: El-Hashash AHK Abstract Histones form chromatin and play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. As an epigenetic information form, histone modifications such as methylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination are closely related to the regulation of genes. In the last two decades, cancer scientists discovered that some histone modifications, including acetylation and methylation, are perturbed in cancer diseases. Recurrent histone mutations, which hinder histone methylation and are implicated in oncogenesis, are recently identified in several cancer disease and called oncohistones. ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Histone Mutations and Bone Cancers.
Authors: Taylor EL, Westendorf JJ Abstract Primary bone tumors are rare cancers that cause significant morbidity and mortality. The recent identification of recurrent mutations in histone genes H3F3A and H3F3B within specific bone cancers, namely, chondroblastomas and giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB), has provided insights into the cellular and molecular origins of these neoplasms and enhanced understanding of how histone variants control chromatin function. Somatic mutations in H3F3A and H3F3B produce oncohistones, H3.3G34W and H3.3K36M, in more than nine of ten GCTB and chondroblastomas, respectively. Incorporati...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Histone H3G34 Mutation in Brain and Bone Tumors.
Authors: Qiu L, Han J Abstract H3G34 mutations occur in both pediatric non-brainstem high-grade gliomas (G34R/V) and giant cell tumors of bone (G34W/L). Glioblastoma patients with G34R/V mutation have a generally adverse prognosis, whereas giant cell tumors of bone are rarely metastatic benign tumors. G34 mutations possibly disrupt the epigenome by altering H3K36 modifications, which may involve attenuating the function of SETD2 at methyltransferase. H3K36 methylation change may further lead to genomic instability, dysregulated gene expression pattern, and more mutations. In this chapter, we summarize the pathologi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Epigenetic-Targeted Treatments for H3K27M-Mutant Midline Gliomas.
Authors: Lu VM, Daniels DJ Abstract Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal midline brainstem tumor that most commonly occurs in children and is genetically defined by substitution of methionine for lysine at site 27 of histone 3 (H3K27M) in the majority of cases. This mutation has since been shown to exert an influence on the posttranslational epigenetic landscape of this disease, with the loss of trimethylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) the most common alteration. Based on these findings, a number of drugs targeting these epigenetic changes have been proposed, specifically that alter histone trimethylat...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Histone Lysine-to-Methionine Mutation as Anticancer Drug Target.
Authors: Yang J, Qiu Q, Chen L Abstract Histone modification stands for a vital genetic information form, which shows tight correlation with the modulation of normal physiological activities by genes. Abnormal regulation of histone methylation due to histone modification enzyme changes and histone mutations plays an important role in the development of cancer. Histone mutations, especially H3K27M and H3K36M, have been identified in various cancers such as pediatric DIPG (diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma) and chondroblastoma respectively. "K to M" mutation results overall downregulation of methylation on t...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Embryonic Stem Cells in Clinical Trials: Current Overview of Developments and Challenges.
Authors: Golchin A, Chatziparasidou A, Ranjbarvan P, Niknam Z, Ardeshirylajimi A Abstract The first isolation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) reported in the late 90s opened a new window to promising possibilities in the fields of human developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Subsequently, the differentiation of hESC lines into different precursor cells showed their potential in treating different incurable diseases. However, this promising field has consistently had remarkable ethical and experimental limitations. This paper is a review of clinical trial studies dealing with hESC and their advantages...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Interests of Exosomes in Bone and Periodontal Regeneration: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Gegout PY, Stutz C, Olson J, Batool F, Petit C, Tenenbaum H, Benkirane-Jessel N, Huck O Abstract Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease characterized by clinical attachment loss and tooth supporting tissue destruction. As exosomes demonstrated pro-regenerative ability, their use in periodontal treatment has been suggested. The aim of this systematic review is to gather and summarize the most recent data regarding exosomes to determine their potential impact in bone and periodontal regeneration. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science) were searched up to February 2020. Studies assessing t...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Cardiac Progenitor Cells.
