Effects of amphetamine exposure during adolescence on behavior and prelimbic cortex neuron activity in adulthood.
Abstract Repeated exposure to psychostimulants during adolescence produces long-lasting changes in behavior that may be mediated by disrupted development of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Here, we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) and dopamine receptor-selective drugs on behavior and neuron activity in the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent male, Sprague-Dawley rats were given saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH between postnatal day (P) 27 and P45. In Experiment 1, locomotor behavior was assessed during adulthood following challenges with a dopamine D...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sherrill LK, Gulley JM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

AH6809 decreases production of inflammatory mediators by PGE2 - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway in an experimentally induced pure cerebral concussion in rats.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that PGE2 metabolic pathway is involved in pathological changes of the secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms, in particular, the correlation between various key enzymes and the brain injury, has remained to be fully explored. More specifically, it remains to be ascertained whether AH6809 (an EP2 receptor antagonist) would interfere with the downstream of the PGE2, regulate the inflammatory mediators and improve neuronal damage in the hippocampus by PGE2 - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway. The expression and pathological changes of ...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li P, Jiang H, Wu H, Wu D, Li H, Yu J, Lai J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Preferential Inputs from Cholecystokinin-Positive Neurons to the Somatic Compartment of Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex.
Abstract Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in the cerebral cortex, mostly corresponding to fast-spiking basket cells, have been implicated in higher-order brain functions and psychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that the somatic compartment of PV+ neurons received inhibitory inputs mainly from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)+ neurons, whereas inhibitory inputs to the dendritic compartment were derived mostly from PV+ and somatostatin (SOM)+ neurons. However, a substantial number of the axosomatic inputs have remained unidentified. Here we show preferential innervation of the somatic compartme...
Source: Brain Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hioki H, Sohn J, Nakamura H, Okamoto S, Hwang J, Ishida Y, Takahashi M, Kameda H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan retards amygdala kindling-induced epileptogenesis.
Abstract Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the subsequent exposure of the cerebral cortex to serum albumin are known to activate transforming growth factor β (TGF- β) signaling in astrocytes and to play key roles in epileptogenesis after brain injury. It was recently reported that the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan suppresses activation of TGF- β signaling and prevents epileptogenesis in a rat vascular injury model. Here, we investigated the effects of losartan on epileptogenesis following amygdala kindling in rats. Systemic or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administratio...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nozaki T, Ura H, Takumi I, Kobayashi S, Maru E, Morita A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Elevating Integrin-linked Kinase Expression has Rescued Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory Deficits in an AD animal Model.
In this study, we reported that Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) protein levels and phosphorylation were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Increased ILK expression of dentate gyrus (DG) rescued the hippocampus-dependent neurogenesis and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that the effect of ILK overexpression in the hippocampus was exerted via AKT-GSK3β pathway. Finally, we found that Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, could improve the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and memory by enhancing ILK-AKT-GSK3β pathway activity in APP/PS1 mice. Thus, the...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu XF, Wang YC, Zong L, Chen ZY, Li Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Lateral hypothalamic orexin glucose-inhibited neurons may regulate reward-based feeding by modulating glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area.
Abstract Glucose inhibits ∼60% of lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons. Fasting increases the activation of LH orexin glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in low glucose. Increases in spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) onto putative VTA DA neurons in low glucose are orexin dependent (Sheng et al., 2014). VTA DA neurons modulate reward-based feeding (Aston-Jones et al., 2010). We tested the hypothesis that increased activation of LH orexin-GI neurons in low glucose increases glutamate signaling onto VTA DA neurons and contributes to reward-based feeding in food restricted animals. N-m...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Teegala SB, Sheng Z, Dalal MS, Hirschberg PR, Beck KD, Routh VH Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of PTEN protects PC12 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation induced cell death through mitoprotection.
Abstract Mitochondria involve in the determination of ischemic neuronal cell fate through regulation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein negatively regulates Akt/PKB signaling which is the major cell survival pathway. The current study aimed to examine the impact of SF1670, a potent PTEN inhibitor, on mitochondria-mediated cell survival pathways in an in vitro stroke-like model. PC12 cells were exposed to one hour oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by different time points of reperfusion (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and SF1670 treatments. Our findings show...
Source: Brain Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Farajdokht F, Mohaddes G, Karimi-Sales E, Kafshdooz T, Mahmoudi J, Aberoumandi SM, Karimi P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Seizure modulation by sleep and sleep state.
