Age dependent trans-cellular propagation of human tau aggregates in Drosophila disease models.
Abstract Tauopathies is a class of neurodegenerative disorders which involves the transformation of physiological tau into pathogenic tau. One of the prime causes reported to drive this conversion is tau hyperphosphorylation and the subsequent propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates across the nervous system. Although past attempts have been made to deduce the details of tau propagation, yet not much is known about its mechanism. A better understanding of this aspect of disease pathology can prove to be beneficial for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate...
Source: Brain Research - November 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Aqsa, Sarkar S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hedgehog signaling promotes endoneurial fibroblast migration and Vegf-A expression following facial nerve injury.
DISCUSSION: These findings describe an angiogenic and pro-migratory role for the Hedgehog pathway mediated through effects on nerve fibroblasts. Given the critical role of Vegf-A in nerve regeneration, modulation of this pathway may represent a potential therapeutic target to improve facial nerve regeneration following injury. PMID: 33189691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Faniku C, Kong W, He L, Zhang M, Lilly G, Pepper JP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Distinct Patterns of Repetition Suppression in Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Mutations in SYNGAP1.
laam F, Michaud J, Lippé S Abstract Sensory processing is the gateway to information processing and more complex processes such as learning. Alterations in sensory processing is a common phenotype of many genetic syndromes associated with intellectual disability (ID). It is currently unknown whether sensory processing alterations converge or diverge on brain responses between syndromes. Here, we compare for the first time four genetic conditions with ID using the same basic sensory learning paradigm. One hundred and five participants, aged between 3 to 30 years old, composing four clinical ID groups and one...
Source: Brain Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Côté V, Lalancette È, Knoth IS, Côté L, Agbogba K, Vannasing P, Major P, Barlaam F, Michaud J, Lippé S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain indices associated with semantic cues prior to and after words in noise.
Abstract It is well established that identification of words in noise improves when it is preceded by a semantically related word, but comparatively little is known about the effect of subsequent context in guiding word in noise identification. We build on the findings of a previous behavioural study (Chan & Alain, 2019) by measuring neuro-electric brain activity while manipulating the semantic content of a cue that either preceded or followed a word in noise. Participants were more accurate in identifying the word in noise when it was preceded or followed by a cue that was semantically related. This gain in a...
Source: Brain Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vanessa Chan TM, Alain C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Bilateral Cardiac Afferent Distribution at the Spinal and Vagal Ganglia by Retrograde Labeling.
Abstract The identity of sensory neurons innervating the heart tissue and the extent of information reported to the brain via these neurons are poorly understood. In order to evaluate the multidimensional distribution and abundance of the cardiac spinal and vagal afferents, we assessed the retrograde labeling efficiency of various tracers, and mapped the cardiac afferents qualitatively and quantitatively at the bilateral nodose ganglia (NGs) and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). From the five different retrograde tracers evaluated, Di-8-ANEPPQ yielded reproducibly the highest labeling efficiency of cardiac afferents. We...
Source: Brain Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Akgul Caglar T, Durdu ZB, Turhan MU, Gunal MY, Aydın MS, Ozturk G, Cagavi E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Factors regulating serine racemase and D-amino acid oxidase expression in the mouse striatum.
This study reveals a new mechanism by which AMPAR activity could regulate NMDAR function via D-serine availability. PMID: 33171153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Takagi S, Balu DT, Coyle JT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Curcumin promotes neurogenesis of hippocampal dentate gyrus via Wnt/ β-catenin signal pathway following cerebral ischemia in mice.
CONCLUSION: Curcumin promotes hippocampal neurogenesis by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to ameliorate cognitive deficits after acute CI. PMID: 33160958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang X, Song D, Chen L, Xiao H, Ma X, Jiang Q, Cheng O Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Orexin deficiency affects sociability and the acquisition, expression, and extinction of conditioned social fear.
