Where the gut meets the brain.
ez DV PMID: 29903614 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaelberer MM, Bohórquez DV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota.
Abstract The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or b...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Strandwitz P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms of vagal plasticity influencing feeding behavior.
Abstract Sensory neurons of the vagus nerve receive many different peripheral signals that can change rapidly and frequently throughout the day. The ability of these neurons to convey the vast array of nuanced information to the brain requires neuronal adaptability. In this review we discuss evidence for neural plasticity in vagal afferent neurons as a mechanism for conveying nuanced information to the brain important for the control of feeding behavior. We provide evidence that synaptic plasticity, changes in membrane conductance, and neuropeptide specification are mechanisms that allow flexibility in response to...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: de Lartigue G, Xu C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Roles for gut vagal sensory signals in determining energy availability and energy expenditure.
Abstract The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contribution...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Schwartz GJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Engineering a second brain in a dish.
Abstract The utilization of human pluripotent stem cells holds great promise in elucidating principles of developmental biology and applications in personalized and regenerative medicine. Breakthroughs from the last decade have allowed the scientific community to better understand and successfully manipulate human pluripotent stem cells using distinct differentiation strategies into a variety of target tissues. This manipulation relies solely on our understanding of developmental processes occurring in model organisms. The in vitro translation of our developmental knowledge upon stem cells provides a new means to ...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mahe MM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Bioelectronics for mapping gut activity.
Abstract Gastric peristalsis is initiated and coordinated by an underlying bioelectrical activity, termed slow waves. High-resolution (HR) mapping of the slow waves has become a fundamental tool for accurately defining electrophysiological properties in gastroenterology, including dysrhythmias in gastric disorders such as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Currently, HR mapping is achieved via acquisition of slow waves taken directly from the serosa of fasted subjects undergoing invasive abdominal surgery. Recently, a minimally invasive retractable catheter and electrode has been developed for HR mapping that...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Farajidavar A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Computational motility models of neurogastroenterology and neuromodulation.
Abstract The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function. Here, we review the recently developed biophysical models of e...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Barth BB, Shen X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Challenges in quantifying food intake in rodents.
Abstract Feeding is a critical behavior that animals depend on for survival, and pathological alterations in food intake underlie disorders such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. To understand these disorders and their development in animal models, researchers must quantify food intake. Although conceptually straightforward, it remains a challenge to obtain accurate records of food intake in rodents. Several approaches have been used to accomplish this, each with benefits and drawbacks. In this article, we survey the four most common methods for measuring food intake in rodents: manual weighing of food, automated w...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ali MA, Kravitz AV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The touchy business of gastrointestinal (GI) mechanosensitivity.
Abstract The gastrointestinal (GI) tract's normal function depends on its ability to propel, mix, and store contents in a highly coordinated fashion. An ability to sense mechanical forces is therefore fundamental to normal GI tract operation. There are several mechanosensory circuits distributed throughout the GI tract. These circuits rely on a range of proposed specialized and non-specialized mechanosensory cells that include epithelial enterochromaffin (EC) cells, both intrinsic and extrinsic sensory neurons, glia, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. While the anatomy of these circuits is...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Treichel AJ, Farrugia G, Beyder A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Bilateral cortical representation of tactile roughness.
This study showed that the selected tactile stimuli generated physiological bilateral responses that were modulated in a diversified way according to the stimulus roughness and side. Specifically, we identified sensory processing features (i.e., theta and alpha time overlap) invariant to the stimulus roughness (i.e., associated to a basic cortical mechanism of touch) and roughness-dependent cortical outputs comparable in the contralateral and ipsilateral sides that confirm a bilateral processing of tactile information. PMID: 29908164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Genna C, Oddo C, Fanciullacci C, Chisari C, S Micera, Artoni F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Consequences of tuning network function by tonic and phasic locus coeruleus output and stress: Regulating detection and discrimination of peripheral stimuli.
Abstract Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inv...
Source: Brain Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Devilbiss DM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Amniotic-fluid ingestion enhances central δ-opioid-induced hypoalgesia in rats in the cold-water tail-flick assay in a repeated-measures design.