Abstract Sleep is a dynamic process, during which the electrical rhythms of the brain orchestrate a complicated progression of changing frequencies, patterns and connectivity. Each stage of sleep is different electrophysiologically from wakefulness, and from other sleep stages. It should be no surprise, then, that the various sleep states influence the origin, suppression, and spread of seizures, and that different seizure types are affected in individual (and sometimes contradictory) ways. While much of the electrical symphony that occurs in both normal and epileptic brains is incompletely understood, at the basi...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bazil CW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase 1 promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion via activation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.
In this study, our findings demonstrated that protein and mRNA levels of HDAC1 were increased in glioma cell lines and glioma tissues compared to normal glial cell lines and non-neoplastic brain tissues, respectively. Furthermore, HDAC1 knockdown cells displayed decreased proliferation and invasion capabilities, whereas HDAC1 overexpressing glioblastoma cells displayed more proliferation and invasion capabilities in vitro. These novel outcomes suggested that knockdown of HDAC1 possibly suppressed the expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) proteins, while overexpression of HDAC1 significantl...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li S, Chen X, Mao L, Zahid KR, Wen J, Zhang L, Zhang M, Duan J, Duan J, Yin X, Wang Y, Zhao L, Tang X, Wang X, Xu G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Glycosylation of Cblns attenuates their receptor binding.
Abstract Cbln1 is the prototype of a family (Cbln1-Cbln4) of secreted glycoproteins and is essential for normal synapse structure and function in cerebellum by bridging presynaptic Nrxn to postsynaptic Grid2. Here we report the effects of glycosylation on the in vitro receptor binding properties of Cblns. Cbln1, 2 and 4 harbor two N-linked glycosylation sites, one at the N-terminus is in a region implicated in Nrxn binding and the second is in the C1q domain, a region involved in Grid2 binding. Mutation (asparagine to glutamine) of the N-terminal site, increased neurexin binding whereas mutation of the C1q site ma...
Source: Brain Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rong Y, Bansal PK, Wei P, Guo H, Correia K, Parris J, Morgan JI Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Swimming Improves Cognitive Reserve in Ovariectomized Rats and Enhances Neuroprotection after Global Cerebral Ischemia.
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that swimming improves memory in OVX-rats, and that swimming preconditioning enhances the neuroprotective ERK1/2/CREB/BDNF pathway signaling and ameliorates brain damage after GCI in OVX-rats, which may be closely related to induction of an IL4-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID: 29778778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang M, Zhai Y, Sun Y, Zhang W, Li Q, Brann D, Wang R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

FTLD/ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations do not alter TDP-43's ability to self-regulate its expression in Drosophila.
ois M Abstract TDP-43 is a major disease-causing protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Today, more than 50 missense mutations in the TARDBP/TDP-43 gene have been described in patients with FTLD/ALS. However, the functional consequences of FTLD/ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations are not fully elucidated. In the physiological state, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Maintaining normal TDP-43 protein levels is critical for proper physiological functions of the cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the...
Source: Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Miguel L, Avequin T, Pons M, Frébourg T, Campion D, Lecourtois M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

SI: Catecholamine Dysregulation and Neurodegenerative Disease Catecholamine Dysregulation in Neurodegenerative Disease: from MolecularMechanisms to Circuit Dysfunction.
PMID: 29778780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Van Bockstaele EJ, Ross JA Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Activations of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and thalamus during agentic self-evaluation are negatively associated with trait self-esteem.
Abstract Individual self-esteem is dominated more by agency than by communion. However, prior research has mainly focused on one's agentic/communal self-evaluation, while little is known about how one endorses others' agentic/communal evaluation of the self. The present study investigated the associations between trait self-esteem and fundamental dimensions of social cognition, i.e. agency vs. communion, during both self-evaluation and endorsement of others' evaluation of oneself. We also investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between trait self-esteem and agentic self-evaluation. Behaviora...
Source: Brain Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang K, Wu S, Shi Z, Liu M, Peng M, Shen Y, Yang J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

An Approach for Brain-Controlled Prostheses Based on Scene Graph Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials.