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that the central orexin (hypocretin) system plays an important role in regulating emotional processes in both humans and rodents. Thus, the orexin system has been repeatedly implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Among others, symptoms like social fear and social withdrawal are frequently observed in these disorders. Based on this, we investigated the role of orexin deficiency in social (fear) behavior. For that, female and male orexin-deficient mice were tested for (1) sociability and social novelty, and (2) acqu...
Source: Brain Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Faesel N, Kolodziejczyk MH, Koch M, Fendt M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Spleen is not required for therapeutic effects of 4OH-GTS-21, a selective α7 nAChR agonist, in the sub-acute phase of ischemic stroke in rats.
Spleen is not required for therapeutic effects of 4OH-GTS-21, a selective α7 nAChR agonist, in the sub-acute phase of ischemic stroke in rats. Brain Res. 2020 Nov 04;:147196 Authors: Gaidhani N, Kem WR, Uteshev VV Abstract Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) causes both central and peripheral inflammation, while activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) provides both central and peripheral anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Here, we provide evidence that 4OH-GTS-21, a selective α7 agonist, produces its therapeutic effects via primarily central sites of action bec...
Source: Brain Research - November 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaidhani N, Kem WR, Uteshev VV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Trigeminal input, pupil size and cognitive performance: from oral to brain matter.
Abstract It has been observed that, in patients affected by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and edentulism, a left-right asymmetry in electromyographic (EMG) activity of masseter muscles during clenching and in pupil size at rest (anisocoria) is present. Both are greatly reduced by an orthotic-prosthetic correction. In parallel, the correction significantly improves cognitive performance. These effects are possibly due to the recovery of a cortical balance, via Locus Coeruleus (LC) modulation, whose activity is powerfully affected by the sensorimotor trigeminal input. The role of this functional axis was furthe...
Source: Brain Research - November 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Paola Tramonti Fantozzi M, De Cicco V, Argento S, De Cicco D, Barresi M, Cataldo E, Bruschini L, d'Ascanio P, Faraguna U, Manzoni D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the lateral hypothalamus differently modulate the baroreflex function in unanesthetized rats.
Abstract The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a diencephalic structure that has been considered part of the central circuitry regulating the baroreflex function. However, the local neurochemical mechanisms involved in baroreflex control by this hypothalamic area are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission within the LH acting via local CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in cardiac baroreflex responses in unanesthetized rats. For this, the baroreflex activity was assessed using two approaches: i) the pharmacological approach via intraven...
Source: Brain Research - November 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Reis-Silva LL, Barretto-de-Souza L, Benini R, Crestani CC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Recombinant osteopontin provides protection for cerebral infarction by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is one of the most important secondary pathological events after cerebral infarction. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is a pivotal form of neuroinflammation. Osteopontin (OPN) is expressed during the subacute phase after cerebral infarction and has an important chemotactic effect on microglia. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of recombinant OPN on brain injury after cerebral infarction and the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We used the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method-established focal cerebral ischemia model and LPS-induced inflammation model on neonate r...
Source: Brain Research - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Shu Q, Liu Z, Gao C, Wang Z, Xing Z, Song J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of acute mitochondrial dysfunction on hyperexcitable network activity in rat hippocampus in vitro.
Abstract Metabolic stress imposed by epileptic seizures can result in mitochondrial dysfunction, believed to act as positive feedback on epileptogenesis and seizure susceptibility. As the mechanism behind this positive feedback is unclear, the aim of the present study was to investigate the causal link between acute mitochondrial dysfunction and increased seizure susceptibility in hyperexcitable hippocampal networks. Following the induction of spontaneous interictal-like discharges, acute selective pharmacological blockade of either of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes (MRC) I-IV induced seizure-like events ...
Source: Brain Research - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Andreasen M, Nedergaard S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mutation of the BAG-1 Domain Decreases Its Protective Effect Against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation by Regulating HSP70 and the PI3K/AKT Signalling Pathway in SY-SH5Y Cells.
