Addressing Variability and Heterogeneity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.
Authors: Biendarra-Tiegs SM, Secreto FJ, Nelson TJ Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer great promise in the areas of disease modeling, basic research, drug development, and regenerative medicine. Much of their value comes from the fact that they can be used to create otherwise inaccessible cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, which are genetically matched to a patient or any other individual of interest. A consistent issue plaguing the iPSC platform, however, involves excessive variability exhibited in the differentiated products. This includes discrepancies in genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptio...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

A Novel Nonsense Mutation c.374C > G in CYP21A2 Gene of a Vietnamese Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.
In this study, we established an assay for the detection of unusual genetic in the CYP21A2 gene in the proband and his family. A novel nonsense mutation c.374C > G which caused a substitutions of Serine for a stop codon at codon 125 (p.S125*) within exon 3 was found in the proband. Parental genotype studies confirmed carrier state in the father, but the mother showed a wild allele by PCR and sequencing. This inspired us to find deletions using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique. The probands were found to have a large deletion in exons 1 and 3, while the mother only had deletion ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Variation of Mitochondrial DNA HV1 AND HV2 of the Vietnamese Population.
CONCLUSION: We have assessed the genetic polymorphism of mtDNA HV1 and HV2 of 517 Kinh, Muong, Cham, and Khmer ethnic samples. The result will help in better understanding of Vietnamese's mitochondrial genome diversity and aid in population as well as forensic science. PMID: 30838542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Quality of Life in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Palliative Chemotherapy.
Authors: Daroszewski C, Stasiewicz M, Jaźwińska-Tarnawska E, Rachwalik A, Mura E, Luboch-Kowal J, Dryś A, Bogucki ZA, Brzecka A Abstract The goal of this study was to explore quality of life in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in an attempt to single out features that could help predict the possibility of non-completion of chemotherapy. The survey tool was the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) with the module Lung Cancer 13 (LC-13) developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The assessment of quality of life (QoL) was performed in 58 patient...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Variability of Dry Eye Disease Following Removal of Lacrimal Glands in Rats.
In conclusion, severity of dry eye disease in the rat model is influenced by both gender and the extent of surgical removal of lacrimal glands. Combined excision of lacrimal glands in female rats produced the most severe pathological changes, whereas isolated excision of the extraorbital lacrimal gland in male rats led to the least severe changes. PMID: 30806916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Mold Sensitization in Asthmatic and Non-asthmatic Subjects Diagnosed with Extract-Based Versus Component-Based Allergens.
In conclusion, individual fungal sensitization rate was higher in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Extract-based tests, especially SPTs, were most sensitive, but component-based tests covered 80% of extract-based serological sensitization to Alternaria and Aspergillus. PMID: 30783996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Stem Cells from Human Extracted Deciduous Teeth Expanded in Foetal Bovine and Human Sera Express Different Paracrine Factors After Exposure to Freshly Prepared Human Serum.
Authors: Haque N, Widera D, Abu Kasim NH Abstract BACKGROUND: The response of stem cells to paracrine factors within the host's body plays an important role in the regeneration process after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and paracrine factor profile of stem cells from human extracted deciduous teeth (SHED) pre-cultivated in media supplemented with either foetal bovine serum (FBS) or pooled human serum (pHS) in the presence of individual human sera (iHS). METHODS: SHED (n = 3) from passage 4 were expanded in FBS (FBS-SHED) or pHS (pHS-SHED) supplemented media unt...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Vaccination Against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in the Light of Current Epidemic Threats: Unjustified Postponement.
Authors: Czajka H, Czajka S, Dyląg KA, Borek E, Kuchar E Abstract A worrying increase in the number of measles cases has been noted recently in Poland, which may have to do with a decreasing proportion of children vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) in the second year of life (
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Systemic Sclerosis and Serum Content of Transforming Growth Factor.
