Evidence that the Kennedy and polyamine pathways are dysregulated in human brain in cases of dementia with Lewy bodies.
Abstract Disruptions of brain metabolism are considered integral to the pathogenesis of dementia, but thus far little is known of how dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) impacts the brain metabolome. DLB is less well known than other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease which is perhaps why it is under-investigated. This exploratory study aimed to address current knowledge gaps in DLB research and search for potentially targetable biochemical pathways for therapeutics. It also aimed to better understand metabolic similarities and differences with other dementias. Combined metabolomic ...
Source: Brain Research - May 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Akyol S, Yilmaz A, Joon Oh K, Ugur Z, Aydas B, McGuinness B, Passmore P, Kehoe PG, Maddens M, Green BD, Graham SF Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Epimedium flavonoids improve cognitive impairment and white matter lesions induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the Lingo-1/Fyn/ROCK pathway and activating the BDNF/NRG1/PI3K pathway in rats.
Abstract Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a common cause of cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD). White matter (WM) lesions are the typical pathological manifestation of CSVD and contribute to cognitive decline. Epimedium flavonoids (EF) are the main component in Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., which is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EF on cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms in a CSVD rat model induced with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The model was established by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) ...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Niu HM, Wang MY, Ma DL, Chen XP, Zhang L, Li YL, Zhang L, Li L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis after mesenchymal stem cell line transplantation for ischemic stroke.
Abstract Transplantation with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to promote functional recovery in animal models of ischemic stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSC transplantation have been only partially elucidated. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively identify changes in brain proteins in rats treated with MSCs for ischemic stroke, and to explore the multi-target mechanisms of MSCs using a proteomics-based strategy. Twenty-eight proteins were found to be differentially expressed following B10 MSC transplantation in adult male Wistar rats, as a...
Source: Brain Research - May 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mitaki S, Nagai A, Wada Y, Onoda K, Md Sheikh A, Adachi E, Matsumoto KI, Yamaguchi S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Visualization of cortical cerebral blood flow dynamics during craniotomy in acute subdural hematoma using laser speckle imaging in a rat model.
Abstract Mass evacuation with decompressive craniotomy is considered a standard intervention for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). However, hemispheric swelling complicates the intraoperative and postoperative management of ASDH patients, and previous studies have revealed that this approach can damage ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Few studies have focused on the cerebrovascular response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To characterize the relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before and after removal of the hematoma, rats were injured by a subdural infusion of 400 μL of venous blood or paraffin oil. MR...
Source: Brain Research - May 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang C, Xian L, Chen X, Li Z, Fang Y, Xu W, Wei L, Chen W, Wang S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of seawater immersion on open traumatic brain injury in rabbit model.
Abstract We emulated instances of open traumatic brain injuries (TBI) happened in a maritime disaster. New Zealand rabbit animal models were used to evaluate the pathophysiological changes in open TBI with and without the influence of artificial seawater. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Control group consisted of only normal animals. Animals in TBI and TBI+Seawater groups underwent craniotomy with dura mater incised and brain tissue exposed to free-fall impact. Afterward, only TBI+Seawater group received on-site artificial seawater infusion. Brain water content (BWC) and permeability of bl...
Source: Brain Research - May 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu KL, Yu XJ, Sun TZ, Wang YC, Chen MX, Su YW, Zhang HC, Chen YM, Gao HL, Shi XL, Qi J, Li Y, Li HB, Dong WJ, He JK, Kang YM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Editorial: Stem cell secretome.
Abstract Stem cells have the potential to advance therapy for many neurological diseases that are currently refractive to treatment. They are also key cellular players in homeostasis within several adult brain regions that host endogenous populations of neural stem cells. Investigations of the functions of stem cells in the adult CNS have historically approached these cells as sources of differentiated progeny, whether it be new neurons or new glial cells. Yet, as both basic research and pre-clinical efforts centered on stem cells in the brain push forward, it has become evident that this initial framework is inco...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rieskamp JD, Kirby ED Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Disrupted interhemispheric coordination with unaffected lateralization of global eigenvector centrality characterizes hemiparkinsonism.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The motor dysfunctions always affect hemi-body first in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the interhemispheric relationships in patients with only unilateral motor impairment were barely known to date. We aimed to investigate the interhemispheric functions using resting-state functional Magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) for further understanding the pathogenesis of PD. METHODS: Forty-three unilateral-symptomatic PD patients (UPD, Hoehn-Yahr staging scale, H-Y: 1-1.5), and 54 age-, gender-, education-matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. All subjects underwent MRI scanning and cl...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu J, Guo T, Zhou C, Gao T, Guan X, Xuan M, Gu Q, Huang P, Song Z, Xu X, Zhang M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The enhanced efficacy of herpes simplex virus by lentivirus mediated VP22 and cytosine deaminase gene therapy against glioma.