In this study, we examined changes in HSP70 and p-AKT protein levels in SH-SY5Y cells with or without BAG-1L domain mutation after six hours of hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. The BAG-1 domain mutant (BAG-1MUT) attenuated neuronal viability and proliferation while enhancing apoptosis after hypoxia/reoxygenation, which was achieved in part by inhibiting the HSP70 and p-AKT signalling pathways. This evidence illustrates that the BAG-1 domain plays a key role in protecting cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. PMID: 33152339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Wang K, Di J, Guan C, Wang S, Li Q, Qu Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Distribution of growth hormone-responsive cells in the brain of rats and mice.
Abstract A growth hormone (GH) injection is able to induce the phosphorylated form of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) in a large number of cells throughout the mouse brain. The present study had the objective to map the distribution of GH-responsive cells in the brain of rats that received an intracerebroventricular injection of GH and compare it to the pattern found in mice. We observed that rats and mice exhibited a similar distribution of GH-induced pSTAT5 in the majority of areas of the telencephalon, hypothalamus and brainstem. However, rats exhibited a higher density of GH-res...
Source: Brain Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wasinski F, Klein MO, Bittencourt JC, Metzger M, Donato J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of exercise and pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on epigenetic regulations and gene expressions crucial for neuronal plasticity in the motor cortex.
This study showed that HDAC inhibition could present more enriched condition for neuroplasticity to the motor cortex. However, exercise-induced neurotrophic gene expressions could depend on exercise regimen based on the intensity, the term etc. Therefore, this study has a novelty suggesting that pharmacological HDAC inhibition could be an alternative potent approach to present a neuronal platform with enriched neuroplasticity for motor learning and motor recovery, however, an appropriate exercise regimen is expected in this approach. PMID: 33152341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maejima H, Kitahara M, Takamatsu Y, Mani H, Inoue T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Responses to chronic corticosterone on brain glucocorticoid receptors, adrenal gland, and gut microbiota in mice lacking neuronal serotonin.
hn DM Abstract Dysregulation of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis can result in disease. Bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut, and alterations in these interactions appear to be involved in stress regulation and in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as depression. Serotonin (5HT) plays a crucial role in the functions of these two major organs but its direct influence under stress conditions remains unclear. To investigate the role of neuronal 5HT on chronic stress responses and its influence on the gut microbiome, mice lacki...
Source: Brain Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Angoa-Pérez M, Zagorac B, Francescutti DM, Theis KR, Kuhn DM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Electrocortical activity in freely walking rats varies with environmental conditions.
Abstract Longstanding theories in the field of neurophysiology have held that walking in rats is an unconscious, rhythmic locomotion that does not require cortical involvement. However, recent studies have suggested that the extent of cortical involvement during walking actually varies depending on the environmental conditions. To determine the impact of environmental conditions on cortical engagement in freely walking rats, we recorded limb kinematics and signals from implanted electroencephalography arrays in rats performing a series of natural behaviors. We found that rat gaits were significantly different acro...
Source: Brain Research - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li B, Liu S, Hu D, Li G, Tang R, Song D, Lang Y, He J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Disruption of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons after traumatic brain injury does not compromise environmental enrichment-mediated cognitive benefits.
Abstract Environmental enrichment (EE) attenuates traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced loss of medial septal (MS) choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-cells and enhances spatial learning and memory vs. standard (STD) housing. Whether basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are important mediators of EE-induced benefits after TBI requires further investigation. Anesthetized female rats were randomly assigned to intraseptal infusions of the immunotoxin 192-IgG-saporin (SAP; 0.22 μg in 1.0 μL) or vehicle (VEH; 1.0 μL IgG) followed immediately by a cortical impact (2.8 mm deformation depth at 4m/s) or sham in...
Source: Brain Research - October 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Moschonas EH, Leary JB, Memarzadeh K, Bou-Abboud CE, Folweiler KA, Monaco CM, Cheng JP, Kline AE, Bondi CO Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Correlates of intelligence via resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in healthy adults.
Abstract Intelligence is a form of advanced cognition that includes reasoning, problem solving, pattern recognition, and establishing relationships among items. The amygdala plays an important role in cognitive processing, but the relationship between amygdalar function and intelligence has rarely been explored directly. Here, we investigated the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala and intelligence test performance in a large sample of healthy adults (N = 197). We found that two pairs of RSFCs were significantly increased in the high IQ group compared with that of the ...