Authors: Shouman S, Zaher A, Abdelhameed A, Elshaboury S, Sakr S, Fouda BE, Mohamed H, El-Badri N Abstract Cardiovascular diseases top the list of fatal illnesses worldwide. Cardiac tissues is known to be one of te least proliferative in the human body, with very limited regenraive capacity. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential for treatment of cardiovascular diseases in the experimental setting, but success in human trials has been limited. Applications of stem cell therapy for cardiovascular regeneration necessitate understamding of the complex and unique structure of the heart unit, and the embryologic de...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: The Past Present and Future.
Authors: Attia N, Mashal M Abstract The biomedical applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained expanding attention over the past three decades. MSCs are easily obtained from various tissue types (e.g. bone marrow, fat, cord blood, etc.), are capable of self-renewal, and could be induced to differentiate into several cell lineages for countless biomedical applications. In addition, when transplanted, MSCs are not detected by immune surveillance, thus do not lead to graft rejection. Moreover, they can home towards affected tissues and induce their therapeutic effect in a cell-base and/or a cell-free man...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

A Museum of Stem Cells Points to Muse Cells as Robust Transplantable Cells for Stroke: Review.
Authors: Park YJ, Farooq J, Cho J, Cozene B, Gonzales-Portillo B, Sadanandan N, Saft M, Lee JY, Borlongan CV Abstract Stem cell-based therapy stands as a robust experimental treatment for ischemic stroke. Stem cells derived from fetal, embryonic, and adult tissues serve as potential sources for transplantable cells in the setting of ischemic stroke. However, the search continues for finding an optimal cell line for clinical use. Muse cells, a distinct subset of mesenchymal stem cells found sporadically in the connective tissue of nearly every organ, may be a suitable candidate due to its safety and accessibility. T...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Epidemiologic Benefits of Pneumococcal Vaccine Introduction into Preventive Vaccination Programs.
Authors: Malchrzak W, Mastalerz-Migas A Abstract Vaccination against pneumococci is one of the most effective methods of preventing pneumococcal diseases. Currently, 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) are used. Only the conjugate vaccines are used in children. The PCV can be used both in children and adults, but children can receive only PCV. A side effect of vaccination was that bacterial serotypes not included in a vaccine started increasingly emerging in pneumococcal infections, replacing the serotypes eliminated by the vaccine. The basic vaccinat...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 4, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Neuregulin Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Jia R, Zhao H, Wang S Abstract Neuregulins, members of the largest subclass of growth factors of the epidermal growth factor family, mediate a myriad of cellular functions including survival, proliferation, and differentiation in normal tissues through binding to receptor tyrosine kinases of the ErbB family. However, aberrant neuregulin signaling in the tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as a key player in initiation and malignant progression of human cancers. In this chapter, we focus on the role of neuregulin signaling in the hallmarks of cancer, including cancer initiation and development...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

HGF/c-Met Signalling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Zambelli A, Biamonti G, Amato A Abstract Recently, it has become clearer that tumor plasticity increases the chance that cancer cells could acquire new mechanisms to escape immune surveillance, become resistant to conventional drugs, and spread to distant sites.Effectively, tumor plasticity drives adaptive response of cancer cells to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation leading to stimulation of neoangionesis or tumor escape. Therefore, tumor plasticity is believed to be a great contributor in recurrence and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Importantly, it could be an Achilles' heel of cancer if we co...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Eph/Ephrin Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Ieguchi K, Maru Y Abstract The Eph/ephrin system plays a vital role in diverse physiological events such as neurogenesis, vasculogenesis, and cell adhesion. Expression analysis of mRNA and protein in clinical samples revealed the involvement of the Eph/ephrin system in tumorigenesis, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the Eph/ephrin system is considered a promising therapeutic target. However, no molecularly targeted drug against Ephs and ephrins is being used in the clinic thus far.Tumors are composed of various types of cells, including fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

SRC Signaling in Cancer and Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Caner A, Asik E, Ozpolat B Abstract Pioneering experiments performed by Harold Varmus and Mike Bishop in 1976 led to one of the most influential discoveries in cancer research and identified the first cancer-causing oncogene called Src. Later experimental and clinical evidence suggested that Src kinase plays a significant role in promoting tumor growth and progression and its activity is associated with poor patient survival. Thus, several Src inhibitors were developed and approved by FDA for treatment of cancer patients. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a highly complex and dynamic milieu where significant...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Purinergic Signaling Within the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Draganov D, Lee PP Abstract Accumulating studies have clearly demonstrated high concentrations of extracellular ATP (eATP) within the tumor microenvironment (TME). Implications of these findings are multifold as ATP-mediated purinergic signaling has been shown to mediate a variety of cancer-related processes, including cell migration, resistance to cytotoxic therapy, and immune regulation. Broad roles of ATP within the tumor microenvironment are linked to the abundance of ATP-regulated purinergic receptors on cancer and stromal and various immune cell types, as well as on the importance of ATP release and ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

