Early initiation of a factor Xa inhibitor can attenuate tissue repair and neurorestoration after middle cerebral artery occlusion.
Abstract The timing of anti-coagulation therapy initiation after acute cardioembolic stroke remains controversial. We investigated the effects of post-stroke administration of a factor Xa inhibitor in mice, focusing on tissue repair and functional restoration outcomes. We initiated administration of rivaroxaban, a Xa inhibitor, immediately after permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in CB-17 mice harboring few leptomeningeal anastomoses at baseline. Rivaroxaban initiated immediately after pMCAO hindered the recovery of blood flow in ischemic areas by inhibiting leptomeningeal anastomosis develo...
Source: Brain Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Komori M, Ago T, Wakisaka Y, Nakamura K, Tachibana M, Yoshikawa Y, Shibahara T, Yamanaka K, Kuroda J, Kitazono T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Renal ischemia/reperfusion induced learning and memory deficit in the rat: insights into underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms.
This study was aimed to find out the links between AKI and brain injury and also the underlying cellular and electrophysiological mechanisms of memory deficit following induction of AKI via different experimental models of renal ischemia with or without uremia and uremia without renal ischemia. Fifty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups that underwent 1-h bilateral or 2-h unilateral renal ischemia followed by 1-day reperfusion (BIR and UIR, respectively), and 1-day following bilateral nephrectomy (BNX) or sham-operation. There were 2 subgroups in each group, which blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was...
Source: Brain Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Arab Firouzjaei M, Haghani M, Mostafa Shid Moosavi S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid receptor expression in the stress-limbic circuitry is differentially affected by prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress.
Abstract The dense expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) within the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) mediates many aspect of emotional and stress regulation. Importantly, both prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and adolescent stress are known to induce emotional and stress dysregulation. Little is known, however, about how PAE and/or adolescent stress may alter the expression of GR in the amygdala, mPFC, and PVN. To fill this gap, we exposed PAE and control adolescent male and female rats to chronic mild stress (CMS) and assessed GR mRNA expression in t...
Source: Brain Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Raineki C, Morgan EJ, Ellis L, Weinberg J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of aspartoacylase during the progression of myelin breakdown in the dmy mutant rat with mitochondrial magnesium channel MRS2 defect.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the pyruvate dehydrogenase activity might be reduced due to the loss of Mg2+ transport activity in the mitochondria of the dmy rats, suggesting acetyl CoA production might be reduced. The number of oligodendrocytes was well preserved until 7 weeks. It is intriguing that prior to the myelin destruction at 7-8 weeks, disrupted expression of Aspa mRNA and ASPA protein undergoes from early stage of myelinogenesis. These data indicate that ASPA expression would be a useful index to evaluate a function of oligodendrocyte in the dmy rat. PMID: 31100216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher...
Source: Brain Research - May 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuwamura M, Tanimura S, Hasegawa Y, Hoshiai R, Moriyama Y, Tanaka M, Takenaka S, Nagayoshi H, Izawa T, Yamate J, Kuramoto T, Serikawa T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Amygdala rapid kindling impairs breathing in response to chemoreflex activation.
Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy is often accompanied by behavioral, electroencephalographic and autonomic abnormalities. Amygdala kindling has been used as an experimental model to study epileptogenesis. Although amygdala kindling has been extensively investigated in the context of its clinical relevance to the epilepsies, potential associated respiratory alterations are not well known. Here, our main objective was to better investigate the mechanisms involved in respiratory physiology impairment in the amygdala rapid kindling (ARK) model of epileptogenesis. Male Wistar rats with electrodes implanted into the amyg...
Source: Brain Research - May 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Totola LT, Malheiros-Lima MR, Delfino-Pereira P, Vecchio FD, Souza FC, Takakura AC, Garcia-Cairasco N, Moreira TS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Serotonergic modulation of slow inward rectification in mesencephalic trigeminal neurons.
