PET-based Treatment Response Assessment for Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: An Exploratory Study.
CONCLUSIONS: PERCIST1.0 appears to increase the chance of detecting patients with progressive disease compared to the conventional anatomical-based assessment of RECIST1.1. The integration of these additional radiographic metrics in assessing treatment response to nCR for pancreatic adenocarcinoma may provide a promising strategy to better select patients that are most suitable for therapeutic intensification. PMID: 30015263 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - July 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dalah E, Tai A, Oshima K, Hall WA, Erickson B, Li XA Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Development and Validation of a Nomogram for Predicting Overall Survival in Pancreatic NeuroendocrineTumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram which could predict 3- and 5-year OS were established in this study. Our nomogram showed a good performance, suggesting that it could be served as an effective tool for prognostic evaluation of patients with PNETs. PMID: 30015262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - July 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Miao DL, Song W, Qian J, Zhu ZG, Wu Q, Lv CG, Chen L Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Importance of RIP140 and LCoR Sub-Cellular Localization for Their Association With Breast Cancer Aggressiveness and Patient Survival.
In this study, we investigated RIP140 and LCoR localization (cytoplasm vs nucleus) in BC samples from a well-characterized cohort of patients (n = 320). RIP140 and LCoR were expressed in more than 80% of tumors, (predominantly in the cytoplasm), and the two markers were highly correlated. Expression of RIP140 and LCoR in the nucleus was negatively correlated with tumor size. Conversely, RIP140 and LCoR cytoplasmic expression strongly correlated with expression of two tumor aggressiveness markers: N-cadherin and CD133 (epithelial mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell markers, respectively). Finally, high RIP140 nu...
Source: Translational Oncology - July 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sixou S, Müller K, Jalaguier S, Kuhn C, Harbeck N, Mayr D, Engel J, Jeschke U, Ditsch N, Cavaillès V Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Histogram Analysis Parameters Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for Distinguishing High and Low-Grade Meningiomas: A Multicenter Study.
Abstract Low grade meningiomas have better prognosis than high grade meningiomas. The aim of this study was to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis parameters in different meningiomas in a large multicenter sample and to analyze the possibility of several parameters for predicting tumor grade and proliferation potential. Overall, 148 meningiomas from 7 institutions were evaluated in this retrospective study. Grade 1 lesions were diagnosed in 101 (68.2%) cases, grade 2 in 41 (27.7%) patients, and grade 3 in 6 (4.1%) patients. All tumors were investigated by MRI (1.5 T scanner) by using di...
Source: Translational Oncology - July 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Surov A, Ginat DT, Lim T, Cabada T, Baskan O, Schob S, Meyer HJ, Gihr GA, Horvath-Rizea D, Hamerla G, Hoffmann KT, Wienke A Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Characterization of long non-coding RNAs and MEF2C-AS1 identified as a novel biomarker in diffuse gastric cancer.
In this study, we provide a valuable resource of lncRNAs which might play important roles in the function of oncogenes or tumor suppressors affecting the development and progression of diffuse gastric cancer. PMID: 30005210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - July 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luo T, Zhao J, Lu Z, Bi J, Pang T, Cui H, Yang B, Li W, Wang Y, Wu S, Xue X Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Pancreatic Duct Adenocarcinoma Using a Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor-Targeted Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.
In conclusion, NIR760-XLP6 exhibits promising characteristics for imaging PDAC, and CB2R appears to be an attractive target for PDAC imaging. PMID: 30005208 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - July 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guo X, Ling X, Du F, Wang Q, Huang W, Wang Z, Ding X, Bai M, Wu Z Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

PSP1, a Phosphatidylserine-Recognizing Peptide, Is Useful for Visualizing Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.
In this study, we investigated the potential of phosphatidylserine-recognizing peptide 1 (PSP1) as an apoptosis-targeting probe, which identifies phosphatidylserine on cell surfaces. We first screened colon cancer cell lines for their sensitivity to radiation and selected two cell lines: HCT116 and HT29. Cell binding assay using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and optical imaging showed that HCT116 cells had better binding to PSP1 than HT29 cells. Thus, mouse xenograft model using HCT116 cells was generated and was topically irradiated with either single or fractionated dose of radiation followed by systemic administra...