TGF β Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
TGFβ Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1270:89-105 Authors: Goulet CR, Pouliot F Abstract Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic growth factor. Under normal physiological conditions, TGFβ maintains homeostasis in mammalian tissues by restraining the growth of cells and stimulating apoptosis. However, the role of TGFβ signaling in the carcinogenesis is complex. TGFβ acts as a tumor suppressor in the early stages of disease and as a tumor promoter in its later stages where cancer cells have been relieved from TGFβ growth control...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Wnt Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Ruan Y, Ogana H, Gang E, Kim HN, Kim YM Abstract Dysregulated Wnt signaling plays a central role in initiation, progression, and metastasis in many types of human cancers. Cancer development and resistance to conventional cancer therapies are highly associated with the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is composed of numerous stable non-cancer cells, including immune cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), fibroblasts, endothelial cells (ECs), and stromal cells. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that the relationship between Wnt signaling and the TME promotes the proliferation and maintenance of tumor ce...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Lysophospholipid Signalling and the Tumour Microenvironment.
Authors: Ng W, Morokoff A Abstract Homeostasis is the key to survival. This is as true for the tumour cell as it is for the normal host cell. Tumour cells and normal host cells constantly interact with each other, and the balance of these interactions results in the prevailing homeostatic conditions. The interactions between the milieu of signalling molecules and their effects on the host and tumour cells are known as the tumour microenvironment. The predominant balance of effects within the tumour microenvironment will determine if the tumour cells can evade the host's responses to survive and grow or if the tumou...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Adenosine Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Antonioli L, Fornai M, Pellegrini C, D'Antongiovanni V, Turiello R, Morello S, Haskó G, Blandizzi C Abstract Adenosine, deriving from ATP released by dying cancer cells and then degradated in the tumor environment by CD39/CD73 enzyme axis, is linked to the generation of an immunosuppressed niche favoring the onset of neoplasia. Signals delivered by extracellular adenosine are detected and transduced by G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors, classified into four subtypes: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. A critical role of this nucleoside is emerging in the modulation of several immune and nonimmune cells de...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Androgen Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Özdemir BC Abstract The key function of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) signaling for prostate development has been well documented by tissue recombination experiments. Some studies have addressed the expression and function of AR in stromal cells in prostate cancer, yet our understanding of the role of stromal AR in other tissues beyond prostate is still insufficient.Genomic analysis has revealed that cellular responses to androgens differ between epithelial and stromal cells. AR in stromal cells seems not to act via classical AR transcription factors such as FOXA1 but rather depends on th...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Patil N, Allgayer H, Leupold JH Abstract The tumor microenvironment (TME) is decisive for the eradication or survival of any tumor mass. Moreover, it plays a pivotal role for metastasis and for providing the metastatic niche. The TME offers special physiological conditions and is composed of, for example, surrounding blood vessels, the extracellular matrix (ECM), diverse signaling molecules, exosomes and several cell types including, but not being limited to, infiltrated immune cells, cancer-associated endothelial cells (CAEs), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These cells can additionally and sign...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Impact of Estrogen in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Somasundaram A, Rothenberger NJ, Stabile LP Abstract Tumor immune escape is now a hallmark of cancer development, and therapies targeting these pathways have emerged as standard of care. Specifically, immune checkpoint signal blockade offers durable responses and increased overall survival. However, the majority of cancer patients still do not respond to checkpoint blockade immune therapy leading to an unmet need in tumor immunology research. Sex-based differences have been noted in the use of cancer immunotherapy suggesting that sex hormones such as estrogen may play an important role in tumor immune regu...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Non-Bone-Related Role of RANK/RANKL Signaling in Cancer.