In conclusion, we successfully established the stable cell lines carrying VP22-CD fusion genes. The incorporation of VP22 further induced an enhanced efficacy of rHSV-1 as well as CD suicide gene therapy respectively and synthetically in vitro. Also, we demonstrated an increased therapeutic benefit of rHAV-1 by VP22 modified CD gene therapy against glioma in vivo. PMID: 32439343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mi R, Fan W, Ji J, Dong C, Jin G, Liu F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Individual differences in white and grey matter structure associated with verbal habits of thought.
Abstract Modality specific encoding habits account for a significant portion of individual differences reflected in functional activation during cognitive processing. Yet, little is known about how these habits of thought influence long-term structural changes in the brain. Traditionally, habits of thought have been assessed using self-report questionnaires such as the visualizer-verbalizer questionnaire. Here, rather than relying on subjective reports, we measured habits of thought using a novel behavioral task assessing attentional biases toward picture and word stimuli. Hypothesizing that verbal habits of thoug...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hayes JC, Alfred KL, Pizzie RG, Cetron JS, Kraemer DJM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mice lacking spinal α2GABAA receptors: Altered GABAergic neurotransmission, diminished GABAergic antihyperalgesia, and potential compensatory mechanisms preventing a hyperalgesic phenotype.
Mice lacking spinal α2GABAA receptors: Altered GABAergic neurotransmission, diminished GABAergic antihyperalgesia, and potential compensatory mechanisms preventing a hyperalgesic phenotype. Brain Res. 2020 May 18;:146889 Authors: Tudeau L, Acuña MA, Albisetti GW, Neumann E, Ralvenius WT, Scheurer L, Poe M, Cook JM, Johannssen HC, Ulrich Zeilhofer H Abstract Diminished synaptic inhibition in the superficial spinal dorsal horn contributes to exaggerated pain responses that accompany peripheral inflammation and neuropathy. α2GABAA receptors (α2GABAAR) constitute the most abundant...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tudeau L, Acuña MA, Albisetti GW, Neumann E, Ralvenius WT, Scheurer L, Poe M, Cook JM, Johannssen HC, Ulrich Zeilhofer H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Insulin activates microglia and increases COX-2/IL-1 β expression in young but not in aged hippocampus.
In this study we investigated whether insulin affected microglia in the hippocampus of young and aged rats. We injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) insulin (20 mU) or vehicle for five days and evaluated microglial inflammatory markers in the hippocampus of young (3 months) Wistar rats. Increased microglial activation (Iba-1+CD68+cells) and COX-2/IL-1β levels in the hippocampus were found. Since the aged brain is an experimental model for brain insulin resistance and chronic neuroinflammation we submitted aged rats (22 months) to i.c.v. insulin/vehicle administration and found no significant increase in Iba-1+CD68...
Source: Brain Research - May 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Haas CB, de Carvalho AK, Pastoris Muller A, Eggen BJL, Portela LV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Temporal Decoding of Vocal and Musical Emotions: Same Code, Different Timecourse?
Abstract From a baby's cry to a piece of music, we perceive emotion from our auditory environment every day. Many theories bring forward the concept of common neural substrates for the perception of vocal and musical emotions. It has been proposed that, for us to perceive emotions, music recruits emotional circuits that evolved for the processing of biologically relevant vocalizations (e.g., screams, laughs). Although some studies have found similarities between voice and instrumental music in terms of acoustic cues and neural correlates, little is known about their processing timecourse. To further understand how...
Source: Brain Research - May 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Paquette S, Rigoulot S, Grunewald K, Lehmann A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Expression analysis of hippocampal and amygdala CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in nicotine-induced reward under stress in rats.