Abstract Inward rectification in response to membrane hyperpolarization is a prominent feature of mesencephalic trigeminal (Mes V) neurons and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih), as the basis of this property, regulates the spike discharge characteristics and input frequency preference (resonance) in these neurons, suggesting that Ih modulation is an important regulator of oral motor activity. To examine a possible contribution of serotonin (5-HT) to the modulation of Ih activation characteristics, in the present study, we investigated the modulatory effects of 5-HT receptor activation on Ih in po...
Source: Brain Research - May 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tanaka S, Tomita I, Seki S, Yamada S, Kogo M, Furusawa K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Persistent cytosolic Ca2+ increase induced by angiotensin II at nanomolar concentrations in acutely dissociated subfornical organ (SFO) neurons of rats.
PMID: 31085158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Izumisawa Y, Tanaka-Yamamoto K, Ciriello J, Kitamura N, Shibuya I Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Suppression of PDGF Induces Neuronal Apoptosis after Neonatal Cerebral Hypoxia and Ischemia by Inhibiting P-PI3K and P-AKT signaling pathways.
In conclusion, PDGF suppression aggravated neuronal dysfunction, and the underlying mechanism is associated with inhibiting the phosphorylation of P-PI3K and P-AKT. Together, PDGF regulating PI3K and AKT may be an important panel in HIE events and therefore may provide possible strategy for the treatment of HIE in future clinic trail. PMID: 31082354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiong LL, Xue LL, Jiang Y, Ma Z, Jin Y, Wang YC, Wang YY, Xia QJ, Zhang Y, Hu Q, Liu J, Wang TH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Establishment of Brain Ischemia Model in Tree Shrew.
CONCLUSION: we have successfully established the BI model of tree shrew, confirmed by NBS (a new developed method), MRI, HE staining, TTC staining and immunofluorescence staining. It is the first time to report a novel neurobehavioral assessment scale for BI in tree shrew. PMID: 31077648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang YY, Niu RZ, Wang JD, Jin Y, Wang TH, Liu F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Wnt pathway markers in molecular subgroups of glioblastoma.
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive brain tumor. Comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that GBM segregates into three subgroups with characteristic signaling pathways. The Wnt pathway recently received increasing attention with the recognition of its importance in tumor development and recurrence through the promotion of glioma stem cells. As an extension of our previous translational studies, here we tested the possible interactions between key subgroup markers (IDH-1 R132H, EGFRvIII and both cytoplasmic and nuclear loss [c-/n-] of NF-1 expression) and the can...
Source: Brain Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tompa M, Nagy A, Komoly S, Kalman B Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9/2 in the wounded tissue, dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord is involved in the development of postoperative pain.
Abstract Emerging evidence implicates the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/2 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord as a contributor to the pathogenesis of chronic pain. In the current study, the expression of MMP-9/2 in wounded tissue, ipsilateral DRG, and the spinal dorsal horn as well as its role in the development of postoperative pain were examined following plantar incision in rats. Our results showed that plantar incision resulted in increased expression of MMP-9/2 in wounded tissue and ipsilateral L4/5 DRGs. Although gelatin zymography detected an increased activity of MMP-9, onl...
Source: Brain Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu HW, Xing F, Jiang MJ, Wang Y, Bai L, Zhang J, Li TT, Zhang W, Xu JT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Offline consolidation of spatial memory: do the cerebellar output circuits play a role? A study utilizing a Morris water maze protocol in male Wistar rats.
In conclusion, ventromedial cerebellar related structures may contribute to the process of consolidation of an allocentric spatial memory: their inactivation may have impaired the offline integration of idiothetic information with allothetic signals within the navigational network, leading to a coarse resolution map. PMID: 31075262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Andre P, Zaccaroni M, Fiorenzani P, Della Seta D, Menzocchi M, Farabollini F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

USP8 ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments via microglial inhibition in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy.
Abstract Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common and serious complication of sepsis, which is thought to be caused by neuroinflammation. In our previous study, ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8), was reported to regulate inflammation in vitro. In the current study, we investigated whether increased USP8 expression would ameliorate the cognitive and motor impairments induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice, a model of SAE. Male adult mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham, CLP, and CLP+USP8 groups. The CLP+USP8 mice showed reduced weight loss on day 4 post-CLP, with a s...
