Autophagy inhibition exerts neuroprotection on white matter ischemic damage after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in mice.
This study aimed to investigate the temporal pattern of autophagy activation in the white matter of bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The effect of wortmannin, an autophagy inhibitor, against hypoperfusion induced white matter injury (WMI) was studied by immunofluorescence and eight-arm radial maze test. We found that autophagy was initially activated in the white matter 3 days after BCAS, and then suppressed by day 10, and was activated again at day 30. Administration of wortmannin during the first three days after BCAS revealed protective effects on ax...
Source: Brain Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang SQ, Ding FF, Liu Q, Tian YY, Wang W, Qin C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Developmental modulation and predictability of age-dependent vocal plasticity in adult zebra finches.
Abstract Predicting the nature of behavioral plasticity can provide insight into mechanisms of behavioral expression and control. Songbirds like the zebra finch rely on vocal signals for communication, and the performance of these signals demonstrate considerable plasticity over development. Traditionally, these signals were thought to be fixed in adulthood, but recent studies have revealed significant age-dependent changes to spectral and temporal features of song in adult songbirds. A number of age-dependent changes to song resemble acute changes to adult song performance across social contexts (e.g., when an ad...
Source: Brain Research - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: James LS, Sakata JT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Apelin-36 mitigates MPTP/MPP+-induced neurotoxicity: involvement of α-synuclein and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Apelin-36 mitigates MPTP/MPP+-induced neurotoxicity: involvement of α-synuclein and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Brain Res. 2019 Jul 12;:146334 Authors: Zhu J, Dou S, Wang C, Jiang Y, Wang C, Cheng B Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra compacta (SNpc) which leads to the behavioral dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Apelin-36 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP)/1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced neurotoxicity. The treatment with Apelin-36 significantl...
Source: Brain Research - July 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu J, Dou S, Wang C, Jiang Y, Wang C, Cheng B Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

PGE2/EP4 receptor and TRPV1 channel are involved in repeated restraint stress-induced prolongation of sensitization pain evoked by subsequent PGE2 challenge.
In this study, we examined role of PGE2/EP4 signaling and TRPV1 signaling in repeated restraint stress-induced prolongation of sensitization pain, a model for transition from acute to chronic pain, in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that pre-exposure to single restraint stress induced analgesia that masked sensitization pain evoked by subsequent PGE2 challenge. However, pre-exposure to 3d consecutive restraint stress not only prolonged sensitization pain, but also increased stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in serum, COX2 levels in paw skin, EP4 and TRPV1 levels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and paw skin. Pre...
Source: Brain Research - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma W, Li L, Xing S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Coactivations of barrel and piriform cortices induce their mutual synapse innervations and recruit associative memory cells.
Abstract After associative learning, a signal induces the recall of its associated signal, or the other way around. This reciprocal retrieval of associated signals is essential for associative thinking and logical reasoning. For the cellular mechanism underlying this associative memory, we hypothesized that the formation of synapse innervations among coactivated sensory cortices and the recruitment of associative memory cells were involved in the integrative storage and reciprocal retrieval of associated signals. Our study indicated that the paired whisker and olfaction stimulations led to an odorant-induced whisk...
Source: Brain Research - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao Z, Wu R, Chen C, Wen B, Liu Y, Lu W, Chen N, Feng J, Fan R, Wang D, Cui S, Wang JH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A novel LGI1 missense mutation causes dysfunction in cortical neuronal migration and seizures.
CONCLUSION: Our findings enrich the spectrum of LGI1 mutations and support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Furthermore, additional information regarding the role of LGI1 in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy was elucidated, and a potential relationship was established between cortical neuronal migration dysfunction and autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. PMID: 31301272 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu F, Du C, Tian X, Ma Y, Zhao B, Yan Y, Lin Z, Lin P, Zhou R, Wang X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Serum secreted miR-137-containing exosomes affects oxidative stress of neurons by regulating OXR1 in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Recently, it has been demonstrated that microRNA-137 (miR-137) plays a vital role in the induction of oxidative stress of neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, the study aimed to investigate the effects of serum exosomal miR-137 on oxidative stress injury of neurons in PD. Microarray analysis was adopted to screen the PD-related differential expressed genes and predict the interaction between OXR1 and miR-137 in PD. It was found that OXR1 was down-regulated while miR-137 was up-regulated in PD. Additionally, miR-137 targeted OXR1 and negatively regulated its expression. Mouse and neuron models of P...
