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Objectively measuring effects of electro-acupuncture in parkinsonian rhesus monkeys.
Abstract Acupuncture has increasingly been used as an alternative therapy for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the efficacy of acupunture for PD still remains unclear. The present study was designed to objectively and safely monitor anti-parkinsonian effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and brain activity in nonhuman primates modeling human PD. Six middle-aged rhesus monkeys were extensively studied by a computerized behavioral testing battery and by pharmacological MRI (phMRI) scans with specific dopaminergic drug stimulations. All animals were evaluated for behavior and phMRI responses under normal,...
Source: Brain Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang R, Andersen AH, Hardy PA, Forman E, Evans A, Ai Y, Yue J, Yue G, Gash DM, Grondin R, Zhang Z Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Developmental ethanol exposure alters the morphology of mouse prefrontal neurons in a layer-specific manner.
The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD. C57BL/6-strain mice were exposed to ethanol or an isocaloric/isovolumetric amount of sucrose (control) via oral gavage, administered both to the dam from gestational day 10-18 and directly to pups from postnatal day 4-14. Brains from male mice were collected at postnatal day 90 and neurons were stained using a modified Golgi-Cox method. Pyramidal neurons within layers II/III, V an...
Source: Brain Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Louth EL, Luctkar HD, Heney KA, Bailey CDC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Combination of a Short Cognitive Training and tDCS to Enhance Visuospatial Skills: A Comparison Between Online and Offline Neuromodulation.
Abstract Visuospatial skills can be enhanced thanks to specific intervention programs, but the additional benefits of neuromodulation on these skills have not been fully investigated yet, although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has demonstrated to boost the effects of cognitive trainings. When combining cognitive intervention with neuromodulation, the time-window of tDCS application in relation to task execution has to be taken into account since it has been shown to affect stimulation outcomes. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the influence of tDCS in enhancing the effects of a...
Source: Brain Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Oldrati V, Colombo B, Antonietti A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

CSF A β1-42, but not p-Tau181, differentiates aMCI from SCI.
CONCLUSION: CSF Aβ 1-42, but not p-Tau181, level was significantly associated with aMCI. PMID: 29017912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rizzi L, Maria Portal M, Eduardo Alves Batista C, Missiaggia L, Roriz-Cruz M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Ghrelin upregulates the phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor by activating GHSR1a and Fyn in the rat hippocampus.
Abstract Ghrelin and its receptor GHSR1a have been shown to exert numerous physiological functions in the brain, in addition to the well-established orexigenic role in the hypothalamus. Earlier work indicated that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and enhanced synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. In the present study, we report that the exogenous application of ghrelin increased GluN2B phosphorylation. This increase was independent of GluN2B subunit activity or NMDAR channel activity. However, it depended on the activation of GHSR1a and Fyn as it was bloc...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Berrout L, Isokawa M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

NO involvement in the inhibition of ghrelin on voltage-dependent potassium currents in rat hippocampal cells.
In this study, we examined the effect of ghrelin on voltage-dependent potassium (K(+)) currents in hippocampal cells of 1-3 days SD rats by whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and discussed whether NO was involved in this process. The results showed that ghrelin significantly inhibited the voltage-dependent K(+) currents in hippocampal cells, and the inhibitory effect was more significant when L-arginine was co-administered. In contrast, N-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester increased the ghrelin inhibited K(+) currents and attenuated the inhibitory effect of ghrelin. While D-arginine (D-AA) showed no significant impact on the gh...
Source: Brain Research - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Y, Dang S, Wang X, Zhang J, Zhang L, Su Q, Zhang H, Lin T, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Sun H, Zhu Z, Li H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

On the functional significance of retrieval mode: Task switching disrupts the recollection of conceptual stimulus information from episodic memory.
r K Abstract Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to be associated with the tonic cognitive state of retrieval mode. Despite extensive research into the neurophysiological correlates of retrieval mode, as of yet, relatively little is known about its functional significance. The present event-related potential (ERP) study was aimed at examining the impact of retrieval mode on the specificity of memory content retrieved in the course of familiarity and recollection processes. In two experiments, participants performed a recognition memory inclusion task in which they had to distinguish identically repeated and re-co...
Source: Brain Research - October 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Küper K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Aging dependent effect of nuclear tau.
