Obesity: seize the day, fight the fat
Obesity is the global epidemic of the 21st century: about 1.5 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and among them, about 200 million men and 300 million women are obese . In some countries, the prevalence of obesity has exceeded 50%, as in Tonga (men), and in Kuwait, Kiribati, Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga and Samoa (women) . The prevalence of overweight and obesity are also increasing in children and adolescents in developed (about 25%) and in developing countries (about 13%) . Obesity has been associated with many comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hypertension, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and malignancies, leading to increased mortality observed in obese individuals .
In conclusion, overweight patients with hypertrophic muscles pose a risk for brachial plexus entrapment injury by pectoral muscles during prone-position surgery, and therefore it would be more effective to use a wide chest pad to reduce the pressure on the pectoral muscles to prevent it from being pushed out toward the axillary fossa.
The patches are designed to treat diabetic leg and foot ulcers – long-term wounds that often fail to close for months or even years and affect 115,000 Britons.
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yixuan Liang, Xiaoke Wang, Dongmei He, Qi You, Tingting Zhang, Wanfa Dong, Jingjin Fei, Yun Xing, Jie WuAbstractAimsRecent studies have revealed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) provide negative feedback in the progression to chronic inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, accumulating evidences suggest that gut immunity play a key role in T1D pathogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) targeting intestinal NE...
Conclusions: The presence of MetS, IR and dislipidemia rises with increasing SUAL independently of age, puberty, gender and body mass index (BMI) in OB/OW children. Patients with all of the MetS criteria had the highest SUAL. These results demonstrated that association between UA and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors could be detectable as early as in childhood. Thus, we recommend monitoring SUAL in OB children and we believe that prevention of SUAL elevation in early life has a potential protective effect on metabolic impairment and subsequent comorbidities. PMID: 30759960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In this study, we sought to determine whether liver volume can predict the risk of primary prophylaxis failure in cirrhotic patients on NSBB therapy. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 309 patients on prophylactic propranolol was analyzed. Liver volume was measured in portal venous phase images of multidetector computed tomography. Predictors of VH were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with competing-risks analysis. A nomogram was developed for estimation of the risk of primary prophylaxis failure. Results: During a median follow-up of 36 months, 37 patients on propranolol developed VH. Liver volum...
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Neurotoxicology and TeratologyAuthor(s): Clayton Mansel, Shaneann Fross, Jesse Rose, Emily Dema, Alexis Mann, Haley Hart, Paul Klawinski, Bhupinder P.S. VohraAbstractLead (Pb) is a teratogen that poses health risks after acute and chronic exposure. Lead is deposited in the bones of adults and is continuously leached into the blood for decades. While this chronic lead exposure can have detrimental effects on adults such as high blood pressure and kidney damage, developing fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable. During pregnancy, bone-deposited lead i...
Publication date: March 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 3Author(s): Sandro Vento, Bartholomew Dzudzor, Francesca Cainelli, Kenneth Tachi
Publication date: March 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 3Author(s): Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Nega Belay Berhe, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
ConclusionsInterventions engaging community health workers are cost effective for cardiovascular disease prevention and type 2 diabetes management, based on a conservative $50,000 benchmark for cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Two cost per quality-adjusted life year estimates for type 2 diabetes prevention were far below the $50,000 benchmark.
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): John N. Booth, Norrina B. Allen, David Calhoun, April P. Carson, Luqin Deng, David C. Goff, David T. Redden, Jared P. Reis, Daichi Shimbo, James M. Shikany, Stephen Sidney, Bonnie Spring, Cora E. Lewis, Paul MuntnerIntroductionEarlier development of cardiovascular disease risk factors in blacks versus whites may result from differences in maintaining health behaviors. Age-specific racial differences in maintaining health behaviors from ages 18 to 50 years were determined.MethodsIn 1985–1986, the population-based ...
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