Source: Brain Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang Y, Liu J, Chen L, Jin Y, Zhang G, Lin Z, Du S, Fu Z, Chen T, Qin Y, Sun X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Conditioned Medium from Endothelial Progenitor Cells promotes number of dopaminergic neurons and exerts neuroprotection in cultured ventral mesencephalic neuronal progenitor cells.
Abstract Transplantation of stem and progenitor cells offers a promising tool for brain repair in the context of neuropathological disorders including Parkinson's disease. There is growing proof that the capacity of adult stem and progenitor cells for tissue regeneration relies rather on the release of paracrine factors than on their cell replacement properties. In line with this notion, we have previously reported that conditioned medium (CM) collected from cultured Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC) stimulated survival of striatal neurons. In the present study we investigated whether EPC-CM promotes survival of ...
Source: Brain Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Di Santo S, Seiler S, Ducray AD, Widmer HR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of enriched environment and predictable chronic stress on spatial memory in adolescent rats: predominant expression of BDNF, nNOS, and interestingly malondialdehyde in the right hippocampus.
uml;m G Abstract Little is known about the mechanisms that promote divergence of function between left and right in the hippocampus, which is most affected by external factors and critical for spatial memory. We investigated the levels of memory-related mediators in the left and right hippocampus and spatial memory in rats exposed to predictable chronic stress (PCS) and an enriched environment (EE) during adolescence. Twenty-eight-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (standard cages), PCS (15 minutes/day immobilization stress for four weeks), and EE (one hour/day environmentally enriched cages for...
Source: Brain Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaptan Z, Dar KA, Kapucu A, Bulut H, Üzüm G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α in regulating oxidative stress and hypothalamic neuropeptides-mediated appetite control.
Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in regulating oxidative stress and hypothalamic neuropeptides-mediated appetite control. Brain Res. 2019 Jul 08;:146329 Authors: Chu SC, Chen PN, Yu CH, Hsieh YS, Kuo DY Abstract Hypoxia-induciblefactor1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator responding to hypoxia. Amphetamine (AMPH), however, can activate HIF-1 under normoxic conditions, which is associated with the co-activation of oxidative stress. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and anti-oxidative enzymes have been found to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-mediated appetite control. The present study examined ...
Source: Brain Research - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chu SC, Chen PN, Yu CH, Hsieh YS, Kuo DY Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Over-expression of miR-34a Induces Rapid Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease-like Pathology.
Abstract Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD) is caused by rare mutations in one of three specific genes. This is in contrast to idiopathic, late-onset AD (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile and represents more than 95% of cases. Previously, we have demonstrated that increased expression of microRNA (miRNA)-34a (miR-34a) in AD brain targets genes linked to synaptic plasticity, energy metabolism, and resting state network activity. Here we report the generation of a heterozygous, conditional miR-34a overexpression mouse (miR-34aP+/-P(TetR-TetO-miR-34a) Transgenic Mice). Doxycycline-treated mice o...
Source: Brain Research - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarkar S, Engler-Chiurazzi EB, Cavendish JZ, Povroznik JM, Russell AE, Quintana DD, Mathers PH, Simpkins JW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Elimination of microglia in mouse spinal cord alters the retrograde CNS plasticity observed following peripheral axon injury.
Abstract Following the transection of peripherally located sympathetic preganglionic axons of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST), transient retrograde neuronal and glial responses occur in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of the spinal cord, the location of the parent neuronal cell bodies. The role of microglia in this central response to peripheral axon injury was examined in mice fed the PLX5622 diet containing colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor for 28 days, which eliminated approximately 90% of spinal cord microglia. Microglia elimination did not impact baseline neurotransmitter ex...