Authors: van Dam PA, Verhoeven Y, Trinh XB Abstract RANK ligand (RANKL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor alpha superfamily of cytokines. It is the only known ligand binding to a membrane receptor named receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK), thereby triggering recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins and activation of downstream pathways. RANK/RANKL signaling is controlled by a decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), but also has additional more complex levels of regulation. It is crucial for the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and is deregulated i...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Modulation of Cancer Cell Growth and Progression by Caveolin-1 in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Yoon HJ, Surh YJ Abstract Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a major structural component of cell membrane caveolae, is involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways as well as transmembrane transport. Cav-1, as a scaffolding protein, modulates signal transduction associated with cell cycle progression, cellular senescence, cell proliferation and death, lipid homeostasis, etc. Cav-1 is also thought to regulate the expression or activity of oncoproteins, such as Src family kinases, H-Ras, protein kinase C, epidermal growth factor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Be...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Exosomes: Novel Players of Therapy Resistance in Neuroblastoma.
Authors: Richard H, Pokhrel A, Chava S, Pathania A, Katta SS, Challagundla KB Abstract Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor (a lump or mass), often found in the small glands on top of the kidneys, and most commonly affects infants and young children. Among neuroblastomas, high-risk neuroblastomas are very aggressive and resistant to most kinds of intensive treatment. Immunotherapy, which uses the immune system to fight against cancer, has shown great promise in treating many types of cancer. However, high-risk neuroblastoma is often resistant to this approach as well. Recent studies revealed that small vesicles known as ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

COX-2 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Zhang Y, Tighe S, Zhu YT Abstract Tumorigenesis is a multistep, complicated process, and many studies have been completed over the last few decades to elucidate this process. Increasingly, many studies have shifted focus toward the critical role of the tumor microenvironment (TME), which consists of cellular players, cell-cell communications, and extracellular matrix (ECM). In the TME, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been found to be a key molecule mediating the microenvironment changes. COX-2 is an inducible form of the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid into the signal transduction molecules (thromboxane...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Renin-Angiotensin System in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Nakamura K, Okuyama R, Kawakami Y Abstract For enhancing the antitumor effects of current immunotherapies including immune-checkpoint blockade, it is important to reverse cancer-induced immunosuppression. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) controls systemic body fluid circulation; however, the presence of a local RAS in tumors has been reported. Furthermore, the local RAS in tumors influences various immune and interstitial cells and affects tumor immune response. RAS stimulation through the angiotensin II type 1 receptor has been reported to inhibit tumor immune response. Therefore, RAS inhibitors and com...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Stem Cell-Secreted Factors in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Jiménez G, López de Andrés J, Marchal JA Abstract The importance of the microenvironment in tumor development and their resistance to drugs is increasingly well known. This microenvironment is composed of different cell types, among which cells with stemness properties such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are distinguished for their relevant role in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. The relationship between these stem cells (SCs) and tumor microenvironment is conducted by the secretome, consisting of several factors, cytok...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Tight Interplay Between Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies and the Tumour Microenvironment in Cancer Therapy.
Authors: Riller Q, Varthaman A, Sibéril S Abstract Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have changed the landscape of cancer therapy. With advances in the understanding of tumour biology and its microenvironment, different categories of mAbs have been developed; a first category is directed against tumour cells themselves, a second one comprises antibodies blocking the formation of neo-vasculature that accompanies tumour development, and, during the last decades, a third new category of immunomodulatory antibodies that target immune cells in the tumour microenvironment rather than cancer cells has emerged...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Tumor Microenvironment and Nitric Oxide: Concepts and Mechanisms.