Abstract Brain control technology can restore communication between the brain and a prosthesis, and choosing a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm to evoke electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an essential step for developing this technology. In this paper, the Scene Graph paradigm used for controlling prostheses was proposed; this paradigm is based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) regarding the Scene Graph of a subject's intention. A mathematic model was built to predict SSVEPs evoked by the proposed paradigm and a sinusoidal stimulation method was used to present the Scene Graph stimulus to...
Source: Brain Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li R, Zhang X, Li H, Zhang L, Lu Z, Chen J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain-derived microparticles activate microglia/macrophages and induce neuroinflammation.
In this study, we used flow cytometry, hopping probe ion conductance microscopy, immunofluorescence and other techniques to study the effect of brain-derived microparticle activation on microglia/macrophages that leads to neuroinflammation. BDMPs might be possible targets for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) changes after secondary nerve inflammation. PMID: 29777675 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rong H, Fan Y, Yang M, Zhang B, Sun D, Zhao Z, Wang D, Fan W, Wang J, Gu G, Li F, Liu X, Rao C, Chen H, Wang Y, Tian Y, Zhang J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Cognitive effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation in Parkinson's disease: A P300 study.
Abstract Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may compensate dysfunctions of the basal ganglia (BG), involved with intrinsic evaluation of temporal intervals and action initiation or continuation. In the cognitive domain, RAS containing periodically presented tones facilitates young healthy participants' attention allocation to anticipated time points, indicated by better performance and larger P300 amplitudes to periodic compared to random stimuli. Additionally, active auditory-motor synchronization (AMS) leads to a more precise temporal encoding of stimuli via embodied timing encoding than stimulus presentation a...
Source: Brain Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lei J, Conradi N, Abel C, Frisch S, Brodski-Guerniero A, Hildner M, Kell CA, Kaiser J, Schmidt-Kassow M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The antibody rHIgM22 facilitates hippocampal remyelination and ameliorates memory deficits in the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. In addition to motor, sensory and visual deficits, MS is also characterized by hippocampal demyelination and memory impairment. We recently demonstrated that a recombinant human-derived monoclonal IgM antibody, which is designated rHIgM22 and currently in clinical development for people with MS, accelerates remyelination of the corpus callosum in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice. Here, we investigated the effects of rHIgM22 in the hippocampus and on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the same mouse model of ...
Source: Brain Research - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cui C, Wang J, Mullin AP, Caggiano AO, Parry TJ, Colburn RW, Pavlopoulos E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A role of neuropeptide CART in hyperphagia and weight gain induced by olanzapine treatment in rats.
Abstract Although olanzapine is highly efficacious and most widely used second generation antipsychotic drug, the success of treatment has been hampered by its propensity to induce weight gain. While the underlying neuronal mechanisms are unclear, their elucidation may help to target alternative pathways regulating energy balance. The present study was undertaken to define the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a well-known anorexic peptide, in olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and body weight gain in rats. Olanzapine was administered daily by intraperitoneal route, alone or in combination ...
Source: Brain Research - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nakhate KT, Subhedar NK, Kokare DM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered activity and information flow in the default mode network of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rats.
In this study, we sought to assess alterations of activity and information flow in the default mode network (DMN) during TLE epileptiform discharges in pilocarpine-induced TLE rats. We identified that in resting state, the rat DMN could be divided into three subnetworks that constituted a frequency-specific information flow loop. This frequency-specific loop converted into frequency-independent flow patterns during the generation and propagation of epileptiform discharges. Moreover, the activity of the theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) bands in each DMN subnetwork exhibited completely different alterations during epilepti...
Source: Brain Research - May 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cui Y, Yu S, Zhang T, Zhang Y, Xia Y, Yao D, Guo D Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Social isolation reduces serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus of female, but not male, mice.
Abstract Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored. Here, we assess whether 4 weeks of post...
Source: Brain Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Keesom SM, Morningstar MD, Sandlain R, Wise BM, Hurley LM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Gi protein functions in thalamic neurons to decrease orofacial nociceptive response.
Abstract Orofacial pain includes neuronal pathways that project from the trigeminal nucleus to and through the thalamus. What role the ventroposterior thalamic complex (VP) has on orofacial pain transmission is not understood. To begin to address this question an inhibitory G protein (Gi) designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD) was transfected in cells of the VP using adeno-associated virus isotype 8. Virus infected cells were identified by a fluorescent tag and immunostaining. Cells were silenced after injecting the designer drug clozapine-n-oxide, which binds the designer receptor act...
