Query: dyslexia

This page shows you your search results in order of date.

Order by Relevance | Date

Total 1313 results found since Jan 2013.

Disrupted left fusiform response to print in beginning kindergartners is associated with subsequent reading
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): T.M. Centanni, E.S. Norton, O. Ozernov-Palchik, A. Park, S.D. Beach, K. Halverson, N. Gaab, J.D.E. GabrieliAbstractDyslexia is a common neurobiological disorder in which a child fails to acquire typical word reading skills despite adequate opportunity and intelligence. The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region within the left fusiform gyrus that specializes for print over the course of reading acquisition and is often hypoactivated in individuals with dyslexia. It is currently unknown whether atypicalities in this brain region are ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transcranial electrical stimulation improves phoneme processing in developmental dyslexia
About 10 % of the western population suffers from a specific disability in the acquisition of reading and writing skills, known as developmental dyslexia (DD). Even though DD starts in childhood it frequently continuous throughout lifetime. Impaired processing of acoustic features at the phonematic scale based on dysfunctional auditory temporal resolution is considered as one core deficit underlying DD. Recently, the efficacy of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) to modulate auditory temporal resolution and phoneme processing in healthy individuals has been demonstrated.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - February 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Katharina Rufener, Kerstin Krauel, Martin Meyer, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle Source Type: research

Genome-wide association scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia
Genome-wide association scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia, Published online: 11 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0402-0Genome-wide association scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia
Source: Translational Psychiatry - February 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alessandro Gialluisi Till F. M. Andlauer Nazanin Mirza-Schreiber Kristina Moll Jessica Becker Per Hoffmann Kerstin U. Ludwig Darina Czamara Beate St Pourcain William Brandler Ferenc Honbolyg ó D énes Tóth Val éria Csépe Guillaume Huguet Andrew P. Mor Source Type: research

Volumetric and Surface Characteristics of Gray Matter in Adult Dyslexia and Dyscalculia
In this study, we used a unique design including adults with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both disorders and controls, to explore differences in gray matter characteristics across groups. Specifically, we examined whether dyslexia, dyscalculia, or their comorbid manifestation could be related to volumetric and surface characteristics of gray matter, using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry. We demonstrate with Bayesian analyses that the present data favor the null model of no differences between groups across the brain, a result that is in line with recent findings in this field of research. Importantly, we provide detail...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of acute experimental hand pain on left-right discrimination response latency for hand recognition.
CONCLUSION: Our results were not consistent with previous hand left-right discrimination response latency results and may cast doubt on the attentional bias hypothesis that is currently considered to underpin response latency changes during acute experimental hand pain. Individual responses to pain, subsets of participants, and differing mental rotation strategies during the left-right discrimination task may have influenced the results. PMID: 30724639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice - February 6, 2019 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Phillips N, Hach S, Mannion J, Moran R Tags: Physiother Theory Pract Source Type: research

How Common is Dyscalculia?
Discussion Numerical understanding is imperative in everyday life. Even making coffee in the morning, a person considers whether she is making 1 cup or 2, and how much fluid will be in each cup. How many more days can she go without buying more coffee with the ground coffee left in the container? Other numerical skills such as telephone numbers, street addresses and locations, time and dates, and buying and selling of products and services occur all day long in people’s lives. What happens when those skills are not automatic? Dyscalculia or developmental dyscalculia (DD) is “a heterogeneous learning impairment...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - February 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

