Eating Disorders and the Brain

Eating disorders are biologically based brain illnesses influenced by environmental and psychological factors. Environmental risk factors for developing an eating disorder include weight and appearance pressures, media messaging, and weight bullying. Biological factors include dieting/food exposure, genetics, neurochemistry, neurobiology, and hormones (notably estrogen). Psychological factors include stress, life transitions, identity, trauma, anxiety, depression, and substance use. While risk factors predispose certain individuals to eating disorders, precipitating factors such as significantly altering how one eats or stressful life events make may an individual more likely to develop and eating disorder. Once an eating disorder is present, maintenance factors take over. These factors that maintain an eating disorder include biological changes that occur as a result of disordered eating and psychological factors that are connected to the eating disorder behaviors that then turn and reinforce a person’s repetitive, disordered behaviors. What makes certain individuals vulnerable to developing an eating disorder? Eating behavior is mediated by a large network of interacting neural circuits that include numerous areas of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, and the amygdala. We know that our eating behavior is determined by several signals that come into our brain through our mouth or through our gut. The experience of eating (Does thi...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Anorexia Binge Eating Bulimia Bullying Children and Teens Eating Disorders Neuroscience Psychology Women's Issues Body Dysmorphia Body Image bulimia. food addiction Source Type: news

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In this report, we have presented the case of a patient with a left upper back pain. The CT scan showed multiple irregular filling defects in the upper left ureter and the left renal pelvis. During the ureteroscopy, multiple yellow cystic lesions were seen in the proximal part of the left ureter and in the renal pelvis.The pathology report described cystic structures coated with single line cubic metaplastic epithelium. Ureteritis cystica should be considered in a differential diagnosis, in case of atypical radiological findings. No active treatment is required when confirmed.
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
We report the case of a 53 year-old male presenting with hematuria, pain and induration of the penis 2 and half years after the diagnosis of left colon cancer. CT scan demonstrated involvement of the corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa with enlarged external inguinal lymph nodes and asymptomatic metastasis in the liver and lungs.The finding of a penile lesion in a cancer patient is an alarming sign and should indicate a disseminated disease. The prognosis of penile metastasis is poor.
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Authors: Liakakis G Abstract Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder that has been fully described in clinical, neuropathological and imaging aspects. It is considered as the most prevalent ischemic CNS disorder and has been associated to arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. The hallmark of SSVD is the ischemic white matter lesions which can be presented as lacunar infracts and global brain hypoperfusion in a common and homogeneous subtype of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) which is often unrecognized. The special nature and course of SSVD offers the ...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
Authors: Sarafidou S Abstract In neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia of the Alzheimer's type the person gradually loses skills and aspects of everyday living. Does that indicate that he/ she lose the self? In the past it was widely accepted that the self diminishes in dementia, until it is lost in the latest stage, yet in the recent years this premise has been challenged. Accepting that the self is "lost" can be problematic theoretically in the approach of self-hood, and practically in the care of individuals. Currently a novel perspective is "gaining ground" supporting the existence of...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
Authors: Malegiannaki AC, Katsarou D, Liolios A, Zisi V Abstract Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are commonly characterized by unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioural profiles that emerge within specific stages in the developmental continuum. A plethora of studies have confirmed DS's relationship to premature aging and subsequent cognitive decline. Due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene which results in amyloid-beta plaque deposition, the cognitive decline often resembles the decline observed in Alzheimer's disease. More specifically, as individuals with DS mature in age (>...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
Authors: Paraskevas GP Abstract Hereditary types of ischemic cerebral subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) are rare, usually autosomal dominant, diseases, due to an abnormality in vessel wall synthesis. They may present with various combinations of migraine with aura, ischemic events (transient ischemic attacks, lacunar strokes) and progressively worsening ischemic lesion load in brain imaging. Eventually, vascular cognitive impairment (usually of the frontal-subcortical type) develops, frequently accompanied by behavioral-psychiatric symptoms and bilateral pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs leading to severe disa...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: When we "keep" the educational level equal (low) for all, the hypothesis of retrogenesis is confirmed. Cognitive reserve appears to be protective, keeping differentiated WM's components in every age group other than that of kindergarten students. The results support the "retrogenetic" hypothesis, mainly due to the finding of a delay in WM components' development in the group of kindergarten students, and their dedifferentiation in the low-educated young-old and old-old adults. PMID: 30877719 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: US military personnel demonstrated high adherence to a KD and showed remarkable weight loss and improvements in body composition, including loss of visceral fat, without compromising physical performance adaptations to exercise training. Implementation of a KD represents a credible strategy to enhance overall health and readiness of military service members who could benefit from weight loss and improved body composition. PMID: 30877806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Combining national and local approaches to detect suicide may help to improve the classification of suicide deaths in the healthcare setting. PMID: 30877803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
In conclusions, this study suggests that mGluR1 availability is unchanged in the relatively early stage of AD. However, because regional mGluR1 availability may change with the progression of AD, further longitudinal follow-up is necessary.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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