Source: Brain Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bi W, Lan X, Zhang J, Xiao S, Cheng X, Wang H, Lu D, Zhu L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Combined machine learning and diffusion tensor imaging reveals altered anatomic fiber connectivity of the brain in primary open-angle glaucoma.
In this study, DTI-derived parameters were further constructed into fiber connectivity, and we investigated anatomical fiber connectivity changes within and beyond the visual pathway in POAG patients. DTI and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 18 POAG patients and 26 healthy controls (HC). White matter tracts based on the Brodmann atlases (BA) were constructed using the deterministic fiber tracking method. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA), fiber number (FN), and mean fiber length (FL) were measured and then evaluated using two-sample t-tests between POAG and HC. The fiber connectivity between regions...
Source: Brain Research - May 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Qu X, Wang Q, Chen W, Li T, Guo J, Wang H, Zhang X, Wang Y, Wang N, Xian J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neuro-behavioral effects after systemic administration of MK-801 and disinhibition of the anterior thalamic nucleus in rats: potential relevance in schizophrenia.
A, Scorza C Abstract Non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists have been suggested to evoke psychotomimetic-like behaviors by selectively targeting GABAergic elements in cortical and thalamic circuits. In previous studies, we had reported the involvement of the reticular and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) in the MK-801-evoked hyperactivity and other motor alterations. Consistent with the possibility that these responses were mediated by thalamic disinhibition, we examined the participation of cortical and hippocampal areas innervated by ATN in the responses elicited by the systemic adminis...
Source: Brain Research - May 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: López Hill X, Richeri A, McGregor R, Acuña A, Scorza C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

TSP2 acts as a suppresser of cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis in medulloblastoma by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.
Abstract Medulloblastoma (MB) represents a fatal malignancy often occurring in children. Angiogenesis is a hallmark of the progression of MB. Over the past decade, investigators have attempted to develop more effective and less toxic anti-angiogenic strategies to treat MB. Thrombospondin (TSP) family is observed to be a key regulator of angiogenesis. Thus, the current study aimed to elucidate the function of TSP2 in patients with MB and the underlying mechanism. The expression of TSP2, Notch1 and VEGF in MB and adjacent tissues collected from clinical samples as well as a MB cell line (Daoy) was examined. The resu...
Source: Brain Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pan W, Song XY, Hu QB, Zhang M, Xu XH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

NLRP3 inflammasome activation is involved in trimethyltin-induced neuroinflammation.
This study aimed to assess the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin-domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in TMT-induced central nervous system (CNS) injury. In addition, the mechanisms underlying TMT neurotoxicity are similar to those involved in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative diseases; hence, a study on TMT cytotoxicity may be informative for the understanding of human CNS diseases. Microglia were significantly activated in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus after TMT treatment. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β and interl...
Source: Brain Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jianhai L, Qian W, Huanhuan H, Xin S, Guodong L, Shuai W, Jun Y, Pengsheng Y, Yuan L, Yongan W Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of negative emotion on neural correlates of item and source memory during encoding and retrieval.
Abstract The enhancing effect of emotion on item memory is well-established, but emotion's influence on source memory has proven more elusive. Previous studies recording event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with memory encoding (Dms) and retrieval (old/new effects) showed an emotional enhancement of ERPs related to item memory, whereas ERPs related to source memory yielded contradictory results in the presence of emotion. The present study examined the influence of item emotionality on the neural correlates of memory encoding and retrieval for items and temporal source details. Participants studied negative ...
Source: Brain Research - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Minor G, Herzmann G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Angiotensin II Triggers Autophagy and Apoptosis in PC12 Cell Line: An in vitro Alzheimer's Disease Model.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study strengthen the crucial function of Ang II/AT1R axis in the pathogenesis of AD in vitro. These findings have deepened our understanding on the role of Ang II in the pathogenesis of AD and support the use of AT1R antagonists for the treatment of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. PMID: 31054884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tian M, Lin X, Wu L, Lu J, Zhang Y, Shi J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The correlation between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and functional recovery following chronic spinal cord compression.