Abstract Tau protein is characterized by a complex pattern of phosphorylation and is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Human AT100 nuclear tau, endowed by phosphorylation in Thr212/Ser214, was recently shown to decline in cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus (DG) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but a defined function for this nuclear tau remains unclear. Here we show that AT100 progressively increases in the nuclei of neuronal and non-neuronal cells during aging, and decreases in the more severe AD stages, as recently shown, and in cancer cells (colorectal adenocarcin...
Source: Brain Research - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gil L, Federico C, Pinedo F, Bruno F, Rebolledo AB, Montoya JJ, Olazabal IM, Ferrer I, Saccone S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Seizure susceptibility in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and relationship with amyloid β plaques.
Seizure susceptibility in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and relationship with amyloid β plaques. Brain Res. 2017 Sep 26;: Authors: Reyes-Marin KE, Nuñez A Abstract Alzheimer's disease is a common age associated neurodegenerative disorder associated with an elevated risk of seizures that may be fundamentally connected to cognitive dysfunction. We used 4-9 month-old mice of the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease to study the presence of epileptiform-like discharges and to establish if the amyloid-β plaques affect their generation. The EEG of the APP/PS1 transgen...
Source: Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Reyes-Marin KE, Nuñez A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

(-)-Phenserine inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study investigated the therapeutic effects of (-)-phenserine for stroke in the rat focal cerebral ischemia model and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/RP) damage model in SH-SY5Y neuronal cultures. (-)-Phenserine mitigated OGD/PR-induced SH-SY5Y cell death, providing an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between concentration and survival. In MCAO challenged rats, (-)-phenserine reduced infarction volume, cell death and improved body asymmetry, a behavioral measure of stoke impact. In both cellular and animal studies, (-)-phenserine elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and B-cell lymph...
Source: Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang CF, Lai JH, Wu JC, Greig NH, Becker RE, Luo Y, Chen YH, Kang SJ, Chiang YH, Chen KY Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Deferoxamine enhances alternative activation of microglia and inhibits amyloid beta deposits in APP/PS1 mice.
In conclusion, DFX treatment improved functional recovery of AD mice, and the mechanism may involve DFX-induced M2 activation of microglia. PMID: 28963052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, He ML Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain encoding of saltatory velocity through a pulsed pneumotactile array in the lower face.
Abstract Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a primary function of the somatosensory system. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of sensorimotor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in mechanosensory trigeminal networks required for speech, suck, mastication, and facial gesture. High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilatera...
Source: Brain Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Custead R, Oh H, Wang Y, Barlow S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A Historical Review on the Emerging Preclinical Interest Concerning the Role of Circadian Function in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract The importance of circadian function in the aetiology, progression and treatment of Parkinson's disease is a topic of increasing interest to the scientific and clinical community. While clinical studies on this theme are relatively new and limited in number there are many preclinical studies which explore possible circadian involvement in Parkinson's disease and speculate as to the mechanism by which clinical benefit can be derived by manipulating the circadian system. The present review explores the sequelae of circadian related studies from a historical perspective and reveals mechanism that may be invo...
Source: Brain Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Willis GL, Freelance CB Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Identification of two mutations in cis in the SCN1A gene in a family showing genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE).
Abstract Mutations in the SCN1A gene causing either loss or gain of function have been frequently found in patients affected by genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) or Dravet syndrome (also named severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy SMEI). By mutation screening of the SCN1A gene, we identified for the first time a case of two missense mutations in cis (p.[Arg1525Gln;Thr297Ile]) in all affected individuals of an Italian family showing GEFS+ and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The p.Arg1525Gln mutation was not previously reported yet and was predicted to be pathological by prediction tools, whe...
Source: Brain Research - September 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Binini N, Sancini G, Villa C, Magro RD, Sansoni V, Rusconi R, Mantegazza M, Grioni D, Talpo F, Toselli M, Combi R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Activity-based anorexia activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in distinct brain nuclei of female rats.
Abstract Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an established animal model for the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The pathophysiology of AN and the involvement of food intake-regulatory peptides is still poorly understood. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide also involved in the mediation of stress, anxiety and depression might be a likely candidate involved in the pathogenesis of AN. Therefore, activation of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (ir) brain nuclei was investigated under conditions of ABA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups (n=6/group): activity-based anorexia (ABA), restricte...