An fMRI-adaptation study of phonological and orthographic selectivity to written words in adults with poor reading skills.
Abstract Typical readers rely on two brain pathways for word processing in the left hemisphere: temporo-parietal cortex (TPC) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC), thought to subserve phonological decoding, and occipito-temporal cortex (OTC), including the "visual word form area" (VWFA), thought to subserve orthographic processing. How these regions are affected in developmental dyslexia has been a topic of intense research. We employed fMRI rapid adaptation (fMRI-RA) in adults with low reading skills to examine in independently-defined functional regions of interest (ROIs) phonological selectivity to written words i...
Source: Brain and Language - February 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Glezer LS, Jiang X, Luetje MM, Napoliello EM, Kim J, Riesenhuber M, Eden GF Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The Functional Neuroanatomy of Letter-Speech Sound Integration and Its Relation to Brain Abnormalities in Developmental Dyslexia
Fabio Richlan
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cross-modal working memory binding and learning of visual-phonological associations in children with reading difficulties.
Abstract Reading decoding requires the association of a visual input (the printed word) with a verbal output (the spoken word), and the learning of visual-phonological associations via repeated exposure occurs both explicitly (by instruction and training) and implicitly (by exposure to written material). However, a general ability to implicitly learn visual-phonological associations (or cross-modal bindings) in children with reading difficulties (RD) has not been deeply explored. The present paper examined this issue in two studies comparing groups of children with RD with matched groups of control children in a w...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 1, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Garcia RB, Tomaino A, Cornoldi C Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Auditory identification of frequency-modulated sweeps and reading difficulties in Chinese
Conclusions and implicationThis study suggests that poor auditory frequency processing may associate with Chinese developmental dyslexia with phonological deficits. In support of the phonological deficit hypothesis, what underlies phonological deficit is likely to be auditory-basis. A potential clinical implication is to reinforce auditory perception and sensitivity through intervention for phonological processing.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - January 30, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Dyslexic individuals orient but do not sustain visual attention: Electrophysiological support from the lower and upper alpha bands
We examined lateralized alpha power in the cue-target interval as recent studies revealed that a contra vs. ipsilateral reduction in alpha power relates to the orienting of attention. An initial orienting effect in the lower alpha band was more pronounced for dyslexic individuals than for controls, suggesting that they oriented at an earlier moment in time. However, in contrast with controls, at the end of the cue-target interval no clear contralateral reduction in the upper alpha band was observed for dyslexic individuals. Dyslexic individuals additionally displayed slower responses, especially for invalidly cued high spa...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diversity beyond gender   – a new year pledge
You can read the original post Digital Science’s Medium blog. Happy New Year! As we regret our former cheese-based life choices and get back into the swing of things, January is also a time to look forward and make resolutions. 2019 could be a year of great change and uncertainty. One topic never far from our minds is diversity and inclusion, specifically ensuring that ALL people are represented and heard. During this time of change, one way that we can achieve greater representation within research is to each commit to doing one small thing to change the current culture. On Saturday 3rd November 2018 we held a sess...
Source: BioMed Central Blog - January 23, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Suze Kundu Tags: Uncategorized Diversity SpotOn SpotOn18 Source Type: blogs

Diversity beyond gender  — a new year pledge
You can read the original post Digital Science’s Medium blog. Happy New Year! As we regret our former cheese-based life choices and get back into the swing of things, January is also a time to look forward and make resolutions. 2019 could be a year of great change and uncertainty. One topic never far from our minds is diversity and inclusion, specifically ensuring that ALL people are represented and heard. During this time of change, one way that we can achieve greater representation within research is to each commit to doing one small thing to change the current culture. On Saturday 3rd November 2018 we held a sess...
Source: BioMed Central Blog - January 23, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Suze Kundu Tags: Uncategorized Diversity SpotOn SpotOn18 Source Type: blogs

Diversity beyond gender   – a new year pledge
You can read the original post Digital Science’s Medium blog. Happy New Year! As we regret our former cheese-based life choices and get back into the swing of things, January is also a time to look forward and make resolutions. 2019 could be a year of great change and uncertainty. One topic never far from our minds is diversity and inclusion, specifically ensuring that ALL people are represented and heard. During this time of change, one way that we can achieve greater representation within research is to each commit to doing one small thing to change the current culture. On Saturday 3rd November 2018 we held a sess...
Source: BioMed Central Blog - January 23, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Suze Kundu Tags: Uncategorized Diversity SpotOn SpotOn18 Source Type: blogs

Explicit linguistic knowledge is necessary, but not sufficient, for the provision of explicit early literacy instruction.
This study examines the language and linguistic knowledge of teachers of beginning readers in New Zealand, how these teachers perceive their own practices in teaching reading, and the relationship with the nature of observed instructional practices. The teachers in the study used predominantly implicit approaches to early reading instruction, with word-level instruction and prompting used only after context, even when teachers with high linguistic knowledge used implicit approaches, suggesting that teacher's knowledge is not sufficient, on its own, to ensure effective, explicit, word-level instruction to beginning readers....
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Arrow AW, Braid C, Chapman JW Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Emerging neural specialization of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex to characters through phonological association learning in preschool children
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Georgette Pleisch, Iliana I. Karipidis, Christian Brauchli, Martina Röthlisberger, Christoph Hofstetter, Philipp Stämpfli, Susanne Walitza, Silvia BremAbstractThe ventral occipitotemporal (vOT) cortex serves as a core region for visual processing, and specific areas of this region show preferential activation for various visual categories such as faces and print. The emergence of such functional specialization in the human cortex represents a pivotal developmental process, which provides a basis for targeted and efficient information processin...
Source: NeuroImage - January 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of individual reading variability on tdcs effects in children and adolescents with dyslexia
Background: Currently, evidence suggest transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a long-lasting promising rehabilitation approach in children and adolescents with dyslexia. Due to tDCS alters spontaneous neural activity, the role of individual variability has also acquired importance. To our knowledge, it is still unknown how the individual variability in reading abilities predicts tDCS effects in individuals with dyslexia.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: G. Lazzaro, F. Costanzo, C. Varuzza, S. Rossi, S. Vicari, D. Menghini Source Type: research

