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Sodium butyrate abolishes lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behaviors and hippocampal microglial activation in mice.
In this study, we investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice are affected by the repeated treatment with SB. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg) induced cytokines and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1(Iba1), a marker of microglial activation, in the hippocampus. It also increased the immobility time in a forced swim test, without changing locomotion. Repeated treatment with SB reduced LPS-induced alterations. These findings suggested that epigenetic regulation exist in hippocampal microglial activation, and is involved in depressive-like behaviors associated with...
Source: Brain Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamawaki Y, Yoshioka N, Nozaki K, Ito H, Oda K, Harada K, Shirawachi S, Asano S, Aizawa H, Yamawaki S, Kanemastu T, Akagi H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Characterization of early-onset motor deficits in the Pink1 -/- mouse model of Parkinson disease.
Abstract In Parkinson disease (PD), a complex neurodegenerative disorder that affects nearly 10 million people worldwide, motor skills are significantly impaired. However, onset and progression of motor deficits and the neural correlates of these deficits are poorly understood. We used a genetic mouse model of PD (Pink1 -/-), with phenotypic similarities to human PD, to investigate the manifestation of early-onset sensorimotor deficits. We hypothesized this mouse model would show early vocalization and gross motor dysfunction that would be progressive in nature. Pink1 -/- mice, compared to wild type (WT) controls,...
Source: Brain Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kelm-Nelson CA, Brauer AFL, Barth KJ, Lake JM, Sinnen MLK, Stehula FJ, Muslu C, Marongiu R, Kaplitt MG, Ciucci MR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and Na,K-ATPase activity differential regulation in brainstem and forebrain of Wistar Audiogenic Rats may lead to increased seizure susceptibility.
Abstract The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is a well-characterized seizure-prone, inbred rodent strain that, when acutely stimulated with high-intensity sounds, develops brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures that can evolve to limbic-like, myoclonic (forebrain) seizures when the acoustic stimuli are presented chronically (audiogenic kindling). In order to investigate possible mechanisms underlying WAR susceptibility to seizures, we evaluated Na,K-ATPase activity, Ca-ATPase activity, Mg-ATPase activity, lipid membrane composition and oxidative stress markers in whole forebrain and whole brainstem samples of na&iu...
Source: Brain Research - December 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Parreira GM, Resende MDA, Garcia IJP, Sartori DB, Umeoka EHL, Godoy LD, Garcia-Cairasco N, Barbosa LA, Santos HL, Tilelli CQ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Neuropathological and Biochemical Alterations Associated with Myo5a Mutation in a Rat Model.
In this study, we analyze the neuropathological and biochemical alterations involved in the pathogenesis of a neurodegenerative/movement disorder during different developmental stages in juvenile rats with a mutant Myosin5a (Myo5a). In mutant rats, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation characterized by the absence of Myo5a protein expression in the brain is associated with a syndrome of locomotor dysfunction, altered coat color, and neuroendocrine abnormalities. Myo5a encodes a myosin motor protein required for transport and proper distribution of subcellular organelles in somatodendritic processes in neurons. Here we...
Source: Brain Research - December 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Landrock KK, Sullivan P, Martini-Stoica H, Goldstein DS, Graham BH, Yamamoto S, Bellen HJ, Gibbs RA, Chen R, D'Amelio M, Stoica G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diameter of fluorescent microspheres determines their distribution throughout the cortical watershed area in mice.
Abstract A hemodynamic mechanism has long been assumed to play an important role in watershed infarction. In recent years, however, clinical evidence has indicated that an embolic mechanism is involved. The mechanism by which emboli are trapped preferentially in watershed areas remains unclear. In the present study, we developed a mouse embolus model using fluorescent microspheres with different diameters and evaluated the role of the microspheres' diameters in the generation of a watershed-patterned distribution. We injected fluorescent microspheres of four different diameters (i.e., 13, 24, 40, and 69 μm) int...
Source: Brain Research - December 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsukada N, Katsumata M, Oki K, Minami K, Abe T, Takahashi S, Itoh Y, Suzuki N Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Madecassoside protects BV2 microglial cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced injury via inhibition of the toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.
In this study, an in vitro ischemic model of oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R) was used to investigate the role of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of MA. BV2 microglia viability after OGD/R, treated with or without MA, was measured using the MTT assay. Messenger RNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were measured using real-time polymerase ch...