Source: Brain Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Strand J, Stinson C, Bellinger LL, Peng Y, Kramer PR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Predicting the Unknown: Novelty Processing depends on Expectations.
We presented predictable series of five stimuli; the first three preceded by a cue indicating that the next stimulus was likely to be a standard stimulus, and the last two preceded by a cue indicating that the next stimulus was likely to be novel. On some trials a cue typically predicting a standard was in fact followed by an unexpected novel stimulus. This design allowed to investigate the independent effects of (violated) expectations and repetition on novelty processing. The initial detection of expected novels was enhanced compared to unexpected novels, as indexed by a larger anterior N2. In contrast, the orienting res...
Source: Brain Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Schomaker J, Meeter M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Improvement of impaired electrical activity in NPC1 mutant cortical neurons upon DHPG stimulation detected by micro-electrode array.
In this study, we utilized the micro-electrode array (MEA) to analyze the spontaneous extracellular electrical activity in cultivated cortical neurons of the NPC1 mutant (NPC1-/-) mouse. Our results show a decrease of the spontaneous electrical activity in NPC1-/- neuronal network when compared to wild type neurons, as indicated by the decreased spike rate, burst rate, event rate, and the increased burst period and event period. Application of 3, 5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a specific agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, improved the electrical activity of the NPC1-/- neuronal network, suggesting that ...
Source: Brain Research - May 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng X, Bader BM, Yang F, Segura M, Schultz L, Schröder OH, Rolfs A, Luo J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Drosophila models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with defects in RNA metabolism.
Abstract The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster has been widely used to study neurodegenerative diseases. The conservation of nervous system biology coupled with the rapid life cycle and powerful genetic tools in the fly have enabled the identification of novel therapeutic targets that have been validated in vertebrate model systems and human patients. A recent example is in the study of the devastating motor neuron degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in genes that regulate RNA metabolism are a major cause of inherited ALS, and functional analysis of these genes in the fly nervous sy...
Source: Brain Research - May 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang K, Coyne AN, Lloyd TE Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered regulation of Nur77 nuclear receptor gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic regions of rat brain by amphetamine sensitization.
va LK Abstract The mechanisms underlying psychostimulant drug-induced sensitization include long-term cellular and molecular adaptations in dopaminergic circuits. Nur77, a member of the Nur family of transcription factors, is expressed in brain regions receiving dopamine inputs and plays a role in activity-induced synaptic modification. Here we evaluated changes in Nur77 mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum (Str) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats receiving a repeated, sensitizing regimen of amphetamine (AMPH). Results were compared to two groups of controls - animals receiving repe...
Source: Brain Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhardwaj SK, Dodat F, Lévesque D, Srivastava LK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Satb2 ablation decreases PTZ-induced seizure susceptibility and pyramidal neuronal excitability.
Abstract Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is a transcriptional regulator and people with SATB2 mutation or duplication could display epilepsy. However, whether Satb2 is related with epilepsy and its mechanisms are largely unexplored. Here we found that the expression of Satb2 was decreased following the neuronal hyperactivities. Ablation of Satb2 in mice would decrease incidence and stage of seizure induced by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). At cellular levels, we found pyramidal neuronal excitability and excitatory synaptic inputs in CA1 were decreased in Satb2 mutant mice....
Source: Brain Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Huang WY, Lv CY, Cong J, Jie W, Li SJ, Gao TM, Li JM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The habenula in neurosurgery for depression: A convergence of functional neuroanatomy, psychiatry and imaging.
CONCLUSION: Data assessing the hypothesis are scarce. Nonetheless, findings highlight the major role of the habenula in normal, as well as in pathological brain function, particularly in depression disorders. Moreover, findings of studies utilizing electrode implantation in the region of the habenula underscore our growing realization that research in neuroscience and deep brain stimulation complement each other in a reciprocal relationship; they are as self-reliant, as much as they depend on each other. PMID: 29738717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Skandalakis GP, Koutsarnakis C, Kalyvas AV, Skandalakis P, Johnson EO, Stranjalis G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Bilateral Thalamocortical Abnormalities in Focal Cortical Dysplasia.
CONCLUSION: The data implied a widespread reduction in structural connectivity of the thalamocortical network. MRI analysis suggests a potential influence of FCD on thalamic volume. PMID: 29738718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rezayev A, Feldman HA, Levman J, Takahashi E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential regional and subcellular localization patterns ofafadin splice variants in the mouse central nervous system.
