FDG-PET/CT imaging findings of hepatic tumors and tumor-like lesions based on molecular background

AbstractThe usefulness of whole-body 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is established for assessment of disease staging, detection of early disease recurrence, therapeutic evaluation, and predicting prognosis in various malignancies; and for evaluating the spread of inflammation. However, the role of FDG-PET/CT for the liver is limited because CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide an accurate diagnosis of most tumors. In addition, in other potentially useful roles there are several pitfalls in the interpretation of FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging. Accurate evaluation demands knowledge of the FDG uptake of each lesion, including potential negative and positive uptakes, and requires an understanding of the underlying background of the molecular mechanisms. The degree of FDG uptake is dependent on cellular metabolic rate and the expression of glucose transporter, hexokinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, which in turn are closely affected by biological characteristics such as pathological category (e.g., adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, neuroendocrine tumor, sarcoma, lymphoma), tumor differentiation, histological behavior (e.g., solid, cystic, mucinous), and intratumoral alterations (e.g., necrosis, degeneration, hemorrhage). Correlation with the CT and MRI findings, which also precisely depict the pathological findings, is important to avoid misdiagnosis...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Lymphoma represents a significant burden that can be reduced with the implementation of improved diagnosis and treatment methods, which must be taken into account in resource allocation and management policies. PMID: 32450710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research
Purpose of review To review recent literature related to urologic malignancies in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). We performed a literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and CIANHL), with a focus on articles published between January 2015 and December 2019. Recent findings Recent reports demonstrate a lower incidence of bladder cancer in the NLUTD population than previously found, although still significantly higher than the general population. Bladder cancer in patients with NLUTD is usually diagnosed at a younger age, and is associated with higher ra...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NEUROUROLOGY AND INCONTINENCE: Edited by John Heesakkers and Frank Martens Source Type: research
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to give an overview of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) trials in prostate cancer and to discuss emerging approaches with potential future clinical implementation in both prostate and urothelial cancer. Recent findings PARPis are a class of drugs that can be applied for the treatment of homologous recombination repair (HRR)-deficient tumors. Tumors are potentially sensitive to PARPi harbor mutations in genes relevant for DNA damage repair, such as BRCA1/2 or ATM, which are present to a significant degree in metastatic prostate and urothelial cancer patients. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review Indications for chemotherapy have increased in prostate cancer (PCA), many of which are shared with new hormonal agents (NHA). With no head to head comparison available, defining the optimal sequence and identifying biomarkers to predict response, has been a focus of intense research in PCA. We aim to summarize the best currently available evidence in all stages of disease to help guide therapy. Recent findings In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, Cabazitaxel has shown improved radiographic progression-free survival over another NHA after Docetaxel and one NHA. For hormone sensitive PC...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review The aim of the article to summarize recent changes of treatment options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) with a special emphasis on immune checkpoint inhibition. Recent findings The introduction of checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy has led to a paradigm change in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Dual immune checkpoint inhibition or the combination of CPI and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was shown to improve survival when compared with the former standard of care sunitinib. Moreover, these novel strategies were shown to enable unprecedented rates of complete and durable responses, p...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review The treatment of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) unresponsive disease remains a challenge for urooncologists. The search for effective conservative treatments is ongoing and several new agents have been recently tested for this purpose. The aim of this manuscript was to review the last developments in this interesting field. Recent findings The advent of systemic immunotherapy in the nonmuscle invasive setting promise to revolutionize the paradigm of treatment of BCG unresponsive disease. The preliminary results of the Keynote-057 trial (3 months complete response of 41% in carcinoma-in-situ pa...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have been implemented in the treatment algorithm of metastatic urothelial cancer as they have shown higher and more sustained responses compared with conventional second-line chemotherapy. Recently, several clinical trials have reported on CPIs in earlier disease stages such as muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). This review summarizes ongoing clinical trials and results from early phase clinical trials in muscle invasive and locally advanced bladder cancer. Recent findings In phase II clinical trials, neoadjuvant use of CPIs as mono and combination therapy, in ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signalling, especially induced by FGFR3, is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma and was therefore extensively studied over the last decades. In this review, we summarize the most relevant findings of the past two years. Recent findings Recent studies support the concept that FGFR3 mediates a pathway of urothelial carcinogenesis associated with low malignant potential. FGFR3 may represent a highly accurate biomarker for diagnosis and prediction of recurrence, progression or therapy response. The pan FGFR-inhibitor erdafitinib was recent...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
This article emphasizes important aspects regarding a feasible management of mPCa, with possible impact on subsequent guidelines. The expected results from ongoing trials may provide another perspective in treatment of these cases.
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review Systemic treatment options for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) have recently shifted from the traditional androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) monotherapy to multidrug approaches incorporating drugs initially approved for castration-resistant state and ADT. However, clinicians have difficulties in choosing the adequate combination therapy for individualized patient care, because of the lack of consensus regarding disease risk factors, differences in study design of the major clinical trials and lack of direct comparisons between drugs. The aim of this review is to provide an update of...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPIES FOR ADVANCED UROLOGIC CANCERS: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
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