Abstract Extensive research has shown that individuals are more sensitive to develop addiction and drug taking under stress state. The present study includes an expression analysis to identify the possible role of hippocampal and amygdala CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) activation in nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) under exposure to acute or sub-chronic stress. Using western-blot technique, CREB phosphorylation was shown to increase in the hippocampus and the amygdala following nicotine-induced CPP. The hippocampal level of BDNF was incr...
Source: Brain Research - May 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ghasemzadeh Z, Sardari M, Javadi P, Rezayof A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A novel pyrazole-containing selenium compound modulates the oxidative and nitrergic pathways to reverse the depression-pain syndrome in mice.
Abstract Bearing in mind that pain and major depressive disorder (MDD) often share biological pathways, this condition is classified as depression-pain syndrome. Mounting evidence suggests that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. The development of effective pharmacological interventions for the depression-pain syndrome is of particular importance as clinical treatments for this comorbidity have shown limited efficacy. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether the 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-4-(phenylselanyl)-1H-pyrazole (SePy) was able to reverse the depression-pain synd...
Source: Brain Research - May 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Birmann PT, Casaril AM, Hartwig DO, Jacob RG, Seixas FK, Collares T, Savegnago L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA TP73-AS1 contributes to glioma tumorigenesis by sponging the miR-103a/GALNT7 pathway.
Abstract Glioma is the most aggressive, commonly occurring brain tumor in adults. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are among the gene expression regulators in cancer development. Previous research posited that the up-regulation of LncRNA TP73-AS1 (TP73-AS1) in glioma is linked to low survival rates. However, the precise LncRNA TP73-AS1 mechanism in glioma remains unknown. Herein, we found that TP73-AS1 was up-regulated in glioma and was associated with a dismal prognosis. The silencing of TP73-AS1 repressed the multiplication of glioma cells and caused cell death. Mechanistically, we identified that TP73-AS1 in glio...
Source: Brain Research - May 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang JB, Chen XL, Han ZB, Wang HW, Wang ZH, Li NN, Lin ZG Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Activation of p38MAPK in spinal microglia contributes to autologous nucleus pulposus-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in a modified rat model of lumbar disk herniation.
Abstract Recent studies have implicated the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and glial cells contribute to hyperalgesia following nerve injury or nerve compression. In our work, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of autologous nucleus pulposus (NP)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in a modified rat model of lumbar disk herniation (LDH). Firstly, our results showed that 50% mechanical withdrawal threshold (50% MWT) decreased on postoperative day (POD) 1 and significantly minimally reduced on POD 7and lasted for day 28 after surgery(P
Source: Brain Research - May 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang YM, Gao FJ, Lin SQ, Yi ZX, Zhang JM, Wu HX, He QL, Wei M, Zou XN, Zhang H, Sun LB Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

MEF2D upregulation protects neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation-induced injury by enhancing Nrf2 activation.
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) is a pro-survival factor for neurons. However, whether MEF2D is involved in protecting neurons from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the exact role and mechanism of MEF2D in regulating oxygen-glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced neuronal injury, an in vitro model used to study cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. MEF2D expression was significantly induced in neurons in response to OGD/R injury. Functional analysis demonstrated that MEF2D upregulation sign...
Source: Brain Research - May 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang N, Yang W, Li L, Tian M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diazoxide blocks or reduces microgliosis when applied prior or subsequent to motor neuron injury in mice.
PMID: 32389588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nogradi B, Meszlenyi V, Patai R, Polgar TF, Spisak K, Kristof R, Siklos L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered information flow and microstructure abnormalities of visual cortex in normal-tension glaucoma : evidences from rest-state fMRI and DKI.
In conclusion, NTG causes reorganization of information flows among visual cortices and other brain areas, which is consistent with brain microstructural injury. PMID: 32389589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li T, Qu X, Chen W, Wang Q, Wang H, Wang Y, Huang C, Zhang X, Wang N, Xian J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Repeated intrastriatal application of Botulinum neurotoxin-A did not influence choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive interneurons in hemiparkinsonian rat brain - A histological, stereological and correlational analysis.