Source: Brain Research - September 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Scharner S, Prinz P, Goebel-Stengel M, Lommel R, Kobelt P, Hofmann T, Rose M, Stengel A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Intranasally Administered IGF-1 Inhibits Spreading Depression In Vivo.
Abstract Spreading depression (SD) is a wave of cellular depolarization that travels slowly through susceptible gray matter brain areas. SD is the most likely cause of migraine aura and perhaps migraine pain, and is a well-accepted animal model of migraine. Identification of therapeutics that can prevent SD may have clinical relevance toward migraine treatment. Here we show that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) significantly inhibited neocortical SD in vivo after intranasal delivery to rats. A single dose of IGF-1 inhibited SD within an hour, and continued to protect for at least seven days thereafter. A two-w...
Source: Brain Research - September 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Grinberg YY, Zitzow LA, Kraig RP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dynamics of spontaneous local field potentials in the anterior claustrum of freely moving rats.
Abstract The functions of the claustrum are not well understood. Few studies explore its electrophysiological properties in awake animals. Here, we address this lacuna by recording spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity in the anterior claustrum of rats freely exploring open field environments under differing conditions (light; dark; with, without an object present). We found three peaks in the LFP power spectral density (PSD) at 1-4 Hz, 4-7 Hz and 8-12 Hz. Two of those peaks, in the 1-4 Hz and 8-12 Hz bands, were present in almost all recordings and dominated the power spectrum. The power or frequency o...
Source: Brain Research - September 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jankowski MM, Islam MN, O'Mara SM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of neural stem cell media on hypoxic injury in rat hippocampal slice cultures.
In conclusion, we found that stem cell-conditioned medium had a neuroprotective effect against hypoxic injury, and that, of the various neurotrophic factors in S-medium, NGF, GDNF, and VEGF can contribute to neuroprotection. PMID: 28941572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee NM, Chae SA, Lee HJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responsiveness to Methamphetamine is Modulated by Gonadectomy in Males.
Abstract Sex differences in patterns of methamphetamine (MA) abuse have been reported with females (humans and rodents) showing an elevated addiction phenotype. Previous findings indicate MA-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is also sexually dimorphic with females exhibiting an elevated glucocorticoid release and differential neural activation patterns within HPA axis-associated brain regions. These effects may contribute to sex differences in abuse. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in mediating sex differences in MA-induced glucocorticoids, male and female C57BL/6J mice were go...
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacobskind JS, Rosinger ZJ, Zuloaga DG Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibits A β-induced apoptosis by reducing reactive oxygen species-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured microglia.
In this study, we found increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration in Aβ-treated primary microglia and BV-2 cells; also, the MCU inhibitor Ru360 significantly attenuated Aβ-induced microglial apoptosis, whereas the MCU activator spermine augmented it. In addition, Ru360 significantly attenuated Aβ-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress characterized by glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/-EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression. Spermine, however, exerted the opposite effects on mitochondrial ROS production and ER stress. We also...
Source: Brain Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xie N, Wu C, Wang C, Cheng X, Zhang L, Zhang H, Lian Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Differentiation of motor evoked potentials elicited from multiple forearm muscles: an investigation with high-density surface electromyography.
Abstract Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method to measure corticospinal excitability of the primary motor cortex. However, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS in a target muscle are variable; inconsistent MEPs may be due to overlapping cortical muscle representations and/or volume conduction from neighbouring muscles. The source of variable muscle responses may not be apparent using conventional bipolar electromyography (EMG), particularly over areas with several distinct neighbouring muscles (e.g. the forearm). High-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) may provide a useful means to i...
Source: Brain Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Neva JL, Gallina A, Peters S, Garland SJ, Boyd LA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Uridine treatment protects against neonatal brain damage and long-term cognitive deficits caused by hyperoxia.
Abstract Exposure to excessive oxygen in survivors of preterm birth is one of the factors that underlie the adverse neurological outcome in later life. Various pathological changes including enhanced apoptotic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as decreased neuronal survival has been demonstrated in animal models of neonatal hyperoxia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of administering uridine, an anti-apoptotic agent, on cellular, molecular and behavioral consequences of hyperoxia-induced brain damage in a neonatal rat model. For five days from birth, rat pups were either...
Source: Brain Research - September 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Goren B, Cakir A, Sevinc C, Serter Kocoglu S, Ocalan B, Oy C, Minbay Z, Kahveci N, Alkan T, Cansev M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Corticothalamic network dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease.
