Simultaneous antagonism of dopamine D1/D2/D3 receptor in the NAc reduces 50-kHz ultrasonic calls in response to rhythmic tactile stroking
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 27:113211. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113211. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTactile stimulation such as rhythmic stroking elicits 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats that are thought to reflect positive affective states. Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is required for tactile reward-induced 50-kHz USVs; however, it is still unknown whether the accumbal dopaminergic system differentially modulates 50-kHz USV call subtypes induced by rhythmic stroking. We therefore examined both total and categorized 50-kHz USV rate, peak frequency, and duration under dopamine (...
Source: Brain Research - March 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rie Shimoju Hideshi Shibata Source Type: research

Effects of vanillic acid on A β < sub > 1-40 < /sub > -induced oxidative stress and learning and memory deficit in male rats
In conclusion, VA decreased the Aβ effects on learning and memory by suppressing oxidative stress and can be regarded as a neuroprotective substance in AD.PMID:33652070 | DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.02.024 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - March 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nesa Ahmadi Samaneh Safari Naser Mirazi Seyed Asaad Karimi Alireza Komaki Source Type: research

An event-related potential (ERP) study of the transfer of response inhibition training to interference control
This study mainly explored the influence of response inhibition training on interference control through event-related potential data. Forty college students were randomly divided into a training group and a control group. Two response inhibition tasks were used as training tasks and the Stroop and go/no-go tasks were used with electroencephalogram monitoring to evaluate students' abilities in the two kinds of inhibitory control. The results showed that the conflict effect of the training group significantly improved after training compared with those of the control group. In the training group, the N2 effect was enhanced ...
Source: Brain Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pengbo Xu Di Wu Yue Zhou Jing Wu Wei Xiao Source Type: research

Targeting Muscarinic Receptors to Treat Schizophrenia
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 26:113201. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113201. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSchizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a diverse range of symptoms that can have profound impacts on the lives of patients. Currently available antipsychotics target dopamine receptors, and while they are useful for ameliorating the positive symptoms of the disorder, this approach often does not significantly improve negative and cognitive symptoms. Excitingly, preclinical and clinical research suggests that targeting specific muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes could provide more comprehe...
Source: Brain Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Daniel J Foster Zoey K Bryant P Jeffrey Conn Source Type: research

Hippocampus and cortex are involved in the retrieval of a spatial memory under full and partial cue availability
In this study, we explored memory retrieval with spatial modifications from learning in the Morris Water Maze. We trained rats on a reference memory protocol with five cues placed on black curtains that surrounded the pool, and seven days later, we tested memory retrieval under different conditions: maintenance of the five cues, removal of two and four of them, and the addition of three extra ones. Under full-cue and partial cue-conditions, rats showed successful memory retrieval, whereas adding extra cues resulted in impaired retrieval. Furthermore, we assessed brain oxidative metabolism through cytochrome c oxidase (CCO)...
Source: Brain Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Candela Zorzo Jorge L Arias Marta M éndez Source Type: research

Molecular and cellular mechanisms of engram allocation and maintenance
Brain Res Bull. 2021 Feb 26:S0361-9230(21)00063-0. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.02.019. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnderstanding how we learn and remember has been a long-standing question in neuroscience. Technological developments of the past 15 years have allowed for dramatically increased access to the neurons that hold the physical representation of memory, also known as a memory trace or engram. Such developments have tremendously facilitated advancement of the memory field, since they made possible interrogation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation with unprecedented cellular s...
Source: Brain Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kubra Gulmez Karaca Janina Kupke Ana M M Oliveira Source Type: research

Promotion of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides on neural stem cell proliferation by increasing SIRT1 activity after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats
Brain Res Bull. 2021 Feb 26:S0361-9230(21)00058-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.02.016. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe deacetylase SIRT1 has been reported to play a critical role in regulating neurogenesis, which may be an adaptive processes contributing to recovery after stroke. Our previous work showed that the antioxidant capacity of Momordica charantia polysaccharides (MCPs) could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) after stroke. However, whether the protective effect of MCPs on I/R injury is related to NSCs proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, we designed in vivo and in vitro exp...
Source: Brain Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Juyun Ma Haidi Fan Heng Cai Zhaoli Hu Xiaoling Zhou Fengying Li Hansen Chen Jiangang Shen Suhua Qi Source Type: research