The correlation between hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and functional recovery following chronic spinal cord compression. Brain Res. 2019 May 02;: Authors: Cheng X, Long H, Chen W, Xu J, Wang X, Li F Abstract The molecular mechanisms underlying cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are poorly understood. To assess the correlation between HIF-1α, MMP-9 and functional recovery following chronic cervical spinal cord compression (CSCI). Rats in the sham group underwent C5 semi-laminectomy, while a water-absorbable polyurethane polymer was implanted into the C6 epidural...
Source: Brain Research - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng X, Long H, Chen W, Xu J, Wang X, Li F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of Cognitive Performance and Neurophysiological Function during Repeated Immersion in Cold Water.
Abstract Exposure to cold causes disturbances in cognitive performance that can have a profound impact on the safety, performance, and success of populations that frequent cold environments. It has recently been suggested that repeated cold stress, resulting in cold acclimation, may be a potential strategy to mitigate the cognitive impairments frequently seen upon exposure to cold temperatures. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine cognitive and neurophysiological function during repeated cold water immersion. Twelve healthy participants consisting of 8 males and 4 females (mean ± SD age: 26 ...
Source: Brain Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jones DM, Bailey SP, De Pauw K, Folger S, Roelands B, Buono MJ, Meeusen R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Assessment of anti-nociceptive effect of allopurinol in a neuropathic pain model.
CONCLUSION: Allopurinol through interacting with different aspects of neuropathic pain, via anti-oxidant effects, protection against neuroinflammation, and activating adenosine receptors, could be useful in the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain. PMID: 31047885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Abad ASS, Falanji F, Ghanbarabadi M, Rad A, Nazemi S, Pejhan A, Amin B Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

FTY720 attenuates iron deposition and glial responses in improving delayed lesion and long-term outcomes of collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of FTY720 (0.3 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) on iron deposition, glial responses, histological abnormalities and behavioral dysfunction in mice with ICH. The primary adverse long-term outcomes in our study of ICH mice were depressive-like behavior and impaired recognition memory. We found that FTY720 safely ameliorated depressive-like behavior and impaired recognition without affecting recovery of grip function and locomotor activity 28 days post-ICH. Moreover, we measured neuron loss, white matter lesions, lesion volume and iron deposition at day 28, which were attenuated in the FTY720...
Source: Brain Research - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang Z, Dong S, Zheng Q, Zhang L, Tan X, Zou J, Yan B, Chen Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation is a Reversible and Frequency-Dependent Modulator of the Blood-Brain Barrier.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is a vasoactive mediator of the anterior intracranial circulation in mammals. SPG stimulation has been demonstrated to alter blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, although this phenomenon is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of SPG stimulation on the BBB using rat models. METHODS: Extravasation of fluorescent tracer 70kDa FITC-dextran into rat brain specimens was measured across a range of stimulation parameters to assess BBB permeability. Tight junction (TJ) morphology was compared by assessing differences in the staining ...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmidt RF, Theofanis TN, Lang MJ, Stricsek GP, Lin R, Lebrun A, Hooper DC, Rosenwasser RH, Sharan AD, Iacovitti L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Effect of sodium ferulate on the hyperalgesia mediated by P2X3 receptor in the neuropathic pain rats" [Brain Res. 1313 (2010) 215-221].
Corrigendum to "Effect of sodium ferulate on the hyperalgesia mediated by P2X3 receptor in the neuropathic pain rats" [Brain Res. 1313 (2010) 215-221]. Brain Res. 2019 Apr 25;: Authors: Zhang A, Gao Y, Zhong X, Xu C, Li G, Liu S, Lin J, Li X, Zhang Y, Liu H, Linag S PMID: 31030895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang A, Gao Y, Zhong X, Xu C, Li G, Liu S, Lin J, Li X, Zhang Y, Liu H, Linag S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Editorial: GABAergic networks in the developing and mature brain.