Source: Brain Research - October 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Xue YZ, Zhao WT, Li SS, Li J, Xu Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

N100m latency shortening caused by selective attention.
In this study, we examined the effects of selective special attention (motivation) to extract the frequency (or pitch) information from a probe tone on the N100m response to the probe tone. We compared the N100m latencies and amplitudes using magnetoencephalography, with the following three experimental conditions: 1) vocalization task protocol (vocalize in tune with the pitch of the probe tone after the presentation of the probe tone), 2) hearing task protocol (just listen to the probe tone), and 3) imagining (just imagine the vocalization in tune with the probe tone). The results indicated that the N100m latency in respo...
Source: Brain Research - October 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nomura Y, Kawase T, Kanno A, Nakasato N, Kawashima R, Katori Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Immediate action effects motivate actions based on the stimulus-response relationship.
Abstract The theory of event coding, an influential framework for action planning, suggests that humans first integrate stimulus, response, and action effect into representation (an event file) via their contingencies, and then, the activation of expected action effects drives the associated response. While previous studies have typically examined such functions of action effects after, rather than before or during, the acquirement of the representation, Eitam et al. (Exp Brain Res 229:475-484, 2013a) demonstrated that the presence of immediate feedback to action (i.e., action effects) can instantly elicit faster ...
Source: Brain Research - October 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanaka T, Watanabe K, Tanaka K Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

E2-BSA and G1 exert neuroprotective effects and improve behavioral abnormalities following traumatic brain injury: The role of classic and non-classic estrogen receptors.
Abstract The role of classical and non-classical estrogen receptors (ERs) in mediating the neuroprotective effects of this hormone on brain edema and long-term behavioral disorders was evaluated after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ovariectomized rats were divided as follows: E2 (17 β-estradiol), E2-BSA (E2 conjugated to bovine serum albumin), G1 [G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor agonist (GPER)] or their vehicle was injected following TBI, whereas ICI (classical estrogen receptor antagonist), G15 (GPER antagonist), ICI + G15, and their vehicle were injected before the induction of TBI and the injection of E...
Source: Brain Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Amirkhosravi L, Khaksari M, Soltani Z, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Asadi Karam G, Hoseini M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Behavioral responses following repeated bilateral frontal region closed head impacts and fear conditioning in male and female mice.
Abstract The frontal lobes are among the most vulnerable sites in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). In the current study, a balanced 2 x 2 x 2 design (n = 18 mice/group), female and male C57Bl/6J mice received repeated bilateral frontal concussive brain injury (frCBI) and underwent fear conditioning (FC) to assess how injured mice respond to adverse conditions. Shocks received during FC impacted behavior on all subsequent tests except the tail suspension test. FC resulted in more freezing behavior in all mice that received foot shocks when evaluated in subsequent context and cue tests and induced hypoactivity in th...
Source: Brain Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vu PA, McNamara EH, Liu J, Tucker LB, Fu AH, McCabe JT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Novel Mutations in ATP13A2 Associated with Mixed Neurological Presentations and Iron Toxicity due to Nonsense-Mediated Decay.
CONCLUSIONS: Novel frameshift mutation causing a PTC inATP13A2lead to degradation of ATP13A2 mRNA by NMD. Iron accumulation due to the absence of ATP13A2 protein in the patient's fibroblasts and hypointense areas on T2-weighted images may expand the spectrum of KRS to consider it as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders. PMID: 33091395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kırımtay K, Temizci B, Gültekin M, Yapıcı Z, Karabay A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Detailed neuronal distribution of GPR3 and its co-expression with EF-hand calcium-binding proteins in the mouse central nervous system.