Source: Brain Research - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hutchinson JM, Isaacson LG Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Age-Dependent Evaluation of Long-Term Depression Responses in Hyperthyroid Rats: Possible Roles of Oxidative Intracellular Redox Status.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that hyperthyroidism-related changes in synaptic plasticity are modulated by aging. This modulation may explain the increased cognitive impairment in this disease at older ages, which probably depends on alterations in NOS levels. PMID: 31288003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - July 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tan B, Babur E, Koşar B, Varol S, Dursun N, Süer C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

ssImpact of Adrenal Hormones, Reproductive Aging, and Major Depression on Memory Circuitry Decline in Early Midlife.
Abstract Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal androgen that is, in part, aromatized to estradiol. It continues to be produced after menopause and provides estrogenicity after depletion of ovarian hormones. Estradiol depletion contributes to memory circuitry changes over menopause, including changes in hippocampal (HIPP) and dorsolateral- and ventrolateral-prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; VLPFC) function. Further, major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have, in general, lower levels of estradiol and lower DHEAS than healthy controls, thus potentially a higher risk of adverse menopausal outcomes. We inves...
Source: Brain Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Konishi K, Cherkerzian S, Jacobs EG, Richards C, Remington A, Aizley H, Misra M, Lasley BL, Goldstein JM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Replacing tDCS with theta tACS provides selective, but not general WM benefits.
Abstract Working memory (WM) can be improved after repeated training sessions paired with noninvasive neurostimulation techniques. Previously, we reported that WM training paired with tDCS succeeded behaviorally by enhancing anterior-posterior theta phase coherence and reducing alpha power. Here, in two experiments we tested several theta and alpha frequencies and two transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) montages in an effort to shortcut WM training while preserving behavioral gains. In Experiment 1, in separate sessions participants received online tACS at two frequencies derived from the previous ...
Source: Brain Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jones KT, Arciniega H, Berryhill ME Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Fermented rice peptides attenuate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice by regulating neurotrophic signaling pathways in the hippocampus.
This study investigated the preventive effects of fermented rice peptides (FRPs) against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and their potential mechanisms. Mice were pretreated with FRPs (25 and 100 mg/kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection for 7 days, followed by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine. FRP pretreatment suppressed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in passive-avoidance test and significantly upregulated levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and induced the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) i...
Source: Brain Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Corpuz HM, Fujii H, Nakamura S, Katayama S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Regulation of autophagy in mesenchymal stem cells modulates therapeutic effects on spinal cord injury.
In this study, autophagy was inhibited in MSCs with lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down Becn-1 expression, and autophagy was upregulated in MSCs under nutrient starvation. These MSCs were then labelled with Hoechst and applied to spinal cord-injured rats to evaluate their therapeutic effects. After transplanting MSCs into rats with spinal cord injuries, functional recovery, immunohistochemistry, and remyelination analyses were performed. After inducing autophagy, the MSCs exhibited an accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes in the cytoplasm. The expression levels of neurotrophic factors, inc...
Source: Brain Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma F, Li R, Tang H, Zhu T, Xu F, Zhu J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

L2 Speech Perception in Noise: An fMRI Study of Advanced Spanish Learners.
Abstract This experiment examined the neural correlates of second language (L2) speech perception in noise in advanced Spanish students. Participants completed a speech perception task in quiet and noise in their first language (L1=English) and L2 during fMRI. Behavioral tests of L2 Spanish sentence recognition confirmed that advanced learners of Spanish can recognize sentences in quiet and in noise with an average of 85.45% and 74.43% accuracy, respectively. While listening to degraded sentences in the L2, both auditory and executive processing regions (specifically those of attention) were activated. While liste...
Source: Brain Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rammell CS, Cheng H, Pisoni DB, Newman S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Motor Expertise: Extensive Motor Training and Cortical Changes.
Abstract Over the last two decades, there were many investigations on motor expertise but inconsistencies across findings exist. Thus, to unravel these discrepancies, we conducted a novel literature review, applying stricter inclusion criteria relative to those used in previous reviews. Consequently, this paper reviews the most recent MRI and fMRI literature which investigated structural and functional changes underlying motor expertise, defined as being the result of intensive and extensive motor training reflected by a sheer volume of at least several thousand hours. Changes were documented on a local level and ...