Using tDCS and tACS to understand the role of dorsal processing and theta signals in word recognition and natural reading
The dorsal visual pathway has long been associated with reading and dyslexia, however the mechanism by which the dorsal pathway is involved in reading is unclear. The most robust theory is that the dorsal pathway is responsible for visuo-spatial encoding of letters within words, and words within text. Complementing this is a recent theory suggesting specifically that the process of reading generates a theta signal via the dorsal pathway which is intrinsic to normal reading development. We ran 2 studies; a tDCS study to explore the role of the dorsal pathway in spatial encoding within words, and a tACS study to determine wh...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: K. Pammer, K. Archer, J. Bairnsfather Source Type: research

Improving central auditory processing features following two electrode montage of transcranial direct current stimulation (Tdcs) in children and adolescents with dyslexia
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a safe and non-invasive method for children and adolescents with dyslexia. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of tDCS on central auditory processing variables in behavioral and electrophysiological aspects with two electrode arrays on superior temporal gyrus (STG). Seventeen children and adolescents with dyslexia with age range 9-15 years underwent speech in noise perception test, auditory verbal memory test and LLAEP assessment in a baseline condition without tDCS ,sham ( placebo) and after 20 min of exposure with 1 mA current to two differen...
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: V. Rahimi, G mohamadkhani, J. Alaghband-Rad, f ranjbar kermani Source Type: research