Abstract In Parkinson's disease, dopamine depletion leads to hyperactivity of cholinergic interneurons in the caudate-putamen (CPu). Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) inhibits the release of acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system and is also thought to act as a local anticholinergic drug when injected intrastriatally. In hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats, a unilateral intrastriatal injection of 1 ng BoNT-A significantly diminished apomorphine-induced rotation behavior for at least 3 months, the effect fading thereafter. A second intrastriatal BoNT-A application, 6 months after the first one, led to a stronger ...
Source: Brain Research - May 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hawlitschka A, Berg C, Schmitt O, Holzmann C, Wree A, Antipova V Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The role of neuropeptides in drug and ethanol abuse: Medication targets for drug and alcohol use disorders.
PMID: 32387136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Barson JR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

In vivo evaluation of effects of histamine H3 receptor antagonists on methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice.
Abstract A single administration with METH (3 mg/kg) induced a hyperlocomotion in male ICR mice. Pretreatment of mice with pitolisant, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist (5 and 10 mg/kg), for 30 min showed a significant reduction of the hyperlocomotion induced by METH, as compared with vehicle (saline)-pretreated subjects. Pretreatment of mice with the histamine H3 receptor antagonists JNJ-10181457 (5 and 10 mg/kg) or conessine (20 mg/kg), also showed similar inhibitory effects on METH-induced hyperlocomotion, similar to pitolisant. No significant change in locomotion was observed in mice pretreated with pitolisan...
Source: Brain Research - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kitanaka J, Kitanaka N, Scott Hall F, Amatsu Y, Hashimoto K, Hisatomi E, Kitao E, Mimura M, Nakamura M, Ozawa R, Sato M, Tagami K, Uhl GR, Takemura M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dendrobium nobile Lindl alkaloid and metformin ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in senescence-accelerated mice via suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
This study further used SAMP8 mice to study the anti-aging effects of DNLA, focusing on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. DNLA and metformin were orally administered to SAMP8 mice starting at 4-month of age for 6 months. Behavioral tests were performed in 10-month-old SAMP8 mice and age-matched SAMR1 control mice. At the end of experiment, neuron damage was evaluated by histology and transmission electron microscopy. ER stress-related proteins were analyzed with Western-blot. DNLA improved learning and memory impairments, reduced the loss of neurons and Nissl bodies in the hippocampus and cortex. DNLA ameliorated ER dilat...
Source: Brain Research - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu B, Huang B, Liu J, Shi JS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone in Drug Use Disorders.
Abstract Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide primarily transcribed in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), with vast projections to many areas throughout the central nervous system that play an important role in motivated behaviors and drug use. Anatomical, pharmacological and genetic studies implicate MCH in mediating the intake and reinforcement of commonly abused substances, acting by modulating several systems including the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, glutamatergic as well as GABAergic signaling and being modulated by inflammatory neuroimmune pathways. Further support for the role of MCH in con...
Source: Brain Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Morganstern I, Gulati G, Leibowitz SF Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dynamic changes and mislocalizations of neurodegenerative disease-related proteins in mice stroke model.
In this study, we report that RBPs increased significantly compared with the sham group (*p
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu X, Yamashita T, Shi X, Bian Y, Bian Z, Omote Y, Takemoto M, Hishikawa N, Ohta Y, Abe K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diabetic encephalopathy causes the imbalance of neural activities between hippocampal glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in mice.
In this study, we have investigated the changes of different hippocampal neurons during diabetic encephalopathy in mouse models of diabetes by simultaneously analyzing the activities and synaptic transmission of glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in brain slices. Compared with the data from a group of control, diabetic encephalopathy permanently impairs the excitability of GABAergic neurons and synaptic transmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However, glutamatergic neurons appear to be more excited. Our findings highlight the critical role of the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons and glutamatergi...
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang C, Li J, Zhao S, Huang L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Intra-axonal mechanisms driving axon regeneration.
Abstract Traumatic injury to the peripheral and central nervous systems very often causes axotomy, where an axon loses connections with its target resulting in loss of function. The axon segments distal to the injury site lose connection with the cell body and degenerate. Axotomized neurons in the periphery can spontaneously mount a regenerative response and reconnect to their denervated target tissues, though this is rarely complete in humans. In contrast, spontaneous regeneration rarely occurs after axotomy in the spinal cord and brain. Here, we concentrate on the mechanisms underlying this spontaneous regenerat...