Source: Brain Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Calmels C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The malaria toxin hemozoin induces apoptosis in human neurons and astrocytes: potential role in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria.
Abstract Malaria, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. In 2016, a total of 216 million cases were reported with 445,000 deaths related to malaria. A major complication of malaria infection is cerebral malaria (CM), characterized by enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability, leukocyte infiltration and/or activation, and neuronal dropout resulting in coma and death in significant numbers of individuals, especially children. Despite the high incidence and mortality, the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is not well characteri...
Source: Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Eugenin EA, Martiney JA, Berman JW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Oxycodone suppresses the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways via κ- and δ-opioid receptors in rats.
Oxycodone suppresses the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways via κ- and δ-opioid receptors in rats. Brain Res. 2019 Jul 02;:146319 Authors: Kong C, Miao F, Wu Y, Wang T Abstract Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) can lead to perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) during clinical recanalization procedures in cerebral vessels, principally due to neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. Oxycodone appears to be a multiple opioid receptor agonist and exerts intrinsic antinocicepti...
Source: Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kong C, Miao F, Wu Y, Wang T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute anodal direct current stimulation-induced effects on somatosensory-evoked responses in the rat.
Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool used to treat brain disorders. The DC electric field is thought to modulate neuronal excitability and it has been reported to exert effects within the localized treatment area under the electrode, as well as in diffuse brain regions extending beyond the electrode. However, the manner in which tDCS influences neural transmission in the cortex and modulates neural activity in distant interconnected cortical regions remains unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of anodal DCS (aDCS) on the forelimb-evoked sensory respons...
Source: Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kunori N, Takashima I Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Carbogen inhalation opens the blood-brain barrier in rats without causing long-term metabolic or neurological deficit.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents many drugs from entering the brain. Yet, conventional methods that open the BBB are technically demanding, poorly reversible, and can be associated with long-term adverse effects. In comparison, carbogen, which is introduced nearly a century ago as a treatment for psychiatric disorders, is easy to administer and readily available to many labs and hospitals. Here, we show that carbogen inhalation opened the BBB in rats, as indicated by the extravasation of an intravenous protein tracer. When the tracer was injected immediately or hours after carbogen inhalation, less ...
Source: Brain Research - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liao KH, Wei VC, Wang HL, Chen HY, Lai TW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex-Dimorphic Estrogen Receptor Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Glucoregulatory Neuron Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Hypoglycemic Male and Female Rats.
Abstract The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is a vital component of the neural circuitry that governs glucostasis. Norepinephrine (NE) governs VMN gluco-inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gluco-stimulatory nitric oxide (NO) transmission. Sex-specific insulin-induced hypoglycemic (IIH) patterns of VMN GABA signaling are estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα)- and -beta (ERβ)-dependent. Current research utilized combinatory immunocytochemistry, laser-microdissection, and Western blot techniques in a pharmacological approach to address the hypothesis that ERα and/or -β mediate sex-d...
Source: Brain Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Uddin MM, Mahmood ASMH, Ibrahim MMH, Briski KP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Fitting Predictive Coding to the Neurophysiological Data.
This article evaluates these claims and highlights some of the discrepancies between the proposed predicticoding model and the neuro-biology. Furthermore, it is shown that the model can be modified so as to fit the empirical data more successfully. PMID: 31265817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Spratling MW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Ghrelin modulates morphine-nicotine interaction in avoidance memory: involvement of CA1 nicotinic receptors.
In conclusion, present study suggests the significant role of ghrelin in morphine-related memory and its interactive effect with nicotine in avoidance task via CA1 nicotinic receptors. PMID: 31260652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nazari-Serenjeh F, Darbandi N, Majidpour S, Moradi P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Probing the temporal dynamics of movement inhibition in motor imagery.