Source: Translational Oncology - July 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bae SM, Park SJ, Choi M, Song M, Cho YE, Do EJ, Ryu YM, Park S, Lee BH, Lee SW, Hwang SW, Park SH, Yang DH, Ye BD, Byeon JS, Yang SK, Joo J, Kim SY, Myung SJ Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Small Molecules Identified from a Quantitative Drug Combinational Screen Resensitize Cisplatin's Response in Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Abstract Drug resistance to chemotherapy occurs in many ovarian cancer patients resulting in failure of treatment. Exploration of drug resistance mechanisms and identification of new therapeutics that overcome the drug resistance can improve patient prognosis. Following a quantitative combination screen of 6060 approved drugs and bioactive compounds in a cisplatin-resistant A2780-cis ovarian cancer cell line, 38 active compounds with IC50s under 1 μM suppressed the growth of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Among these confirmed compounds, CUDC-101, OSU-03012, oligomycin A, VE-821, or Torin2 in a combi...
Source: Translational Oncology - July 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sima N, Sun W, Gorshkov K, Shen M, Huang W, Zhu W, Xie X, Zheng W, Cheng X Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic Factors Related to the Histological Tumor Grade of Breast Cancer in Western China: An Epidemiological Multicenter Study of 8619 Female Patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that several clinicopathologic factors were associated with high tumor grade of breast cancer patients in Western China. PMID: 29982100 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - July 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zheng K, Tan JX, Li F, Li HY, Zeng XH, Ma BL, Ou JH, Li H, Yang SS, Jiang AM, Ni Q, Liu JL, Liu JP, Zheng H, Yue-Yang, Ling R, He JJ, Li ZG, Zeng J, Zou TN, Jiang J, Song ZJ, Liu QL, Ren GS Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Plasma Protein Profiling Reveal Osteoprotegerin as a Marker of Prognostic Impact for Colorectal Cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Of the 92 analyzed plasma proteins, osteoprotegerin showed the strongest prognostic impact in patients with colorectal cancer, and therefore osteoprotegerin is a potential predictive marker, and it also could be a target for treatments. PMID: 29982101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - July 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Birgisson H, Tsimogiannis K, Freyhult E, Kamali-Moghaddam M Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Dose Escalation of Lobaplatin Concurrent with IMRT for the Treatment of Stage III-IVb NPC: A Phase I Clinical Trial.
Abstract The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lobaplatin as a single agent chemotherapy concurrent with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in Asian population with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. From June 2016 to December 2017, 17 patients diagnosed with stage III-IVb NPC from an Asian population were prospectively enrolled. Patients were administered lobaplatin with 25-50 mg/m2 escalation of dosage on day 1. Every 21 days (days 1, 22, and 43) during radiotherapy, cycles were repeated. We administered radiotherapy as 2.12-2.27 Gy per fraction with five daily fractions each week for 6 to 7 ...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang SY, Xu XW, Yao JJ, Peng PJ, Zhou B, Liu QD, Huang XP, Lin Z Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Biphasic Alteration of Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) During Prostate Cancer Development.
We report here the biphasic changes of BChE expression in PC. In vitro, BChE expression was decreased in more tumorigenic PC stem-like cells (PCSLCs), DU145, and PC3 cells compared to less tumorigenic non-stem PCs and LNCaP cells. On the other hand, BChE was expressed at a higher level in LNCaP cells than immortalized but non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial BPH-1 cells. In vivo, BChE expression was up-regulated in DU145 xenografts compared to LNCaP xenografts; DU145 cell-derived lung metastases displayed comparable levels of BChE as subcutaneous tumors. Furthermore, LNCaP xenografts produced in castrated mice exhibited a s...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gu Y, Chow MJ, Kapoor A, Mei W, Jiang Y, Yan J, De Melo J, Seliman M, Yang H, Cutz JC, Bonert M, Major P, Tang D Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Increased CYFRA 21-1, CEA and NSE are Prognostic of Poor Outcome for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Lung: A Nomogram and Recursive Partitioning Risk Stratification Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Baseline tumor marker panel including CYFRA 21-1, CEA and NSE can be prognostic of outcome for LA-SCCL receiving definitive radiotherapy. The RPA identified four prognostic subgroups, which could assist personalized therapy and clinical trial design in LA-SCCL. PMID: 29958123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - June 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang J, Jiang W, Zhang T, Liu L, Bi N, Wang X, Hui Z, Liang J, Lv J, Zhou Z, Xiao Z, Feng Q, Chen D, Yin W, Wang L Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

The Prognostic Value of Tumor-Infiltrating lymphocytes in Stage II Colon Cancer. A Nationwide Population-Based Study.