In conclusion, systemic sclerosis does not seem a disease that would be accompanied by a specific enhancement of serum TGF-β1. Thus, this cytokine is rather unlikely to play an essential role in the development and course of the disease, nor can it be considered diagnostic or prognostic marker. PMID: 30758773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Sleep Disorders and Adherence to Inhalation Therapy in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Authors: Chabowski M, Łuczak J, Dudek K, Jankowska-Polańska B Abstract Sleep disorders are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are associated with greater disease severity, more frequent exacerbations, greater use of emergency health care, and higher mortality. They may contribute to worsening of COPD course by reducing patients' adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of sleep in COPD patients and to assess the relationship between impaired sleep and adherence to inhalation therapy. The study included 106 COPD patients who were asked to answer th...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Potential of 'Omics to Link Lipid Metabolism and Genetic and Comorbidity Risk Factors of Alzheimer's Disease in African Americans.
Authors: Stepler KE, Robinson RAS Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics, who are more likely to have AD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and Asian Americans. Racial disparities in AD are multifactorial, with potential contributing factors including genetics, comorbidities, diet and lifestyle, education, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. Interestingly, comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease also impact AAs. It is plausible that a common underlying molecular basis to these higher incidences of AD a...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Role of Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease Drug Development.
Authors: Cummings J Abstract Biomarkers have a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. Biomarkers can assist in diagnosis, demonstrate target engagement, support disease modification, and monitor for safety. The amyloid (A), tau (T), neurodegeneration (N) Research Framework emphasizes brain imaging and CSF measures relevant to disease diagnosis and staging and can be applied to drug development and clinical trials. Demonstration of target engagement in Phase 2 is critical before advancing a treatment candidate to Phase 3. Trials with biomarker outcomes are shorter and smaller than those required to s...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Involvement in Mental Disorders: Energy Metabolism and Genetic and Environmental Factors.
Authors: Iwata K Abstract Mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior, and relationships with others. Multiple risk factors incorporating genetic and environmental susceptibility are associated with development of these disorders. Mitochondria have a central role in the energy metabolism, and the literature suggests energy metabolism abnormalities are widespread in the brains of subjects with MDD, BPD, and SZ. Numerous studies have shown altered expressions...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Lymphocytes, Platelets, Erythrocytes, and Exosomes as Possible Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Diagnosis.
Authors: Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M Abstract In the aging world population, Alzheimer's disease accounts for more than 70% of all cases of dementia and is the sixth leading cause of death. The neurodegenerative processes of this disorder can begin 10-20 years before the clinical symptoms develop. Postmortem brain autopsy of Alzheimer's disease cases reveals characteristic hallmarks like extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles and synaptic and neuronal disintegration with severe brain atrophy. Some studies have reported that platelets contain the amyloid protein precursor and the...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Genetic Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease: Emerging Roles of Microglia in Disease Pathomechanisms.
Authors: Takatori S, Wang W, Iguchi A, Tomita T Abstract The accumulation of aggregated amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is deeply involved in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mutations in APP and presenilins play major roles in Aβ pathology in rare autosomal-dominant forms of AD, whereas pathomechanisms of sporadic AD, accounting for the majority of cases, remain unknown. In this chapter, we review current knowledge on genetic risk factors of AD, clarified by recent advances in genome analysis technology. Interestingly, TREM2 and many genes associated with disease risk are predominantly expr...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.
Authors: Penadés R, Franck N, González-Vallespí L, Dekerle M Abstract Persons suffering from schizophrenia present cognitive impairments that have a major functional impact on their lives. Particularly, executive functions and episodic memory are consistently found to be impaired. Neuroimaging allows the investigation of affected areas of the brain associated with these impairments and, moreover, the detection of brain functioning improvements after cognitive remediation interventions. For instance, executive function impairments have been associated with prefrontal cortex volume and thickness;...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

The Role of Biomarkers in Psychiatry.
Authors: Lozupone M, La Montagna M, D'Urso F, Daniele A, Greco A, Seripa D, Logroscino G, Bellomo A, Panza F Abstract Psychiatric illnesses are cognitive and behavioral disorders of the brain. At present, psychiatric diagnosis is based on DSM-5 criteria. Even if endophenotype specificity for psychiatric disorders is discussed, it is difficult to study and identify psychiatric biomarkers to support diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. This chapter investigates the innovative biomarkers of psychiatric diseases for diagnosis and personalized treatment, in particular post-genomic data and proteomic ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Interactome Studies of Psychiatric Disorders.