Abstract Beyond the lack of overt movement in motor imagery (MI), MI is thought to be functionally equivalent to motor execution (ME). Two theories appear viable to explain the neural mechanism underlying the inhibition of movement in MI, with one suggesting the inhibition of movement in MI occurs early in the planning process, and the other suggesting it occurs after the planning for movement is compete. Here we sought to generate evidence related to the timing of movement inhibition in MI. Participants performed a motor task via MI and ME that had distinct preparation and performance phases, with brain activity ...
Source: Brain Research - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Solomon JP, Kraeutner SN, Bardouille T, Boe SG Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Early and late auditory information processing show opposing deviations in aniridia.
This study provides direct assessment of neural activity related to auditory processing in aniridia. Participants were presented with tones designed to elicit an auditory steady-state response (ASSR) at 22 Hz, 40 Hz, and 84 Hz, and infrequent broadband target tones to maintain attention during electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Persons with aniridia showed increased early cortical responses (P50 AEP) in response to all tones, and increased high-frequency oscillatory entrainment (84 Hz ASSR). In contrast, this group showed a decreased cortical integration response (P300 AEP to target tones) and reduced neural entrainme...
Source: Brain Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bobilev AM, Hudgens-Haney ME, Hamm JP, Oliver WT, McDowell JE, Lauderdale JD, Clementz BA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A preliminary investigation of dispositional affect, the P300, and sentence processing.
We examined whether dispositional affect modulated the relation between sentence processing and the P300 Event Related Potential (ERP) component. We used sentence stimuli from our previous study, where sentences started with subject nouns that were quantified e.g., Every kid… or not, as in The kid…, and continued with a direct object which was either singular, as in a tree, or plural the trees. In this Stroop-like task, participants read sentences presented in 1- and 2-word chunks, and were asked to identify the number of words on the screen at the target word tree(s), which was always presented alone (and ne...
Source: Brain Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Selvanayagam J, Witte V, Schmidt LA, Dwivedi VD Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A Lateral Inhibition Mechanism Explains the Dissociation between Mismatch Negativity and Behavioral Pitch Discrimination.
Abstract Although mismatch negativity (MMN), a change-specific component of auditory event-related potential, is considered to be an index of sound discrimination accuracy, the amplitude of the MMN responses elicited by pitch height deviations in musicians and tone language speakers with superior pitch discrimination is usually not enhanced compared to that elicited in individuals with inferior pitch discrimination. We hypothesized that superior pitch discrimination is accompanied by enhanced lateral inhibition, a critical neural mechanism that sharpens the tuning curves of the auditory neurons in the tonotopy. Fo...
Source: Brain Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu F, Wong L, Hu A, Zhang X, Tong X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Sex Difference in CHI3L1 Expression Levels in Human Brain Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Several genetic sexual dimorphisms have been identified in animal and human brains, which may form a neural basis for sex-specific predisposition to neurological diseases. In the last years, clinical studies have observed that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women compared with men. Chitinase-3-Like 1 protein (CHI3L1) has been frequently investigated in body fluids as a surrogate marker of neuroinflammation in AD and other neurological disorders. Nevertheless, the sex-related differences in CHI3L1 expression in the human brain has not yet been investigated. Here we aimed to evaluate th...
Source: Brain Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanfilippo C, Castrogiovanni P, Imbesi R, Kazakowa M, Musumeci G, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Di Rosa M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Early detection of Alzheimer's disease by peptides from phage display screening.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder without effective treatment so far. As clinical trials show that early-stage patients are more likely to respond to potential interventions, various technologies have been used to search blood biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AD. Phage display could be used to select specific peptides against desired target and here, we established a peptide binding assay based on phage display peptide library to detect early-stage AD patients. We first selected peptides from phage display library against plasmas from AD patients (n=10) and normal...
Source: Brain Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen J, Huang Y, Zhu C, Li Q, Wu Y, Liu Q, Cheng Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

LCN2-interacting proteins and their expression patterns in brain tumors.
In this study, we aimed to explore LCN2 interacting proteins through bioinformatics, as well as their biological functions. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) were constructed using LCN2 and its interacting proteins as the core node. These PPINs were scale free biological networks in which LCN2 and its interacting proteins could connect or cross-talk with at least one partner protein. Both functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses identified the known and potential biological functions of the PPIN, such as cell migration and cancer-related pathways. Expression levels of the PPIN proteins, as well as their ex...