Amniotic-fluid ingestion enhances central δ-opioid-induced hypoalgesia in rats in the cold-water tail-flick assay in a repeated-measures design. Brain Res. 2018 Jun 11;: Authors: Thompson AC, Feeney C, Kristal MB Abstract Placental Opioid Enhancing Factor (POEF) is found in amniotic fluid (AF) and placenta. When ingested, it enhances opioid-mediated pain relief. Our laboratory has shown that ingestion of AF specifically enhances the hypoalgesia associated with δ-opioid receptor activation in the brain. The specific biochemical compound in AF responsible for the enhancement of δ-opioi...
Source: Brain Research - June 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Thompson AC, Feeney C, Kristal MB Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Correcting deregulated Fxyd1 expression rescues deficits in neuronal arborization and potassium homeostasis in MeCP2 deficient male mice.
Abstract Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. In the absence of MeCP2/MECP2, expression of FXYD domain-containing transport regulator 1 (FXYD1) is deregulated in the frontal cortex (FC) of mice and humans. Because FXYD1 is a membrane protein that controls cell excitability by modulating Na+, K+-ATPase activity (NKA), an excess of FXYD1 may reduce NKA activity and contribute to the neuronal phenotype of Mecp2 deficient (KO) mice. To determine if FXYD1 can rescue these RTT deficits, we studied the male progeny of Fxyd1 null males bred to heterozygous Mecp2 femal...
Source: Brain Research - June 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Matagne V, Wondolowski J, Frerking M, Shahidullah M, Delamere NA, Sandau US, Budden S, Ojeda SR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits and neuropathology in R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease by decreasing mutant huntingtin protein level and normalizing NF- κB signaling pathway.
Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits and neuropathology in R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease by decreasing mutant huntingtin protein level and normalizing NF-κB signaling pathway. Brain Res. 2018 Jun 11;: Authors: Liu SY, Yu XL, Zhu J, Liu XM, Zhang Y, Dong QX, Ma S, Liu RT Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits, which is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). Reduction of mutant ...
Source: Brain Research - June 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu SY, Yu XL, Zhu J, Liu XM, Zhang Y, Dong QX, Ma S, Liu RT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

LRRK2 and mitochondria: Recent advances and current views.
Abstract Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene account for most common causes of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) and are one of the strongest genetic risk factors in sporadic PD. Pathways implicated in LRRK2-dependent neurodegeneration include cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicular trafficking, autophagy, mitochondria, and calcium homeostasis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms still need to be elucidated. Both genetic and environmental causes of PD have highlighted the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PD. Mitochondrial impairment has been observed i...
Source: Brain Research - June 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Singh A, Zhi L, Zhang H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Characterization of dural afferent neurons innervating cranial blood vessels within the dura in rats.
Abstract Dural afferent neurons are implicated in primary headaches including migraine. Although a significant portion of primary afferent neurons innervating the dura are myelinated A-type neurons, previous electrophysiological studies have primarily characterized the functional properties of small-sized C-type sensory neurons. Here we show the functional characterization of dural afferent neurons identified with the fluorescent dye DiI. DiI-positive neurons were divided into three types: small-, medium-, and large-sized neurons, based on their diameter, area, and membrane capacitance. The immunoreactivity of NF2...
Source: Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nakamura M, Jang IS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist reduces blood-brain barrier damage via induction of MKP-1 after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: CB2R agonist alleviated neuroinflammation and protected blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat ICH model. Further molecular mechanisms revealed which is probably mediated by enhancing the expression of MKP-1, then inhibited MAPKs signal transduction. PMID: 29886251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Yun D, Zhang Y, Tao Y, Tan Q, Qiao F, Luo B, Liu Y, Fan R, Xian J, Yu A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The pathological role of NLRs and AIM2 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in damaged blood-brain barrier after traumatic brain injury.
In conclusion, NLRs and AIM2 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis could aggravate BBB damage after TBI. Targeting and controlling pyroptosis in injured BBB would be a promising therapeutic strategy for TBI in the future. PMID: 29886252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ge X, Li W, Huang S, Yin Z, Xu X, Chen F, Kong X, Wang H, Zhang J, Lei P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Rapid syntactic pre-activation in Broca's area: Concurrent electrophysiological and haemodynamic recordings.