Source: Brain Research - November 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo Y, Wang C, Li WH, Liu J, Yang J, Sui X, Wang S, You Z, Wang YA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Stress-induced hippocampus Npas4 mRNA expression relates to specific psychophysiological patterns in stress response.
Abstract Neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein4 (Npas4) is a key protein that intervenes in GABA synapse scaling and neurotrophicity enhancing. Since GABA and neurotrophicity are implicated in stress response and Npas4-deficient rodents exhibit behavioral alterations, an investigation was designed in rats to verify whether stress-induced spontaneous hippocampus Npas4 mRNA expression would be associated with specific patterns of stress response. The rats were exposed to one of three stressor levels: no stress (CTL, n=15), exposure to a footshock apparatus (Sham, S, n=40) and footshock (F, n=80). After stress e...
Source: Brain Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Drouet JB, Peinnequin A, Faure P, Denis J, Fidier N, Maury R, Buguet A, Cespuglio R, Canini F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diet-induced insulin resistance state disturbs brain clock processes and alters tuning of clock outputs in the Sand rat, Psammomys obesus.
lez P Abstract Reciprocal interactions closely connect energy metabolism with circadian rhythmicity. Altered clockwork and circadian desynchronization are often linked with impaired energy regulation. Conversely, metabolic disturbances have been associated with altered autonomic and hormonal rhythms. The effects of high-energy (HE) diet on the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) remain unclear.This question was addressed in the Sand rat (Psammomys obesus), a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) animal model. The aim of this work was to determine whether enriched diet in Psammomys affects lo...
Source: Brain Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Touati H, Ouali-Hassenaoui S, Dekar-Madoui A, Challet E, Pévet P, Vuillez P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Auditory-motor coupling affects phonetic encoding.
r J Abstract Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval ...
Source: Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmidt-Kassow M, Thöne K, Kaiser J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Silencing rno-miR-155-5p in rat temporal lobe epilepsy model reduces pathophysiological features and cell apoptosis by activating Sestrin-3.
In this study, we found that a microRNA, hsa-miR-155-5p, was upregulated in patients with TLE post-surgery, and hence associated with clinical and pathological manifestations and seizure outcomes. We then used a rat model of experimental epilepsy induced by pilocarpine and revealed that the rat homologue was upregulated as well. Importantly, injection of an antagomiR of rno-miR-155-5p in vivo resulted in a reduction of the pathophysiological features associated with the status epilepticus, which was accompanied by decrease of apoptosis in the hippocampus. This effect was correlated with an increase in rat Sestrin-3 express...
Source: Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang LG, Zou J, Lu QC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Gap-induced reductions of evoked potentials in the auditory cortex: a possible objective marker for the presence of tinnitus.
Abstract Animal models of tinnitus are essential for determining the underlying mechanisms and testing pharmacotherapies. However, there is doubt over the validity of current behavioural methods for detecting tinnitus. Here, we applied a stimulus paradigm widely used in a behavioural test (gap-induced inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex GPIAS) while recording from the auditory cortex, and showed neural response changes that mirror those found in the behavioural tests. We implanted guinea pigs (GPs) with electrocorticographic (ECoG) arrays and recorded baseline auditory cortical responses to a startling stimu...
Source: Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Berger JI, Owen W, Wilson CA, Hockley A, Coomber B, Palmer AR, Wallace MN Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 Localized within the Deep CA1 Hippocampal Sublayer in the Thy1 Line 18 Mouse.
Abstract Optogenetic proteins are powerful tools for advancing our understanding of neural circuitry. However, the precision of optogenetics is dependent in part on the extent to which expression is limited to cells of interest. The Thy1-ChR2 transgenic mouse is commonly used in optogenetic experiments. Although general expression patterns in these animals have been characterized, a detailed evaluation of cell-type specificity is lacking. This information is critical for interpretation of experimental results using these animals. We characterized ChR2 expression under the Thy1promoter in line 18 in comparison to k...
Source: Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dobbins DL, Klorig DC, Smith T, Godwin DW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Predicting vection and visually induced motion sickness based on spontaneous postural activity.