CONCLUSION: Low CD3+ and CD8+ TILs in the invasive area are both related to inferior prognosis of stage II CC, and we recommend either of these parameters to be considered as additional high-risk factor. PMID: 29940413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - June 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Eriksen AC, Sørensen FB, Lindebjerg J, Hager H, dePont Christensen R, Kjær-Frifeldt S, Hansen TF Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Activating Transcription Factor 3 as a Novel Regulator of Chemotherapy Response in Breast Cancer.
Abstract Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are used as first-line chemotherapeutics, usually in combination therapies, for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. While these drugs have been successful therapeutic options, their use is limited due to serious drug related toxicities and acquired tumor resistance. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms that mediate doxorubicin's cytotoxic effect will lead to the identification of novel more efficacious combination therapies and allow for reduced doses of doxorubicin to be administered while maintaining efficacy. In our study, we demonstrate that activating transcri...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hasim MS, Nessim C, Villeneuve PJ, Vanderhyden BC, Dimitroulakos J Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Differential Sensitivity of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts to an IGF-II Neutralizing Antibody May Involve Activated STAT3.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly refractory to current therapeutics used in the clinic. DX-2647, a recombinant human antibody, potently neutralizes the action of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), a ligand for three cell-surface receptors (IGF-IR, insulin receptor A and B isoforms, and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor) which is overexpressed in primary human HCC. DX-2647 impaired the growth of tumor xenografts of the HCC cell line, Hep3B; however, xenografts of the HCC cell line, HepG2, were largely unresponsive to DX-2647 treatment. Analysis of a number of aspects of the I...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Greenall SA, Donoghue J, Johns TG, Adams TE Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization and Putative Pathogenic Pathways of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma.
In this study, we assessed the mTOR pathway activation and aimed to evaluate molecular characteristics and pathogenic pathways of TSC-RCC. Two cases of TSC-RCC, one from a 31-year-old female and the other from an 8-year-old male, were assessed. The mTOR pathway activation was determined by immunohistochemistry. The mutational spectrum of both TSC-RCCs was evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES), and pathogenic pathways were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed by NanoString Technologies nCounter platform. The mTOR pathway activation and the germline mutations of TSC2 were identified in both TSC-RCC case...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Park JH, Lee C, Chang MS, Kim K, Choi S, Lee H, Lee HS, Moon KC Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Histogram Profiling of Postcontrast T1-Weighted MRI Gives Valuable Insights into Tumor Biology and Enables Prediction of Growth Kinetics and Prognosis in Meningiomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previously reported findings, pretherapeutic postcontrast T1-weighted images can be used to predict growth kinetics in meningiomas if whole tumor histogram analysis is employed. However, no differences between distinct WHO grades were identifiable in out cohort. As a consequence, histogram analysis of postcontrast T1-weighted images is a promising approach to obtain quantitative in vivo biomarkers reflecting the proliferative potential in meningiomas. PMID: 29909365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - June 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gihr GA, Horvath-Rizea D, Kohlhof-Meinecke P, Ganslandt O, Henkes H, Richter C, Hoffmann KT, Surov A, Schob S Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Androgen Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer: What Differences Between Primary Tumor and Metastases?
cca A Abstract Genomic studies have shown that the androgen receptor (AR) pathway plays an important role in some breast cancer subtypes. However few data are present on the concordance between AR expression in primary tumors and metastases. We investigated AR expression by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 164 primary tumors and 83 metastases, to explore its distribution in the different tumor subtypes and its concordance between the two sample types and according to sampling time. AR was more highly expressed in luminal A and B than HER2-positive and triple negative primary tumors. A similar distribution was f...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bronte G, Bravaccini S, Ravaioli S, Puccetti M, Scarpi E, Andreis D, Tumedei MM, Sarti S, Cecconetto L, Pietri E, De Simone V, Maltoni R, Bonafè M, Amadori D, Rocca A Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Relationship of In Vivo MR Parameters to Histopathological and Molecular Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed, Nonenhancing Lower-Grade Gliomas.