In this study, we report the generation and characterization of an antibody that specifically distinguishes s-afadin from l-afadin, and its application to investigate the expression profile of s-afadin in primary cultured neurons and tissue cryosections of adult mouse brain and retina. We describe differential regional and subcellular localization patterns ofl- and s-afadin isoforms in the mouse central nervous system. PMID: 29733813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ohama D, Matsuda T, Oinuma I Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of peripherally and cortically evoked swallows on jaw reflex responses in anesthetized rabbits.
This study aimed to investigate whether the jaw-opening (JOR) and jaw-closing reflexes (JCR) are modulated during not only peripherally, but also centrally, evoked swallowing. Experiments were carried out on 24 adult male Japanese white rabbits. JORs were evoked by trigeminal stimulation at 1 Hz for 30 sec. In the middle 10 sec, either the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or cortical swallowing area (Cx) was simultaneously stimulated to evoke swallowing. The peak-to-peak JOR amplitude was reduced during the middle and late 10-sec periods (i.e., during and after SLN or Cx stimulation), and the reduction was dependent on the c...
Source: Brain Research - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Suzuki T, Yoshihara M, Sakai S, Tsuji K, Nagoya K, Magara J, Tsujimura T, Inoue M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Pre and Post treatment with curcumin and resveratrol protects astrocytes after oxidative stress.
In conclusion, based on our observation, we found that Cur and Res both protected astrocytes from oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that Cur is most effective in early hours of insult while Res is effective in late hours suggesting that Res may or may not have immediate effect on astrocytes. PMID: 29729252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Daverey A, Agrawal SK Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Identifying aMCI with Functional Connectivity Network Characteristics based on Subtle AAL Atlas.
CONCLUSION: More subtle functional connectivity alterations of aMCI could be found based on AAL_1024 atlas than those based on AAL_90 atlas. Besides, the identification of aMCI could also be improved. PMID: 29729253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhuo Z, Mo X, Ma X, Han Y, Li H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Physical Exercise Reserved Amyloid-beta Induced Brain Dysfunctions by Regulating Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Inflammatory Response via MAPK Signaling.
In conclusion, exercise serves as a potential strategy to prevent the development of AD by regulating adult neurogenesis and brain immune-activity via controlling MAPK signaling. PMID: 29729254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun LN, Qi JS, Gao R Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-124 and microRNA-146a both attenuate persistent neuropathic pain induced by morphine in male rats.
Abstract We have recently reported that a short course of morphine, starting 10 days after sciatic chronic constriction injury (CCI), prolonged the duration of mechanical allodynia for months after morphine ceased. Maintenance of this morphine-induced persistent sensitization was dependent on microglial reactivity and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Given that microRNAs (miRNAs) such as miR-124 and miR-146a possess the ability to modulate such signaling, we directly compared their function in this model. We found that both miRNAs reversed established allodynia in our model of morphine-induced persistent sensitizat...
Source: Brain Research - April 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Grace PM, Strand KA, Galer EL, Maier SF, Watkins LR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Profiling of Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis and Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn.
Abstract The pain sensation system is highly conserved among species, thus animal models have been used to investigate relevant tissues. The focus for head-specific pain has been on the primary nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal pathway, i.e. trigeminal ganglia. The secondary nociceptive neurons of the trigeminal pathway, trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC), have not been assessed. We expect different gene expression profiles compared to the homologous spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH), as several signalling substances provoke head-specific pain but not peripheral pain. We aim to provide expression profiles of TNC an...
Source: Brain Research - April 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kogelman LJA, Elgaard-Christensen R, Olesen J, Jansen-Olesen I, Hansen TF Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The Physiological and Pathological Biophysics of Phase Separation and Gelation of RNA Binding Proteins in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Fronto-Temporal Lobar Degeneration.
Abstract Many RNA binding proteins, including FUS, contain moderately repetitive, low complexity, intrinsically disordered domains. These sequence motifs have recently been found to underpin reversible liquid: liquid phase separation and gelation of these proteins, permitting them to reversibly transition from a monodispersed state to liquid droplet- or hydrogel-like states. This function allows the proteins to serve as scaffolds for the formation of reversible membraneless intracellular organelles such as nucleoli, stress granules and neuronal transport granules. Using FUS as an example, this review examines the ...
