Liver fibrosis assessment using 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging
ConclusionsSUVmean measured by99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging enables highly accurate prediction of severe liver fibrosis. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical and CT findings of small bowel obstruction caused by rice cakes in comparison with bezoars
AbstractPurposeRice cakes have not been recognized as a cause of small bowel obstruction (SBO) worldwide. We compared clinical and CT findings of rice cake SBO versus SBO due to bezoars, the most common cause of food-induced SBO.MethodsTwenty-four patients with rice cake SBO (n = 17) or bezoar SBO (n = 7) were retrospectively evaluated for clinical findings and the following multi-detector CT (MDCT) features: identification of the transition zone, presence of intraluminal lesions, degree of obstruction, and length and attenuation of obstructing materials. Categorical variables were compared by F...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging findings of complications after thoracic surgery
AbstractMany surgical procedures are used for the treatment of lung, heart, and mediastinal diseases. The techniques can result in postoperative complications. The nature of these complications differs according to the duration of thoracic surgery and the onset of the complication. The complications occurring within 1  month and more than 1 month generally considered as early and late complications, respectively. Chest radiographs and CT scans obtained in patients who have undergone thoracic surgery show normal changes during the surgical procedure and diverse postsurgical complications. Familiarity with the cl i...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiation dose reduction using two orthogonal topograms associated with automatic tube voltage selection for lung CT scanning as compared with a single anteroposterior topogram
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of two orthogonal topograms on radiation dose and image quality (IQ) associated with topogram-based automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS) for lung CT scanning.MethodsThirty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. At baseline, only an anteroposterior topogram was obtained and at follow-up, both anteroposterior and lateral topograms were performed. ATVS was turned on during all scans. Objective and subjective IQ evaluations were performed and compared; tube voltage and radiation dose of each scan were noted and analyzed.ResultsA significant difference was observed regardin...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of coronary artery variations using dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography in neonates with transposition of the great arteries
ConclusionDual-source coronary CT angiography has a higher diagnostic ability than echocardiography in the assessment of the origins and courses of the coronary arteries in neonates with TGA. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Postmortem computed tomographic features in the diagnosis of drowning: a comparison of fresh water and salt water drowning cases
ConclusionsA lower density in the left atrium was observed in FWDCs compared to SWDCs. This finding may be helpful in differentiating between FWDCs and SWDCs. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multidimensional analysis of clinicopathological characteristics of false-negative clinically significant prostate cancers on multiparametric MRI of the prostate in Japanese men
ConclusionTumor detectability of csPC with PI-RADS v2 was limited compared with o-mpMRI criteria in Japanese men. Moreover, false-negative lesions on o-mpMRI criteria were characterized as small in size, low risk and low cellularity. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis-like lesions on chest computed tomography in routine clinical practice
This study included 1284 patients who underwent chest CT in 2011 at a hospital. The incidence of PPFE-like lesions and their correlation with age, body mass index, and concomitant pulmonary findings were assessed. Moreover, predictors of lesion progression were evaluated on follow-up. The ethical review board waived the requirement of informed consent for the retrospective review of patient records.ResultsIn total, 397 (30.9%) of the 1284 patients presented with PPFE-like lesions. The presence of PPFE-like lesions was correlated with older age (mean 72.2 vs. 69.9  years,p = 0.002); lower BMI (mean 21.0 vs. 23.2,p 
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How will “democratization of artificial intelligence” change the future of radiologists?