An event-related potential (ERP) study of the transfer of response inhibition training to interference control
This study mainly explored the influence of response inhibition training on interference control through event-related potential data. Forty college students were randomly divided into a training group and a control group. Two response inhibition tasks were used as training tasks and the Stroop and go/no-go tasks were used with electroencephalogram monitoring to evaluate students' abilities in the two kinds of inhibitory control. The results showed that the conflict effect of the training group significantly improved after training compared with those of the control group. In the training group, the N2 effect was enhanced ...
Source: Brain Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pengbo Xu Di Wu Yue Zhou Jing Wu Wei Xiao Source Type: research

Microglia and modifiable life factors: Potential contributions to cognitive resilience in aging
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 25:113207. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113207. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGiven the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive decline, it is relevant to consider the factors and mechanisms that might facilitate an individual's resiliency to such deficits. Growing evidence suggests a preeminent role of microglia, the prime mediator of innate immunity within the central nervous system. Human and animal investigations suggest aberrant microglial functioning and neuroinflammation are not only characteristic of the aged brain, but also might contribute to age-related dementia and Alzheimer's Diseas...
Source: Brain Research - February 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael R Duggan Vinay Parikh Source Type: research

Executive functioning-specific behavioral impairments in a rat model of human third trimester binge drinking implicate prefrontal-thalamo-hippocampal circuitry in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 25:113208. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113208. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIndividuals diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) often display behavioral impairments in executive functioning (EF). Specifically, the domains of working memory, inhibition, and set shifting are frequently impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure. Coordination between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus appear to be essential for these domains of executive functioning. The current study uses a rodent model of human third-trimester binge drinking to identify the extent of persistent executive functioning deficits ...
Source: Brain Research - February 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Z H Gursky L M Savage A Y Klintsova Source Type: research

Tinnitus and tinnitus disorder: Theoretical and operational definitions (an international multidisciplinary proposal)
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:1-25. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.002. Epub 2021 Feb 1.ABSTRACTAs for hypertension, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders with particular symptoms, a commonly accepted and unambiguous definition provides a common ground for researchers and clinicians to study and treat the problem. The WHO's ICD11 definition only mentions tinnitus as a nonspecific symptom of a hearing disorder, but not as a clinical entity in its own right, and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-V doesn't mention tinnitus at all. Here we propose that the tinnitus without and with associated suffering should be differen...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dirk De Ridder Winfried Schlee Sven Vanneste Alain Londero Nathan Weisz Tobias Kleinjung Giriraj Singh Shekhawat Ana Bel én Elgoyhen Jae-Jin Song Gerhard Andersson Divya Adhia Andreia Aparecida de Azevedo David M Baguley Eberhard Biesinger Ana Carolina B Source Type: research

Separate auditory pathways for the induction and maintenance of tinnitus and hyperacusis?
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:101-127. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.01.006. Epub 2020 Mar 6.ABSTRACTTinnitus and hyperacusis often occur together, however tinnitus may occur without hyperacusis or hyperacusis without tinnitus. Based on animal research one could argue that hyperacusis results from noise exposures that increase central gain in the lemniscal, tonotopically organized, pathways, whereas tinnitus requires increased burst firing and neural synchrony in the extra-lemniscal pathway. However, these substrates are not sufficient and require involvement of the central nervous system. The dominant factors in changing cortical n...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jos J Eggermont Source Type: research