Roll M Abstract Listeners are constantly trying to predict what the speaker will say next. We concurrently measured the electrophysiological and haemodynamic correlates of syntactic pre-activation, investigating when and where the brain processes speech melody cues to upcoming word order structure. Pre-activation of syntactic structure was reflected in a left-lateralised pre-activation negativity (PrAN), which was subserved by Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the contiguous left anterior insula. PMID: 29883624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Söderström P, Horne M, Mannfolk P, van Westen D, Roll M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells that Overexpress NT-3 Produce Motor Improvements without Axonal Regeneration following Complete Spinal Cord Transections in Rats.
This study compared several transplantation paradigms using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress the multi-neurotrophin, NT-3/D15A (NT-3-MSCs), to determine if different grafting strategies can elicit improved axon regeneration and/or behavioral outcomes following a complete T9 spinal transection. At one week post-transection, NT-3-MSCs were transplanted above, and at several locations below, the lesion site. A rostral-to-caudal gradient of NT-3-MSCs was produced by incrementally increasing the number of transplanted cells at locations distal to the transection. Motor function was analyzed using the Basso, Beatti...
Source: Brain Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Stewart AN, Kendziorski G, Deak ZM, Bartosek NC, Rezmer BE, Jenrow K, Rossignol J, Dunbar GL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Metabolism and epilepsy: Ketogenic diets as a homeostatic link.
Abstract Metabolic dysfunction can underlie seizure disorders, and metabolism-based treatments can afford seizure control and promote homeostasis. This relationship between metabolism and the risk of sporadic seizures was observed historically with the clinical success of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketosis-inducing ketogenic diet - a treatment that remains relevant today, and one that has been shown to be effective against medically refractory epilepsy. Mechanisms underlying the success of the ketogenic diet are a topic of intense research efforts - not only because of proven success in arresting treatment-resi...
Source: Brain Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Masino SA, Rho JM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion accelerates Alzheimer's disease pathology with the change of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins expression in a novel mouse model.
Abstract Mitochondrial dynamically undergo massive fusion and fission events to continuously maintain their function in cells. Although an impaired balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion was reported in in-vitro and in-vivo Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, changes of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins have not been reported in AD with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (HP) as an etiological factor related to the development of elder AD. To clarify the impacts of HP on mitochondrial fission and fusion, related oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD, and protective effect of galantamine, the novel AD wit...
Source: Brain Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng T, Yamashita T, Zhai Y, Shang J, Nakano Y, Morihara R, Fukui Y, Hishikawa N, Ohta Y, Abe K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Blockade of anoctamin-1 in injured and uninjured nerves reduces neuropathic pain.
rbartián J Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the participation of anoctamin-1 in 2 models of neuropathic pain in rats (L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation [SNL] and L5 spinal nerve transection [SNT]). SNL and SNT diminished withdrawal threshold in rats. Moreover, SNL up-regulated anoctamin-1 protein expression in injured L5 and uninjured L4 DRG whereas that it enhanced activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3) and caspase-3 expression only in injured L5 DRG. In marked contrast, SNT enhanced ATF-3 and caspase-3, but not anoctamin-1, expression in injured L5 DRG but it did not modify anoctamin-1, ATF-3 ...
Source: Brain Research - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: García G, Martínez-Rojas VA, Oviedo N, Murbartián J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Postconditioning with sevoflurane ameliorates spatial learning and memory deficit via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress induced neuron apoptosis in a rat model of hemorrhage shock and resuscitation.
Abstract Hemorrhage shock could initiate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and then induce neuronal apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sevoflurane postconditioning could attenuate brain injury via suppressing apoptosis induced by ERS. Seventy male rats were randomized into five groups: sham, shock, low concentration (sevo1, 1.2%), middle concentration (sevo2, 2.4%) and high concentration (sevo3, 3.6%) of sevoflurane postconditioning. Hemorrhage shock was induced by removing 40% of the total blood volume during an interval of 30 min. 1h after the completion of bleeding, the animals were re...