Authors: Park DI, Turck CW Abstract High comorbidity and complexity have precluded reliable diagnostic assessment and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Impaired molecular interactions may be relevant for underlying mechanisms of psychiatric disorders but by and large remain unknown. With the help of a number of publicly available databases and various technological tools, recent research has filled the paucity of information by generating a novel dataset of psychiatric interactomes. Different technological platforms including yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation-coupled with mass spectrometry-based pro...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in Major Depressive Disorder.
Authors: Fries GR, Zhang W, Benevenuto D, Quevedo J Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe and chronic psychiatric disorder with a high prevalence in the population. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms has significantly increased over the years, available treatments still present several limitations and are not effective to all MDD patients. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been suggested to play key roles in MDD pathogenesis and treatment, including the effects of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs can modulate gene expression posttranscriptionally...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Proteomic Markers for Depression.
Authors: Silva-Costa LC, Carlson PT, Guest PC, de Almeida V, Martins-de-Souza D Abstract Major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, with molecular mechanisms not fully understood. A breakthrough could be reached with a panel of diagnostic biomarkers, which could be helpful to stratify patients and guide physicians to a better therapeutic choice, reducing the time between diagnostic and remission. This review brings the most recent works in proteomic biomarkers and highlights several potential proteins that could compose a panel of biomarkers to diagnostic and response to medication. These proteins are r...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Advances in Biomarker Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Authors: Shen L, Zhao Y, Zhang H, Feng C, Gao Y, Zhao D, Xia S, Hong Q, Iqbal J, Liu XK, Yao F Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental condition that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout life. The epidemiology of ASD is continuously increasing all over the world with huge social and economical burdens. As the etiology of autism is not completely understood, there is still no medication available for the treatment of this disorder. However, some behavioral interventions are available to improve the core and associated symptoms of autism, particularly when initiated at an...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Proteomic Investigations of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Past Findings, Current Challenges, and Future Prospects.
Authors: Abraham J, Szoko N, Natowicz MR Abstract Proteomics is a powerful tool to study biological systems and is potentially useful in identifying biomarkers for clinical screening and diagnosis, for monitoring treatment, and for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms in autism. Unlike numerous other experimental approaches employed in autism research, there have been few proteomic-based analyses. Herein, we discuss the findings of studies regarding autism that utilized a proteomic approach and review key considerations in sample acquisition, processing, and analysis. Most proteomic studies on autism used blood or oth...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Role of the Gut Microbiome in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Authors: Pulikkan J, Mazumder A, Grace T Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder with elusive etiology and obscure pathophysiology. Cognitive inabilities, impaired communication, repetitive behavior pattern, and restricted social interaction and communication lead to a debilitating situation in autism. The pattern of co-occurrence of medical comorbidities is most intriguing in autism, compared to any other neurodevelopmental disorders. They have an elevated comorbidity burden among which most frequently are seizures, psychiatric illness, and gastrointestin...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Metabolomic Biomarkers in Mental Disorders: Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.
Authors: Quintero M, Stanisic D, Cruz G, Pontes JGM, Costa TBBC, Tasic L Abstract Psychiatric disorders are some of the most impairing human diseases. Among them, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are the most common. Both have complicated diagnostics due to their phenotypic, biological, and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and the underlying biological pathways, and molecular mechanisms are still not completely understood. Given the multifactorial complexity of these disorders, identification and implementation of metabolic biomarkers would assist in their early detection and diagnosis and facilitate dise...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Early Detection and Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Future Perspectives.
Authors: Guest FL Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects approximately 6% of people over the age of 65 years. It is characterized as chronic degeneration of cortical neurons, with loss of memory, cognition and executive functions. As the disease progresses, it is accompanied by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in key areas of the brain, leading to a loss of neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, along with changes in the levels of essential neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and glutamate. Individuals with concomitant diseases such as depression, diabetes and car...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Sialidase Attenuates Epidermal Growth Factor Response and Abolishes Antiproliferative Effects of Erlotinib in A549Alveolar Epithelial Cells.
In this study we investigated the effects of EGF and erlotinib on the cell cycle of naive and sialidase (alpha-neuraminidase)-pretreated human A549 alveolar epithelial cells. A549 cells were labeled with propidium iodide, and fractions of cells in different phases of cycle were quantified by flow cytometry. We found that neither did desialilation nor EGF, as well as erlotinib treatment, increase the number of damaged cells (subG0/G1 cell fraction), while erlotinib did significantly increase the number of G0/G1 cells and decrease S + G2/M cell fractions. In naive cells, EGF increased proliferating cell numbers by ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

A Novel Virtue in Stem Cell Research: Exosomes and Their Role in Differentiation.