Characterizing the knowledge of educators receiving training in systematic literacy instruction.
Abstract Addressing the needs of students with dyslexia requires an in-depth knowledge of various components of a multi-dimensional approach to reading intervention, which is supported by an understanding of the structure of the language being taught. The current study explored the association between teacher knowledge of the English language and different stages of training provided through 2-year courses that meet the objectives of the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) standards of teacher knowledge and practice. It included 347 K-12 licensed teachers who were at various stages of training when they compl...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: McMahan KM, Oslund EL, Odegard TN Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Distinct effects of visual and auditory temporal processing training on reading and reading-related abilities in Chinese children with dyslexia.
This study aimed to examine the effects of temporal processing training on the reading abilities of Chinese children with dyslexia. In total, 69 Chinese children with dyslexia in grades three through six were recruited in Taiwan. The children were divided into the following three equal groups: (1) auditory temporal processing training group, (2) visual temporal processing training group, and (3) control group with no specific training. The participants in both training groups received instruction with identical durations (30-40 min), intensities (12 times in total), and frequencies (three to four times per week). The part...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang LC, Liu D, Xu Z Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Difficulties with audiovisual processing contributes to dyslexia in children
(University at Buffalo) A University at Buffalo psychologist has published a neuroimaging study that could help develop tests for early identification of dyslexia.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Diving deeper into developmental dyslexia
(Society for Neuroscience) Men with dyslexia have altered structural connections between the thalamus and auditory cortex on the left side of the brain, new research published in JNeurosci reveals. The study extends similar observations of the dyslexic visual system and highlights the importance of early sensory processing for reading proficiency.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Corrigendum to “A qualitative and quantitative review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in reading and dyslexia” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36 (2012), 1532–1552
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Maaike Vandermosten, Bart Boets, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of temporal resolution and speech long-latency auditory-evoked potentials by transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with dyslexia.
Abstract In recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a safe and non-invasive method for children and adolescents with dyslexia. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of tDCS on variables of temporal resolution and speech long-latency auditory-evoked potentials with two electrode arrays on superior temporal gyrus (STG). A total of 17 children and adolescents with dyslexia (age 9-12 years) were included in our study. All participants underwent the gap in noise (GIN) test and long-latency auditory-evoked potentials recording at baseline without applying tDCS, sham (...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rahimi V, Mohamadkhani G, Alaghband-Rad J, Kermani FR, Nikfarjad H, Marofizade S Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Elementary teacher's knowledge of response to intervention implementation: a preliminary factor analysis.
This study reviews the results of an exploratory factor analysis of a survey aimed at measuring teachers' knowledge about RTI implementation and their understanding of RTI implementation within their school. The 52-item survey was administered online to 139 general and special education teachers. The three final factors from this factor analytic work were (1) Teacher Knowledge about Tier 1 Implementation, (2) Teacher Knowledge about Leadership and School Systems, and (3) Teacher Knowledge about Data-Based Decision Making. Factor determinacy scores demonstrated that the survey had high internal consistency. On average, teac...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Al Otaiba S, Baker K, Lan P, Allor J, Rivas B, Yovanoff P, Kamata A Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Perception Of Musical Pitch In Developmental Prosopagnosia
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Sherryse L. Corrow, Jacob L. Stubbs, Gottfried Schlaug, Stephanie Buss, Sebastien Paquette, Brad Duchaine, Jason J.S BartonAbstractStudies of developmental prosopagnosia have often shown that developmental prosopagnosia differentially affects human face processing over non-face object processing. However, little consideration has been given to whether this condition is associated with perceptual or sensorimotor impairments in other modalities. Comorbidities have played a role in theories of other developmental disorders such as dyslexia, bu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Knowledge about basic language constructs among teachers of English as a Foreign Language in China and South Korea.
Abstract The purpose of the present study is to explore cross-cultural differences among teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) on the basic language constructs and the impacts on their perceived teaching ability in English-reading instruction. Chinese EFL (n = 73) and Korean EFL (n = 39) teachers were administered the Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey for testing their implicit and explicit knowledge on phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, phonics, and morphological awareness; and their self-perceived teaching ability on teaching typical readers, struggling readers, phonemic awareness, phon...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bae HS, Yin L, Joshi RM Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Expert reading coaching via technology: Investigating the reading, writing, and spelling outcomes of students in grades K-8 experiencing significant reading learning disabilities.
Abstract While qualitative research has shown great benefits for teachers who receive coaching, there is a paucity of experimental research examining students' academic outcomes after their teachers received ongoing support from a knowledgeable and experienced coach. Thus, a quasi-experimental design investigated the literacy outcomes of 452 students experiencing reading learning disabilities in grades K-8th whose special education and/or resource room teachers (n = 44) received student data-focused coaching support through on-site coaching, on-demand coaching (teachers could request support if needed), or thr...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Weiser B, Buss C, Sheils AP, Gallegos E, Murray LR Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Introduction: teacher perception, self-efficacy and teacher knowledge relating to literacy.
Abstract PMID: 30607815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Malatesha Joshi R, Wijekumar KK Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Theory and reported practice in EFL literacy instruction: EFL teachers' perceptions about classroom practices.
Abstract Acquiring literacy in English as a foreign language (EFL) is important for language development. However, many students enter middle school without adequate EFL literacy skills. This may indicate a gap between EFL literacy instruction theory and the classroom practice that is occurring in elementary school classrooms. The aim of this study was to explore the components of EFL literacy instruction as perceived by teachers. The study investigated whether perceptions of classroom practices are theoretically based, thus shedding light on the gap between EFL literacy theory and practice. The participants were ...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fuchs S, Kahn-Horwitz J, Katzir T Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Discovering the impact of reading coursework and discipline-specific mentorship on first-year teachers' self-efficacy: a latent class analysis.
Abstract Teacher self-efficacy is critical because it predicts teachers' future behavior and impacts teacher turnover. Most teachers begin their career with moderate to high self-efficacy for teaching, but often experience a sharp decline during the first year of teaching. After the first year, their self-efficacy begins to increase but rarely rises to the level it was prior to beginning teaching. Therefore, examining first-year teachers' self-efficacy is extremely important. Previous research generally depicts teachers as a homogeneous group, relying on variable-centered approaches and including self-efficacy as ...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng L, Hodges TS, Waxman HC, Malatesha Joshi R Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Etiology of teacher knowledge and instructional skills for literacy at the upper elementary grades.
Abstract The purpose of this research was to study the etiology of teacher knowledge about and factors that influence implementation of evidence-based reading and writing interventions at the upper elementary grade levels. Five data sources are used in this study: first, we used teacher surveys about their pre-service preparation on reading comprehension and literacy practices gathered during a recent cluster randomized control trial on a reading comprehension intervention conducted with 280 fourth and fifth-grade teachers and their classroom students. We also conducted focus group interviews with 43% of the teach...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wijekumar KK, Beerwinkle AL, Harris KR, Graham S Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Visual attention in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder before and after stimulant treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: ADHD in adults may be associated with deficits in three distinct aspects of visual attention. Improvements after 6 weeks of medication are seen specifically in visual processing speed, which could represent an improvement in alertness. Clinical symptoms and visual attentional deficits may represent separate aspects of ADHD in adults. PMID: 30560740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - December 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Low AM, Vangkilde S, le Sommer J, Fagerlund B, Glenthøj B, Jepsen JRM, Bundesen C, Petersen A, Habekost T Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Lost in the forest? Global to local interference depends on children's reading skills.
Abstract We studied the global precedence effect in primary school children with and without developmental dyslexia, using a compound figures task with familiar (Latin) or unfamiliar (Hebrew) letters. The two components of the global precedence effect were considered separately: global advantage (faster processing of global than local letters) and asymmetric interference (global distracters interfere with local targets but not vice versa). Both groups of children showed a global advantage with familiar as well as with unfamiliar letters. Children without developmental dyslexia showed asymmetric interference on fam...
Source: Acta Psychologica - December 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schmitt A, Lachmann T, van Leeuwen C Tags: Acta Psychol (Amst) Source Type: research