This study compared the predictive ability of traditional and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) based measures of postural activity. We initially measured spontaneous fluctuations in the centre of foot pressure (CoP) of our subjects as they stood quietly with their eyes open and closed. They were then repeatedly exposed to two different types of self-motion display. As expected, the oscillating self-motion displays were found to induce stronger vection and greater sickness than the smooth self-motion displays. RQA based measures of spontaneous postural activity proved to be superior predictors of both vection streng...
Source: Brain Research - November 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Palmisano S, Arcioni B, Stapley PJ Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Microwave Radiation Leading to Shrinkage of Dendritic Spines in Hippocampal Neurons Mediated by SNK-SPAR Pathway.
In conclusion, the microwave radiation led to shrinkage and even loss of dendritic spines in hippocampus by SNK-SPAR pathway, resulting in the cognitive impairments. PMID: 29180226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhi WJ, Peng RY, Li HJ, Zou Y, Yao BW, Wang CZ, Liu ZH, Gao XH, Xu XP, Dong J, Li Z, Zhou HM, Wang LF, Hu XJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mechanism of Salvianolic Acid B Neuroprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Induced Cerebral Injury.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cerebral protection of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) against cerebral I/R injury and investigate the underlying mechanism. As shown by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses, Sal B significantly reduced cerebral infarct size, and accompanied with improved neurobehavioral functions as indicated by the modified Bederson score and Longa five-point scale. Sal B decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (p
Source: Brain Research - November 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan Y, Luo Q, Wei J, Lin R, Lin L, Li Y, Chen Z, Lin W, Chen Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Influence of the Epileptiform Discharge Microenvironment on the Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells.
This study confirmed the positive effect of epilepsy on the differentiation of OPCs and verified the critical role of glutamic acid and the AMPA receptor in this process, which provides a potential treatment strategy for epilepsy. PMID: 29175488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Liu L, Chen H, Cheng L, Jiang L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Identifies Presymptomatic Axonal Degeneration in the Spinal Cord of ALS Mice.
This study demonstrates that DTI methods are optimal preclinical imaging tools to detect structural anomalies in WM and GM spinal cord during early stages of the disease. PMID: 29175489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gatto RG, Li W, Magin RL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Increased serum production of soluble CD163 and CXCL5 in patients with moyamoya disease: Involvement of intrinsic immune reaction in its pathogenesis.
Abstract Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by a progressive stenosis at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Although its etiology is still unknown, intrinsic immune reactions such as autoimmune response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MMD. Recently, the RING finger protein 213 (RNF213) was found to be an important risk gene for MMD, and is predominantly expressed in blood cells and the spleen. Thus, we hypothesized that patients with MMD represent an intrinsic autoimmune status mediated by M2-...
Source: Brain Research - November 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fujimura M, Fujimura T, Kakizaki A, Sato-Maeda M, Niizuma K, Tomata Y, Aiba S, Tominaga T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Impact on resting-state dynamic functional connectivity following 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.
In this study, 37 healthy subjects participated in the SD experiment, and they were scanned both during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 hours of SD. A sliding-window based approach and a spectral clustering algorithm were used to evaluate the effects of SD on dynFC. The outcomes showed that time-averaging FC across specific regions as well as temporal properties of the FC states, such as the dwell time and transition probability, was strongly influenced after SD in contrast to the RW condition. Based on the occurrences of FC states, we further identified some RW-dominant states characterized by anti-correlation betwee...
Source: Brain Research - November 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu H, Shen H, Wang L, Zhong Q, Lei Y, Yang L, Zeng LL, Zhou Z, Hu D, Yang Z Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Combined hypoxia and hypercapnia, but not hypoxia alone, suppresses neurotransmission from orexin to hypothalamic paraventricular spinally-projecting neurons in weanling rats.
In conclusion, H/H may modulate cardiovascular function by affecting heterogeneous pathways from orexin neurons to spinally-projecting PSNs in the PVN. PMID: 29162453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Dergacheva O, Mendelowitz D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Changes in gray and white matter in subgroups within the tinnitus population.
In this study, we investigated gray and white matter changes in subgroups within the larger tinnitus population related to differences in severity or duration of tinnitus symptoms. Tinnitus is the illusory perception of sound in the absence of an external source, most often experienced as a chronic condition. The psychological reaction to the sound constitutes the severity, or degree of discomfort experienced, and the duration refers to the time since onset of chronic tinnitus. We used voxel- and surface-based morphometry to investigate gray matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging (using fractional anisotropy, or FA, m...