Source: Brain Research - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu X, Wang J, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Duan X, Zhang Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Locus Coeruleus Activation Accelerates Perceptual Learning.
Abstract Neural representations of the external world are constructed and updated in a manner that depends on behavioral context. For neocortical networks, this contextual information is relayed by a diverse range of neuromodulatory systems, which govern attention and signal the value of internal state variables such as arousal, motivation, and stress. Neuromodulators enable cortical circuits to differentially process specific stimuli and modify synaptic strengths in order to maintain short- or long-term memory traces of significant perceptual events and behavioral episodes. One of the most important subcortical n...
Source: Brain Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Glennon E, Carcea I, Martins ARO, Multani J, Shehu I, Svirsky MA, Froemke RC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Fasting or systemic des-acyl ghrelin administration to rats facilitates thermoregulatory behavior in a cold environment.
Abstract Fasted rats place their tails underneath their body trunks in the cold (tail-hiding behavior), which is a thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of fasting and des-acyl ghrelin, a hormone related to fasting, on tail-hiding behavior and neural activity in the cold. Wistar rats were divided into 'fed', '42-h fasting' and des-acyl ghrelin groups. The rats received an intraperitoneal saline or 30-μg des-acyl ghrelin injection, and were then exposed to 27°C or 15°C for 2-h with continuous body temperature (Tb), tail skin temperature (Ttail), and tail-hi...
Source: Brain Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Uchida Y, Nagashima K, Yuri K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of glutamate and its receptors in migraine with reference to amitriptyline and transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy.
In this study we report the glutamate levels and changes in glutamate receptors following amitriptyline (AMT) or repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) therapy. One hundred and fifty migraine patients having more than 4 migraine attacks per month were included. Thirty patients were treated with AMT and 120 with rTMS; 24 patients received 3 sessions, thirty six received single session of rTMS and 60 patients received sham stimulation. The severity of headache was assessed by VAS score, Migraine Index and frequency of headache. Good outcome was defined by 50% improvement in headache frequency; severity and MI. P...
Source: Brain Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tripathi GM, Kalita J, Misra UK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered levels of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with traumatic brain injury.
In conclusion, plasma α-MSH levels decreased, but CSF levels increased slowly following TBI. These changes were more substantial in severe patients with a lower GCS. Increases in central α-MSH paralleled alleviation of inflammation. PMID: 29859146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng G, Feng J, Zhang S, Tong Y, Zhang Q, Yang X, Zhang H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

N-terminal and central domains of APC function to regulate branch number, length and angle in developing optic axonal arbors in vivo.
Abstract During formation of neuronal circuits, axons navigate long distances to reach their target locations in the brain. When axons arrive at their target tissues, in many cases, they extend collateral branches and/or terminal arbors that serve to increase the number of synaptic connections they make with target neurons. Here, we investigated how Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) regulates terminal arborization of optic axons in living Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The N-terminal and central domains of APC that regulate the microtubule cytoskeleton and stability of β-catenin in the Wnt pathway, were co-expressed...
Source: Brain Research - May 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jin T, Peng G, Wu E, Mediratta S, Elul T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

An ERP Study on Metacognitive Monitoring Processes in Children.
n B Abstract Little is known about what exactly differentiates metacognitive processes from ordinary cognitive processes particularly early in development, and the underlying developmental aspects. To examine the time-course of metacognition, the present study investigated the neural underpinnings of judgments of learning (JoLs) and compared them with control judgments, using an event-related potentials (ERP) design. During ERP recording, children age seven to eight were presented with cue-target picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs. After each pair, they either had to make a JoL (assess the likelihoo...
Source: Brain Research - May 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tsalas NRH, Müller BCN, Meinhardt J, Proust J, Paulus M, Sodian B Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Fear of Pain and Event-Related Potentials During Exposure to Image-Cued Somatosensory Stimulation.