Authors: Vedenko A, Panara K, Goldstein G, Ramasamy R, Arora H Abstract The cancer tissue exists not as a single entity, but as a combination of different cellular phenotypes which, taken together, dramatically contribute to the entirety of their ecosystem, collectively termed as the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is composed of both immune and nonimmune cell types, stromal components, and vasculature-all of which cooperate to promote cancer progression. Not all immune cells, however, are immune-suppressive; some of them can promote the immune microenvironment to fight the invading and uncontrollably dividin...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Eosinophils in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Mattei F, Andreone S, Marone G, Gambardella AR, Loffredo S, Varricchi G, Schiavoni G Abstract Eosinophils are rare blood-circulating and tissue-infiltrating immune cells studied for decades in the context of allergic diseases and parasitic infections. Eosinophils can secrete a wide array of soluble mediators and effector molecules, with potential immunoregulatory activities in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These findings imply that these cells may play a role in cancer immunity. Despite these cells were known to infiltrate tumors since many years ago, their role in TME is gaining attention only recentl...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Dendritic Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Kohli K, Pillarisetty VG Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of the immune system. They capture foreign antigens and can present them to lymphocytes, that is, T cells and B cells, to activate them. DCs are the most potent of all immune cells at inducing the adaptive immune system. Thus, the presence of DCs at the anatomical site of the immune challenge is imperative for the immune system to mount an effective immune response. From the anatomical site of the immune challenge, DCs cargo antigens to the draining lymph nodes, specialized immune organs where adap...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Resident Memory T Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Williams JB, Kupper TS Abstract Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are strategically positioned within the epithelial layers of many tissues to provide enduring site-specific immunological memory. This unique T-cell lineage is endowed with the capacity to rapidly respond to tissue perturbations and has a well-documented role in eradicating pathogens upon reexposure. Emerging evidence has highlighted a key role for TRM cells in cancer immunity. Single-cell approaches have identified TRM cells among other CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) subsets, and their presence is a positive indicator of clinic...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

NK Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Guillerey C Abstract Natural killer cells are powerful effectors of innate immunity that constitute a first line of defense against cancer. NK cells express an array of germline-encoded receptors which allow them to eliminate transformed cells and spare normal, healthy cells. Owing to their ability to kill circulating tumor cells, NK cells play a major role in the protection against cancer metastases. There is also convincing evidence that NK cells protect against some hematological cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia. However, the importance of NK cells for the control of established solid tumors is ra...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

γδ T Cells in Tumor Microenvironment.
γδ T Cells in Tumor Microenvironment. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1273:91-104 Authors: Imbert C, Olive D Abstract Gamma delta (γδ) T cells which combine both innate and adaptive potential have extraordinary properties. Indeed, their strong cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory activity allows them to kill a broad range of tumor cells. Several studies have demonstrated that γδ T cells are an important component of tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes in patients affected by different types of cancer. Tumor-infiltrating γδ T cells are also considered as a good prognostic mark...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Regulatory T Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Dadey RE, Workman CJ, Vignali DAA Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an immunosuppressive subpopulation of CD4+ T cells that are endowed with potent suppressive activity and function to limit immune activation and maintain homeostasis. These cells are identified by the hallmark transcription factor FOXP3 and the high-affinity interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor chain CD25. Tregs can be recruited to and persist within the tumor microenvironment (TME), acting as a potent barrier to effective antitumor immunity. This chapter will discuss [i] the history and hallmarks of Tregs; [ii] the recruitment, development...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Hematopoietic Microenvironment in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: The Interplay Between Nature (Stem Cells) and Nurture (the Niche).
Authors: Zhan H, Kaushansky K Abstract Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) rely on instructive cues from the marrow microenvironment for their maintenance and function. Accumulating evidence indicates that the survival and proliferation of hematopoietic neoplasms are dependent not only on cell-intrinsic, genetic mutations, and other molecular alterations present within neoplastic stem cells, but also on the ability of the surrounding microenvironmental cells to nurture and promote the malignancy. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events responsible for these microenvironmental ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 31, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research