Does perturbation in the mitochondrial protein folding pave the way for neurodegeneration diseases?

Does perturbation in the mitochondrial protein folding pave the way for neurodegeneration diseases? Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Dec 06;:100997 Authors: Ji T, Zhang X, Xin Z, Xu B, Jin Z, Wu J, Hu W, Yang Y Abstract Mitochondria, which are cell compartments that are widely present in eukaryotic cells, have been shown to be involved in a variety of synthetic, metabolic, and signaling processes, thereby playing a vital role in cells. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) is a response in which mitochondria reverse the signal to the nucleus and maintain mitochondrial protein homeostasis when unfolded and misfolded proteins continue to accumulate. Multiple neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), are public health challenges. Every year, countless efforts are expended trying to clarify the pathogenesis and treatment of neurological disorders, which are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction to some extent. Numerous studies have shown that mtUPR is involved in and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, but the exact mechanism of the disorders is still unclear. Further study of the process of mtUPR in neurological disorders can help us more accurately understand their pathogenesis in order to provide new therapeutic targets. In this paper, we briefly review mtUPR signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and mammal...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

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Abstract Disruption of cellular functions with aging-induced accumulation of neuronal stressors causes cell death which is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Studies in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models demonstrate that poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent cell death, also named parthanatos, is responsible for neuronal loss in neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Parthanatos has distinct features that differ from caspase-dependent apoptosis, necrosis or autophagic cell death. Parth...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Khosravi S, Harner ME Abstract Mitochondria perform a plethora of functions in various cells of different tissues. Their architecture differs remarkably, for instance in neurons versus steroidogenic cells. Furthermore, aberrant mitochondrial architecture results in mitochondrial dysfunction. This indicates strongly that mitochondrial architecture and function are intimately linked. Therefore, a deep knowledge about the determinants of mitochondrial architecture and their function on a molecular level is of utmost importance. In the past decades, various proteins and protein complexes essential for formatio...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
We report a new class of natural-product-inspired covalent inhibitors of telomerase that target the catalytic active site. Age-Related Epigenetic Changes that Suppress Mitochondrial Function https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/03/age-related-epigenetic-changes-that-suppress-mitochondrial-function/ Today's open access research reports on two specific epigenetic changes observed in old individuals that act to reduce mitochondrial function. This joins an existing list of genes for which expression changes are known to impact mitochondrial function with age. A herd of hundreds of mitochondria are found ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Age-related upregulation of CD38 is quite closely related to the decline of NAD+ levels in mitochondria. That in turn causes some fraction of the age-related loss of mitochondrial quality control and mitochondrial function. As mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, providing chemical energy store molecules (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) to power cellular operations, this causes a broad range of issues in tissues throughout the body. Mitochondrial decline is particularly influential in the aging of the brain, given the high energy demands of that organ. Due to the lack of effective treatment to at least slow...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Abstract The structural integrity and functional stability of organelles are prerequisites for the viability and responsiveness of cells. Dysfunction of multiple organelles is critically involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular diseases, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, those organelles synchronously present with evident structural derangement and aberrant function under exposure to different stimuli, which might accelerate the corruption of cells. Therefore, the quality control of multiple organelles is of gr...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
We examined whether Rhy promotes this regulation in bone marrow human mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-hMSCs). Results revealed (i) Rhy modulated biological activity by regulating the mitochondria, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit, and levels of FGFβ (basic fibroblast growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), OXTR (oxytocin receptor) and ATP (Adenosine triphosphate); (ii) Rhy altered expression level of BM-MSC proliferation/differentiation-related transcription genes; and (iii) interestingly, Rhy amplified the glycolytic flow ratio and lactate dehydrogenase activity while reducing pyruvate dehydrogen...
Source: Cytotherapy - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
This study provides strong evidence that following a healthy lifestyle can substantially extend the years a person lives disease-free." Commentary on Recent Evidence for Cognitive Decline to Precede Amyloid Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/01/commentary-on-recent-evidence-for-cognitive-decline-to-precede-amyloid-aggregation-in-alzheimers-disease/ I can't say that I think the data presented in the research noted here merits quite the degree of the attention that it has been given in the popular science press. It is interesting, but not compelling if its role...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ino A Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people around the world. Several studies point out caspase-3 as a key player in the development and progression of neurological disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Furthermore, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in neurodegenerative pathologies leading to neuronal damage and cell death. Pharmacological properties of nitrones such as free radical trapping and neuroprotection has been previously described. In the present work, we have assessed ten non-cyt...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
The materials here report on efforts to screen for small molecule compounds that can reduce the age-related decline of mitochondrial function observed in neurons - and indeed throughout the body. Screening the contents of compound libraries is a process that might sound simple, and conceptually it is, but it is a complex task to build a cost-effective system and supporting logistics to screen for a novel outcome. In this case the outcome is a reversal of at least some degree of reduced mitochondrial function in neurons from old tissue, as well as improvement in important aspects of neural function. Every cell contai...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Abstract The global burden of neurodegenerative diseases is alarmingly increasing in parallel to the aging of population. Although the molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration are not completely understood, excitotoxicity, defined as to the injury and death of neurons due to an excessive or prolonged exposure to excitatory amino acids, has been shown to play a pivotal role. The increased release and/or decreased uptake of glutamate results in a dysregulation of neuronal calcium homeostasis, leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, disturbances in protein turn-over and neuroinflammation. De...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
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