Source: Brain Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmidt SA, Zimmerman B, Medina ROB, Carpenter-Thompson JR, Husain FT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Decreased Mcl-1 protein level in the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice.
Abstract 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a well-known neurotoxicant that can selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons and MPTP-treated animals are often used as models for studying aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). While apoptosis has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying MPTP-induced cell death and several apoptosis-associated proteins have been implicated in MPTP-animal models, relevant information regarding the possible involvement of Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1) protein is missing. Mcl-l is an important member of the Bcl-2 family that is thought to be a highly regulated...
Source: Brain Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu E, Sarkar S, Raymick J, Paule MG, Gu Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Granger causal connectivity dissociates navigation networks that subserve allocentric and egocentric path integration.
Abstract Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task. EEG signals were decomposed by...
Source: Brain Research - November 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin CT, Chiu TC, Wang YK, Chuang CH, Gramann K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of Medial Prefrontal Cortex 5-HT7 Receptor Knockdown on Cognitive Control after Acute Heroin Administration.
Abstract Heroin abuse is linked to a deleterious effect on cognitive functioning in the individual. Recent evidences suggest that the serotonin7 receptor (5-HT7R) is engaged in the regulation of cognitive control and the drug use-associated behaviors. However, the role of 5-HT7R in the cognitive control after acute heroin administration has not been studied. The present study aims to investigate whether the knockdown of the 5-HT7R by virus-mediated gene silencing in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) could ameliorate the acute heroin-induced cognitive impairments. The attentional function, impulsivity and compuls...
Source: Brain Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhong H, Dang J, Huo Z, Ma Z, Chen J, Huang Y, Zhu Y, Li M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Histone acetylation of oligodendrocytes protects against white matter injury induced by inflammation and hypoxia-ischemia through activation of BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in neonatal rats.
In conclusion, histone acetylation protects oligodendrocytes from WMI through activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in immature brains. PMID: 29155093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang J, Zhang L, Qu Y, Zhou Y, Zhu J, Li Y, Zhu T, Zhao F, Tang J, Mu D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Application of amniotic fluid stem cells in repairing sciatic nerve injury in minipigs.
PMID: 29155003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Su CF, Chang LH, Kao CY, Lee DC, Cho KH, Kuo LW, Chang H, Wang YH, Chiu IM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA expression patterns in human anterior cingulate and motor cortex: a study of dementia with Lewy bodies cases and controls.
Abstract OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (
Source: Brain Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nelson PT, Wang WX, Janse SA, Thompson KL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Different concentrations of docosahexanoic acid supplement during lactation result in different outcomes in preterm Sprague-Dawley rats.
CONCLUSION: Postnatal sufficient/enriched DHA supplement ameliorated growth and spatial learning and memory impairment and upregulated the mTOR pathway in preterm pups, although excessive DHA supplement did not have any beneficial effects. PMID: 29146112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Q, Jia C, Tan X, Wu F, Zhong X, Su Z, Sun W, Cui Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects and Mechanisms of matrix metalloproteinase2 on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.
Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into neural lineage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), an endopeptidase in the extracellular matrix, has been shown to protect neural cells from injury. However, the mechanisms and effects of MMP2 on neural differentiation of iPSCs remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated a role for MMP2 in the differentiation of iPSCs to neurons via the AKT pathway. Treatment of iPSCs with MMP2 promoted their proliferation and differentiation into neural stem cells (NSCs), and then into neurons. The transcript and protein expressi...
Source: Brain Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Shu T, Liu C, Pang M, Wang J, Liu B, Zhou W, Wang X, Wu T, Wang Q, Rong L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Microarray analysis of an synthetic α-synuclein induced cellular model reveals the expression profile of long non-coding RNA in Parkinson's disease.
Microarray analysis of an synthetic α-synuclein induced cellular model reveals the expression profile of long non-coding RNA in Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2017 Nov 11;: Authors: Lin D, Liang Y, Jing X, Chen Y, Lei M, Zeng Z, Zhou T, Wu X, Peng S, Zheng D, Huang K, Yang L, Xiao S, Liu J, Tao E Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new research focus that are reported to influence the pathogenetic process of neurodegenerative disorders. To uncover new disease-associated genes and their relevant mechanisms, we carried out a gene microarray analysis based on a Parkinson's disease (PD) i...