Source: Brain Research - April 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: St George-Hyslop P, Lin JQ, Miyashita A, Phillips EC, Qamar S, Randle SJ, Wang G Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hydrogen peroxide extracellular concentration in the ventrolateral medulla and its increase in response to hypoxia in vitro: possible role of microglia.
;a-Ortega F Abstract Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a messenger involved in both damaging neuroinflammatory responses and physiological cell communication. The ventrolateral medulla, which regulates several vital functions including breathing and blood pressure, is highly influenced by hydrogen peroxide, whose extracellular levels could be determined by hypoxia and microglial activity, both of which modulate ventrolateral medulla function. Therefore, in this study we aimed to test whether different patterns of hypoxia and/or putative microglial modulators change extracellular hydrogen peroxide in the ventrolateral me...
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenia PP, Julio LJ, Polet CN, Benito O, Benjamín VS, Alberto MV, Peña-Ortega F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The salience network and human personality: Integrity of white matter tracts within anterior and posterior salience network relates to the self-directedness character trait.
t S Abstract A prevailing topic in personality neuroscience is the question how personality traits are reflected in the brain. Functional and structural networks have been examined by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, however, the structural correlates of functionally defined networks have not been investigated in a personality context. By using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), the present study assesses in a sample of 116 healthy participants how personality traits proposed in the framework of the biopsychosocial theory on personality relate to ...
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Prillwitz C, Rüber T, Reuter M, Montag C, Weber B, Elger CE, Markett S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dynamic duo - FMRP and TDP-43: regulating common targets, causing different diseases.
Abstract RNA binding proteins play essential roles during development and aging, and are also involved in disease pathomechanisms. RNA sequencing and omics analyses have provided a window into systems level alterations in neurological disease, and have identified RNA processing defects among notable disease mechanisms. This review focuses on two seemingly distinct neurological disorders, the RNA binding proteins they are linked to, and their newly discovered functional relationship. When deficient, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) causes developmental deficits and autistic behaviors while TAR-DNA Bindin...
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferro D, Yao S, Zarnescu DC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice.
Abstract To investigate the effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young APP/PS1mice, twenty 6-month-old male APP/ PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into the APP/PS1 control (AD control) group and the APP/PS1 running (AD running) group (10 mice per group), and ten wild-type mice of the littermate were regarded as the wild-type (WT) group. The AD running mice ran on motorized treadmill machiene for 4 months, while the WT mice and AD control mice were housed in standard condition without running. Then, Morris water maze tests (MWM) were used to assess the special learni...
Source: Brain Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang L, Ma J, Zhang Y, Zhou CN, Zhang L, Chao FL, Chen LM, Jiang R, Wu H, Tang Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The pleiotropic transcriptional regulator coup-tfi plays multiple roles in neural development and disease.
Abstract Transcription factors are expressed in a dynamic fashion both in time and space during brain development, and exert their roles by activating a cascade of multiple target genes. This implies that understanding the precise function of a transcription factor becomes a challenging task. In this review, we will focus on COUP-TFI (or NR2F1), a nuclear receptor belonging to the superfamily of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and considered to be one of the major transcriptional regulators orchestrating cortical arealization, cell-type specification and maturation. Recent data have unraveled the multi-face...
Source: Brain Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bertacchi M, Parisot J, Studer M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Liraglutide Attenuates the Depressive- and Anxiety-like Behaviour in the Corticosterone Induced Depression Model Via Improving Hippocampal Neural Plasticity.
Abstract Recent studies indicate that metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity are a major risk factor of psychiatric diseases. This relationship opens the opportunity to develop new antidepressant drugs by repurposing antidiabetic drugs. Previous research has demonstrated that GLP-1 analogs are neuroprotective in several neurological disease models including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. In addition, the GLP-1 analog liraglutide has been shown to promote neurogenesis, which is seen to play important roles in memory formation and cognitive and emotional processing. However...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Weina H, Yuhu N, Christian H, Birong L, Feiyu S, Le W Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hypobaric hypoxia impairs cued and contextual fear memory in rats.