Abstract The goal of this research was to elucidate the relationship between WHO 2016 molecular classifications of newly diagnosed, nonenhancing lower grade gliomas (LrGG), tissue sample histopathology, and magnetic resonance (MR) parameters derived from diffusion, perfusion, and 1H spectroscopic imaging from the tissue sample locations and the entire tumor. A total of 135 patients were scanned prior to initial surgery, with tumor cellularity scores obtained from 88 image-guided tissue samples. MR parameters were obtained from corresponding sample locations, and histograms of normalized MR parameters within the T2...
Source: Translational Oncology - June 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luks TL, McKnight TR, Jalbert LE, Williams A, Neill E, Lobo KA, Persson AI, Perry A, Phillips JJ, Molinaro AM, Chang SM, Nelson SJ Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

p53 Mediates Vast Gene Expression Changes That Contribute to Poor Chemotherapeutic Response in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer.
Abstract p53 is a transcription factor that regulates expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. TP53 harbors mutations that inactivate its transcriptional activity in roughly 30% of breast cancers, and these tumors are much more likely to undergo a pathological complete response to chemotherapy. Thus, the gene expression program activated by wild-type p53 contributes to a poor response. We used an in vivo genetic model system to comprehensively define the p53- and p21-dependent genes and pathways modulated in tumors following doxorubicin treatment. We identified genes differenti...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tonnessen-Murray C, Ungerleider NA, Rao SG, Wasylishen AR, Frey WD, Jackson JG Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Expression of Androgen Receptor and Cancer Stem Cell Markers (CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1+): Prognostic Implications in Invasive Breast Cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of AR and CD24 in stage I-III invasive BCa correlates with favorable clinicopathological features and delineates a subgroup of patients with better disease-free survival. PMID: 29843115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - May 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Riaz N, Idress R, Habib S, Azam I, Lalani EM Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide Demonstrates Promising Antitumor Efficacy in Gastric Carcinoma by Targeting MGAT5.
This study shows that H2S can effective targeting inhibits MGAT5 activity, and demonstrates promising antitumor efficacy. These findings gain mechanistic insights into the anti-cancer capacity of H2S and may provide useful information for the clinical explorations of H2S in cancer treatment. PMID: 29800930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - May 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang R, Fan Q, Zhang J, Zhang X, Kang Y, Wang Z Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Skin Allografting Activates Anti-tumor Immunity and Suppresses Growth of Colon Cancer in Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Allogenic skin transplantation suppresses the tumor growth through activating the allogenic immune response, and it may provide a new immunotherapy option for the clinical refractory tumor treatment. PMID: 29793087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - May 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Li X, Lan X, Wang G, Liu Y, Zhao K, Lu SZ, Xu XX, Shi GG, Ye K, Zhang BR, Zhao YM, Han HQ, Du CG, Ichim TE, Wang H Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

A Direct Plasma miRNA Assay for Early Detection and Histological Classification of Lung Cancer.
Abstract Cell-free microRNAs in plasma provide circulating biomarkers for lung cancer. Most techniques for analysis of miRNAs require a large plasma volume to purify a sufficient RNA yield followed by complicated downstream processing. Small differences in the multiple procedures often cause large analytical variations and poor diagnostic values of the plasma biomarkers. Here we investigate whether directly quantifying plasma miRNAs without RNA purification could diagnose lung cancer. FirePlex assay was directly applied to 20 μl plasma of 56 lung cancer patients and 28 cancer free controls for quantifying 11 lu...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Leng Q, Wang Y, Jiang F Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

DKK1 and Kremen Expression Predicts the Osteoblastic Response to Bone Metastasis.
The objectives of this study were to compare DKK1 expression with the in vivo osteoblastic response in a panel of breast and prostate cancer cell lines, and to discover mechanisms that regulate cancer DKK1 expression. DKK1 expression was highest in MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cells that produce osteolytic lesions, and hence a suppressed osteoblastic response, in animal models of bone metastasis. LnCaP, C4-2B, LuCaP23.1, T47D, ZR-75-1, MCF-7, ARCaP and ARCaPM cancer cells that generate osteoblastic, mixed or no bone lesions had the lowest DKK1 expression. The cell lines with negligible expression, LnCaP, C4-2B and T47D, exhibited me...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Clines KL, Clines GA Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Ultrasound Doppler as an Imaging Modality for Selection of Murine 4T1 Breast Tumors for Combination Radiofrequency Hyperthermia and Chemotherapy.