Source: Brain Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin D, Liang Y, Jing X, Chen Y, Lei M, Zeng Z, Zhou T, Wu X, Peng S, Zheng D, Huang K, Yang L, Xiao S, Liu J, Tao E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Transgenerational blunting of morphine-induced corticosterone secretion is associated with dysregulated gene expression in male offspring.
Abstract A number of parental experiences, even when occurring prior to conception, have been shown to induce transgenerational effects beyond the first generation. In the case of exposure to drugs of abuse, studies in rodents suggest that offspring demonstrate significant differences in how they respond to the drug to which their parent was exposed. We have previously observed significant alterations in morphine analgesia, conditioned place preference and self-administration in the offspring of females exposed to morphine during adolescent development. In addition to effects on pain perception and reward, morphin...
Source: Brain Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vassoler FM, Toorie AM, Byrnes EM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of lipocalin-2 and Bim expression after remote limb preconditioning in the ischemic rat brain.
Abstract Although it has been proved that remote limb preconditioning (RPC) can exert neurological protection effects after ischemic cerebral stroke (ICS), the underlying mechanisms of RPC still need to be elucidated for its better transformation to clinical application. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was upregulated after cerebral ischemia and mediated reperfusion injury in the models of ischemic stroke. So here, we investigated that whether RPC could downregulate the levels of LCN2 protein and its receptor resulting from cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. The results showed that RPC could decrease the expression of...
Source: Brain Research - November 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu M, Chen J, Zhang S, Ren C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Voluntary alcohol intake after noise exposure in adolescent rats: hippocampal-related behavioral alterations.
Abstract Different physical or chemical agents, such as noise or alcohol, can induce diverse behavioral and biochemical alterations. Considering the high probability of young people to undergo a successive or simultaneous exposure, the aim of the present work was to investigate in an animal model if noise exposure at early adolescence could induce hippocampal-related behavioral changes that might be modified after alcohol intake. MaleWistarrats(28-days-old)were exposed tonoise(95-97 dB, 2 h).Afterwards, animals were allowed to voluntarily drink alcohol(10% ethanol in tap water)for three consecutive days, using the...
Source: Brain Research - November 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Miceli M, Molina SJ, Forcada A, Acosta GB, Guelman LR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Assessing disease-modifying effects of norepinephrine in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Building upon the knowledge that a number of important brain circuits undergo significant degeneration in Alzheimer's disease, numerous recent studies suggest that the norepinephrine-ergic system in the brainstem undergoes significant alterations early in the course of both Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. Massive projections from locus coeruleus neurons to almost the entire brain, extensive innervation of brain capillaries, and widespread distribution of noradrenergic receptors enable the norepinephrine-ergic system to play a crucial role in neural processes, including cognitive function. These ana...
Source: Brain Research - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ponnusamy R, McNerney W, Moghadam S, Salehi A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduced glucose transporter-1 in brain derived circulating endothelial cells in mild Alzheimer's disease patients.
Abstract Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Methods to study cells of the BBB in vivo would facilitate analyses of neurovascular damage in early AD. Thus, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if brain-derived endothelial cells (BDCECs) could be identified from a cell population of circulating endothelial cells (CECs). Peripheral blood was sampled from early AD patients (n = 9), patients with vascular diseases (myocardial infarction (n = 8) and ischemic stroke (n = 8)), and healthy controls (n = 8). We enumerated CD34(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-) cells (CECs) and Glucose ...
Source: Brain Research - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vogelsang P, Giil LM, Lund A, Vedeler CA, Parkar AP, Nordrehaug JE, Kristoffersen EK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Early visual processing of snakes and angry faces: An ERP study.
Abstract Snakes and angry faces are common fear stimuli and both elicit an Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) in the event-related potential, which indicates that they capture early automatic visual attention. But because snakes have been a predatory threat for primates since long before communication through facial expressions evolved, we tested the hypothesis that the EPN for snakes would be more pronounced than the EPN for angry faces. We carefully controlled for differences between reptiles and faces by using lizards and neutral faces as control stimuli. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation of ...
Source: Brain Research - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Langeslag SJE, van Strien JW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Sialic Acid and Anti-ganglioside Antibody Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and impact neurological functions and behaviors. Sialic acid (SA) is an indispensable nutrient for early brain development, and its polymer polySia (PSA) can modify neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM), thereby indirectly mediating neuronal outgrowth, synaptic connectivity and memory formation. To investigate the association between SA and ASD, we conducted a case-control study. METHODS: The study sample included 82 autistic children and 60 healthy children. We measured the levels of plasm...