Abstract The G-protein coupled receptor 3 (GPR3), a member of the class A rhodopsin-type GPR family, constitutively activates Gαs proteins without any ligands. Although there have been several reports concerning the functions of GPR3 in neurons, the physiological roles of GPR3 have not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we analyzed GPR3 distribution in detail using fluorescence-based X-gal staining in heterozygous GPR3 knockout/LacZ knock-in mice, and further investigated the types of GPR3-expressing neurons using fluorescent double labeling with various EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins. In addition ...
Source: Brain Research - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ikawa F, Tanaka S, Harada K, Hide I, Maruyama H, Sakai N Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Atypical myelinogenesis and reduced axon caliber in the Scn1a variant model of Dravet syndrome: An electron microscopy pilot study of the developing and mature mouse corpus callosum.
Abstract Dravet Syndrome (DS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disease. Recurrent severe seizures begin in infancy and co-morbidities follow, including developmental delay, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. A majority of DS patients have an SCN1A heterozygous gene mutation. This mutation causes a loss-of-function in inhibitory neurons, initiating seizure onset. We have investigated whether the sodium channelopathy may result in structural changes in the DS model independent of seizures. Morphometric analyses of axons within the corpus callosum were completed at P16 and P50 in Scn1a heterozygote KO male mice and...
Source: Brain Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Richards K, Jancovski N, Hanssen E, Connelly A, Petrou S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Short-term sleep deprivation immediately after contextual conditioning inhibits BDNF signaling and disrupts memory consolidation in predator odor trauma mice model of PSTD.
Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric illness affecting>7 million people every year in the US. Recently, we have shown that the mouse model of predator odor trauma (POT) displayed contextual conditioning and core features of PTSD including sleep disturbances (hyperarousal) and retrieval of traumatic memories following exposure to objective reminders (re-experiencing). PTSD is a disorder of memory function. Since memory consolidation requires the expression of BDNF along with an activation of MAPK/pERK signaling pathway in limbic brain structures (hippocampus and amygd...
Source: Brain Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sharma R, Sahota P, Thakkar MM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Deficiency of NEAT1 prevented MPP+-induced inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis in dopaminergic SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells via miR-1277-5p/ARHGAP26 axis.
This study intended to investigate the role of lncRNA nuclear enriched assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) in MPP+-induced PD model in dopaminergic neuronblastoma SK-N-SH cells, as well as its mechanism through sponging miRNA (miR)-1277-5p. Real-time PCR and western blotting revealed that NEAT1 and ARHGAP26 were upregulated, and miR-1277-5p was downregulated in MPP+-treated SK-N-SH cells in a certain of concentration- and time- dependent manner. MPP+ induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells, as evidenced by decreased cell viability and Bcl-2 expression, and elevated apoptosis rate and levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, which were ex...
Source: Brain Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou S, Zhang D, Guo J, Chen Z, Chen Y, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Sestrin1 exerts a cytoprotective role against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced neuronal injury by potentiating Nrf2 activation via the modulation of Keap1.
Abstract Sestrin1 (Sesn1) acts as a stress-inducible protein that performs a remarkable cytoprotective function upon diverse cellular stresses. However, whether Sesn1 exerts a cytoprotective role in neurons following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown. The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of Sesn1 in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced neuronal injury in vitro. The induction of Sesn1 was found in neurons exposed to OGD/R treatment. The silencing of Sesn1 rendered neurons more vulnerable to OGD/R injury, while the up-regulation of Sesn1 ameliorated OGD/R-induced neuronal ...
Source: Brain Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang F, Chen R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered dynamic functional connectivity across mood states in bipolar disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in dFC within and between DMN and SMN can be used to distinguish depressed and euthymic states in bipolar patients. The hyperconnectivity within and between DMN and SMN may be a state feature of depressed BD. The abnormal connectivity of the FST circuit can help identify euthymic BD from HCs. PMID: 33068632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu M, Wang Y, Zhang A, Yang C, Liu P, Wang J, Zhang K, Wang Y, Sun N Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Potential Ethical Problems with Human Cerebral Organoids: Consciousness and Moral Status of Future Brains in a Dish.
