Incidence of first and second primary cancers diagnosed among people with HIV, 1985–2013: a population-based, registry linkage study
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Nancy A Hessol, Hannah Whittemore, Eric Vittinghoff, Ling C Hsu, Danning Ma, Susan Scheer, Sandra K SchwarczSummaryBackgroundCancer survivors are at increased risk for subsequent primary cancers. People living with HIV are at increased risk for AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers, but little is known about their risk of first versus second primary cancers. We identified first and second primary cancers that occurred in above population expected numbers among people diagnosed with HIV in San Francisco, and compared first and second cancer incidence across five time periods that corresponded to important advances in antiretroviral therapy.MethodsIn this population-based study, we used the San Francisco HIV/AIDS case registry to identify people aged 16 years and older who were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco (CA, USA) between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2010. We computer-matched records from the registry with the California Cancer Registry to identify primary cancers diagnosed between Jan 1, 1985, and Dec 31, 2013. We calculated year, age, sex, and race adjusted standardised incidence ratios with exact 95% CIs and trends in incidence of first and second AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers from 1985 to 2013.FindingsOf the 22 623 people diagnosed with HIV between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2010, we identified 5655 incident primary cancers. We excluded 48 cancers with invalid ...
Authors: Chang C, Wu H, Lu Q Abstract Food allergy is a global health problem, particularly in developed countries. It is mainly mediated by Th2 cell and IgE produced by B cells. While the pathogenesis of IgE-mediated food allergy is quite straightforward, the factors that lead to the development of food allergies at any age in children and adults are unclear. Recent studies have revealed that genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures contribute to the development of atopy. In this chapter, we discuss the interplay between these three key elements, reveal how epigenetic modifications may mediate genetic su...
Authors: Ceribelli A, Selmi C Abstract Genomic predisposition fails to fully explain the onset of complex diseases, which is well illustrated by the largely incomplete concordance among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA, are the link between environmental stimuli and disease onset on a permissive genetic background in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Autoimmune diseases now include almost 100 conditions and are estimated to cumulatively affect up to 5% of the world population with a healthcare expenditure superior to cancer wor...
Authors: Zhang L, Lu Q, Chang C Abstract Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA (miRNA), can produce heritable phenotypic changes without a change in DNA sequence. Disruption of gene expression patterns which are governed by epigenetics can result in autoimmune diseases, cancers, and various other maladies. Mechanisms of epigenetics include DNA methylation (and demethylation), histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs. Compared to numerous studies that have focused on the field of genetics, research on epigenetics is fairly recent. In contrast to ...
CONCLUSION: Radiological imaging is essential for the management of patients affected by lung cancer. PMID: 32445458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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