PMID: 31029656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kirmse K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential suppression of the ipsi- and contralateral nociceptive reflexes in the neonatal rat spinal cord by agonists of µ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors.
Differential suppression of the ipsi- and contralateral nociceptive reflexes in the neonatal rat spinal cord by agonists of µ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors. Brain Res. 2019 Apr 24;: Authors: Duarte J, Fernandes EC, Kononenko O, Sarkisyan D, Luz LL, Bakalkin G, Safronov BV Abstract Nociceptive discharges caused by the unilateral tissue damage are processed in the spinal cord by both ipsi- and contralateral neuronal circuits. The mechanisms of the neurotransmitter control of this bilateral excitation spread is poorly understood. Spinally administered opiates are known to suppress nocicep...
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Duarte J, Fernandes EC, Kononenko O, Sarkisyan D, Luz LL, Bakalkin G, Safronov BV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A newly identified nociresponsive region in the Transitional Zone (TZ) in rat sensorimotor cortex.
In conclusion, TZ appears to be a rat homolog of the nociresponsive part of monkey area 3a. A possibility is considered that this region might be primarily engaged in autonomic aspects of nociception. PMID: 31028729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Favorov OV, Pellicer-Morata V, DeJongh Curry AL, Ramshur JT, Brna A, Challener TD, Waters RS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Partial depletion of septohippocampal cholinergic cells reduces seizure susceptibility, but does not mitigate hippocampal neurodegeneration in the kainate model of epilepsy.
In this study, we attempted to examine how the inhibition of epilepsy-related cholinergic plasticity may be reflected in seizure susceptibility and/or in the development of chronic epilepsy and its neurological consequences. For this purpose, adult Wistar rats received intrahippocampal injections of low doses of 192-IgG-saporin (SAP) to produce a moderate, but significant loss of septohippocampal cholinergic cells and to suppress their plasticity. Then, animals were treated with kainic acid to induce status epilepticus, which leads to the development of chronic epilepsy later in life. It was found that SAP-pretreatment was...
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Soares JI, Da Costa C, Ferreira MH, Andrade PA, Maia GH, Lukoyanov NV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain State-dependent Alterations of Corticostriatal Synchronized Oscillations in Awake and Anesthetized Parkinsonian Rats.
In this study, local field potentials (LFPs) were simultaneously recorded in the motor cortex and striatum of dopamine-intact and dopamine-depleted hemiparkinsonian rats. Levodopa and three anesthetics (urethane, pentobarbital, and isoflurane) were utilized to assess the changes in neural activity under different brain states. Enhanced high beta (25-40 Hz) oscillations and coherence between the cortex and striatum were found under the wakefulness in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Urethane-anesthetized rats exhibited both the activated state and slow wave activity intermittently, while the enhanced synchronized low beta oscillations...
Source: Brain Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang X, Yan Y, Wang K, Wei J, Su W, Jia J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Gastrodin attenuates proliferation and inflammatory responses in activated microglia through Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway.
Gastrodin attenuates proliferation and inflammatory responses in activated microglia through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Brain Res. 2019 Apr 23;: Authors: Yao YY, Bian LG, Yang P, Sui Y, Li R, Chen YL, Sun L, Ai QL, Zhong LM, Lu D Abstract Microglia contribute to the regulation of neuroinflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of brain disorders. Thus, regulation of neuroinflammation triggered by activation of microglia has become a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Gastrodin in activated microglia and analyzed the underlying mo...
Source: Brain Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yao YY, Bian LG, Yang P, Sui Y, Li R, Chen YL, Sun L, Ai QL, Zhong LM, Lu D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Establishment of Novel Technical Methods for Evaluating Brain Edema and Lesion Volume in Stroked Rats: a Standardization of Measurement Procedures.