Authors: Abdik H, Avsar Abdik E, Hızlı Deniz AA, Taşlı PN, Şahin F Abstract In the past decade a number of different stem cell types have entered the clinical applications increasingly as a therapeutic option, due to their tissue maintenance capacity at the site where they localize. Although it was initially thought that conferral of resilience to damaged tissue largely depends on the stem cells themselves through orchestration of signaling among the local epithelial and immune systems at the injury site, recent findings point out that the remarkable regenerative capacity of stem cells is rather due to their n...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Online Health Technologies and Mobile Devices: Attitudes, Needs, and Future.
Authors: Waligóra J, Bujnowska-Fedak MM Abstract Advances in mobile technology constitute a promising and evolving trend that enables better access to health care especially for the elderly, disabled, and chronically ill. It overcomes geographical, temporal, and organizational barriers at low and affordable costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the needs and expectations of Polish citizens and their attitudes toward mobile health (mHealth) services using mobile phones and communication devices in medical care and also to evaluate the sociodemographic factors affecting such behavioral processes. A total...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Stem Cells for the Oromaxillofacial Area: Could they be a promising source for regeneration in dentistry?
Authors: Mendi A, Ulutürk H, Ataç MS, Yılmaz D Abstract Oromaxillofacial tissues (OMT) are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. Such a composite material is a huge source for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained with ease from extracted teeth, teeth structures and socket blood, flapped gingiva tissue, and mandibular/maxillar bone marrow. They offer a biological answer for restoring damaged dental tissues such as the regeneration of alveolar bone, prevention of pulp tissue defects, and dental structures. Dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells share prop...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9 for Sickle Cell Disease: Applications, Future Possibilities, and Challenges.
Authors: Demirci S, Leonard A, Haro-Mora JJ, Uchida N, Tisdale JF Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited monogenic disorder resulting in serious mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although the disease was characterized more than a century ago, there are only two FDA approved medications to lessen disease severity, and a definitive cure available to all patients with SCD is lacking. Rapid and substantial progress in genome editing approaches have proven valuable as a curative option given plausibility to either correct the underlying mutation in patient-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs)...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Decellularization Concept in Regenerative Medicine.
Authors: Somuncu ÖS Abstract Decellularized organs and tissues are effectively utilized in a diversity of regenerative medicine purposes, and the decellularization approaches employed differ as broadly as the tissues/organs of concern. Biological scaffold substances formed by extracellular matrix (ECM) are mostly produced with methods that include decellularization of tissues. Conservation of the multifaceted arrangement and three-dimensional (3D) construction of the ECM is very wanted but it is documented that almost every approach of decellularization cause disturbance of the organization and possible forfei...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Fructose Consumption and Lipid Metabolism in Obese Children and Adolescents.
In conclusion, fructose appears a particularly unfavorable component in children's diet as it is conducive to visceral obesity and atherogenic lipid profile. However, inadequate proportions of other macronutrients may also be at play in the development of metabolic diet-related disorders. PMID: 30701440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Hand-Foot Syndrome and Progression-Free Survival in Patients Treated with Sunitinib for Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
This study seeks to define the relationship between the incidence of HFS after the first cycle of treatment with sunitinib as the first-line treatment for mRCC (50 mg/day, 6-week schedule: 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off) and progression-free survival. We found that patients, treated with sunitinib for mRCC, who did not experience HFS had the median progression-free survival of 9.8 months. HFS symptoms appeared in 20% of patients after the first treatment cycle. The appearance of HFS was a predictor of a longer progression-free survival. In fact, progression-free survival was elongated in the HFS group over ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile Colitis Prevention and Treatment.
Authors: Dinleyici M, Vandenplas Y Abstract Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is the most common causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. This spore-forming, obligate anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus is becoming responsible for an increasing number of infections worldwide, both in community and in hospital settings, whose severity can vary widely from an asymptomatic infection to a lethal disease. While discontinuation of antimicrobial agents and antibiotic treatment of the infection remain the cornerstone of therapy, the use of probiotics, especially Saccharomyces boulardii, and more recently ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Phagocytosis and Autophagy in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Urban Dust: Possible Role of LC3-Associated Phagocytosis and Canonical Autophagy.