AbstractThe"democratization of AI" is progressing, and it is becoming an era when anyone can utilize AI. What kind of radiologists are new generation radiologists suitable for the AI era? The first is maintaining a broad perspective regarding healthcare in its entirety. Next, it is necessary to study the basic knowledge and latest information concerning AI and possess the latest knowledge concerning modalities such as CT/MRI and imaging information systems. Finally, it is important for radiologists to not forget the viewpoint of patient-centered healthcare. It is an urgent task to nurture human resources by reali...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A diagnostic strategy for breast calcifications based on a long-term follow-up of 615 lesions
ConclusionsWhen SVAB results in non-malignant, patients may be followed by annual screening, while re-biopsy needs to be performed for the patients with a discordant result of SVAB and with changes in an imaging finding during a follow-up. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computed tomographic colonography with a reduced dose of laxative using a novel barium sulfate contrast agent in Japan
ConclusionCTC with a reduced dose of laxative using a novel BaSO4 contrast agent has a favorable tagging efficacy, patient acceptability, and accuracy. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Third Asian Radiology Summit
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 12, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Potential value of the PixelShine deep learning algorithm for increasing quality of 70 kVp+ASiR-V reconstruction pelvic arterial phase CT images
AbstractObjectiveTo investigate the effect of a deep learning-based denoising algorithm, PixelShine (PS), on the quality of 70 kVp pelvic arterial phase CT images.Materials and methodsA retrospective analysis was performed on arterial phase pelvic CT images from 33 patients (body-mass index ≤ 20 kg/m2) obtained with a GE Revolution CT (70 kVp tube voltage; adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-Veo-filtered back projection, 50% blending) and designated group A. Group B images were then obtained by applying PS to group A image datasets. Subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists with a 5-...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Efficacy and prognostic factors of transarterial embolization as initial treatment for spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma: a single-center retrospective analysis in 57 patients
ConclusionTAE appeared to be an effective initial treatment for spontaneously ruptured HCC. The results indicated that large tumors, poor Child –Pugh class, and shock on admission were associated with poor prognosis. For these patients, embolization with lipiodol and gelatin sponge particles could achieve better survival than PVA particles used. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Technical and clinical overview of deep learning in radiology
AbstractDeep learning has been applied to clinical applications in not only radiology, but also all other areas of medicine. This review provides a technical and clinical overview of deep learning in radiology. To gain a more practical understanding of deep learning, deep learning techniques are divided into five categories: classification, object detection, semantic segmentation, image processing, and natural language processing. After a brief overview of technical network evolutions, clinical applications based on deep learning are introduced. The clinical applications are then summarized to reveal the features of deep l...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The safety and efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty for patients over 90  years old
AbstractObjectiveTo retrospectively analyze the safety and efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for patients aged 90 or over.Materials and methodsWe analyzed 130 consecutive patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures who underwent a first-time PVP between May 2015 and September 2017 at our institution. We divided them into the elder patient group aged 90  years or over (n = 21) and the younger patient group under 90 years (n = 109). We compared the two groups’ background, treatments, and outcomes using univariate analyzes and the log rank test.ResultsA significant di...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Machine learning studies on major brain diseases: 5-year trends of 2014 –2018
AbstractIn the recent 5  years (2014–2018), there has been growing interest in the use of machine learning (ML) techniques to explore image diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic lesion changes within the area of neuroradiology. However, to date, the majority of research trend and current status have not been clearly il luminated in the neuroradiology field. More than 1000 papers have been published during the past 5 years on subject classification and prediction focused on multiple brain disorders. We provide a survey of 209 papers in this field with a focus on top ten active areas of research; i.e., Alzhe...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improvement of image quality at CT and MRI using deep learning
AbstractDeep learning has been developed by computer scientists. Here, we discuss techniques for improving the image quality of diagnostic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with the aid of deep learning. We categorize the techniques for improving the image quality as “noise and artifact reduction”, “super resolution” and “image acquisition and reconstruction”. For each category, we present and outline the features of some studies. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perfusion contrast-enhanced ultrasound to predict early lymph-node metastasis in breast cancer
ConclusionsParameters from the quantitative analysis of perfusion CE-US imaging showed significant differences between the LN-negative and -positive metastasis groups in clinically node-negative breast cancer. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can low b value diffusion weighted imaging evaluate the character of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics?
ConclusionOur current study suggests that the CSF signal intensity on theb = 500 s/mm2 DWI may show the changes in CSF dynamics and might be useful to evaluate the overlook of CSF dynamics. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 8, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The feasibility of dedicated breast PET for the assessment of residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy
ConclusionThe dbPET can provide more sensitive detection of residual tumor after NAC than can WBPET. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of renal cell carcinoma in patients with acquired cystic disease of the kidney: comparison 11 C-choline and FDG PET/CT with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT
Conclusion11C-choline-PET/CT was more sensitive to detect RCC in ACDK as compared to FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT in our series. FDG-PET/CT may be limited for detecting clear-cell RCC, while CT may have difficulty with detection of ACD-associated RCC. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In Reply
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can the spherical gold standards be used as an alternative to painted gold standards for the computerized detection of lesions using voxel-based classification?