Abstract Stroke plays a role in high morbidity and mortality. Deciphering its mechanisms and pathophysiology is critical for the creation of new drugs and therapies. Most of the previous animal models of stroke, aimed at identifying the extent and location of brain injury following stroke, require animal sacrifice, which, besides ethical considerations, also negates the ability for follow up studies with the same rats. Because of these failures, the useof clinicalmagnetic resonance scanners forevaluatingsmall animal models has been increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging scanners used particularly for small-bore an...
Source: Brain Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Boyko M, Zvenigorodsky V, Grinshpun J, Shiyntum HN, Melamed I, Kutz R, Shelef I, Brotfain E, Frank D, Zlotnik A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration: a comprehensive review focusing on etiology.
Abstract Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare form of trans-synaptic degeneration characterized by hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus situated in the olivary body, part of the medulla oblongata, representing a major source of input to the cerebellum. HOD typically results from focal lesions interrupting connections from the inferior olive within the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway(DROP), a region also known as the Guillain-Mollaret triangle (GMT) (red nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, and contralateral dentate nucleus).Clinically, HOD presents classically as palatal tremor and can include dent...
Source: Brain Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang H, Wang Y, Wang R, Li Y, Wang P, Li J, Du J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduced tongue force and functional swallowing changes in a rat model of post stroke dysphagia.
CONCLUSION: Clinically relevant changes to swallowing and tongue force support the use of the MCAO rat model as a translational model of post stroke dysphagia. This model will allow for future studies to improve our understanding of the physiology contributing to these functional changes as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on physiological targets and function. PMID: 31022397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cullins MJ, Connor NP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Diffuse White Matter Response in Trauma-Injured Brain to Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Treatment Detected by Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging.
Abstract Diffuse white matter (WM) response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after the injury were non-invasively and dynamically investigated. Male Wistar rats (300-350g) subjected to TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (n=10) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x106 hMSCs, n=10) 1-week post-TBI. MRI measurements of T2-weighted imaging and diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) were acquired on all animals at multiple time points up to 3-months post-injury. Functional outcome was assessed using the Morris water maze test. DKI-derived metrics...
Source: Brain Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Chopp M, Ding G, Davoodi-Bojd E, Li Q, Mahmood A, Xong Y, Jiang Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Relationship of α-MSH and AgRP axons to the perikarya of melanocortin-4 receptor neurons.
Relationship of α-MSH and AgRP axons to the perikarya of melanocortin-4 receptor neurons. Brain Res. 2019 Apr 19;: Authors: Lima LB, Pedroso JAB, Metzger M, Gautron L, Donato J Abstract The central melanocortin system is composed of neurons that express either the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or the agouti-related protein (AgRP). POMC is cleaved in bioactive peptides, including the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). α-MSH activates the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) inducing satiety, whereas AgRP acts as an inverse agonist of MC4R. However, only limited information is avai...
Source: Brain Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lima LB, Pedroso JAB, Metzger M, Gautron L, Donato J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Subtle differences in synaptic transmission in medial nucleus of trapezoid body neurons between wild-type and Fmr1 knockout mice.
Abstract In animal models for fragile X syndrome where the gene for fragile X mental retardation protein is knocked out (Fmr1 KO), neurotransmission in multiple brain regions shifts excitation/inhibition balance, resulting in hyperexcitability in neural circuits. Here, using whole-cell recordings from brainstem slices, we investigated synaptic transmission at the medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB, a critical nucleus in the brainstem sound localization circuit), in Fmr1 KO and wild-type (WT) mice 2-3 weeks of age in both sexes. Surprisingly, neither synaptic excitation nor inhibition in KO neurons was signific...
Source: Brain Research - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control of Emotional Interference in Children with Learning Disorders: Evidence from Event-related Potentials and Event-related Spectral Perturbation Analysis.
PMID: 31004577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu H, Fan R, Zhao J, Chen Y, Li X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Morin post-treatment confers neuroprotection in a novel rat model of mild repetitive traumatic brain injury by targeting dementia markers, APOE, autophagy and Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway.