Source: Brain Research - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang X, Liang S, Wang L, Han P, Jiang X, Wang J, Hao Y, Wu L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

3D Axon Growth by Exogenous Electrical Stimulus and Soluble Factors.
Abstract Axon growth and alignment are fundamental processes during nervous system development and neural regeneration after injury. The present study investigates the effects of exogenous stimulus of electrical signals and soluble factors on axon 3D growth, using a silk protein material-based 3D brain tissue model. Electrical stimulus was delivered via embedded gold wires positioned at the interface of the scaffold region and the center matrix gel-filled region, spanning the axon growth area. This setup delivered applied electrical field directly to growing axons, and the effects were compared to micro-needle ass...
Source: Brain Research - October 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang-Schomer MD Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The speed-curvature power law of movements: a reappraisal.
Abstract Several types of curvilinear movements obey approximately the so called 2/3 power law, according to which the angular speed varies proportionally to the 2/3 power of the curvature. The origin of the law is debated but it is generally thought to depend on physiological mechanisms. However, a recent paper (Marken and Shaffer, Exp Brain Res 88:685-690, 2017) claims that this power law is simply a statistical artifact, being a mathematical consequence of the way speed and curvature are calculated. Here we reject this hypothesis by showing that the speed-curvature power law of biological movements is non-trivi...
Source: Brain Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zago M, Matic A, Flash T, Gomez-Marin A, Lacquaniti F Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Normal macromolecular clearance out of the ventricles is delayed in hydrocephalus.
PMID: 29066366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Krishnamurthy S, Li J, Shen Y, Duncan TM, Jenrow KA, Haacke ME Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain metabolic correlates of CSF Tau protein in a large cohort of Alzheimer's disease patients: a CSF and FDG PET study.
We examined 131 newly diagnosed AD patients according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 20 healthy controls. The mean (± SD) age of the patients was 70 (± 7) years; 57 were male and 74 were female. All patients and controls underwent a complete clinical investigation, including medical history, neurological examination, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), a complete blood screening (including routine exams, thyroid hormones and a complete neuropsychological evaluation). Structural MRI was performed not earlier than 1 month before the (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The following patients were excluded: those with isolated...
Source: Brain Research - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chiaravalloti A, Barbagallo G, Ricci M, Martorana A, Ursini F, Sannino P, Karalis G, Schillaci O Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Investigating the efficacy of a combination A β-targeted treatment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Investigating the efficacy of a combination Aβ-targeted treatment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res. 2017 Oct 21;: Authors: Liu M, Jevtic S, Markham-Coultes K, Ellens NPK, O'Reilly MA, Hynynen K, Aubert I, McLaurin J Abstract Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we explored the use of a combination treatment to reduce amyloid load through microglial phagocytosis in a mouse model of AD. We hypothesized that using an initial treatment of magnetic resonance image guided focused ultrasound (MRIgFUS) to transiently...
Source: Brain Research - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu M, Jevtic S, Markham-Coultes K, Ellens NPK, O'Reilly MA, Hynynen K, Aubert I, McLaurin J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Astrocytic glutamatergic transporters are involved in A β-induced synaptic dysfunction.
Astrocytic glutamatergic transporters are involved in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction. Brain Res. 2017 Oct 21;: Authors: Huang S, Tong H, Lei M, Zhou M, Guo W, Li G, Tang X, Li Z, Mo M, Zhang X, Chen X, Cen L, Wei L, Xiao Y, Li K, Huang Q, Yang X, Liu W, Zhang L, Qu S, Li S, Xu P Abstract In Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia severity correlates most strongly with decreased synapse density in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Although studies in rodents have established that hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is inhibited by soluble oligomers of beta-amyloid (Aβ), the synaptic mecha...
Source: Brain Research - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang S, Tong H, Lei M, Zhou M, Guo W, Li G, Tang X, Li Z, Mo M, Zhang X, Chen X, Cen L, Wei L, Xiao Y, Li K, Huang Q, Yang X, Liu W, Zhang L, Qu S, Li S, Xu P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Long-duration sevoflurane exposure with the normoxic carrier gas increase the neural apoptosis and impair the long-term cognitive function in neonatal rats.