ConclusionSpherical gold standards can be used as an alternative to painted gold standards for the computerized detection of lesions with simple shapes. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Amide proton transfer imaging of tumors: theory, clinical applications, pitfalls, and future directions
AbstractAmide proton transfer (APT) imaging is an emerging molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). APT imaging has shown promise in oncologic imaging, especially in the imaging of brain tumors. This review article illustrates the theory of CEST/APT imaging and describes the clinical utility, pitfalls, and potential for future development of APT imaging. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hilar and mediastinal sarcoid-like reaction after the treatment of malignant tumors: imaging features and natural course on 18 F-FDG-PET/CT
ConclusionAfter the treatment of malignancies, benign sarcoid-like reaction was rarely observed during follow-up. Although sarcoid-like reaction appeared a long time after the treatment of malignancies, it frequently and spontaneously regressed in a relatively short period of time. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The effectiveness of additional lead-shielding drape and low pulse rate fluoroscopy in protecting staff from scatter radiation during cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)
ConclusionAdditional lead-shielding drape and low pulse rate fluoroscopy are effective in reducing the scattered radiation dose to physicians and nurses during CRT. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reliability of diagnosing acute ischemic cerebrovascular on magnetic resonance imaging disorders using iPads
ConclusionThe results of the observer performance studies for detecting acute ischemic cerebrovascular disorders on an iPad Air ™ were found to be similar to those on a medical monitor. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasonography of traumatic injuries to limb peripheral nerves: technical aspects and spectrum of features
AbstractTraumatic injury to limb peripheral nerves represents an important cause of morbidity and disability. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial to optimizing outcomes. The initial evaluation requires a careful history, a thorough physical examination, and electrodiagnostic tests, which lead in most cases to a diagnostic suspicion, but fail to provide an extensive qualitative and quantitative assessment of the nerve damage. Ultrasonography (US) is a low-cost, non-invasive technique which allows for direct visualization of nerve internal structure. It enables performing dynamic examinations and nerves can be followe...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound imaging of the anorectal malformation during the neonatal period: a comprehensive review
AbstractAnorectal malformation (ARM) is classified as low, intermediate, or high; accurate diagnosis of the type during the early neonatal period is important to determine the appropriate initial surgical approach. This review assesses the role of ultrasound examination in the classification of ARM during the neonatal period, with a focus on landmarks on the sonogram, the approach used for sonography, and the optimal examination timing. The following three factors on the sonogram are used for the classification: location of the fistula, the distance between the distal rectal pouch and the anal dimple (perineum) (P –P...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Radiology Service in Japan
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comparison of two types of microcatheters used for a novel external carotid arterial sheath system for intra-arterial chemotherapy of head and neck cancer
This study aimed to assess the potential of a novel microcatheter with a steerable tip inserted through the ECAS in comparison to an existing hook-type microcatheter.Materials and methodsThe same operator used two types of microcatheters alternately for each weekly IACT session with the same patient, and the fluoroscopy time required for catheterization and the arterial selectivity of each microcatheter were compared.ResultsTen patients with advanced head and neck cancer were enrolled. The steerable microcatheter significantly shortened the fluoroscopy time required for catheterization in comparison to the hook-type microc...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Taking a proactive role in patient management of important incidental imaging findings: How can we increase the ‘value’ of diagnostic radiology service and improve quality of patient care?
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

DCE-MRI time –intensity curve visual inspection to assess pathological response after neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer
ConclusionsTIC visual inspection may be one of the potential biomarkers over morphological analysis using DCE-MRI data to assess pathological response after pCRT in LARC. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Linear shadows that connect oblique fissures and costal pleurae on the superior segments of lower lobes: evaluating the imaging findings on thin-slice lung CT
ConclusionThe linear shadows on the superior segments of the lower lobes are common structures fixing the oblique fissures. Recognition of the linear shadows can help radiologists distinguish normal structures from abnormal ones. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Risk factors for atrophic gastritis in the Japanese young and middle-aged: a study using double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography
AbstractPurposeTo identify risk factors for atrophic gastritis in Japanese young and middle-age subjects by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR).Materials and methodsWe included 351 consecutive Japanese subjects (158 males, 193 females; age 25 –49 years, mean 44 years) seen between October 2014 and March 2016. All underwent serumHelicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody- and UGI-XR examinations. Two radiologists independently recorded their UGI-XR findings of atrophic gastritis (AG). Interobserver agreement was assessed by calculating the kappa ( κ) coefficient. Univariate ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Does integrated shimming improve lesion detection in whole-body diffusion-weighted examinations of patients with breast cancer?