In conclusion, the research on distinct pathways of immune cell activation may be relevant to the diagnostics and therapy of PM-induced pneumotoxicity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. PMID: 30689175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Mandibular Advancement Devices in Patients with Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review.
Authors: Wojda M, Jurkowski P, Lewandowska A, Mierzwińska-Nastalska E, Kostrzewa-Janicka J Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder resulting from the repetitive narrowing and collapse of the upper respiratory tract. The results of previous epidemiological studies confirm a significant impact of OSA on the health situation around the world. Untreated OSA is associated with many adverse health effects, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, and daytime sleepiness. Excessive mortality of OSA patients, especially in men under 50 yea...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Protein-Bound Solute Clearance During Hemodialysis.
This study seeks to define the effectiveness of IS and p-CS clearance after single dialysis sessions and after 8-week-long cycles of hemodialysis using the following different dialysis modalities in succession: low-flux hemodialysis (lfHD), high-flux hemodialysis (hfHD), and post-dilution hemodiafiltration (HDF). We also investigated to what extent IS and p-CS serum content would associate with some other biochemical indices in patients with chronic kidney diseases. The study included 21 uremic patients. We found that a single session of each modality effectively decreased the content of both IS and p-CS, with the predomin...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Influence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Quality of Life and Exercise Capacity in Lung Transplant Recipients.
In conclusion, the presence of SDB is associated with a slight reduction in maximal exercise capacity in LTX recipients, and there is no appreciable relationship between SDB and HRQoL. PMID: 30680642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation for Accessory Respiratory Muscles Training in Patients After Ischemic Stroke.
This study focused on how pulmonary function is affected by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) of accessory respiratory muscles in the chronic post-stroke phase. The study involved patients who had had ischemic stroke 6 months or more before the PNF treatment investigated. The objective was to define the effect of PNF on bioelectrical resting and maximum activity of the accessory muscles. Patients were randomly assigned to PNF treatment and just positioning treatment as a reference for comparison; 30 patients each. Electromyography of accessory muscles was investigated before and after physiotherapeutic t...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Targeting Food Allergy with Probiotics.
Authors: Paparo L, Nocerino R, Di Scala C, Della Gatta G, Di Costanzo M, Buono A, Bruno C, Berni Canani R Abstract The dramatic increase in food allergy prevalence and severity globally is demanding effective strategies. Food allergy derives from a defect in immune tolerance mechanisms. Immune tolerance is modulated by gut microbiota composition and function, and gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with the development of food allergy. Selected probiotic strains could act on immune tolerance mechanisms. The mechanisms are multiple and still not completely defined. Increasing evidence is providing useful in...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Shaping Microbiota During the First 1000 Days of Life.
Authors: Selma-Royo M, Tarrazó M, García-Mantrana I, Gómez-Gallego C, Salminen S, Collado MC Abstract The data obtained in prior studies suggest that early microbial exposition begins prior to conception and gestation. Given that the host-microbe interaction is shaped by the immune system response, it is important to understand the key immune system-microbiota relationship during the period from conception to the first years of life. The present work summarizes the available evidence concerning early microbiota exposure within the male and the female reproductive tracts at the point of concepti...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Necrotizing Enterocolitis and the Preterm Infant Microbiome.
Authors: Baranowski JR, Claud EC Abstract Bacterial colonization patterns in preterm infants differ from those of their term counterparts due to maternal microbial diversity, delivery mode, feeding methods, antibiotic use, and exposure to commensal microbiota and pathogens in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Early gut microbiome dysbiosis predisposes neonates to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating intestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality. Though mechanisms of NEC pathogenesis are not fully understood, the microbiome is a promising therapy target for prevention and treatment. Direct ad...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Morphometric Analysis of the Lumbar Vertebrae Concerning the Optimal Screw Selection for Transpedicular Stabilization.