Prediction of tinnitus masking benefit within a case series using a spiking neural network model
We examined individual tinnitus and psychological responses to three masking types, energetic masking (bilateral broadband static or rain noise [BBN]), informational masking (BBN with a notch at tinnitus pitch and 3-dimensional cues) and a masker combining both effects (BBN with spatial cues). Eleven participants with chronic tinnitus were followed for 12 months, each person used each masking approach for 3 months with a 1 month washout-baseline. The Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), Tinnitus Rating Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, were measured every month of treatment. Elect...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mithila Durai Philip Sanders Zohreh Doborjeh Maryam Doborjeh Anne Wendt Nikola Kasabov Grant D Searchfield Source Type: research

A portable neurofeedback device for treating chronic subjective tinnitus: Feasibility and results of a pilot study
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that neurofeedback has potential to suit everyday clinical practice with the goal to significantly reduce tinnitus intrusiveness. The merits and limitations of this NFB procedure are discussed, especially with respect to the choice of EEG electrodes to ensure a good signal quality.PMID:33637216 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.001 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Robin Guillard Marie-Jos ée Fraysse Renaud Simeon Thomas Cervoni Jonathan Schmutz Bastien Piedfort Victor Ferat Marco Congedo Alain Londero Source Type: research

Impact of personality on acoustic tinnitus suppression and emotional reaction to stimuli sounds
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:187-203. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.004. Epub 2020 Oct 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33637217 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.004 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anita Hafner Stefan Schoisswohl Jorge Simoes Winfried Schlee Martin Schecklmann Berthold Langguth Patrick Neff Source Type: research

Web-based discussion forums reveal the person-centered relevance and importance of tinnitus
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:205-221. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.001. Epub 2021 Jan 16.ABSTRACTAn increasing number of health researchers are recognizing the benefits of crowdsourcing. Web-based discussion forums are well suited for collecting qualitative research data with tinnitus participants and forum posts can be evaluated using thematic analysis. The present study reports an innovative use of such qualitative data contributed by a group of 148 people with tinnitus and tinnitus professionals through the crowdsourcing platform Tinnitus Talk. While the primary research question was focused on defining symptom concepts, dis...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Deborah A Hall Alice Hibbert Markku Vesala Micky Kerr Stephen Harrison Core Outcome Measures in Tinnitus (COMiT) Source Type: research

Auditory experience, for a certain duration, is a prerequisite for tinnitus: lessons from subjects with unilateral tinnitus in the better-hearing ear
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:223-233. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.07.013. Epub 2020 Aug 14.ABSTRACTTinnitus has traditionally been considered an otologic disorder; however, recent advances in auditory neuroscience have shifted investigations toward the brain. The Bayesian brain model explains tinnitus as an auditory phantom percept. According to the model, the brain works to reduce environmental uncertainty, and thus the absence of auditory information due to hearing loss may cause auditory phantom percepts, i.e., tinnitus. As in animal studies, our recent human observational study revealed the absence of ipsilesional tinnitus in...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jeon Mi Lee Yoonjoong Kim Jeong-Yeon Ji Ja-Won Koo Jae-Jin Song Source Type: research

Conventional versus notch filter amplification for the treatment of tinnitus in adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss
DISCUSSION: Results of the present study suggest no significant effect of either conventional or notch filter amplification on average ratings of tinnitus severity following a 12-week hearing aid trial. However, as clinically meaningful changes in tinnitus severity were identified for some participants, future work is needed to better identify those individuals most likely to benefit, as well as optimal amplification characteristics.PMID:33637220 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.06.020 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Steven C Marcrum Erin M Picou Thomas Steffens Ronny Hannemann Veronika Vielsmeier Martin Schecklmann Berthold Langguth Winfried Schlee Source Type: research

Total remission or persistence of tinnitus and decreased sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms: A follow-up study
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:253-268. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.05.025. Epub 2020 Jul 2.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Tinnitus may reflect hidden cochlear synaptic injury that does not express in the audiogram, but leads to neuroplastic changes in auditory pathways that, in turn, reduce tolerance to sounds. Such injury may follow the exposure to loud sounds. The aim of this study was to follow-up adolescents enrolled in a private school to evaluate the prevalence of tinnitus and reduced sound level tolerance (SLT) with 1-year interval, as well as to observe rates of tinnitus persistence, remission and incidence of new cases by repeat mea...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanit Ganz Sanchez Larry E Roberts Source Type: research