ConclusionIn regard to detectability of breast cancers by DWI, iShim may allow improved detectability as compared to conventional 3D shim. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Risk factors for atrophic gastritis in the Japanese young and middle-aged: a study using double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography
AbstractPurposeTo identify risk factors for atrophic gastritis in Japanese young and middle-age subjects by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR).Materials and methodsWe included 351 consecutive Japanese subjects (158 males, 193 females; age 25 –49 years, mean 44 years) seen between October 2014 and March 2016. All underwent serumHelicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody- and UGI-XR examinations. Two radiologists independently recorded their UGI-XR findings of atrophic gastritis (AG). Interobserver agreement was assessed by calculating the kappa ( κ) coefficient. Univariate ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Does integrated shimming improve lesion detection in whole-body diffusion-weighted examinations of patients with breast cancer?
ConclusionIn regard to detectability of breast cancers by DWI, iShim may allow improved detectability as compared to conventional 3D shim. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Standardization of [F-18]FDG PET/CT for response evaluation by the Radiologic Society of North America-Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (RSNA-QIBA) profile: preliminary results from the Japan-QIBA (J-QIBA) activities for Asian international multicenter phase II trial
ConclusionWe standardized imaging conditions using phantoms as required in the RSNA-QIBA profile for response evaluation by [F-18]FDG PET/CT images in a multicenter study. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT-based mediastinal compartment classifications and differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors
AbstractDivision of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow down the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors, assess tumor growth, and plan biopsies and surgical procedures. There are several traditional mediastinal compartment classification systems based upon anatomical landmarks and lateral chest radiograph. Recently, the Japanese Association of Research of the Thymus (JART) and the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) proposed new mediastinal compartment classification systems based on transverse CT images. These CT-based classification systems are useful for more consistent and ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Post-marketing surveillance of gadobutrol for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in Japan
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the safety of gadobutrol for magnetic resonance imaging in a prospective, non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance in Japan.Materials and methodsGadobutrol was administered in accordance with Japanese prescribing information over a 2-year enrollment period, using a standardized questionnaire to collect information. The primary outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions (ARs) following gadobutrol injection.ResultsQuestionnaire data were analyzed for 3337 patients (age, 58.1  ± 17.4 years [mean±SD]). Gadobutrol was administered at a dose of 0.10 &p...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence using neural network architecture for radiology (AINNAR): classification of MR imaging sequences
ConclusionsGoogLeNet could judge the types of head MRI sequences with a small amount of training data, irrespective of morphological or contrast conditions. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Post-marketing surveillance of gadobutrol for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in Japan
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the safety of gadobutrol for magnetic resonance imaging in a prospective, non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance in Japan.Materials and methodsGadobutrol was administered in accordance with Japanese prescribing information over a 2-year enrollment period, using a standardized questionnaire to collect information. The primary outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions (ARs) following gadobutrol injection.ResultsQuestionnaire data were analyzed for 3337 patients (age, 58.1  ± 17.4 years [mean±SD]). Gadobutrol was administered at a dose of 0.10 &p...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence using neural network architecture for radiology (AINNAR): classification of MR imaging sequences
ConclusionsGoogLeNet could judge the types of head MRI sequences with a small amount of training data, irrespective of morphological or contrast conditions. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Definitive radiotherapy for hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node metastases after stereotactic body radiotherapy or surgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: 5-year results
ConclusionsA proportion of patients in both groups achieved long-term survival by conventional radiotherapy. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography with computed tomographic colonography for laparoscopic colorectal surgery
Conclusions3D-CTA with CTC guided the surgeons to determine the resection margin of the relevant vessels for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Definitive radiotherapy for hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node metastases after stereotactic body radiotherapy or surgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: 5-year results
ConclusionsA proportion of patients in both groups achieved long-term survival by conventional radiotherapy. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research