Abstract Numerous behavior studies have assessed links of pain-related fear with biases in attention towards pain stimuli but considerably less is known about neural processes underlying such biases. To address this gap, event-related potentials (ERPs) were examined as 39 high pain-fearful (Hi-FOP) and 36 low pain-fearful (Lo-FOP) adults (1) viewed non-painful versus painful images and (2) subsequently received non-painful versus possibly painful somatosensory stimulation, respectively. The Hi-FOP group judged both non-painful and painful somatosensory stimulation to be more intense than Lo-FOP group members did. ...
Source: Brain Research - May 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng P, Lyu Z, Jackson T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential effects of left and right neuropathy on opioid gene expression in lumbar spinal cord.
Abstract The endogenous opioid system (EOS) controls the processing of nociceptive stimuli and is a pharmacological target for opioids. Alterations in expression of the EOS genes under neuropathic pain condition may account for low efficacy of opioid drugs. We here examined whether EOS expression patterns are altered in the lumbar spinal cord of the rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as a neuropathic pain model. Effects of the left- and right-side SNL on expression of EOS genes in the ipsi- and contralateral spinal domains were analysed. The SNL-induced changes were complex and different between the genes; betw...
Source: Brain Research - May 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kononenko O, Mityakina I, Galatenko V, Watanabe H, Bazov I, Gerashchenko A, Sarkisyan D, Iatsyshyna A, Yakovleva T, Tonevitsky A, Marklund N, Ossipov MH, Bakalkin G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine attenuated early brain injury in rats with subarachnoid haemorrhage by suppressing the inflammatory response: The TLR4/NF- κB pathway and the NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the mechanism.
This study was designed to investigate whether DEX had neuroprotective functions in EBI after SAH, and to explore the possible mechanisms. The SAH model was established by an endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. DEX (25 µg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally 2 hours after SAH. Neurological deficits, brain oedema, inflammation, BBB damage, and cell apoptosis at 24 h after SAH were evaluated. Additionally, the expression of components of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor...
Source: Brain Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yin D, Zhou S, Xu X, Gao W, Li F, Ma Y, Sun D, Wu Y, Guo Q, Liu H, Han L, Wang Z, Wang Y, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of acute prior inflammation with lipopolysaccharide for adult male rat facial motoneurones.
This study aimed to determine the effect of experimental inflammation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the survival of injured male adult rat facial motoneurones. Time- and dose- response studies were done to optimise the LPS administration time and dose, to best correlate with inflammatory levels previously reported for aged rats. 12 cytokines were assayed through multiplex analysis. 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of 0.5mg/kg Lipopolysaccharide in rats, IL-1β, IL-5 and IL-12p70 levels were elevated, with no observed LPS-associated sickness behaviour. In other groups of 5-6 adult rats, the facial nerve...
Source: Brain Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Katharesan V, Deery S, Johnson IP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide Preconditioning Increased the Level of Regulatory B cells in the Spleen after Acute Ischaemia/Reperfusion in Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: I/R mice preconditioned with LPS showed significantly reduced pathological damage, motor dysfunction, cognitive dysfunction, and inflammatory responses. LPS PC may initiate anti-inflammatory protective mechanism in the spleen after stroke, may increase the number of anti-inflammatory cells, such as Bregs, in the spleen, and may play a protective role in stroke. PMID: 29803621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Z, Zhou Y, Yu Y, He K, Cheng LM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban impairs consolidation, but not reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats.
This study investigated the effects of blockade of oxytocin receptors using the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban (ATO) on contextual fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation in male rats. Post-training injections of different doses of ATO (1, 10, 100 or 1000 µg/kg) impaired the 48 h retention performance in a dose-dependent manner. The same doses of ATO following memory reactivation did not impair subsequent expression of contextual fear memories which formed under low or high shock intensities and tested 24 h or one week following memory reactivation. Also, no effect was found when ATO was admini...
Source: Brain Research - May 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Abdullahi PR, Eskandarian S, Ghanbari A, Rashidy-Pour A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Preservation of interhemispheric cortical connections through corpus callosum following intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of cerebral infarction.
Abstract Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) following cerebral infarction exerts functional improvements. Previous research has suggested potential therapeutic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection and synaptogenesis. These include secretion of neurotrophic factors, remodeling of neural circuits, restoration of the blood brain barrier, reduction of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination, and elevation of trophic factors. In addition to these mechanisms, we hypothesized that restored interhemispheric bilateral motor cortex connectivity might be an additional mechanism of functional reco...