We present here several lines of evidence that suggest that dysregulation of the corticothalamic network may be a common denominator that contributes to the diverse cognitive and behavioral alterations in AD. First, we will review the mechanisms by which this network regulates processes that include attention, cognitive processing, learning and memory, and sleep maintenance. Then we will review how these behavioral and cognitive domains are altered in AD. We will also discuss how dysregulation of tightly regulated activity in the corticothalamic network can give rise to non-convulsive seizures and other forms of epileptifo...
Source: Brain Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jagirdar R, Chin J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Intrastriatally injected botulinum neurotoxin-A differently effects cholinergic and dopaminergic fibers in C57BL/6 mice.
Abstract Unilateral intrastriatal BoNT-A injection abolished apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism (hemi-PD) up to 6 months. It was hypothesized that the beneficial effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) grounded on the reduction of the Parkinson's diseases (PD) associated striatal hypercholinism. Intrastriatal injection of BoNT-A was not cytotoxic in rat brain, but neuronal fiber swellings in the BoNT-A infiltrated striata appeared and named BoNT-A-induced varicosities (BiVs). In the rat BiVs were immunoreactive (ir) either for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or tyrosine h...
Source: Brain Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hawlitschka A, Holzmann C, Witt S, Spiewok J, Neumann AM, Schmitt O, Wree A, Antipova V Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Distribution of spleen tyrosine kinase and tau phosphorylated at tyrosine 18 in a mouse model of tauopathy and in the human hippocampus.
CONCLUSION: Syk appears unlikely to be the major kinase that phosphorylates tyrosine 18 of tau in tauopathy. It possibly phosphorylates tyrosine 18 of tau and regulates other tau kinases in neurons with a fibrillary tau pathology. PMID: 28919467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Köhler C, Timpa V, Dinekov M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Tremor dominant Kyoto (Trdk) rats carry a missense mutation in the gene encoding the SK2 subunit of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel.
In this study, we characterized and genetically analyzed F344-Trdk/+ heterozygous rats. The rats exhibited a tremor that was especially evident around weaning but persisted throughout life. The tremors of F344-Trdk/+ rats were attenuated by drugs effective against essential tremor (ET) but not drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease-related tremor, indicating that the pharmacological phenotype of F344-Trdk/+ rats was similar to human ET. Using positional candidate approach, we identified the Trdk mutation as a missense substitution (c. 866 T>A, p. I289N) in Kcnn2, which encodes the SK2 subunit of the small-conductance C...
Source: Brain Research - September 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuramoto T, Yokoe M, Kunisawa N, Ohashi K, Miyake T, Higuchi Y, Yoshimi K, Mashimo T, Tanaka M, Kuwamura M, Kaneko S, Shimizu S, Serikawa T, Ohno Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

White Matter Microstructure within the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Modulates the Degree of Response Conflict Indexed by N2 in Healthy Adults.
Abstract Response conflict can be induced by priming multiple responses competing for control of action in trials. The N2 is one functionally-related cognitive control index for response conflict. And yet the underlying whiter matter neural substrates of inter-individual difference in conflict N2 remain unclear. So the aim of present study was to address the white matter microstructure of the N2 responsible for conflict by directly relating the amplitude cost of the event-related potential (ERP) N2 component to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy subjects underwent DTI scanni...
Source: Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao S, Liu P, Guo J, Zhu Y, Liu P, Sun J, Yang X, Qin W Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Monoamine involvement in the antidepressant-like effect induced by P2 blockade.
Abstract Depression is a common mental disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Available monoaminergic antidepressants are far from ideal since they show delayed onset of action and are ineffective in approximately 40% of patients, thus indicating the need of new and more effective drugs. ATP signaling through P2 receptors seems to play an important role in neurophatological mechanisms involved in depression, since their pharmacological or genetic inactivation induce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST). However, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not completely ...
Source: Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Diniz CR, Rodrigues M, Casarotto PC, Pereira VS, Crestani CC, Joca SR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute stress promotes post-injury brain regeneration in fish.