Source: Brain Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Du Z, Wu B, Xia Q, Zhao Y, Lin L, Cai Z, Wang S, Li E, Xu L, Li Y, Xu H, Yin D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The temporal and spatial changes of actin cytoskeleton in the hippocampal CA1 neurons following transient global ischemia.
This study was designed to examine the temporal and spatial alterations of F-actin in the CA1 subfield of rat hippocampus following reperfusion after global cerebral ischemia. Phalloidin staining and confocal microscopic examination showed that F-actin disappeared from the dentritic spines in the CA1 stratum radiatum, but aggregated into thread- or fiber-like structures on days 1.5 ∼ 2 after ischemia. This was followed by a nearly complete loss of F-actin in the CA1 subfield on days 3 ∼ 7 after ischemia. Colocalization analysis demonstrated that the F-actin threads or fibers were located mainly within the dentritic...
Source: Brain Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo CY, Xiong TQ, Tan BH, Gui Y, Ye N, Li SL, Li YC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Different impacts on brain function depending on the mode of delivery.
Abstract The prevalence of delivery through cesarean-section (C-section) has been increasing worldwide. Although different modes of delivery, such as vaginal birth and C-section, are associated with incidence of some diseases in humans, little is known about how delivery stimuli affect short- and long-term brain function. Phenotypic analyses of Atp1a2 homozygous knockout (Atp1a2-/-) neonates showed that the mode of delivery affected neural phenotypes; Atp1a2-/- mice born by vaginal delivery started spontaneous breathing, while Atp1a2-/- mice born by C-section showed a complete absence of breathing followed by thei...
Source: Brain Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ikeda K, Onimaru H, Matsuura T, Kawakami K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Voluntary exercise delays progressive deterioration of markers of metabolism and behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of voluntary exercise on motor behavior and brain biochemistry in the transgenic MitoPark mouse PD model with progressive degeneration of the DA systems caused by DAT-driven deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM in DA neurons. We found that voluntary exercise markedly improved behavioral function, including overall motor activity, narrow beam walking, and rotarod performance. There was also improvement of biochemical markers of nigrostriatal DA input. This was manifested by increased levels of DA measured by HPLC, and of the DA membrane transporter meas...
Source: Brain Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lai JH, Chen KY, Chung-Che Wu J, Olson L, Brené S, Huang CZ, Chen YH, Kang SJ, Ma KH, Hoffer BJ, Hsieh TH, Chiang YH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-181d associated with the methylation status of the MGMT gene in Glioblastoma multiforme cancer stem cells submitted to treatments with ionizing radiation and temozolomide.
This study aimed to analyze the role of microRNA-181d associated with the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine methyl transferase (MGMT) gene in Glioblastoma Multiforme cancer stem cells subjected to treatment with temozolomide and ionizing radiation. Such responses were analyzed in terms of cell survival, evaluation of the MGMT gene methylation status by MS- HRM (Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting), and analysis of miRNA-181d and MGMT gene expression by relative quantification of mRNA levels in cancer stem cells subjected to treatment with temozolomide and ionizing radiation, isolated or combined. We show...
Source: Brain Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Neto FSL, Rodrigues AR, Trevisan FA, de Assis Cirino ML, Matias CCMS, Pereira-da-Silva G, Peria FM, Pretti da Cunha Tirapelli D, Carlotti CG Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Photobiomodulation rescues cognitive flexibility in early stressed subjects.
In this study, we performed maternal separation (10 days, 4 hours per day) in rats, and in adulthood, we tested their spatial navigation and cognitive flexibility. In addition, we delivered photobiomodulation treatment (Low-level light therapy: 1064nm, 30mW, 60 cycles) on the rats' brains, and we tested energy oxidative metabolism using cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry. Early life stress delivered in the form of maternal separation on the first 10 postnatal days leads to cognitive flexibility impairment and a general increase in energy metabolism in adulthood. Low-level light therapy seems to be useful for treating thes...