Abstract Noninvasive radiofrequency-induced (RF) hyperthermia has been shown to increase the perfusion of chemotherapeutics and nanomaterials through cancer tissue in ectopic and orthotopic murine tumor models. Additionally, mild hyperthermia (37°C-45°C) has previously shown a synergistic anticancer effect when used with standard-of-care chemotherapeutics such as gemcitabine and Abraxane. However, RF hyperthermia treatment schedules remain unoptimized, and the mechanisms of action of hyperthermia and how they change when treating various tumor phenotypes are poorly understood. Therefore, pretreatment scree...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Krzykawska-Serda M, Ho JC, Ware MJ, Law JJ, Newton JM, Nguyen L, Agha M, Curley SA, Corr SJ Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

US-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography: Clinicopathological Features Affect Total Hemoglobin Concentration in Breast Cancer.
Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate breast cancers total hemoglobin concentration (THC) characteristics and its association with clinical pathologic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the institutional review board and all patients provided written informed consent. 447 breast cancer patients, totally 455 lesions were included in our study. The size and THC of breast lesions were measured by conventional ultrasound (US) and US-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) 1-2 days before surgery. Clinical and pathology information of patients was collected. RESULT: The average THC values...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhi W, Wang Y, Chang C, Wang F, Chen Y, Hu N, Zhu X, Xie L Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Combination of PI3K/Akt Pathway Inhibition and Plk1 Depletion Can Enhance Chemosensitivity to Gemcitabine in Pancreatic Carcinoma.
Abstract The prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) remains pessimistic because of the difficulty in early diagnosis as well as the little advance in chemotherapy. Although being the first-line chemotherapy drug for PC at present, gemcitabine still has some disadvantages, such as low drug sensitivity and significant side effects. Thus, how to further improve the sensitivity of PC cells to gemcitabine is still a difficult subject in the field of pancreatic cancer-treatment. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is closely related to poor outcome in many malignant tumors and its high expression is linked to chemoresistance in PC. ...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mao Y, Xi L, Li Q, Wang S, Cai Z, Zhang X, Yu C Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Colorectal Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma Using Whole-Exome and RNA Sequencing.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the molecular basis of colorectal SRCC exhibits key differences from that of consensus COAD. Our findings clarify important genetic features of particular abnormalities in SRCCs. PMID: 29747153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - May 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nam JY, Oh BY, Hong HK, Bae JS, Kim TW, Ha SY, Park D, Lee WY, Kim HC, Yun SH, Park YA, Joung JG, Park WY, Cho YB Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Immune Prophets of Lung Cancer: The Prognostic and Predictive Landscape of Cellular and Molecular Immune Markers.
Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths throughout the world. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease when surgery, the best curative option, is no longer feasible. Thus, the prognosis of lung cancer remains poor and heterogeneous and new biomarkers are needed. As the immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer, the study of tumor microenvironment, with regard to the immune component, may provide valuable information for a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Through a detailed and critical evaluation of the most rec...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Catacchio I, Scattone A, Silvestris N, Mangia A Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Building CT Radiomics Based Nomogram for Preoperative Esophageal Cancer Patients Lymph Node Metastasis Prediction.
Abstract PURPOSE: To build and validate a radiomics-based nomogram for the prediction of pre-operation lymph node (LN) metastasis in esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 197 esophageal cancer patients were enrolled in this study, and their LN metastases have been pathologically confirmed. The data were collected from January 2016 to May 2016; patients in the first three months were set in the training cohort, and patients in April 2016 were set in the validation cohort. About 788 radiomics features were extracted from computed tomography (CT) images of the patients. The elastic-net approach was...
Source: Translational Oncology - May 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shen C, Liu Z, Wang Z, Guo J, Zhang H, Wang Y, Qin J, Li H, Fang M, Tang Z, Li Y, Qu J, Tian J Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNAs AC009014.3 and Newly Discovered XPLAID Differentiate Aggressive and Indolent Prostate Cancers.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The molecular mechanisms underlying aggressive versus indolent disease are not fully understood. Recent research has implicated a class of molecules known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. Our objective was to discover lncRNAs that differentiate aggressive and indolent prostate cancers. METHODS: We analyzed paired tumor and normal tissues from six aggressive Gleason score (GS) 8-10 and six indolent GS 6 prostate cancers. Extracted RNA was split for poly(A)+ and ribosomal RNA depletion library preparations, followed byRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) us...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cesnik AJ, Yang B, Truong A, Etheridge T, Spiniello M, Steinbrink MI, Shortreed MR, Frey BL, Jarrard DF, Smith LM Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Method Optimization for Extracting High-Quality RNA From the Human Pancreas Tissue.