This study seeks to define detailed morphometric measurements of the pedicle (height, width, and surface area) in the aspects of screw length and girth selection and the trajectory of its implantation, i.e., sagittal and transverse angle of placement. The study was based on CT examinations of 100 Caucasian patients (51 women and 49 men) aged 27-75 with no anatomical, degenerative, or post-traumatic spine changes. The results were stratified by gender and body side, and they were counter compared with the available literature database. Pedicle height decreased from L1 to L4, ranging from 15.9 to 13.3 mm. Pedicle width ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Preventing and Treating Colic.
Authors: Indrio F, Dargenio VN, Giordano P, Francavilla R Abstract Colic is a common and distressing functional gastrointestinal disorder during infancy. It is a behavioral phenomenon in infants aged 1-4 months involving prolonged inconsolable crying and agitated status with multifactorial etiology. Colic can be considered as a benign, self-limited process because the baby normally grows and feeds even with transient irritable mood. Nevertheless, infantile colic is a common difficulty causing anxiety during parenthood and a recurrent reason for them to seek medical help, especially if it is the first child. The cau...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 19, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Can Postbiotics Represent a New Strategy for NEC?
Authors: Mosca F, Gianni ML, Rescigno M Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that many of the health beneficial effects associated with the establishment of a symbiotic gut microbiota are driven by bacterial metabolic by-products.The term "postbiotics" indicates any soluble factor resulting from the metabolic activity of a live bacteria or any released molecule capable of providing health benefits through a direct or indirect mechanism.Alterations in preterm gut colonization associated with the intestinal barrier immaturity and the increased reactivity of the intestinal mucosa to colonizing bacteria hav...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 19, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Acute Infectious Diarrhea.
Authors: Lo Vecchio A, Buccigrossi V, Fedele MC, Guarino A Abstract Acute infectious diarrhea (AID) is one of the most common diseases in pediatric age with relevant burden both in high- and in low-income countries.Thanks to their direct action on enterocyte functions and indirect actions on mucosal and systemic immune system and intestinal microenvironment, probiotics are an ideal intervention to manage AID in childhood. However, their efficacy is strictly related to strains and indications, and practitioners should take this information into account in clinical practice.This chapter summarizes the main mechanisms...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Chirality Effect on Cholesterol Modulation of Protein Function.
Authors: Belani JD Abstract Cholesterol is a key steroidal, lipid biomolecule found abundantly in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. It is an important structural component of cellular membranes and regulates membrane fluidity and permeability. Cholesterol is also essential for normal functioning of key proteins including ion-channels, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), membrane bound steroid receptors, and receptor kinases. It is thought that cholesterol exerts its actions via specific binding to chiral proteins and lipids as well as through non-specific physiochemical interactions. Distinguishing between the...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

A Critical Analysis of Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Membrane Cholesterol Sensitivity of GPCRs.
Authors: Jafurulla M, Aditya Kumar G, Rao BD, Chattopadhyay A Abstract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and a diverse family of proteins involved in signal transduction across biological membranes. GPCRs mediate a wide range of physiological processes and have emerged as major targets for the development of novel drug candidates in all clinical areas. Since GPCRs are integral membrane proteins, regulation of their organization, dynamics, and function by membrane lipids, in particular membrane cholesterol, has emerged as an exciting area of research. Cholesterol sensitivity of GPCRs could be due t...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of BK Channel Activity by Cholesterol and Its Derivatives.
Authors: Bukiya AN, Dopico AM Abstract Cholesterol (CLR) is an essential structural lipid in the plasma membrane of animal cells. In addition, CLR has been widely recognized as a critical modulator of protein function, including ion channels. Voltage- and Ca2+-gated K+ (BK) channels control a wide variety of physiological processes, including cell excitability, smooth muscle contractility, sensory perception, neurotransmitter release, and hormone secretion. Thus, disruption of BK currents has been implicated in the pathophysiology of prevalent human diseases. The current chapter reviews the literature documenting C...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Chiral Specificity of Cholesterol Orientation Within Cholesterol Binding Sites in Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels.
Authors: Barbera N, Levitan I Abstract Cholesterol is an integral component of cellular membranes and has been shown to be an important functional regulator for many different ion channels, including inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation represents a critical field of study. Broadly speaking, cholesterol can mediate ion channel function either directly by binding to specific sites or indirectly by altering surrounding membrane properties. Owing to the similar effects of cholesterol and its chiral isomers (epicholesterol and ent-...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - January 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research