Long-lasting total remission of tinnitus: A systematic collection of cases
CONCLUSION: Different than the knowledge obtained from clinical trials, this study showed that long-lasting total remission of tinnitus may occur. This status was reached by individuals of any gender and age range, with any location and duration of tinnitus, mostly as a gradual process. Future studies should better clarify how each treatment modality may achieve the best results.PMID:33637222 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.05.023 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanit Ganz Sanchez Caroline C A Valim Winfried Schlee Source Type: research

Cochlear implantation for patients with tinnitus - A systematic review
CONCLUSION: Our systematic review reveals that electrical stimulation by cochlear implants in patients with a primary complaint of tinnitus has a positive impact on tinnitus distress. Nevertheless, only small sample sizes were found and studies showed considerable risks of bias.a.PMID:33637223 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.06.013 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kelly K S Assouly Jan A A van Heteren Robert J Stokroos Inge Stegeman Adriana L Smit Source Type: research

An exploration of psychological symptom-based phenotyping of adult cochlear implant users with and without tinnitus using a machine learning approach
In this study, we attempted to characterize patients' symptom-based phenotypes as subpopulations in a Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and subsequently performed a comparison with tinnitus reporting. We were able to effectively evaluate the statistical models using cross-validation to establish the number of phenotypes in the cohort, or a lack thereof. We examined a cohort of adult cochlear implant (CI) users, a patient group for which a relation between psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, or insomnia) and trouble tinnitus has previously been shown. Accordingly, individual item scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depr...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Samuel S Smith P ádraig T Kitterick Polly Scutt David M Baguley Robert H Pierzycki Source Type: research

The BDNF Val < sup > 66 < /sup > Met polymorphism regulates vulnerability to chronic stress and phantom perception
In this study, we validate that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism plays an important role in the susceptibility to the clinical manifestation of tinnitus-related distress. We demonstrate that Val/Met carriers have increased alpha power in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex that correlates with distress levels. Furthermore, distress mediates the relationship between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and tinnitus loudness. In other words, for Val/Met carriers, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex sends distress-related information to the parahippocampus, which likely integrates the loudness and distress of the tinnitus percept...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sven Vanneste Anusha Mohan Dirk De Ridder Wing Ting To Source Type: research

Audiological findings in professionals exposed to music and their relation with tinnitus
In conclusion, tinnitus occurrence in musicians with normal audiogram is potentially correlated with high frequency hearing loss and impaired otoacoustic emissions and these two examinations should be considered in this group.PMID:33637226 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.002 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Aikaterini Vardonikolaki Dimitris Kikidis Eleftheria Iliadou Nikolaos Markatos Kostas Pastiadis Athanasios Bibas Source Type: research

Lidocaine injections to the otic ganglion for the treatment of tinnitus-A pilot study
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:355-366. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.006. Epub 2020 Oct 2.ABSTRACTTinnitus is defined as the perception of noise without an external acoustic stimulus. Due to the heterogeneity of tinnitus, no treatment has proven equally beneficial to every single of these patients. Previous studies have shown that trigeminal input can interfere with the perception of tinnitus. Therefore, we aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of lidocaine injections in trigeminal structures. We conducted a pilot study with 19 participants to explore feasibility and tolerability of this approach. The intervention consisted ...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Veronika Vielsmeier Winfried Schlee Berthold Langguth Peter M Kreuzer Constantin Hintschich Lea Strohmeyer Jorge Simoes Eberhard Biesinger Source Type: research

