Kratom: Fear-worthy foliage or beneficial botanical?

Depending on what you read, kratom is a dangerous, addictive drug with no medical utility and severe side effects, including overdose and death, or it is an accessible pathway out of undertreated chronic pain and opiate withdrawal. How can the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), medical professionals, and millions of regular kratom users have such divergent views of the same plant? What is kratom? Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree from the coffee family native to Southeast Asia, with properties that range from stimulant-like, energizing and uplifting, to opiate-like, causing drowsiness and euphoria. Kratom has dozens of active components, which makes it difficult to characterize as one particular type of drug such as “stimulant” or “opiate.” The two main chemicals, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have strong activity at the main opioid receptor, the “mu” receptor, which is the same one stimulated by heroin and oxycodone. Kratom is commonly consumed orally, with added sweetener to overcome its harsh bitterness, made into tea or swallowed as a pill. Side effects can include agitation, tachycardia, drowsiness, vomiting, and confusion. There can also be grave side effects such as seizures, as well as respiratory and cardiac arrest. Kratom can be found in gas stations and paraphernalia shops in most parts of the US, except in the handful of states and cities that have banned it. Many people purchase kratom over the Internet, whe...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Addiction Pain Management Vitamins and supplements Source Type: blogs

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In this study, two groups (4% PHB supplementation diets and control with basal diets) with 30-day feeding were set to study the effect of PHB supplementation on immune-related gene expression by qRT-PCR, time-course CyHV-2 replication in vivo by qPCR and intestinal microbiota by illumine high-throughput sequencing. PHB supplementation significantly up-regulated transcriptional levels of eight immune-related genes, decreased cumulative mortality of gibel carp and early CyHV-2 replication in spleen in vivo (P 
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular &Integrative PhysiologyAuthor(s): Aijun Ma, Wenxiao Cui, Xinan Wang, Wei Zhang, Zhifeng Liu, Jinsheng Zhang, Tingting ZhaoAbstractThe induction of the myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway in euryhaline fishes is an important component of the cellular response to osmotic challenge. The MIPS and IMPA1 genes were sequenced in turbot and found to be highly conserved in phylogenetic evolution, especially within the fish species tested. Under salinity stress in turbot, both MIPS and IMPA1 showed adaptive ex...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 384Author(s): Amin Piri, Hyeong Rae Kim, Jungho HwangAbstractHuman exposure to airborne pathogens is a major cause of health concerns; therefore, it is imperative to monitor, sample, and detect airborne bio-particles. Among various bio-aerosol sampling methods, electrostatic precipitation (EP) is an efficient technique for capturing bio-aerosols as hydrosols due to a lower pressure drop and less damage to sensitive bio-particles. Corona discharge is the main EP mechanism; however, this inevitably generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which ...
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Escudero-Hernández C, Bernardo D, Arranz E, Garrote JA Abstract Celiac disease (CeD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic gastrointestinal disorders of inflammatory origin that develop in response to environmental triggers in genetically predisposed individuals. CeD localizes in the duodenal mucosa, where intolerance develops to dietary gluten from wheat, barley, rye, and some varieties of oats. IBD, in turn, is subdivided primarily into Crohn's disease (CD) and colitis, with ulcerative colitis (UC) being the most thoroughly investigated form. PMID: 31830796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: rich-fiber food consumption, fluids intake and anticonvulsant polytherapy were associated with the stool characteristics of children with cerebral palsy and chronic constipation. PMID: 31830793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Quick question. Sorry about another salary thread but I am asking a specific question. Anybody working in private practice in NYC or within 30 min driving distance? Please feel free to post here or PM me about starting salary range. Thank you.
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pain Medicine Source Type: forums
It's that time of year. How much Xmas bonus do you fork out for your staff, manager, mid levels, etc?
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pain Medicine Source Type: forums
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Orthopaedics &Traumatology: Surgery &ResearchAuthor(s): Alessio Bernasconi, Cecilia Iervolino, Rosa D’Alterio, François Lintz, Shelain Patel, Francesco SadileAbstractBackgroundThe role of subtalar arthroereisis (STA) for treating flexible flatfoot (FFF) in children is controversial. We hypothesized that (1) STA provided significant radiographic correction of low longitudinal arch and forefoot abduction in paediatric FFF and that (2) mid-term clinical outcomes were satisfactory and comparable to a normal population.MethodsA retrospective compara...
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
We report the clinical findings, imaging features, surgery and histological analyses of primary synovial chondromatosis in glenohumeral joint, biceps tendon sheath and subcoracoid bursa in a child, aged 14. Primary synovial chondromatosis is characteristized by multiple calcified nodules in joints, tendons or bursa areas. The condition is more usual in large joints, in particular in lower extremities. It may be symptomless until the volume of chondromatosis has increased to such an extent that it results in pain, locking symptom or palpable mass. The treatment is removal of the loose bodies and potentially synovectomy, in ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Huan Yang, Yiran Sun, Rui Cai, Ying Chen, Bing GuAbstractAlthough antibiotics are commonly used to treat infectious diseases, emergence of antibiotic resistant strains highlights the necessity for developing novel alternative approaches. Meanwhile, clinically, antibiotics can destroy the gut microbes balance, which is not conducive to the recovery of infectious disorders. As a result, recent studies have begun to explore potential prevention and treatment methods for infectious diseases, starting with more readily available dietary ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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