In conclusion, the study proved that mRTBI impairs memory and alters APO-E/Aβ42/p(thr231)Tau via the modulation of Wnt/β-catenin trajectory, autophagy, apoptosis, and inflammation. Additionally, post-treatment with Morin and/or MK-801 ameliorated these alterations, especially the combined regimen. It is also worth mentioning that Morin alone showed the finest behavioral improvements relative to the normal group. These results are summarized in Fig. 1. PMID: 31002817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: El-Gazar AA, Soubh AA, Mohamed EA, Awad AS, El-Abhar HS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Motor cortex metabolite alterations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis assessed in vivo using edited and non-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Abstract Previous MRI and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have revealed impaired neuronal integrity and altered neurometabolite concentrations in the motor cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we aim to use MRI with conventional and novel MRS sequences to further investigate neurometabolic changes in the motor cortex of ALS patients and their relation to clinical parameters. We utilized the novel HERMES (Hadamard Encoding and Reconstruction of MEGA-Edited Spectroscopy) MRS sequence to simultaneously quantify the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and antioxidant glutathione in ALS ...
Source: Brain Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Weerasekera A, Peeters R, Sima D, Dresselaers T, Sunaert S, De Vocht J, Claeys K, Van Huffel S, Van Damme P, Himmelreich U Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 reduces motivation, but not inhibitory control, in a rat stop signal task.
Abstract There is considerable clinical interest in the neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin for its ability to regulate motivation and reward as well as arousal and wakefulness. For instance, antagonists for the orexin-1 receptor (OxR1) are thought to hold great promise for treating drug addiction and disorders associated with overeating, as these compounds repeatedly have been found to suppress seeking of various drugs of abuse as well as highly palatable foods in preclinical models. Given the hypothesized role of OxR1 signaling in cue-driven motivation, an outstanding question is whether pharmacologically blocking th...
Source: Brain Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wiskerke J, James MH, Aston-Jones G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
In conclusion, dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired in patients with CAA. The degree of impairment is associated with the extent of cerebral microbleeds. PMID: 30998930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Reinhard M, Lorenz L, Sommerlade L, Allignol A, Urbach H, Weiller C, Egger K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Cell based therapy reduces secondary damage and increases extent of microglial activation following cortical injury.
Abstract Cortical injury elicits long-term cytotoxic and cytoprotective mechanisms within the brain and the balance of these pathways can determine the functional outcome for the individual. Cytotoxicity is exacerbated by production of reactive oxygen species, accumulation of iron, and peroxidation of cell membranes and myelin. There are currently no neurorestorative treatments to aid in balancing the cytotoxic and cytoprotective mechanisms following cortical injury. Cell based therapies are an emerging treatment that may function in immunomodulation, reduction of secondary damage, and reorganization of surviving ...
Source: Brain Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Orczykowski ME, Calderazzo SM, Shobin E, Pessina MA, Oblak AL, Finklestein SP, Kramer BC, Mortazavi F, Rosene DL, Moore TL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Untangling Narcolepsy and Diabetes: Pathomechanisms with Eyes on Therapeutic Options.
Abstract Narcolepsy (NA) is a primary sleep disorder characterized by loss of hypocretinergic/orexinergic neurons. NA is associated with an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Proposed mechanisms for this association are alterations in food intake, disruption of energy balance, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as well as inflammation and genetic factors. Orexin deficiency, is associated with increased food intake and reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR) both leading to obesity. The anti-apoptotic effect of orexin on pancreatic beta-cells, increase in peripheral insulin s...
Source: Brain Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohammadi S, Dolatshahi M, Zare-Shahabadi A, Rahmani F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The influence of task complexity and information value on feedback processing in younger and older adults: no evidence for a positivity bias during feedback-induced learning in older adults.
Abstract Humans flexibly adapt their behavior using feedback from their environment. This ability is impaired in old age, but recent research suggests this mainly concerns processing of negative feedback and that positive feedback might be spared. The aim of this study was to test this idea of an age-related positivity bias against the possibility of a strategic focus on relevant feedback due to limited processing resources in old age. For this purpose, 17 younger (aged 19 to 28 years) and 18 older (aged 69 to 79 years) adults performed a learning task in which they learned the correct response to a stimulus via f...