Paradoxical relationship between distress and functional network topology in phantom sound perception
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:367-395. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.007. Epub 2020 Oct 24.ABSTRACTDistress is a domain-general symptom that accompanies several disorders, including tinnitus. Based on previous studies, we know that distress is encoded by changes in functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical regions. However, how distress relates to large-scale brain networks is not yet clear. In the current study, we investigate the relationship between distress and the efficiency of a network by examining its topological properties using resting state fMRI collected from 90 chronic tinnitus patients. The present re...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hye Bin Yoo Anusha Mohan Dirk De Ridder Sven Vanneste Source Type: research

Phonetic perception but not perception of speaker gender is impaired in chronic tinnitus
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:397-422. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.003. Epub 2021 Jan 19.ABSTRACTWhile tinnitus is known to compromise the perception of speech, it is unclear if the same holds for extralinguistic speaker information. Furthermore, research with simple tone stimuli showed that unilateral tinnitus binds spatial attention, thereby impeding the detection of auditory changes in the non-affected ear. Using dichotic listening tasks, we tested left-ear tinnitus patients and control patients for their ability to ignore speech and speaker information in the task-irrelevant ear. To this end they heard vowel-consonant-vowel...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Romi Z äske Nils Frisius Daniela Ivansic Stefan R Schweinberger Orlando Guntinas-Lichius Christian Dobel Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of single- and repeated-selurampanel dosing for 2 weeks in patients with chronic subjective tinnitus: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, proof-of-concept phase IIa study
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:423-440. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.004. Epub 2021 Jan 20.ABSTRACTTo evaluate efficacy and safety of BGG492 (selurampanel; an orally active, competitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist) in patients with moderate-to-catastrophic chronic subjective tinnitus. Study (NCT01302873) enrolled patients with subjective tinnitus based on THI severity grade 3, 4 or 5 (moderate, severe or catastrophic), and those with chronic (>6 and
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Klaus Kucher Donald Johns Frank Wagner Khalid Abd-Elaziz Caroline Derne Oleksandr Sverdlov Christian U Pfister Berthold Langguth Source Type: research

Towards a unification of treatments and interventions for tinnitus patients: The EU research and innovation action UNITI
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:441-451. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.005. Epub 2021 Feb 4.ABSTRACTTinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound and the patient's reaction to it. Although much progress has been made, tinnitus remains a scientific and clinical enigma of high prevalence and high economic burden, with an estimated prevalence of 10%-20% among the adult population. The EU is funding a new collaborative project entitled "Unification of Treatments and Interventions for Tinnitus Patients" (UNITI, grant no. 848261) under its Horizon 2020 framework. The main goal of the UNITI project is to set the ground for a pre...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Winfried Schlee Stefan Schoisswohl Susanne Staudinger Axel Schiller Astrid Lehner Berthold Langguth Martin Schecklmann Jorge Simoes Patrick Neff Steven C Marcrum Myra Spiliopoulou Uli Niemann Miro Schleicher Vishnu Unnikrishnan Clara Puga Lena Mulansky Ru Source Type: research

Subjective hearing ability, physical and mental comorbidities in individuals with bothersome tinnitus in a Swedish population sample
CONCLUSION: Psychological factors, subjective hearing impairment, and hearing-related difficulties in social situations play key roles in predicting bothersome (vs. non-bothersome) tinnitus in a large population sample. Psychological factors contribute to explaining the impact of physical comorbidities and hearing-related effects on bothersome tinnitus. This highlights their transdiagnostic importance for aggravating varied physical symptom clusters. Interventions to improve or prevent high tinnitus burden should be interdisciplinary/multimodal and target auditory, physical, and psychological factors.PMID:33637232 | DOI:10...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Basso Benjamin Boecking Petra Brueggemann Nancy L Pedersen Barbara Canlon Christopher R Cederroth Birgit Mazurek Source Type: research

Exploring tinnitus heterogeneity
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that people with tinnitus could initially be grouped according to tinnitus severity to direct further management. Those with higher tinnitus severity should receive more immediate and intensive care. Due to the strong associations between tinnitus severity and tinnitus-related comorbidities (e.g., insomnia, hearing disability, and anxiety), tinnitus assessment and interventions should focus on these comorbidities.PMID:33637233 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.05.022 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Eldr é W Beukes Vinaya Manchaiah Peter M Allen Gerhard Andersson David M Baguley Source Type: research