Abstract Human cerebral organoids (HCOs) are an in vitro model of early neural development, aimed at modelling and understanding brain development and neurological disorders. In just a few years there has been rapid and considerable progress in the attempt to create a brain model capable of showcasing the characteristics of the human brain. There are still strong limitations to address, including the absence of vascularization which makes it difficult to feed the central layers of the organoid. Nevertheless, some important features of the nervous system have recently been observed in cerebral organoids: they manif...
Source: Brain Research - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lavazza A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

CaMKII binding to GluN2B at S1303 Has No Role in Acute or Inflammatory Pain.
Abstract Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and the N-Methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), particularly its GluN2B subunit, contribute to the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways and persistent pain. Using mutant mice wherein the activity-driven binding of CaMKII to S1303 in GluN2B is abrogated (GluN2BKI), this study investigated the importance of this interaction for acute and persistent inflammatory nociception. GluN2BKI, wild type and heterozygote mice did not differ in responses to acute noxious heat stimuli as measured with tail flick, paw flick, or hot plate assays, nor did they differ...
Source: Brain Research - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maduka UP, White SR, Joiner MA, Hell JW, Hammond DL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects chronic administration of corticosterone and estrogen on HPA axis activity and telomere length in brain areas of female rats.
The objective of this study was to verify whether chronic exposure to glucocorticoids promotes changes in the telomere length of encephalic areas involved in the control of HPA axis activity and whether estrogen affects these changes. Wistar rats were ovariectomized and treated with estradiol cypionate [(50 or 100 μg/kg, subcutaneously)] or oil and 20 mg/kg corticosterone or vehicle (isotonic saline with 2% Tween 80, subcutaneously) for 28 days. On the day after the end of the hormonal treatment, the animals were euthanized for collection of blood, brain and pituitary gland samples. Estrogen modulated the activity of th...
Source: Brain Research - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cleber Gama de Barcellos Filho P, Campos Zanelatto L, Amélia Aparecida Santana B, Calado RT, Rodrigues Franci C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Localization of prostaglandin E2 synthases and E-prostanoid receptors in the spinal cord in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Abstract Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator which plays a role in the generation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In the peripheral nervous system, PGE2 sensitizes nociceptive afferent neurons through E-prostanoid (EP) receptors. In the central nervous system, PGE2 modulates pain sensitivity and contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. However, the distribution of PGE2 and EP receptors in the spinal cord remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the expression of PGE2 synthases (microsomal PGE synthase [mPGES]-1, mPGES-2, and cytosolic PGE synthase [cPGES]) and EP receptors (EP1-4...
Source: Brain Research - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kanda H, Kobayashi K, Yamanaka H, Okubo M, Dai Y, Noguchi K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Cortical Thickness and Surface Area of Left Anterior Temporal Areas Affects Processing of Phonological Cues to Morphosyntax.
This study uses ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate word accents as phonological cues to morphosyntactic meaning. The study adds to the understanding of the neural basis for both morphosyntactically relevant phonological cues by reporting correlations between differences in listeners' RT for validly and invalidly cued suffixes and cortical thickness in left anterior and middle temporal gyrus, and the left anterior superior temporal sulcus as well as cortical surface area in the left middle and inferior temporal gyri. The cortical areas studied are known constituents of the ventral speech proces...
Source: Brain Research - October 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Novén M, Schremm A, Horne M, Roll M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Different effects of metformin and phenformin on hypoxia-induced Ca2+ fluxes in cultured primary neurons.
In this study, we investigated whether mild hypoxia-affected neurons exhibit changes in cytosolic calcium handling and whether metformin and phenformin exert any effect on calcium homeostasis in hypoxia-affected neurons. Cultured primary rat cortical cells were stained with calcium sensitive dye Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1,AM and spontaneous calcium dependent changes of fluorescence were recorded. Using obtained fluorescence traces we estimated changes in relative amplitude of recorded spontaneous signals, changes in frequency of spontaneous activity, and changes in decay of fluorescence traces. We found that hypoxia caused r...