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith TP, Sahoo PK, Kar AN, Twiss JL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dual functions of CNS inflammation in food intake and metabolic regulation.
PMID: 32353432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee TJ, Hargrave SL, Kinzig KP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

An increase in AMPK/e-NOS signaling and attenuation of MMP-9 may contribute to remote ischemic perconditioning associated neuroprotection in rat model of focal ischemia.
Abstract Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) results in collateral enhancement and a reduction in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced ischemia. RIPerC likely activates multiple metabolic protective mechanisms, including effects on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and protein kinases. Here we explore if RIPerC improves neuroprotection and collateral flow by modifying the activities of MMP-9 and AMPK/e-NOS. Age matched adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to MCAO followed two hours later by RIPerC (3 cycles of 15 minutes ischemia). Animals were euthanized 24 hours post-MCAO. Haematoxylin an...
Source: Brain Research - April 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Parray A, Ma Y, Alam M, Akhtar N, Salam A, Mir F, Qadri S, Sajitha VP, Priyanka J, Kamran S, Winship IR, Shuaib A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diagnosis of ischemic stroke using circulating levels of brain-specific proteins measured via high-sensitivity digital ELISA.
Abstract Limited lower detection ranges associated with traditional immunoassay techniques have prevented the use of brain-specific proteins as blood biomarkers of stroke in the acute phase of care, as these proteins are often only present in circulation at low concentrations. Digital ELISA is a newly developed technique with allows for quantification of proteins in biofluids with up to 1000 times greater sensitivity than conventional ELISA techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended lower limits of detection associated with digital ELISA could enable the use of brain-specific prote...
Source: Brain Research - April 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Connell GC, Alder ML, Smothers CG, Still CH, Webel AR, Moore SM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neural responses to interpersonal requests: Effects of imposition and vocally-expressed stance.
PMID: 32348774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vergis N, Jiang X, Pell MD Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic molecular hydrogen inhalation mitigates short and long-term memory loss in polymicrobial sepsis.
ute;rnio EC Abstract The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the first physiological systems to be affected in sepsis. During the exacerbated systemic inflammatory response at the early stage of sepsis, circulatory inflammatory mediators are able to reach the CNS leading to neuroinflammation and, consequently, long-term impairment in learning and memory formation is observed. The acute treatment with molecular hydrogen (H2) exerts important antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis, but little is known about the mechanism itself and the efficacy of chronic H2 inhalation in sepsis tre...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jesus AA, Passaglia P, Santos BM, Rodrigues-Santos I, Flores RA, Batalhão ME, Stabile AM, Cárnio EC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of PACAP-38 and an analog, acetyl-[Ala15, Ala20] PACAP-38-propylamide, on memory consolidation in the detection of spatial novelty task in rats.
Abstract PACAP-38 (P38) is a pleiotropic peptide that exerts multiple peripheral and central actions, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions. Previous studies have suggested an improvement of memory in rats that have received a single systemic injection of P38. In a therapeutic perspective, we used an analog, acetyl-[Ala15, Ala20]PACAP-38-propylamide (ALG), to improve both stability and affinity for PAC1 receptors vs. endogen PACAP. We investigated the effect of P38 and ALG on memory consolidation using a spatial novelty detection (SND) task in which rats had to memorize a configurat...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ladjimi MH, Barbouche R, Ben Rhouma K, Sakly M, Tebourbi O, Save E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of exogenous ghrelin administration and ghrelin receptor blockade, in combination with alcohol, on peripheral inflammatory markers in heavy-drinking individuals: Results from two human laboratory studies.
In conclusion, a supraphysiologic pharmacological challenge with exogenous ghrelin in heavy-drinking individuals produced anti-inflammatory effects in the context of intravenous alcohol administration. On the contrary, ghrelin receptor blockade did not lead to any change in the inflammatory markers included in this study. Mechanistic studies are required to better understand the interaction between ghrelin, alcohol, and inflammatory processes. PMID: 32339499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Farokhnia M, Portelli J, Lee MR, McDiarmid GR, Munjal V, Abshire KM, Battista JT, Browning BD, Deschaine SL, Akhlaghi F, Leggio L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Evaluating the amygdala network induced by neurofeedback training for emotion regulation using hierarchical clustering.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that the feedback training effects in emotion regulation pattern reflected by the activity of the target brain network and the connections within the network were robustly embodied in local network specialization instead of in global network integration. PMID: 32339500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu N, Yao L, Zhao X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The single intravenous administration of methylene blue after traumatic brain injury diminishes neurological deficit, blood-brain barrier disruption and decrease in the expression of S100 protein in rats.