Preface
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:xxxv-xlii. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(21)00069-8.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33637234 | DOI:10.1016/S0079-6123(21)00069-8 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Winfried Schlee Berthold Langguth Tobias Kleinjung Sven Vanneste Dirk De Ridder Source Type: research

Microglia depletion by PLX3397 has no effect on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in male mice
In conclusion, while our data do not contradict previous findings indicating that different microglial-derived factors can have seemingly opposite effects on behaviors associated with cocaine use, they suggest that microglia do not have a net effect on cocaine-induced long-lasting behavioral changes.PMID:33639199 | DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147391 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ching Mei Wu Ted Weita Lai Source Type: research

Experimental cerebral palsy causes microstructural brain damage in areas associated to motor deficits but no spatial memory impairments in the developing rat
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that experimental CP induces long-term brain microstructural alterations in myelinated structures, cell death in the hindlimb primary motor cortex and locomotor impairments. Such new evidence of brain damage could help to better understand CP pathophysiological mechanisms and guide further research for neuroprotective and neurorehabilitative strategies for CP patients.PMID:33639200 | DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147389 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: E F Sanches A S Carvalho Y van de Looij A Toulotte A T Wyse C A Netto S V Sizonenko Source Type: research

"Physical activity and aerobic fitness show different associations with brain processes underlying anticipatory selective visuospatial attention in adolescents"
Brain Res. 2021 Feb 24:147392. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147392. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCurrent knowledge about the underlying brain processes of exercise-related benefits on executive functions and the specific contributions of physical activity and aerobic fitness during adolescence is inconclusive. We explored whether and how physical activity and aerobic fitness are associated with the oscillatory dynamics underlying anticipatory spatial attention. We studied whether the link between physical exercise level and cognitive control in adolescents is mediated by task-related oscillatory activity. Magnetoencephalo...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Doris Hern ández Erkka Heinil ä Joona Muotka Ilona Ruotsalainen Hanna-Maija Lapinkero Heidi Syv äoja Tuija H Tammelin Tiina Parviainen Source Type: research

What happens when right means wrong? The impact of conflict arising from competing feedback responses
Brain Res. 2021 Feb 24:147393. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147393. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHumans often rely on feedback to learn. Indeed, in learning the difference between feedback and an expected outcome is computed to inform future actions. Further, recent work has found that reward and feedback have a unique role in modulating conflict processing and cognitive control. However, it is still not clear how conflict, especially concerning the processing and evaluation of feedback, impacts learning. To address this, we examined the effects of feedback competition on feedback evaluation in a reinforcement learning ta...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mathew R Hammerstrom Thomas D Ferguson Chad C Williams Olave E Krigolson Source Type: research

Silencing and stimulating the medial amygdala impairs ejaculation but not sexual incentive motivation in male rats
We report that MeA stimulation and inhibition did not affect sexual incentive motivation. Moreover, both stimulation and inhibition of the MeA decreased the number of ejaculations in a 30 minute copulation test and increased ejaculation latency and the number of mounts and intromissions preceding ejaculation, while leaving the temporal pattern of copulation intact. These results indicate that the MeA may be involved in the processing of sensory feedback required to reach ejaculation threshold. The convergence of the behavioral effects of stimulating as well as inhibiting the MeA may reflect opposing behavioral control of s...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Patty T Huijgens Roy Heijkoop Eelke M S Snoeren Source Type: research

