Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases and drug targets via apoptotic signaling

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Yuanbo Wu, Meiqiao Chen, Jielong JiangAbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is becoming one of the most emerging pathological process in the etiology of neurological disorders. Other common etiologies of the neurological disorders are aging and oxidative stress. Neurodegenerative disorders for instance Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Multiple sclerosis, Neuropathic pain and Alzheimer's disease involves mitochondrial dysfunction and is regarded as the core of their pathological processes. Most central pathological feature of the neurodegenerative diseases is apoptosis which is regulated by mitochondria. Altered signaling of the apoptotic mechanisms are involved in neurodegeneration. Abnormal levels of these molecular apoptotic proteins promotes the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Mitochondria are also implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Raised ROS levels initiates the cascade leading to the non-apoptotic death of cells. ROS produced in cells acts as signaling molecules, but when produced in abundance will result in cellular consequences to deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins and lipids, decreased effectiveness of cellular mechanisms, initiation of inflammatory pathways, excitotoxicity, protein agglomeration and apoptosis. Protecting mitochondrial function has been identified as the most effective therapeutic...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Related Links:

CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of possible repercussions of the celiac trunk stenosis to peripancreatic arteries should be elevated. Restoration of physiological blood flow by removing pathologic anatomy should be performed. Since there is no correlation between the size of a visceral aneurysm and the risk of rupture, having a high postrupture mortality, pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms should be treated even if asymptomatic. Surgical treatment remains the mainstay treatment of the Dunbar syndrome complicated by visceral aneurysms. PMID: 31961777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Chirurgica Belgica - Category: Surgery Tags: Acta Chir Belg Source Type: research
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to trauma, especially those who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are at a higher risk of suffering from chronic pain as well as altered pain perception and modulation. However, the underlying mechanisms of these ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
IN RESPONSE: Clozapine is recognized and recommended as a treatment to reduce death by suicide among adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in the 2019 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and U.S. Department of Defense (VA/DoD) clinical...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with no history of coronary risk factors or chest pain who experienced intermittent chest pain at rest for several minutes from 2 PM. At 8 AM the next day, chest pain recurred and persisted for about 1 hour. She was transported to our hospital by ambulance, where electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in the precordial leads, and blood tests showed elevation of cardiac markers. She was diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Because she was a young woman without any risk factors, coronary spastic angina was suspected. Coronary angiography without intracoronary nitrate adm...
Source: International Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int Heart J Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess the perioperative outcomes of adjunctive hypnotherapy undergoing transfemoral TAVI with LACS.Consecutive patients (n = 143) with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI with LACS only (n = 107) or with LACS and hypnotherapy (n = 36) between January 2015 and April 2016 were retrospectively included in the study. The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. The LACS with hypnotherapy group had a significantly shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU; LACS only versus LACS with hypnotherapy: 4.0 (4.0-5.5) days versus 3.0 (3.0-5.0) days, P
Source: International Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int Heart J Source Type: research
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate use and effectiveness of pre-operative education with respect to post-operative opioid use and management of pain in the orthopaedic setting. Electronic searches were conducted in Ovid/Medline and SCOPUS to identify articles that discuss pre-operative opioid education and its effects on post-operative pain scores and prescription fulfillment. Non-orthopaedic studies were included for comparison. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria, 3 of which were retrospective reviews of large (>1000) post-surgical cohorts, and 8 of which were randomized controlled studies that ...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
ConclusionThis study demonstrated that a good quality of life was observed among the majority of CWE and their caregivers, although some factors such as a male caregiver gender and lower level of education were associated with poor QoL.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Petra Redfors, Lukas Holmegaard, Annie Pedersen, Christina Jern, Kristina MalmgrenAbstractPurposeTo assess long-term incidence and predictors of post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and to evaluate the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in a well characterized cohort of middle-aged patients.MethodsThe study is based on the Sahlgrenska Study on Ischemic stroke, and included 1066 adult patients with first-ever or recurrent acute ischemic stroke (AIS) before the age of 70. Early seizures (ES) were defined as seizures within one week and PSE as unprovoked seizur...
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsExpression of SSTRs and activation of mTOR pathway in paediatric glioneuronal tumour suggest that somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors may have potential therapeutic implications in a subset of inoperable childhood glioneuronal tumours causing medically refractory epilepsy and/or tumour growth. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate these findings.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionComorbidity increased the rate of all-cause, but not MS-specific, hospital admissions. Hospitalization rates were higher during the earlier stages of MS. Therefore, recognizing and managing comorbidity in the MS population, especially early in the disease course, will likely have the biggest impact on reducing overall hospital admissions.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
More News: ALS | Alzheimer's | Biochemistry | Brain | Epilepsy | Huntington's Disease | Mitochondria | Mitochondrial Disease | Multiple Sclerosis | Neurology | Pain | Parkinson's Disease | Schizophrenia