Source: Brain Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Banqueri M, Martínez JA, Prieto MJ, Cid-Duarte S, Méndez M, Arias JL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Interaction of central angiotensin II and aldosterone on sodium intake and blood pressure.
ari E Abstract Recent studies demonstrated an important natriorexigenic mechanism activated by aldosterone acting in the hindbrain. Studies have also shown that aldosterone effects are intensified by angiotensin II (ANG II) and vice-versa. Thus, the aim of the present work was to test if angiotensinergic mechanisms in the forebrain are involved on sodium appetite to aldosterone infused into the 4th V and also if aldosterone into the 4th V might facilitate ingestive and cardiovascular responses to central ANG II. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 4th ventricle (4th V) and lateral v...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gasparini S, M R Melo, Nascimento PA, Andrade-Franzé GMF, Antunes-Rodrigues J, Yosten GLC, Menani JV, Samson WK, Colombari E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Aspirin in stroke patients modifies the immunomodulatory interactions of marrow stromal cells and monocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin in acute stroke patients may modulate the secretome profile of Mo and MSCs, thus potentially modulating immune and inflammatory responses associated with stroke. Our results suggest that stroke trials involving the use of intravenous MSCs should consider the effect of aspirin as a confounding factor. PMID: 31220426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Satani N, Giridhar K, Cai C, Wewior N, Norris DD, Olson SD, Aronowski J, Savitz SI Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Reprint of: Beyond contraception and hormone replacement therapy: Advancing Nestorone to a neuroprotective drug in the clinic.
Abstract Neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke can be debilitating and have limited treatments available. The progestin Nestorone® (segesterone acetate) has been evaluated for use in birth control and hormone replacement therapy due to its potency and high affinity for the progesterone receptor. Interestingly, Nestorone also exerts neuroprotection in animals afflicted with various central nervous system diseases, including stroke, which implicates its potential for treating these maladies in clinical settings. In fact, a recent Brain Research paper by Tanaka and colleagues demonstrates Nestorone's abil...
Source: Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuazon JP, Sitruk-Ware R, Borlongan CV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Serum miR-221-3p as a new potential biomarker for depressed mood in perioperative patients.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) modulate various genes associated with brain disorders and circulating miRNAs may therefore serve as biomarkers for these neurological diseases. We previously found that the miRNA miR-221-3p was highly expressed in cerebrospinal fluid and the serum of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Here, we examined whether miR-221-3p could be used as a biomarker for depressed mood in perioperative patients. We first examined the relative expression of serum miR-221-3p by real-time quantitative PCR in perioperative patients with different degrees of depressive mood assessed by the Patient Hea...
Source: Brain Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng J, Wang M, Li M, Yang J, Jia J, Liu L, Zhou J, Zhang C, Wang X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) strengthens blood-brain barrier function related to ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways.
Abstract The salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) has been widely used for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction; however, the molecular mechanism of how it strengthens blood brain barrier (BBB) function is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of SLI on BBB function in bEnd.3 cells as well as in rats. In oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-damaged bEnd.3 cells, SLI increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased sodium fluorescein flux. SLI-treated cells showed increased expression of tight junction proteins, including Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Claudin-5 and O...
Source: Brain Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao C, Li X, Li X, Xu Y, Ma M, Wang S, Chai L, Guo H, Hu L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells play a key role in immunomodulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Abstract BACKGROUND: /Aims Previous in vitro experiments have demonstrated the immunomodulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) in brain injury. We have tried to further understand these functions by investigating the neuroprotective effects of iPSC-MSCs in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: CA was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by transcutaneous electrical epicardium stimulation. The rats were divided into four groups. In a separate cohort of sham operation animals, iPSC-MSCs or PBS was infused via the femoral vein after restoration ...
Source: Brain Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu Y, Wang D, Li H, Fan J, Liu Y, Zhao X, Wu J, Jing X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of fingolimod on oligodendrocyte maturation under prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion.