The effect of ghrelin injection in the CA1 region of hippocampus on the MK801- induced memory impairment in wistar rats
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 24:113209. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113209. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTN-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors are critically involved in the learning and memory formation and dizocilpine (MK-801) is an antagonist of NMDA receptor. Ghrelin plays a crucial role in learning and memory processes. The present study was conducted to the evaluation of ghrelin effect on passive avoidance memory impairment induced by MK801. In this experimental study, 24 male wistar rats were randomly distributed into 3 groups of 8 each. Passive avoidance tests of animals were evaluated using Shuttle Box apparatus. One we...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hamideh Zahiri Mohammad Rostampour Behrouz Khakpour Kambiz Rohampour Source Type: research

Gait Analysis in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 24:113210. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113210. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGait disruptions following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted in the clinical population. To date, thorough analysis of gait changes in animal models of TBI to allow for correlation of pathological alterations and utilization of this as a therapeutic outcome have been limited. We therefore assessed gait using the DigiGait analysis system as well as overall locomotion using the Beam Walk test in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats following a commonly used model of TBI, parietal lobe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Rats under...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: John Reed Antigone Grillakis Alyssa Kline Anwar E Ahmed Kimberly R Byrnes Source Type: research

Tinnitus and tinnitus disorder: Theoretical and operational definitions (an international multidisciplinary proposal)
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:1-25. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.002. Epub 2021 Feb 1.ABSTRACTAs for hypertension, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders with particular symptoms, a commonly accepted and unambiguous definition provides a common ground for researchers and clinicians to study and treat the problem. The WHO's ICD11 definition only mentions tinnitus as a nonspecific symptom of a hearing disorder, but not as a clinical entity in its own right, and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-V doesn't mention tinnitus at all. Here we propose that the tinnitus without and with associated suffering should be differen...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dirk De Ridder Winfried Schlee Sven Vanneste Alain Londero Nathan Weisz Tobias Kleinjung Giriraj Singh Shekhawat Ana Bel én Elgoyhen Jae-Jin Song Gerhard Andersson Divya Adhia Andreia Aparecida de Azevedo David M Baguley Eberhard Biesinger Ana Carolina B Source Type: research

Separate auditory pathways for the induction and maintenance of tinnitus and hyperacusis?
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:101-127. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.01.006. Epub 2020 Mar 6.ABSTRACTTinnitus and hyperacusis often occur together, however tinnitus may occur without hyperacusis or hyperacusis without tinnitus. Based on animal research one could argue that hyperacusis results from noise exposures that increase central gain in the lemniscal, tonotopically organized, pathways, whereas tinnitus requires increased burst firing and neural synchrony in the extra-lemniscal pathway. However, these substrates are not sufficient and require involvement of the central nervous system. The dominant factors in changing cortical n...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jos J Eggermont Source Type: research

Prediction of tinnitus masking benefit within a case series using a spiking neural network model
We examined individual tinnitus and psychological responses to three masking types, energetic masking (bilateral broadband static or rain noise [BBN]), informational masking (BBN with a notch at tinnitus pitch and 3-dimensional cues) and a masker combining both effects (BBN with spatial cues). Eleven participants with chronic tinnitus were followed for 12 months, each person used each masking approach for 3 months with a 1 month washout-baseline. The Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), Tinnitus Rating Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, were measured every month of treatment. Elect...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mithila Durai Philip Sanders Zohreh Doborjeh Maryam Doborjeh Anne Wendt Nikola Kasabov Grant D Searchfield Source Type: research

A portable neurofeedback device for treating chronic subjective tinnitus: Feasibility and results of a pilot study
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that neurofeedback has potential to suit everyday clinical practice with the goal to significantly reduce tinnitus intrusiveness. The merits and limitations of this NFB procedure are discussed, especially with respect to the choice of EEG electrodes to ensure a good signal quality.PMID:33637216 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.001 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Robin Guillard Marie-Jos ée Fraysse Renaud Simeon Thomas Cervoni Jonathan Schmutz Bastien Piedfort Victor Ferat Marco Congedo Alain Londero Source Type: research

Impact of personality on acoustic tinnitus suppression and emotional reaction to stimuli sounds
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:187-203. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.004. Epub 2020 Oct 1.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33637217 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.08.004 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anita Hafner Stefan Schoisswohl Jorge Simoes Winfried Schlee Martin Schecklmann Berthold Langguth Patrick Neff Source Type: research