Neurobiological Systems in Dyslexia
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Trends in Neuroscience and EducationAuthor(s): John R. KershnerAbstractBiological systems-level principles of the genetic landscape underlying the neurobiology of dyslexia provide a novel and heuristic theoretical framework for a new understanding of the disability. Dyslexia may result from reduced neuroplasticity and earlier peak of maturation of the posterior corpus callosum, temporoparietal region of the left hemisphere reading network, and temporoparietal region of the right hemisphere circuitry of attentional networks. This precocious abridgement of a typicall...
Source: Trends in Neuroscience and Education - December 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Applying a network framework to the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia
ConclusionsThese results contribute to the growing literature on the relationship between reading and brain network architecture. They suggest that an efficient network organization, i.e., one in which brain areas form cohesive resting-state networks, is important for skilled reading, and that dyslexia can be characterized by abnormal functioning of hub regions that map information between multiple systems. Overall, use of a connectomics framework opens up new possibilities for investigating reading difficulty, especially its commonalities across other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - December 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Learning to excel
Growing up in Armagh during The Troubles was not a time for lofty ambitions. You left school, you got a job. And that’s how it was for Lucia McKeever. But then, with encouragement from her trade union, her horizons started to widen considerably. Lucia rose through the ranks of first COHSE, then UNISON, before serving as UNISON president from 2014 to 2015 – the first Northern Irish member to hold that office. Now, as she prepares to step down from the union’s National Executive Council (NEC), she wants to encourage others to take the same journey. “I left school at 16. I hadn’t even a spirit level, never mind an O...
Source: UNISON Health care news - December 11, 2018 Category: UK Health Authors: Amanda Kendal Tags: Magazine activists' learning learning and organising lifelong learning return to learn Source Type: news

Reading Acquisition in Children: Developmental Processes and Dyslexia Specific Effects
Reduced activation to print in the left ventral, dorsal and anterior pathways has been implicated in readers with dyslexia (DR) but is also characteristic for typical beginning readers. As the majority of studies compared DR to their age-matched peers, the observed results could either represent a dyslexia phenotype or a developmental delay. We aimed to disentangle reading and dyslexia effects by employing two control groups: age and skill matched, and a longitudinal design.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - December 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katarzyna Chyl, Agnieszka D ębska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Artur Marchewka, Bartosz Kossowski, Kenneth R. Pugh, Katarzyna Jednoróg Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Brain Mechanisms Underlying Visuo-Orthographic Deficits in Children With Developmental Dyslexia
Fan Cao, Xin Yan, Gregory J. Spray, Yanni Liu, Yuan Deng
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Likelihood of Substance Abuse for Dyslexics May Be Influenced by Socioeconomic Background and Metacognition
AbstractResearch into the relationship between dyslexia and substance abuse has led to inconsistent findings. Some research papers suggest that dyslexics are at increased risk of substance abuse (and related) problems, whilst some research would suggest the contrary. We suggest that these different observations can be accounted for by socioeconomic background and the effect of this on metacognition. There are also an increased number of other factors which may predominantly affect people from low socioeconomic backgrounds which could exacerbate substance abuse.
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 6, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Multilevel diffusion tensor imaging classification technique for characterizing neurobehavioral disorders
AbstractThis proposed novel method consists of three levels of analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data: 1) voxel level analysis of fractional anisotropy of white matter tracks, 2) connection level analysis, based on fiber tracks between specific brain regions, and 3) network level analysis, based connections among multiple brain regions. Machine-learning techniques of (Fisher score) feature selection, (Support Vector Machine) pattern classification, and (Leave-one-out) cross-validation are performed, for recognition of the neural connectivity patterns for diagnostic purposes. For validation proposes, this multilevel appr...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Self-Reported Visual Symptoms in Children with Developmental Dyslexia.
Abstract Although there are many anecdotal reports of children with developmental dyslexia complaining of vision symptoms when reading, empirical studies are lacking. The primary aim of the present study was to document self-reported vision-related symptoms in children with developmental dyslexia and typically reading peers. We also explored whether vision symptoms were correlated with sensorimotor measures of vergence, accommodation and ocular motor tracking skills. Using a prospective group comparison observational design, we assessed 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and 33 typically reading children...
Source: Vision Research - December 4, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Raghuram A, Hunter DG, Gowrisankaran S, Waber DP Tags: Vision Res Source Type: research