Source: Brain Research - May 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nagahama H, Nakazaki M, Sasaki M, Kataoka-Sasaki Y, Namioka T, Namioka A, Oka S, Onodera R, Suzuki J, Sasaki Y, Kocsis JD, Honmou O Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Monoaminergic and aminoacidergic receptors are involved in the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 in mouse hippocampus (CA3) and prefrontal cortex.
Abstract Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), as the major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, elicited a novel antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test (FST) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats in our previous study. To further explore the molecular mechanism of Rb1 on the neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in this antidepressant-like effect, the neurochemical changes in the monoaminergi...
Source: Brain Research - May 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang GL, Wang YP, Zheng JY, Zhang LX Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Exercise related anxiety-like behaviours are mediated by TNF receptor signaling, but not depression-like behaviours.
DISCUSSION: Exercise associated TNFR1 and TNFR2 signaling in concert in WT exercise mice ice mediated reductions in aspects of anxiety-like behaviours. These findings are consistent with the current view that imbalances in TNF signaling are involved in disrupted affect. Additional studies are needed to further explore the roles of exercise related TNFR1 and TNFR2 signaling in anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours. PMID: 29800552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Morgan JA, Singhal G, Corrigan F, Jaehne EJ, Jawahar MC, Baune BT Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The cerebral protective effect and mechanism of action of vitamin B6 adjuvant ceftriaxone in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant treatment with vitB6 in pneumococcal meningitis could exert neuroprotective effect via increasing the preservation of cellular energy through affecting the KYN pathway and reducing of the inflammatory response. PMID: 29800553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu MMG, Liu X, Wang MMY Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of amphetamine exposure during adolescence on behavior and prelimbic cortex neuron activity in adulthood.
Abstract Repeated exposure to psychostimulants during adolescence produces long-lasting changes in behavior that may be mediated by disrupted development of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Here, we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) and dopamine receptor-selective drugs on behavior and neuron activity in the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent male, Sprague-Dawley rats were given saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH between postnatal day (P) 27 and P45. In Experiment 1, locomotor behavior was assessed during adulthood following challenges with a dopamine D...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sherrill LK, Gulley JM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

AH6809 decreases production of inflammatory mediators by PGE2 - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway in an experimentally induced pure cerebral concussion in rats.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that PGE2 metabolic pathway is involved in pathological changes of the secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms, in particular, the correlation between various key enzymes and the brain injury, has remained to be fully explored. More specifically, it remains to be ascertained whether AH6809 (an EP2 receptor antagonist) would interfere with the downstream of the PGE2, regulate the inflammatory mediators and improve neuronal damage in the hippocampus by PGE2 - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway. The expression and pathological changes of ...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li P, Jiang H, Wu H, Wu D, Li H, Yu J, Lai J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Preferential Inputs from Cholecystokinin-Positive Neurons to the Somatic Compartment of Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex.
Abstract Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in the cerebral cortex, mostly corresponding to fast-spiking basket cells, have been implicated in higher-order brain functions and psychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that the somatic compartment of PV+ neurons received inhibitory inputs mainly from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)+ neurons, whereas inhibitory inputs to the dendritic compartment were derived mostly from PV+ and somatostatin (SOM)+ neurons. However, a substantial number of the axosomatic inputs have remained unidentified. Here we show preferential innervation of the somatic compartme...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hioki H, Sohn J, Nakamura H, Okamoto S, Hwang J, Ishida Y, Takahashi M, Kameda H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan retards amygdala kindling-induced epileptogenesis.
Abstract Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the subsequent exposure of the cerebral cortex to serum albumin are known to activate transforming growth factor β (TGF- β) signaling in astrocytes and to play key roles in epileptogenesis after brain injury. It was recently reported that the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan suppresses activation of TGF- β signaling and prevents epileptogenesis in a rat vascular injury model. Here, we investigated the effects of losartan on epileptogenesis following amygdala kindling in rats. Systemic or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administratio...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nozaki T, Ura H, Takumi I, Kobayashi S, Maru E, Morita A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Elevating Integrin-linked Kinase Expression has Rescued Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory Deficits in an AD animal Model.