Abstract Oligodendrocytes (OLGs) support neuronal system and have crucial roles for brain homeostasis. As the renewal and regeneration of OLGs derived from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are inhibited by various pathological conditions, the restoration of impaired oligodendrogenesis is a therapeutic strategy for OLG-related diseases such as subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Fingolimod (FTY720), a drug for multiple sclerosis, is reported to elicit a cytoprotective effect on OPCs in vitro. However, the effects of fingolimod against ischemia-induced suppression of OPC differentiation remain unkno...
Source: Brain Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yasuda K, Maki T, Saito S, Yamamoto Y, Kinoshita H, Kyung Choi Y, Valavan Arumugam T, Lim YA, Li Hsian Chen C, Tsun-Hon Wong P, Ihara M, Takahashi R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Not Inertia but Reconfiguration: Asymmetrical Switch Cost in a Hierarchical Task.
Abstract Numerous studies have investigated asymmetric switch cost between different types of tasks. However, the underlying neural mechanism of asymmetric switch cost in a hierarchical task remains unknown. In the present study, we used a representation-nested paradigm and defined three hierarchical levels of number comparison. Participants were required to switch between different levels according to the color of the stimuli. Behavioral result showed a longer response time in the upward switch (from the lower level to the middle level) than in the downward switch (from the higher level to the middle level). The ...
Source: Brain Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li J, Cao B, Han J, Xie L, Li F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Block-wise and trial-wise analyses of the Late Positive Potential reveal distinct affective trajectories as a function of neuroticism.
Abstract The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is modulated by affective stimuli, is often employed as an objective measure of momentary emotional reactivity in affective neuroscience research. A wide range of tasks are used to elicit the LPP, yet relatively few studies assess how task-specific methodological differences influence observed effects on LPP amplitude. The present study tested whether the LPP systematically varies across repeated blocks of affective stimuli in terms of block-wise averages and trial-wise slopes, as well as if this variability relates to trait affective styl...
Source: Brain Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hill KE, Lane SP, Foti D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in vivo gene editing reveals that neuronal 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus contribute to body temperature regulation in mice.
In this study, we constructed a viral vector expressing a single guide (sg)RNA targeting Htr1a (sgHtr1a) and Cre recombinase under the control of a neuron-specific promoter. Injection of the viral vector into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of Cre-dependent Cas9 knock-in mice induced Cre-dependent Cas9 expression mainly in DRN serotonin and GABA neurons. Mismatch cleavage assay and Sanger sequencing showed insertion or deletion formation at the target site. 5-HT1A receptor agonist-induced hypothermia was attenuated and antidepressant effect of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was enhanced by microinjection of...
Source: Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nishitani N, Ohmura Y, Nagayasu K, Shibui N, Kaneko S, Ohashi A, Yoshida T, Yamanaka A, Yoshioka M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Peripheral Nerve Injury Attenuates Stress-Induced Fos-Family Expression in the Locus Coeruleus of Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.
This study investigated the effects of CCI on the neuronal activity of the LC to acute restraint stress using the immunohistochemical detection of Fos-family protein expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent CCI surgery and 11 days later were restrained for 15 minutes. The number and location of single-labelled neurons (c-Fos, FosB/ΔFosB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive) neurons and double labelled neurons (c-Fos, or FosB/ΔFosB with TH) were quantified for the LC and surrounding regions. Comparisons were made with rats that underwent sham surgery or anaesthesia (20min). Restraint triggered a st...
Source: Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Boorman DC, Kang JWM, Keay KA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Connexin43 in Neonatal Excitatory Neurons is Important for Short-Term Motor Learning.
Abstract In the neocortex, gap junctions are expressed at very early developmental stages, and they are involved in many processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal migration and synapse formation. Connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, has been found to be abundantly expressed in radial glial cells, excitatory neurons and astrocytes. Although accumulating evidence suggests that Cx43-mediated gap-junctional coupling between astrocytes plays an important role in the central nervous system, the function of Cx43 in early excitatory neurons remains elusive. To investigate the impact of Cx43 deficiency in excitatory n...
Source: Brain Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang M, Chen JJ, Huang Q, Su X, Yu YC, Liu LY Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research