Source: Brain Research - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferdinand NK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Maternal consumption of piceatannol: a nutritional neuroprotective strategy against hypoxia-ischemia in rat neonates.
Abstract Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains a major cause of perinatal mortality and chronic disability in newborns worldwide (1-6 for 1,000 births) with a high risk of future motor, behavioral and neurological deficits. Keeping newborns under moderate hypothermia is the unique therapeutic approach but is not sufficiently successful as nearly 50% of infants do not respond to it. In a 7-day post-natal rat model of HI, we used pregnant and breastfeeding female nutritional supplementation with piceatannol (PIC), a polyphenol naturally found in berries, grapes and passion fruit, as a neuroprotective strategy. Maternal supp...
Source: Brain Research - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dumont U, Sanchez S, Olivier B, Chateil JF, Pellerin L, Beauvieux MC, Bouzier-Sore AK, Roumes H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Changes to Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels during Short-Term Epileptiform Activity in a Kainic Acid-Induced Rat Model of Status Epilepticus: A Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging Study.
Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate temporal changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signals in the hippocampus during epileptiform activity induced by kainic acid (KA) in a rat model of status epilepticus using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging technique. METHODS: CEST imaging and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) were applied to a systemic KA-induced rat model to compare GABA signals. All data acquisition and analytical procedures were performed at three different time points (before KA injection, and 1 and 3 hours after injection). The CEST signal was analyzed based on regions of i...
Source: Brain Research - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee DH, Lee DW, Kwon JI, Kim ST, Woo CW, Kon Kim J, Won Kim K, Seong Lee J, Gon Choi C, Suh JY, Choi Y, Woo DC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) antagonist BoxA suppresses status epilepticus-induced neuroinflammatory responses associated with Toll-like receptor 2/4 down-regulation in rats.
Abstract It has been generally accepted that inflammatory responses induced by status epilepticus (SE) in the brain are associated with microglial activation. One important regulator of microglial activation is high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein. HMGB1 exerts its influence on microglia via various pathways including Toll-like receptor (TLR) subtypes 2 and 4. To explore the HMGB1 role in the SE-induced microglial activation and the involvement of TLRs we conducted in vivo and ex vivo experiments using the HMGB1 antagonist BoxA. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain water content, hippocampal neuroinf...
Source: Brain Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu S, Zhang H, Hei Y, Yi X, Baskys A, Liu W, Long Q Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dl-3-n-butylphthalide promotes remyelination process in cerebral white matter in rats subjected to ischemic stroke.
Abstract Remyelination has been widely noticed as an important repair mechanism triggered after a stroke-induced white matter injury, but it often fails due to the lack of recruitment of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the demyelinated area and the inadequate differentiation of OPCs. Racemic dl-3-n-butylphthalide (dl-NBP) has been reported to improve the functional recovery in animal models of vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke. Dl-NBP (70 mg/kg) by oral gavage for two weeks from day 7 after a stroke was administered in the study, the treatment promoted differentiation a...
Source: Brain Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao C, Cheng X, Wang H, Liu C, Zhong S, Niu X, Zhang X, Qi R, Zhao S, Zhang X, Qu H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Exosome-shuttled miR-92b-3p from ischemic preconditioned astrocytes protects neurons against oxygen and glucose deprivation.
Abstract Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) exerts protective effects against ischemic cerebral injury. In the present study, an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia (oxygen and glucose deprivation, OGD) was established to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC. We found that conditioned medium (C.M.) from astrocytes rather than neurons nor microglia cell line BV2 exerted neuroprotection. Moreover, exosomes derived from OGD preconditioned astrocytes can be taken up by neurons and attenuated OGD-induced neuron death and apoptosis. High-throughput microRNA (miRNA) sequencing revealed that miR-92b-3p levels in e...
Source: Brain Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu L, Cao H, Xie Y, Zhang Y, Du M, Xu X, Ye R, Liu X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research