In this study, we reported that Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) protein levels and phosphorylation were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Increased ILK expression of dentate gyrus (DG) rescued the hippocampus-dependent neurogenesis and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that the effect of ILK overexpression in the hippocampus was exerted via AKT-GSK3β pathway. Finally, we found that Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, could improve the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and memory by enhancing ILK-AKT-GSK3β pathway activity in APP/PS1 mice. Thus, the...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu XF, Wang YC, Zong L, Chen ZY, Li Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Lateral hypothalamic orexin glucose-inhibited neurons may regulate reward-based feeding by modulating glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area.
Abstract Glucose inhibits ∼60% of lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons. Fasting increases the activation of LH orexin glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in low glucose. Increases in spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) onto putative VTA DA neurons in low glucose are orexin dependent (Sheng et al., 2014). VTA DA neurons modulate reward-based feeding (Aston-Jones et al., 2010). We tested the hypothesis that increased activation of LH orexin-GI neurons in low glucose increases glutamate signaling onto VTA DA neurons and contributes to reward-based feeding in food restricted animals. N-m...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Teegala SB, Sheng Z, Dalal MS, Hirschberg PR, Beck KD, Routh VH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of PTEN protects PC12 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation induced cell death through mitoprotection.
Abstract Mitochondria involve in the determination of ischemic neuronal cell fate through regulation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein negatively regulates Akt/PKB signaling which is the major cell survival pathway. The current study aimed to examine the impact of SF1670, a potent PTEN inhibitor, on mitochondria-mediated cell survival pathways in an in vitro stroke-like model. PC12 cells were exposed to one hour oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by different time points of reperfusion (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and SF1670 treatments. Our findings show...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Farajdokht F, Mohaddes G, Karimi-Sales E, Kafshdooz T, Mahmoudi J, Aberoumandi SM, Karimi P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Seizure modulation by sleep and sleep state.
Abstract Sleep is a dynamic process, during which the electrical rhythms of the brain orchestrate a complicated progression of changing frequencies, patterns and connectivity. Each stage of sleep is different electrophysiologically from wakefulness, and from other sleep stages. It should be no surprise, then, that the various sleep states influence the origin, suppression, and spread of seizures, and that different seizure types are affected in individual (and sometimes contradictory) ways. While much of the electrical symphony that occurs in both normal and epileptic brains is incompletely understood, at the basi...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bazil CW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase 1 promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion via activation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.
In this study, our findings demonstrated that protein and mRNA levels of HDAC1 were increased in glioma cell lines and glioma tissues compared to normal glial cell lines and non-neoplastic brain tissues, respectively. Furthermore, HDAC1 knockdown cells displayed decreased proliferation and invasion capabilities, whereas HDAC1 overexpressing glioblastoma cells displayed more proliferation and invasion capabilities in vitro. These novel outcomes suggested that knockdown of HDAC1 possibly suppressed the expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) proteins, while overexpression of HDAC1 significantl...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li S, Chen X, Mao L, Zahid KR, Wen J, Zhang L, Zhang M, Duan J, Duan J, Yin X, Wang Y, Zhao L, Tang X, Wang X, Xu G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Glycosylation of Cblns attenuates their receptor binding.
Abstract Cbln1 is the prototype of a family (Cbln1-Cbln4) of secreted glycoproteins and is essential for normal synapse structure and function in cerebellum by bridging presynaptic Nrxn to postsynaptic Grid2. Here we report the effects of glycosylation on the in vitro receptor binding properties of Cblns. Cbln1, 2 and 4 harbor two N-linked glycosylation sites, one at the N-terminus is in a region implicated in Nrxn binding and the second is in the C1q domain, a region involved in Grid2 binding. Mutation (asparagine to glutamine) of the N-terminal site, increased neurexin binding whereas mutation of the C1q site ma...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rong Y, Bansal PK, Wei P, Guo H, Correia K, Parris J, Morgan JI Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research