Regular Exercise Slows Cognitive Decline and Age-Related Damage to the Brain

Maintaining fitness through the practice of regular exercise improves health in old age, slowing the pace of damage to the brain and consequent cognitive decline. While there is largely only correlational data in humans to show a link between exercise and a slower pace of neurodegeneration, many animal studies make it clear that exercise causes an improved trajectory for health in later life. It does not extend overall life span in mice, as is the case for calorie restriction, but is otherwise very effective for an intervention that is essentially free. This beneficial outcome is likely due to a combination of overlapping mechanisms, and it is presently hard to say which of those mechanisms are more important. Exercise upregulates cellular maintenance processes such as autophagy, and it is well demonstrated in animal studies that more autophagy improves long term health. Exercise also reduces chronic inflammation, and, when present, that inflammation drives a more rapid progression of all of the common age-related conditions. Fitter people tend to carry less visceral fat tissue, and excess visceral fat accelerates the pace of aging through a more rapid creation of senescent cells, as well as other processes that increase chronic inflammation. Fitter people also exhibit better cardiovascular function and lesser degrees of age-related hypertension, both of which are important when it comes to avoiding structural damage and functional decline in brain tissue. Res...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

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We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, in the absence of obesity, visceral adipose tissue possesses a pronounced anti-inflammatory phenotype during aging which is further enhanced by exercise. Methods of Inducing Cellular Damage are Rarely Relevant to Aging, and the Details Matter https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/08/methods-of-inducing-cellular-damage-are-rarely-relevant-to-aging-and-the-details-matter/ One of the major challenges in aging research is determining whether or not models of cellular or organismal damage and its consequences are in any way relevant to the natural processes of aging. One can hit a brick with...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a well studied gene, given that variants are associated with a greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. That said, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol levels are just as important as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease when compared against all but the worst APOE variant, APOE4. Looking beyond Alzheimer's, in most cases lifestyle choices and their consequences on the operation of metabolism, particularly becoming overweight, have larger effects on risk of age-related disease than genetic variants. The common wisdom of a 75%/25% split between environment and genetics respectivel...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The objectives of this study were to investigate the topographic patterns of white matter hyperintensities associated with Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers measured using PET. From the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 434 participants without dementia (55% male) with FLAIR and gradient recall echo MRI, tau-PET (AV-1451) and amyloid-PET scans were identified. A subset had cerebral microbleeds detected on T2* gradient recall echo scans. White matter hyperintensities were semi-automatically segmented using FLAIR MRI in participant space and normalized to a custom template. We used statistical parametric mappin...
Source: Brain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study, as well as the larger SPRINT study, also demonstrated that overall intensive treatment of blood pressure in older adults is safe. However, we do know that some individuals may develop dizziness, imbalance, and in rare instances strokes with intensive blood pressure lowering. For that reason, it is important to discuss your blood pressure management with your primary care physician and follow his or her recommendation. How do cardiovascular risk factors affect brain health? We have evidence from studies of the population, studies of brain scans, and studies of animals, that treatment of cardiovascular risk facto...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Alzheimer's Disease Brain and cognitive health Heart Health Hypertension and Stroke Memory Prevention Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: The use of antidepressants, especially SNRIs, was associated with a shorter survival time of sCJD patients. The possible changes in neurotransmitters should be emphasized. Scientifically, this study may provide insights into the mechanism of CJD. Clinically, it may contribute to the early diagnosis of CJD.IntroductionDepression is common in the elderly. Its prevalence rate is as high as 11.19%, and this increases progressively with worsening cognitive impairment (1). The presence of depression is an acknowledged risk factor for dementia (2); it can even double the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (3, 4)...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD. Introduction Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular process that is considered a major cause of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data support that plasma DAO levels were increased in PSD patients and correlated with brain WMH, independent of age, gender, hypertension, and renal function. Plasma DAO levels may therefore aid in PSD diagnosis. Introduction Stroke is a risk factor for both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (1, 2). Functional recovery develops over the course of 26 weeks after a stroke (3), but the survivors are often left with disabilities. In addition to the sequelae of acute neuronal damage, the 1-year post-stroke dementia (PSD) rates after first-ever and recurrent stroke are ~10 and 30%, respe...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the presence and extent of cSS are associated with reduced CSF ß-amyloid 42 levels. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this association. Introduction Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)—characterized by the deposition of ß-amyloid in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels—is a common cerebral small vessel disease and a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly (1–3). Furthermore, it has become evident that CAA is associated with cognitive impairment (4). Specifically, it has been shown that CAA patien...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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