Concrete and abstract word processing in deep dyslexia
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of NeurolinguisticsAuthor(s): Simritpal Kaur Malhi, Tara Lynn McAuley, Brette Lansue, Lori BuchananAbstractThe purpose of this case study was to test the failure of inhibition theory of deep dyslexia (FIT; Buchanan, McEwen, Westbury, & Libben, 2003) with concrete and abstract words. FIT proposes that in deep dyslexia, errors to abstract words are the result of an impairment in phonological output lexicon selection rather than a semantic deficit for abstract words. FIT also proposes a dissociation between explicit phonological lexicon production (can be comp...
Source: Journal of Neurolinguistics - November 24, 2018 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

Children With Dyslexia and Typical Readers: Sex-Based Choline Differences Revealed Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Acquired Within Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Kelly J. Brunst, Kim M. Cecil
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Consistency in core language skill stable in typically and atypically developing children
(American Association for the Advancement of Science) In a 15-year study of thousands of children, including those with dyslexia and autism spectrum disorders, researchers discovered that a so-called core language skill, as identified here, was stable from infancy to adolescence. These findings affirm that when a child's language skills are lagging, early intervention is best. As an infant, grasping a language is one
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - November 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Are predictors of reading impairment in isolated cleft similar to those in idiopathic dyslexia?
Abstract Children with isolated cleft of the lip and/or palate (iCL/P) are at increased risk for reading impairment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of early risk factors (hearing, speech, and early literacy) on reading performance compared to unaffected participants with average (uAR) and impaired (uIR) reading. Reading achievement and early literacy skills were evaluated across three groups (27 iCL/P, 32 uAR, and 33 uIR). All participants were males, ages 8-11 years old. Those with history of head trauma/injury or major medical/mental health conditions were excluded. Group differences in ac...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - November 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Conrad AL Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Adult perceptions of children with dyslexia in the USA.
This study examined adult perceptions of dyslexia among US adults. Participants (n = 623) answered survey questions pertaining to characteristics, views, and possible causes of DYS. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinct factors: (1) psychosocial causes, (2) external causes, (3) biological causes, (4) consequences, and (5) controllability. Three-way ANOVA's were conducted to determine the effects of ethnicity, gender, and parental status on how DYS was perceived. The results revealed ethnic, gender, and parental status differences. Males endorsed psychosocial causes and external causes more often than femal...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - August 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Castillo A, Gilger JW Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Predictors for grade 6 reading in children at familial risk of dyslexia.
Abstract The present study investigates whether grade 6 reading outcomes, reading fluency, and reading comprehension can be predicted by grade 3 reading fluency, familial risk of dyslexia (FR), and grade 3 reading related skills: rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), and vocabulary. In a sample of 150 children, of whom 83 had a parent with dyslexia, correlation and regression analyses were performed. FR, measured on a continuous scale, was by itself related to all outcomes. However, FR did not explain any variance on top of grade 3 reading fluency. Grade 3 reading fluency strongly predicted ...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: van Setten ERH, Hakvoort BE, van der Leij A, Maurits NM, Maassen BAM Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research

Atypical predictive processing during visual statistical learning in children with developmental dyslexia: an event-related potential study.
Abstract Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm. Whereas the response time data suggested that both typical and atypical readers learned the s...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - June 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh S, Walk AM, Conway CM Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research