Web-based discussion forums reveal the person-centered relevance and importance of tinnitus
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:205-221. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.001. Epub 2021 Jan 16.ABSTRACTAn increasing number of health researchers are recognizing the benefits of crowdsourcing. Web-based discussion forums are well suited for collecting qualitative research data with tinnitus participants and forum posts can be evaluated using thematic analysis. The present study reports an innovative use of such qualitative data contributed by a group of 148 people with tinnitus and tinnitus professionals through the crowdsourcing platform Tinnitus Talk. While the primary research question was focused on defining symptom concepts, dis...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Deborah A Hall Alice Hibbert Markku Vesala Micky Kerr Stephen Harrison Core Outcome Measures in Tinnitus (COMiT) Source Type: research

Auditory experience, for a certain duration, is a prerequisite for tinnitus: lessons from subjects with unilateral tinnitus in the better-hearing ear
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:223-233. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.07.013. Epub 2020 Aug 14.ABSTRACTTinnitus has traditionally been considered an otologic disorder; however, recent advances in auditory neuroscience have shifted investigations toward the brain. The Bayesian brain model explains tinnitus as an auditory phantom percept. According to the model, the brain works to reduce environmental uncertainty, and thus the absence of auditory information due to hearing loss may cause auditory phantom percepts, i.e., tinnitus. As in animal studies, our recent human observational study revealed the absence of ipsilesional tinnitus in...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jeon Mi Lee Yoonjoong Kim Jeong-Yeon Ji Ja-Won Koo Jae-Jin Song Source Type: research

Conventional versus notch filter amplification for the treatment of tinnitus in adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss
DISCUSSION: Results of the present study suggest no significant effect of either conventional or notch filter amplification on average ratings of tinnitus severity following a 12-week hearing aid trial. However, as clinically meaningful changes in tinnitus severity were identified for some participants, future work is needed to better identify those individuals most likely to benefit, as well as optimal amplification characteristics.PMID:33637220 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.06.020 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Steven C Marcrum Erin M Picou Thomas Steffens Ronny Hannemann Veronika Vielsmeier Martin Schecklmann Berthold Langguth Winfried Schlee Source Type: research

Total remission or persistence of tinnitus and decreased sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms: A follow-up study
Prog Brain Res. 2021;260:253-268. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.05.025. Epub 2020 Jul 2.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Tinnitus may reflect hidden cochlear synaptic injury that does not express in the audiogram, but leads to neuroplastic changes in auditory pathways that, in turn, reduce tolerance to sounds. Such injury may follow the exposure to loud sounds. The aim of this study was to follow-up adolescents enrolled in a private school to evaluate the prevalence of tinnitus and reduced sound level tolerance (SLT) with 1-year interval, as well as to observe rates of tinnitus persistence, remission and incidence of new cases by repeat mea...
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanit Ganz Sanchez Larry E Roberts Source Type: research

Long-lasting total remission of tinnitus: A systematic collection of cases
CONCLUSION: Different than the knowledge obtained from clinical trials, this study showed that long-lasting total remission of tinnitus may occur. This status was reached by individuals of any gender and age range, with any location and duration of tinnitus, mostly as a gradual process. Future studies should better clarify how each treatment modality may achieve the best results.PMID:33637222 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.05.023 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanit Ganz Sanchez Caroline C A Valim Winfried Schlee Source Type: research

Cochlear implantation for patients with tinnitus - A systematic review
CONCLUSION: Our systematic review reveals that electrical stimulation by cochlear implants in patients with a primary complaint of tinnitus has a positive impact on tinnitus distress. Nevertheless, only small sample sizes were found and studies showed considerable risks of bias.a.PMID:33637223 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.06.013 (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kelly K S Assouly Jan A A van Heteren Robert J Stokroos Inge Stegeman Adriana L Smit Source Type: research