This study shows that long-duration sevoflurane anesthesia with or without additional oxygen induces neuroapoptosis and long-term cognitive dysfunction in neonatal rats. Seven-day-old rats were exposed to sevoflurane anesthesia for 2, 4, and 6 h with 21% or 30% oxygen. The control group received 21% oxygen alone for 6 h. Post-anesthesia blood gas analysis revealed no differences. The numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in both cortical layer 3 and the CA1 region in the hippocampus in the 6 h anesthesia exposure group with 21% oxygen were increased compared with the 6 h anesthesia exposure with 30% oxygen and control groups...
Source: Brain Research - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Goyagi T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Ketogenic diet attenuates neuronal injury via autophagy and mitochondrial pathways in pentylenetetrazol-kindled seizures.
Abstract Autophagy alterations have been observed in a variety of neurological disorders, however, very few studies have focused on autophagy alterations in epilepsy. The ketogenic diet (KD) likely ameliorates neuronal loss in several seizure models. However, whether this neuroprotective function occurs via starvation-induced autophagy and its prevalence in chronic kindled seizures remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of autophagy following seizure under KD, and the potential mechanism involved. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled rats, which were fed a Normal diet (ND) or KD, were pretreat...
Source: Brain Research - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang BH, Hou Q, Lu YQ, Jia MM, Qiu T, Wang XH, Zhang ZX, Jiang Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Deletion ofMst1 attenuates neuronal loss andimproves neurological impairment inarat model oftraumatic brain injury.
In conclusion, our work demonstrates that Mst1 plays an important role in TBI-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that Mst1 is expected to be a potential therapeutic target for TBI. PMID: 29054447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li D, Ni H, Rui Q, Gao R, Chen G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of a Triple GLP-1/GIP/Glucagon receptor agonist in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
r C Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) that have anti-diabetic properties show very promising effects in animal models of AD. Glucagon (Gcg) is a hormone and growth-factor, and the Gcg receptor is expressed in the brain. Here we test the effects of a triple receptor agonist (TA), which activates GIP-1, GIP and glucagon receptors at the same time. In the present study, the effects of the TA were evaluated in the APP/PS1 trans...
Source: Brain Research - October 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tai J, Liu W, Li Y, Li L, Hölscher C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

EEG power spectrum maturation in preterm fetal growth restricted infants.
Abstract Power spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a non-invasive method to examine infant brain maturation. Preterm fetal growth restricted (p-FGR) neonates display an altered EEG power spectrum compared to appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) peers, suggesting delayed brain maturation. Longitudinal studies investigating EEG power spectrum maturation in p-FGR infants are lacking, however. We thus aimed to investigate brain maturation using sleep EEG power spectral analysis in p-FGR infants compared to preterm and term AGA controls (p-AGA and t-AGA, respectively). EEG was recorded during sponta...
Source: Brain Research - October 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cohen E, Wong FY, Wallace EM, Mockler JC, Odoi A, Hollis S, Horne RSC, Yiallourou SR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hemin supports the survival of photoreceptors injured by N-Methyl- N-nitrosourea: the contributory role of neuroglobin in photoreceptor degeneration.
In conclusion, the intraperitoneally delivery of Hemin can enhance the Ngb expressions in the MNU administered retinas, thereby ameliorating the photoreceptor degeneration and associated visual impairments. These findings would shed light on the opportunity to develop Ngb into a therapeutic molecular against RP. PMID: 29038003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Tao Y, Ma Z, Liu B, Fang W, Qin L, Huang YF, Wang L, Gao Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Flavonoid-rich ethanol extract from the leaves of Diospyros kaki attenuates cognitive deficits, amyloid-beta production, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Abstract Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) initiates a cascade of pathological events, including activation of microglial cells, oxidative stress, and inflammation, leading to neuronal death and the typical pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Flavonoids have been reported to exert neuroprotective activities, not only through their generally accepted antioxidant effects, but also through their ability to protect against neurotoxin-induced injury. Flavonoids reduce Aβ production, inhibit neuroinflammation, increase cerebrovascular function, and improve cognitive performance. Here, we analyzed the e...
Source: Brain Research - October 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma Y, Ma B, Shang Y, Yin Q, Hong Y, Xu S, Shen C, Hou X, Liu X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research