Abstract The central nervous system and the immune system, the two major players in homeostasis, operate in the ongoing bidirectional interaction. Stress is the third player that exerts strong effect on these two 'supersystems'; yet, its impact is studied much less. In this work employing carp model, we studied the influence of preliminary stress on neural and immune networks involved in post-injury brain regeneration. The relevant in-vivo models of air-exposure stress and precisely directed cerebellum injury have been developed. Neuronal regeneration was evaluated by using specific tracers of cell proliferation a...
Source: Brain Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sinyakov MS, Haimovich A, Avtalion RR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Piracetam inhibits ethanol (EtOH)-induced memory deficit by mediating multiple pathways.
In conclusion, we speculate that Pir reduces EtOH-induced neuronal damage by regulation of apoptotic action and autophagic action, and our research offers preclinical evidence for the application of Pir in ethanol toxicity. PMID: 28912059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang Y, Feng J, Xu F, Wang J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Segmentation of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in the human brain: A white matter dissection and diffusion tensor tractography study.
rs M Abstract The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns. A white matter dissection of 14 post-mortem normal human hemispheres was con...
Source: Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Latini F, Mårtensson J, Larsson EM, Fredrikson M, Åhs F, Hjortberg M, Aldskogius H, Ryttlefors M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic Global Analysis of Vascular Permeability and Cerebral Blood Flow after Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat: A long-term MRI Study.
Abstract Vascular permeability and hemodynamic alteration in response to the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were longitudinally investigated in non directly injured and normal-appearing cerebral tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (300-350g, n=30) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=5/group) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x10(6) hMSCs, at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=10/group). MRI measurements of T2-weighted imaging, cerebra...
Source: Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Chopp M, Ding G, Li Q, Mahmood A, Jiang Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal metabolism and prefrontal brain structure: a combined 1H-MR spectroscopy, neuropsychological, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.
Abstract Hippocampal structural and functional integrity impacts on multiple remote areas of the brain, and this connectivity is central to multiple cognitive functions in healthy and disease. We studied associations of hippocampal metabolic markers N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu and Glx; assessed with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and brain grey matter (studied with voxel-based morphometry, VBM) in 20 healthy subjects. We found a significant correlation between right hippocampal NAA and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortical grey matter (TFCE, p
Source: Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Steinke J, Gaser C, Langbein K, Dietzek M, Gussew A, Reichenbach JR, Smesny S, Sauer H, Nenadić I Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic atypical antipsychotics, but not haloperidol, increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult mouse.
Abstract It is suggested that altered neuroplasticity contributes to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and antipsychotics may exhibit some of their therapeutic efficacies by improving neurogenesis and/or proliferation of neural progenitors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether chronic antipsychotics treatment affect neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus. Animals were administered olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, or haloperidol via the osmotic minipump for 21 days and then injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells. BrdU-positive cells in the hip...
Source: Brain Research - September 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Chikama K, Yamada H, Tsukamoto T, Kajitani K, Nakabeppu Y, Uchimura N Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The brain during free movement - what can we learn from the animal model.
inck ML Abstract Animals, just like humans, can freely move. They do so for various important reasons, such as finding food and escaping predators. Observing these behaviors can inform us about the underlying cognitive processes. In addition, while humans can convey complicated information easily through speaking, animals need to move their bodies to communicate. This has prompted many creative solutions by animal neuroscientists to enable studying the brain during movement. In this review, we first summarize how animal researchers record from the brain while an animal is moving, by describing the most common neur...
Source: Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Händel FB, Schölvinck ML Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

High intraocular pressure produces learning and memory impairments in rats.
This study provides novel evidence for the relationship between high IOP and hippocampal alterations, especially in the context of learning and memory. PMID: 28893580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuan Y, Chen Z, Li L, Li X, Xia Q, Zhang H, Duan Q, Zhao Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Tryptophan circuit in fatigue: from blood to brain and cognition.
Abstract Brain tryptophan and its neuroactive metabolites play key roles in central fatigue. However, previous brain function analysis targets may have included both glia and neurons together. Here, we clarified the fatigue-cognitive circuit of the central-peripheral linkage, including the role of glial-neuronal interaction in cognition. Using a rat model of central fatigue induced by chronic sleep disorder (CFSD), we isolated presynaptic terminals and oligodendrocytes. Results showed that compared to control group, presynaptic levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid, but not serotonin, in the CFSD gr...
Source: Brain Research - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamashita M, Yamamoto T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Implications of the N-Terminal Heterogeneity for the Neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 Function.
