Clinical genetic strategies for early onset neurodegenerative diseases

AbstractPurpose of reviewMethods for the genetic diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders were reviewed, including their backgrounds and applications in the laboratory. Majority of disease-causing gene mutations were uncommon in the general population, where dominant variations could be easily identified in certain disorders. The development of molecular, next generation sequencing (NGS) and cytogenetic techniques allowed to identify multiple genetic mutations leading to diseases. Using of the accurate multivariate diagnosis of diseases would be essential for appropriate treatment of patients, genetic counseling and prevention strategiesRecent findingsAbnormal genes play an extremely important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders of the nervous system. Many studies of genetic have clearly indicated that the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative disorders until now. Mutation is necessary for life, while fidelity is necessary for DNA replication. Mistakes in DNA replication/transcription can cause cells to produce either too much or too little protein or a defective protein. Studies on mutations have revealed the normal functions of genes, messages, proteins, the causes of many diseases, and the variability of responses among individuals. Based on the presence of damaging variants, there are many genes have identified that associated with neurodegenerative disorders through to genetic analyses of patients. Thi...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Toxicology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research

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AbstractNatural antisense transcripts are common features of mammalian genes providing additional regulatory layers of gene expression. A comprehensive description of antisense transcription inloci associated to familial neurodegenerative diseases may identify key players in gene regulation and provide tools for manipulating gene expression. We take advantage of the FANTOM5 sequencing datasets that represent the largest collection to date of genome-wide promoter usage in almost 2000 human samples. Transcription start sites (TSSs) are mapped at high resolution by the use of a modified protocol of cap analysis of gene expres...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractZinc- α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), encoded by theAZGP1 gene, is a major histocompatibility complex I molecule and a lipid-mobilizing factor. ZAG has been demonstrated to promote lipid metabolism and glucose utilization, and to regulate insulin sensitivity. Apart from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney, ZAG also occurs in brain tissue, but its distribution in brain is debatable. Only a few studies have investigated ZAG in the brain. It has been found in the brains of patients with Krabbe disease and epilepsy, and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal lobe demen...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Advance directives emerged in the 1960s with the goal of empowering people to exert control over their future medical decisions. However, it has become apparent, over recent years, that advance directives do not sufficiently capture the temporal and relational aspects of planning treatment and care. Advance care planning (ACP) has been suggested as a way to emphasise communication between the patient, their surrogate decision maker and healthcare professional(s) in order to anticipate healthcare decisions in the event that the patient loses decision-making capacity, either temporarily or permanently. In m...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research
In this study, angiopoietin-1, an endothelial growth factor crucial for vascular development and angiogenesis, and the integrin αvβ3 binding peptide C16, which inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration, were utilized to improve the local microenvironment within the central nervous system of an ALS/PDC rodent model by minimizing inflammation. Our results revealed that L-serine application yielded better effects than C16+ angiopoietin-1 treatment alone for alleviating apoptotic and autophagic changes and improving cognition and electrophysiological dysfunction, but not for improving the inflammatory micro-environmen...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
AbstractThe advent of next-generation sequencing has changed genetic diagnostics, allowing clinicians to test concurrently for phenotypically overlapping conditions such as Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, to interpret genetic results, clinicians require an understanding of the benefits and limitations of different genetic technologies, such as the inability to detect large repeat expansions in such diseases asC9orf72-associated FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Other types of mutations such as large deletions or duplications and triple repeat expansions may also go undetecte...
Source: Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that TXNIP deficiency induces accelerated senescent phenotypes of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells under high glucose condition and that the induction of cellular ROS or AKT activation is critical for cellular senescence. Our results also revealed that TXNIP inhibits AKT activity by a direct interaction, which is upregulated by high glucose and H2O2 treatment. In addition, TXNIP knockout mice exhibited an increase in glucose uptake and aging-associated phenotypes including a decrease in energy metabolism and induction of cellular senescence and aging-associated gene expression. We propose that...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
As the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease has it, the condition begins with growing levels of amyloid-β in the brain. The amyloid forms solid deposits with a surrounding halo of harmful biochemistry, degrading the function of nearby cells. Perhaps this is caused by failing drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, perhaps by the innate immune response to persistent infections, perhaps by other mechanisms such as the age-related failure of the immune system to clear up molecular waste as aggressively as it should. The amyloid sets the stage for mild cognitive impairment and the later deposition of altered forms o...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
We examined the relationships (Pearson correlations) between NFL-CSF levels and demographic (age, gender) and clinical (CAG repeat number, disease burden, UHDRS motor, behavioural, functional total scores and NPI scale) variables. All the participants gave their signed consent for the procedure. Results Demographic, clinical data and NFL-CSF levels of all participants are shown in Table 1. NFL-CSF results were significantly higher in all HD subjects [5014.4 (1557.3) ng/l] as compared to controls [331.4 (200.2) ng/l] (p
Source: PLOS Currents Huntington Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe deposition of pathologic misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is hypothesized to burden protein homeostatic (proteostatic) machinery, potentially leading to insufficient capacity to maintain the proteome. This hypothesis has been supported by previous work in our lab oratory, as evidenced by the perturbation of cytosolic protein solubility in response to amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s amyloidosis. In the current study, we demonstrate changes in proteome sol...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Neurodegenerative proteinopathies are a group of pathologically similar, progressive disorders of the nervous system, characterised by structural alterations within and toxic misfolding of susceptible proteins. Oligomerisation of Aβ, tau, α-synuclein and TDP-43 leads to a toxin gain- or loss-of-function contributing to the phenotype observed in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Misfolded proteins can adversely affect mitochondria, and post-mitotic neurones are especially sensitive to metabolic dysfunction. Misfolded proteins imp...
Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research
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