Source: Brain Research - October 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Svirskiene N, Pampuscenko K, Svirskis G, Borutaite V Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Elevated GABA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex and lower estrogen levels abolish cocaine sensitization behavior in ovariectomized female rats.
s H Abstract Animal models show that cocaine sensitization, a behavioral marker of addiction, is more significant in intact gonadal female than male rats and ovariectomy suppress this behavior in female rats. However, few studies explore changes in neurotransmission related to this phenomenon. Here we investigated the in vivo changes on GABA, glutamate, and taurine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of gonadal intact or ovariectomized female rats after a cocaine challenge administration. Adult female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX), or sham-operated (SHAM) and randomly assigned to control (CT...
Source: Brain Research - October 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Freese L, Fraga de Souza M, Schüler Nin M, Calleti G, Flores V, Gomez R, Maria Tannhauser Barros H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Investigating brain electrical activity and functional connectivity in adolescents with clinically elevated levels of ADHD symptoms in alpha frequency band.
In this study, we present an individualized estimate of EEG in the alpha band and compared the results with traditional fixed band analysis. We also examined the EEG profile separately in lower and upper alpha bands. We further examined the association between EEG measures and ADHD symptoms. Eyes closed resting EEG was collected from 21 adolescents with clinically elevated levels of ADHD and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. Spectral power and connectivity were computed in lower and upper alpha bands. Results revealed a dissociation between upper and lower alpha band power and connectivity in ADHD. The ADHD group...
Source: Brain Research - October 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Debnath R, Viola Miller N, Morales S, Seddio KR, Fox NA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Menthol facilitates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat medullary dorsal horn neurons.
Abstract Menthol, which acts as an agonist for transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), has complex effects on nociceptive transmission, including pain relief and hyperalgesia. Here, we addressed the effects of menthol on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs, respectively) in medullary dorsal horn neurons, using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Menthol significantly increased sEPSC frequency, in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting current amplitudes. The menthol-induced increase in sEPSC frequency could be completely blocked by AMTB, a TRPM8 an...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Choi IS, Cho JH, Nakamura M, Jang IS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Region-specific regulation of central histaminergic H3 receptor expression in a mouse model of cow's milk allergy.
Abstract Central histaminergic H3 receptor (H3R) has been extensively investigated as a potential therapeutic target for various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite promising results in preclinical rodent models, clinical trials have not provided conclusive evidence for the benefit of H3R antagonists to alleviate cognitive and behavioral symptoms of these disorders. Inconsistent pharmacological efficacies may arise from aberrant changes in H3R over time during disease development. Because H3R is involved in feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and secretion, the expression of the autorecept...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Germundson DL, Vendsel LP, Nagamoto-Combs K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Sustained glial reactivity induced by glutaric acid may be the trigger to learning delay in early and late phases of development: Involvement of p75NTR receptor and protection by N-acetylcysteine.
Rechia Fighera M Abstract Degeneration of striatal neurons and cortical atrophy are pathological characteristics of glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), a disease characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA). The mechanisms that lead to neuronal loss and cognitive impairment are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to verify if acute exposure to GA during the neonatal period is sufficient to trigger apoptotic processes and lead to learning delay in early and late period. Besides, whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) would protect against impairment induced by GA. Pups mice received a dose of GA (2.5 μmol/...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Silva Rodrigues F, Patrícia França A, Broetto N, Flávia Furian A, Schneider Oliveira M, Roberto Soares Santos A, Fernando Freire Royes L, Rechia Fighera M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Introduction of a de novo Creb- binding protein gene mutation in sperm to produce a Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome model using inbred C57BL/6 mice.
Abstract Neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, are often caused by de novo autosomal dominant mutations. While mouse models are frequently used to investigate these disorders, the genetic background sometimes affects the appearance or severity of mutant phenotypes. In a previous report, we developed a system to produce de novo heterozygous mutant mice using the Cre-LoxP system without the need to maintain the heterozygous mutant line itself (Takagi et al. 2015). To further verify the applicability of the de novo mutation system in sperm, we used this system t...