Abstract The neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 maintains the low intracellular chloride concentration required for the fast hyperpolarizing responses of the inhibitory neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. The two KCC2 isoforms, KCC2a and KCC2b differ by their N-termini as a result of alternative promoter usage. Whereas the role of KCC2b in mediating the chloride transport is unequivocal, the physiological role of KCC2a in neurons has remained obscure. We show that KCC2a isoform can decrease the intracellular chloride concentration in cultured neurons and attenuate calcium responses...
Source: Brain Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Markkanen M, Ludwig A, Khirug S, Pryazhnikov E, Soni S, Khiroug L, Delpire E, Rivera C, Airaksinen MS, Uvarov P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Prolonged but non-permanent expression of a transgene in ependymal cells of adult rats using an adenovirus-mediated transposon gene transfer system.
In this study, we have explored the probability of permanent exogenous gene expression using a combined adenovirus/transposon system. To this end, we created three adenoviruses; adenovirus #1 containing a CAG promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged with a palmitoylation site (palEGFP), whose DNA sequence was flanked by two different Tol2 ends, #2 containing a human FoxJ1 promoter-driven T2TP transposase, and #3 containing an EF-1 alpha promoter-driven T2TP transposase. We injected these adenoviruses into the lateral ventricles of adult rats to assess the duration of transgene expression, by which adenovir...
Source: Brain Research - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Suzuki JI, Dezawa M, Kitada M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hyperforin protects against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation.
In conclusion, our results clearly showed that hyperforin could protect against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation and polarization of microglia to M2 phenotype. PMID: 28870826 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma L, Pan X, Zhou F, Liu K, Wang L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Distinguishing response to names in Rett and MECP2 Duplication syndrome: An ERP study of auditory social information processing.
Abstract Despite significant advances at the level of basic research, the characterization of higher-level processes in Rett and MECP2 Duplication syndrome remains understudied. In this pilot study, we assessed social-emotional information processing by testing whether children (ages 4-12 years) with Rett (n=9) and MECP2 Duplication syndrome (n=7) distinguished their own spoken name from other names. We hypothesized that own and familiar names would elicit more positive parietal P300 responses than unknown names, and that the groups would have different neural responses to these stimuli. The MECP2 Duplication grou...
Source: Brain Research - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarika UP, Ashley K, Dorita J, Alexandra PK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Retraction notice to "Secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1 knockdown promotes Golgi apparatus stress injury in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion: In vivo and in vitro study" [Brain Res. 1642 (2016) 189-196].
Retraction notice to "Secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1 knockdown promotes Golgi apparatus stress injury in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion: In vivo and in vitro study" [Brain Res. 1642 (2016) 189-196]. Brain Res. 2017 Sep 01;1670:253 Authors: Fan Y, Zhang C, Peng W, Li T, Yin J, Kong Y, Lan C, Li X, Wang R, Hu Z PMID: 28735834 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan Y, Zhang C, Peng W, Li T, Yin J, Kong Y, Lan C, Li X, Wang R, Hu Z Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

In vivo magnetic resonance approach to trimethyltin induced neurodegeneration in rats.
Abstract Trimethyltin (TMT) is commonly used to induce neurodegeneration in mice and rats; however, only scarce data of in vivo MR spectroscopy and imaging characterizing TMT neurotoxicity are available. Our aim was to assess brain metabolite changes and brain atrophy by in vivo MR in the rat model of neurodegeneration induced by TMT. Adult male Wistar rats exposed to TMT (8 mg/kg, i.p.) were used in the study. Proton MRS was applied on the dorsal hippocampus to reveal changes in neurochemical profile and MRI was used to assess the volume of the entire hippocampus, ventricles and whole brain. Hippocampal Nacetylas...
Source: Brain Research - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Baciak L, Gasparova Z, Liptaj T, Juranek I Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Cholinergic/opioid interaction in anterior cingulate cortex reduces the nociceptive response of vocalization in guinea pigs.
The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of opioid and cholinergic neurotransmission in the ACC on different nociceptive responses in guinea pigs. We used nociceptive tests of formalin and vocalization evoked by peripheral noxious stimuli (electric shock) to evaluate the behavioral expression of the sensory-discriminative and affective motivational components, respectively. We verified that the microinjection of morphine (4.4 nmol) in the ACC of guinea pigs promotes antinociception in the two experimental tests investigated. This effect is blocked by prior microinjection of naloxone (2.7 nmol). On t...