In conclusion, the preservation of blood-brain barrier and a decrease in the expression of S100 protein may be an important mechanism by means of which MB improves neurological outcome. Our data demonstrate that MB can be a very promising pharmacological compound with neuroprotective properties for TBI treatment. PMID: 32339501 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Genrikhs EE, Stelmashook EV, Voronkov DN, Novikova SV, Alexandrova OP, Fedorov AV, Isaev NK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

CART in energy balance and drug addiction: current insights and mechanisms.
Abstract Cocaine amphetamine related transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide first isolated and sequenced from ovine hypothalamus and later shown to have functions related to drug taking, drug seeking, and energy balance. Here we review the molecular features of CART, its anatomical distribution and provide an update on CART function in energy balance control and addiction. A common theme across these topics is that CART has diverse roles and functions depending on both the specific cells in which it is expressed as well as the location of these cells in distinct midbrain, hypothalamic, thalamic, and striatal circuits...
Source: Brain Research - April 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yi Ong Z, McNally GP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of aging on event-related potentials to single-cycle binaural beats and diotic amplitude modulation of a tone.
Abstract Aim of the study is to determine whether the auditory processing of temporal fine structure (TFS) is affected with normal aging, even in the presence of normal audiometric hearing and fine cognitive state; and, if it is, to see whether a comparable effect is also observed in the processing of a diotic change in sound envelope. The event-related potentials (ERPs) to binaural beats (BBs), which are the responses of the binaural mechanisms processing TFS of a sound, and the ERPs to diotic amplitude modulation (AM) stimuli, which are the responses of the monaural mechanisms processing the changes in its envel...
Source: Brain Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ungan P, Yagcioglu S, Ayik E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Progressive Brain Changes in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies.
Abstract The progressive changes of brain structure in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain controversial. To identify this controversy, a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies in brain volume was performed. The percentage of volume change over time between patients with PD and healthy subjects of each brain region of interest was obtained. In total, 11 studies, comprising 833 cases (463 patients with PD and 370 healthy control subjects), were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Ten brain regions were involved. Patients with PD in comparison w...
Source: Brain Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: He H, Liang L, Tang T, Luo J, Wang Y, Cui H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Alcohol and Nicotine Addiction.
Abstract The two most prevalent substance use disorders involve alcohol (alcohol use disorder) and nicotine (tobacco use disorder), which are often co-abused. Robust preclinical and translational evidence indicates that individuals initiate drug use for the acute rewarding effects of the substance. The development of negative emotional states is key for the transition from recreational use to substance use disorders as subjects seek the substance to obtain relief from the negative emotional states of acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a major regula...
Source: Brain Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Simpson S, Shankar K, Kimbrough A, George O Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

One-week phonemic training rebuilds the memory traces of merged phonemes in merged speakers.
In this study, we investigated the recovery of the discrimination ability via phonemic training and found that the merged speakers regained the ability of discriminating merged phonemes pre-attentively, after a 7-day /n/-/l/ phonemic training, as revealed by the reactivation of MMN brain response to the /n/-/l/ phoneme categories. Our finding indicates that separate memory traces of merged phonemes could be rebuilt during the training process. PMID: 32330520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang M, Huang ZL, Zhong F, Xiang JL, Wang XD Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mefenamic Acid can attenuate depressive symptoms by suppressing microglia activation induced upon chronic stress.
CONCLUSION: MA inhibits microglia activation/phagocytosis induced upon chronic stress in the hippocampus, which might result in the improvement of depressive symptoms. PMID: 32325074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng X, Fan Y, Chun CY Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

β-Endorphin and sex differentially modulate the response to EtOH in a site-specific manner.
β-Endorphin and sex differentially modulate the response to EtOH in a site-specific manner. Brain Res. 2020 Apr 18;:146845 Authors: Rhinehart EM, Waldron M, Kelly-Quigley H, Zellers M, Turco A, Grisel JE PMID: 32315606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rhinehart EM, Waldron M, Kelly-Quigley H, Zellers M, Turco A, Grisel JE Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

miR-217-regulated MEF2D-HDAC5/ND6 signaling pathway participates in the oxidative stress and inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia.