Source: Brain Research - October 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Takagi T, Higashi Y, Asai M, Ishii S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine inhibits apoptosis of astrocytes induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation via targeting JAK/STAT3 signal pathway.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing interest concerning the contribution of astrocytes to the intrinsic bioremediation of ischemic brain injury. The aim of this work was to disclose the effects and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the apoptosis of astrocytes under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) condition. METHODS: Primary cultured astrocytes separated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to OGD treatment. Astrocytes were transfected with si-JMJD3 or pcDNA3.1-JMJD3 and then treated with DEX or JAK/STAT inhibitor (WP1066) before cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL apoptosis kit. Western b...
Source: Brain Research - October 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng P, Zhang A, Su M, Cai H, Wang X, Zhang Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dataset of active avoidance in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague Dawley rats: Experimental data and reinforcement learning model code and output.
Abstract Data were collected from 40 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and 40 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats during an active escape-avoidance experiment. Footshock could be avoided by pressing a lever during a danger period prior to onset of shock. If avoidance did not occur, a series of footshocks was administered, and the rat could press a lever to escape (terminate shocks). For each animal, data were simplified to the presence or absence of lever press and stimuli in each 12-second time frame. Using the pre-processed dataset, a reinforcement learning (RL) model, based on an actor-critic architecture, was utilized to estimate sever...
Source: Brain Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Palmieri J, Spiegler KM, Pang KCH, Myers CE Tags: Data Brief Source Type: research

The ligand-gated ion channel P2X7 receptor mediates NLRP3/caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis in cerebral cortical neurons of juvenile rats with sepsis.
In conclusion, our findings illustrated that the ligand-gated ion channel P2X7 receptor mediates NLRP3/caspase-1-related pyroptosis in cerebral cortex of juvenile rats with sepsis through ERK1/2 signaling pathway and plays a neuroprotective role. PMID: 32905819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun X, Zhou R, Lei Y, Hu J, Li X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Depletion of C1 Neurons Attenuates the Salt-Induced Hypertension in Unanesthetized Rats.
In conclusion, our data show that hypertension induced by high-salt intake is dependent on C1 neurons. PMID: 32905820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ribeiro N, Martins Sá RW, Antunes VR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic jaw pain attenuates neural oscillations during motor-evoked pain.
PMID: 32898506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang WE, Ho RLM, Ribeiro-Dasilva MC, Fillingim RB, Coombes SA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Tibolone regulates systemic metabolism and the expression of sex hormone receptors in the central nervous system of ovariectomised rats fed with high-fat and high-fructose diet.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of TIB on metabolic parameters and the expression of sex hormone receptors in the CNS in ovariectomised rats fed with a hypercaloric diet. Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomised and fed for 30 days with a standard diet (SD) or high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD) and treated with TIB (1 mg/kg) or vehicle. At the end of the treatments, HFFD increased body weight, glucose tolerance, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, while TIB treatment decreased these parameters. Subsequently, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and the frontal cortex were dissected. RT-PCR was performed for p...
Source: Brain Research - September 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Coyoy-Salgado A, Segura-Uribe JJ, Manuel Gallardo J, Estrada-Cruz NA, Camacho-Arroyo I, Guerra-Araiza C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

DF3016A induces increased BDNF transcription in ischemic neuroinflammation injury.
Abstract C5a is a crucial terminal effector of the C cascade, mostly involved in pain and neuroinflammatory conditions. DF3016A is a novel potent and selective C5a receptor (C5aR) inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may have pharmacological properties. We have previously demonstrated a protective effect of DF3016A on injured primary cortical neurons by oxygen-glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R) model to mimic the neuroinflammatory process. Here, we investigated the molecular pathway and factors involved in the neuroprotection previously reported. Our findings show that DF3016A protects a...
Source: Brain Research - September 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Grannonico M, Brandolini L, Varrassi G, Sebastiani P, Colanardi A, Paladini A, Piroli A, Allegretti M, Di Loreto S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research