Source: Brain Research - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zugaib J, Menescal-de-Oliveira L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure selectively alters the expression of G α subunit isoforms and RGS subtypes in rat prefrontal cortex.
Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure selectively alters the expression of Gα subunit isoforms and RGS subtypes in rat prefrontal cortex. Brain Res. 2017 Jul 20;: Authors: Jluessen D, Sun H, McGinnis MM, McCool BA, Chen R Abstract Chronic alcohol exposure induces pronounced changes in GPCR-mediated G-protein signaling. Recent microarray and RNA-seq analyses suggest associations between alcohol abuse and the expression of genes involved in G-protein signaling. The activity of G-proteins (e.g. Gαi/o and Gαq) is negatively modulated by regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins whi...
Source: Brain Research - July 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jluessen D, Sun H, McGinnis MM, McCool BA, Chen R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Co-Transplantation of Mesenchymal and Neural Stem Cells and Overexpressing Stromal-Derived Factor-1 for Treating Spinal Cord Injury.
This study utilized a combinational treatment consisting of MSCs, NSCs, and the forced overexpression of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) from MSCs (SDF-1-MSCs), to treat a rat model of SCI. Transplants occurred at 9-days post-injury, and motor functions were evaluated for 7-weeks post-injury. White matter sparing and axon densities surrounding the lesions were quantified. Findings from this study demonstrate that co-transplanting SDF-1-MSCs with NSCs can improve motor functions and enhance axon densities surrounding the lesion. However, no improvements in white matter sparing were found. Tumors were found in...
Source: Brain Research - July 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stewart AN, Kendziorski G, Deak ZM, Brown DJ, Fini MN, Copely KL, Rossignol J, Dunbar GL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Contribution of BDNF/TrkB signalling in the rACC to the development of pain-related aversion via activation of ERK in rats with spared nerve injury.
In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that ERK is an important downstream effector of the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signalling pathway in the rACC that contributes to the development of neuropathic pain-related aversion. PMID: 28732667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - July 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Zhang L, Zhan Y, Li D, Zhang Y, Wang G, Zhang M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypothermia pretreatment improves cognitive impairment via enhancing synaptic plasticity in a traumatic brain injury model.
Abstract PosttraumatichypothermiaattenuatescognitivedeficitscausedbyTBIwhen it is administered at an early stage. However, little is known regarding the effect of hypothermia pretreatment on cognitive deficits one month after TBI. In the current study, the behavior test revealed that hypothermia pretreatment mitigates the learning and memory impairment induced by TBI in mice. Hypothermia treatment significantly increased the expression of PSD93, PSD95 and NR2B one month after TBI in the cortex and hippocampus compared with the normothermia group. Hypothermia pretreatment also restored the decreased spine number an...
Source: Brain Research - July 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu B, Wang L, Cao Y, Xu W, Shi F, Tian Q, Zhou X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Butyrylcholinesterase-Knockout Reduces Fibrillar β-amyloid and Conserves (18)FDG Retention in 5XFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Butyrylcholinesterase-Knockout Reduces Fibrillar β-amyloid and Conserves (18)FDG Retention in 5XFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Brain Res. 2017 Jul 17;: Authors: DeBay DR, Reid GA, Macdonald IR, Mawko G, Burrell S, Martin E, Bowen CV, Darvesh S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. One hallmark of the AD brain is the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. AD is also a state of cholinergic dysfunction and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) associates with Aβ pathology. A transgenic mouse (5XFAD) is an aggressive amyloidosi...
Source: Brain Research - July 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: DeBay DR, Reid GA, Macdonald IR, Mawko G, Burrell S, Martin E, Bowen CV, Darvesh S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial estrogen receptors as a vulnerability factor of chronic stress and mediator of fluoxetine treatment in female and male rat hippocampus.
In conclusion, sex-unspecific regulation of ERβ by the stress and by AD and its differential convergence with bioenergetics and apoptotic pathways in females and males implies its role as a vulnerability factor in the stress response and emphasizes mitochondrial ERβ-dependent pathways as an important gateway of ADs action, at least in females. PMID: 28716632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Adzic M, Mitic M, Radojcic M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research