Abstract Multiple factors are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic injury, including microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the precise mechanism of miRNAs involvement in cerebral ischemia remains largely unclear. In the current study, we found that miR-217 was significantly upregulated in ischemic stroke models, and the upregulation of miR-217 was associated with the development of post-stroke cognitive impairment. Further investigation revealed that myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) was the direct target of miR-217. In vitro experiments showed that miR-217 promoted aggregation of histone deacetyla...
Source: Brain Research - April 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shi L, Tian Z, Fu Q, Li H, Zhang L, Tian L, Mi W Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture improves cognitive deficits and insulin resistance in an OLETF rat model of Al/D-gal induced aging model via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
In conclusion, EA improves cognitive function and insulin resistance in rat models of AD. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in those changes. PMID: 32304687 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang X, Huang K, Li Z, Bai D, Hao Y, Wu Q, Yi W, Xu N, Pan Y, Zhang L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential corticomotor mechanisms of ankle motor control in post stroke individuals with and without motor evoked potentials.
This study used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the influence of corticomotor characteristics on lower limb motor control in chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed 28 individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) measured from the paretic and non-paretic tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were used to calculate corticomotor excitability symmetry (CMEsym) and relative ipsilateral corticomotor excitability (ICE). Participants were assigned to MEP+ and MEP- groups depending on the presence (+) or absence (-) of MEPs. Ankle motor control was quantifi...
Source: Brain Research - April 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lim H, Madhavan S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Comparison of High-Dose Intracisterna Magna and Lumbar Puncture Intrathecal Delivery of AAV9 in Mice to Treat Neuropathies.
We report that an intrathecal gene delivery of AAV9 in mice leads to stable transduction of neurons and glia in the brain and spinal cord and has a widespread distribution that includes components of the PNS. Vector expression was notably higher in select brain and PNS regions following ICM injection, while higher amounts of vector was found in the lower spinal cord and peripheral organs following LP injection. These findings support that intrathecal AAV9 delivery is a translationally relevant delivery method for inherited neuropathies. PMID: 32289279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bailey RM, Rozenberg A, Gray SJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Up-regulation of Sphingosine-1-phosphate Receptors and Sphingosine Kinase 1 in the Peri-ischemic Area after Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice.
We examined the change of expression and distribution of S1P receptors (S1PRs) and sphingosine kinases (SphKs) after cerebral ischemia in male C57BL6/J mice using immunohistochemical analysis at 1, 5, 14, and 28 days after 30 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). S1PR1, 3, and 5 were transiently induced in the cells, which were morphologically similar to neurons in the peri-infarct lesion with a peak seen at 1 day after tMCAO (p
Source: Brain Research - April 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Matsumoto N, Yamashita T, Shang J, Feng T, Osakada Y, Sasaki R, Tadokoro K, Nomura E, Tsunoda K, Omote Y, Takemoto M, Hishikawa N, Ohta Y, Abe K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Ascending projection of jaw-closing muscle-proprioception to the intralaminar thalamic nuclei in rats.
This study can help to understand previously unrecognized pathways of proprioception ascending inputs from the brainstem to the thalamus, which may contribute to treatments of TS patients. PMID: 32278724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sato F, Kado S, Tsutsumi Y, Tachibana Y, Ikenoue E, Furuta T, Uchino K, Chul Bae Y, Uzawa N, Yoshida A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

TBHQ improved neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury by inhibiting the overactivation of astrocytes.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major leading cause of death and long-term disability. Although astrocytes play a key role in neuroprotection after TBI in the early stage, the overactivation of astrocytes can lead to long-term functional deficits, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. In addition, it is unknown whether the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor2/haem oxygenase-1 (Nrf-2/HO-1) pathway could elicit a neuroprotective effect by decreasing astrocyte overactivation after TBI. We aimed to study the effects of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in reducing astrocyte over...
Source: Brain Research - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang ZW, Liang J, Yan JX, Ye YC, Wang JJ, Chen C, Sun HT, Chen F, Tu Y, Li XH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research