Abstract Fear memory is essential for survival, and its dysregulation leads to disorders. High altitude hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is known to induce cognitive decline. However, its effect on fear memory is still an enigma. We aimed to investigate the temporal effect of HH on fear conditioning and the underlying mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for fear conditioning and exposed to simulated HH equivalent to 25,000 ft for different durations (1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days). Subsequently, rats were tested for cued and contextual fear conditioning. Neuronal morphology, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kumari P, Kauser H, Wadhwa M, Roy K, Alam S, Sahu S, Kishore K, Ray K, Panjwani U Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium protects VSC4.1 cells against 2,5-hexanedione-induced autophagy via NGF-PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) in preventing 2,5-hexanedione (HD)-induced damage to motoneurons, and examined the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects. VSC4.1 cells were exposed to 25 mM HD for 24 h followed by incubation with DMEM for 24 h. HD-treated cells were incubated with BMSC-CM at varied concentrations. Incubation with BMSC-CM ameliorated the decreased cell viability and reduced LDH release from cells exposed to HD. BMSC-CM suppressed the elevated number of autophagic vacuoles, cells with LC3 puncta, increased LC3-II...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Kong Y, Sun Y, Qian Z, Gao C, Shi X, Li S, Piao Y, Piao F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The role of Catecholamines in HIV Neuropathogenesis.
Abstract The success of anti-retroviral therapy has improved the quality of life and lifespan of HIV+ individuals, transforming HIV infection into a chronic condition. These improvements have come with a cost, as chronic HIV infection and long-term therapy have resulted in the emergence of a number of new pathologies. This includes a variety of the neuropathological and neurocognitive effects collectively known as HIVassociated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) or NeuroHIV. These effects persist even in the absence of viral replication, suggesting that they are mediated the long-term changes in the CNS induced by HI...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nolan R, Gaskill PJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in mice.
In this study, we confirmed the ameliorative effects of KY-226 on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using a murine model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). ICR mice were subjected to MCAO for 2 h followed by reperfusion. Although KY-226 permeability was poor through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of normal mice, it could penetrate through the BBB of mice after I/R insult. Intraperitoneal KY-226 administration elicited dose-dependent reductions in infarcted brain areas and improved neurological deficits. The neuroprotective effects of KY-266 were obtained when administered within 0.5 h after reperfusion. KY-226 (10 ...
Source: Brain Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun M, Izumi H, Shinoda Y, Fukunaga K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

αvβ5 integrin mediates the effect of vitronectin on the initial stage of differentiation in mouse cerebellar granule cell precursors.
In this study, we characterized the receptor candidates for VN in CGCPs. First, we confirmed that αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, which are receptor candidates for VN, were co-localized with VN in the developing cerebellum and primary cultured CGCPs. Next, the knockdown (KD) of αv, β3, and β5 integrins with small interference RNA (siRNA) for each integrin reduced the ratio of Tuj1, a final differentiation marker, -positive CGCPs. We further studied whether αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins control the initial differentiation stage. The KD of αv and β5, but not β3, ...
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Abe A, Hashimoto K, Akiyama A, Iida M, Ikeda N, Hamano A, Watanabe R, Hayashi Y, Miyamoto Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Medial frontal theta dissociates unsuccessful from successful avoidance and is modulated by lack of perseverance.
Abstract Medial frontal activity in the EEG is enhanced following negative feedback and varies in relation to important dimensions of impulsivity. In 22 undergraduate students (Mage = 18.92 years, range 18-22 years), we employed a probabilistic negative reinforcement learning paradigm in which participant's choices to avoid were followed by cues indicating successful or unsuccessful avoidance of an impending aversive noise. Our results showed that medial frontal theta power was significantly enhanced to a cue that signaled avoidance was unsuccessful. In addition, self-reported lack of perseverance, a dimension of ...
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: van Noordt SJR, Wu J, Thomas C, Schlund MW, Mayes LC, Crowley MJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

TNF- α-sensitive brain pericytes activate microglia by releasing IL-6 through cooperation between IκB-NFκB and JAK-STAT3 pathways.
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of TNF-α mediated induction of IL-6 release from brain pericytes and astrocytes and whether pericyte-derived IL-6 would facilitate activation of BV-2 microglia. Using rat brain pericyte and astrocyte primary cultures and pharmacological inhibitors, we found that, TNF-α induced the highest levels of IL-6 release from pericytes by activating the inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathways. STAT3 contr...
Source: Brain Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Matsumoto J, Dohgu S, Takata F, Machida T, Hatip FFB, Hatip-Al-Khatib I, Yamauchi A, Kataoka Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research