In this study, we optimized the method for extracting high quality RNA from paired tumor and normal pancreatic tissues obtained from eight pancreatic cancer patients post-surgery. RNA integrity number (RIN) was checked to evaluate the integrity of RNA, we tried to extract the RNA with an RIN value of 8 or higher that allows for the latest genetic analysis. The effect of several parameters, including the method used for tissue lysis, RNAlater treatment, tissue weight at storage, and the time to storage after surgical resection, on the quantity and quality of RNA extracted was examined. Data showed that the highest quantity ...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jun E, Oh J, Lee S, Jun HR, Seo EH, Jang JY, Kim SC Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical Audit of the Radiotherapy Process in Rectal Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines and Quality Certification Do Not Avert Variability in Clinical Practice.
rrents A, Guedea F, Borras JM PMID: 29704788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - April 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Torras MG, Canals E, Jurado-Bruggeman D, Marín-Borras S, Macià M, Jové J, Boladeras AM, Muñoz-Montplet C, Molero J, Picón C, Puigdemont M, Aliste L, Torrents A, Guedea F, Borras JM Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

A Review of Clinical Radioprotection and Chemoprotection for Oral Mucositis.
Abstract The first tenet of medicine, "primum non nocere" or "first, do no harm", is not always compatible with oncological interventions e.g., chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiation, since they commonly result in significant toxicities. One of the more frequent and serious treatment-induced toxicities is mucositis and particularly oral mucositis (OM) described as inflammation, atrophy and breakdown of the mucosa or lining of the oral cavity. The sequelae of oral mucositis (OM), which include pain, odynodysphagia, dysgeusia, decreased oral intake and systemic infection, frequently require...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Oronsky B, Goyal S, Kim MM, Cabrales P, Lybeck M, Caroen S, Oronsky N, Burbano E, Carter C, Oronsky A Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

High Serum Level of Soluble Programmed Death Ligand 1 is Associated With a Poor Prognosis in Hodgkin Lymphoma.
In this study, the prognostic value of sPD-L1 was assessed in patients with HL. We measured serum sPD-L1 levels and identified their prognostic value in 108 newly diagnosed HL patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found higher serum sPD-L1 concentrations in HL patients than in healthy controls. The best sPD-L1 cutoff value for predicting disease progression risk was 25.1674 ng/ml. The 4-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the high-sPD-L1 and low-sPD-L1 groups were 78.8% and 93.3%, respectively. Multivariate survival analysis showed that advanced stage and higher sPD-L1 levels (>25.16...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guo X, Wang J, Jin J, Chen H, Zhen Z, Jiang W, Lin T, Huang H, Xia Z, Sun X Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

GALNT14 Involves the Regulation of Multidrug Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells.
Abstract GALNT14 is a member of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase enzyme family and mediates breast cancer cell development. Here, we find that GALNT14 regulates multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. The expression of GALNT14 is associated with MDR in breast cancer. Higher level of GALNT14 facilitates MCF-7 cells to resist Adriamycin, whereas knockdown of GALNT14 sensitizes cells to Adriamycin. Moreover, the expression of GALNT14 associates with the expression of P-gp, the efflux pump localized on the cell membrane, which could be the underlying mechanism of how GALNT14 induces MDR. In-depth analysis shows ...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shan J, Liu Y, Wang Y, Li Y, Yu X, Wu C Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Cytoplasmic TrkA Expression as a Screen for Detecting NTRK1 Fusions in Colorectal Cancer.
In this study, we investigated the potential use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting NTRK1 gene fusions. We performed and compared IHC with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 80 CRC patients. TrkA immunostaining was observed to be both membranous and cytoplasmic and was scored semiquantitatively using staining intensity and proportions. The tumors were observed to be NTRK1 gene fusion-positive when ≥20 out of 100 nuclei in FISH. A significant correlation between the IHC and FISH results for determination of the NTRK1 gene fusions was observed. We measured the cytoplasmic TrkA expression, which showed a...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Choi Y, Won YJ, Lee S, Kim A, Kim Y, Park WY, Jo HJ, Song GA, Kwon CH, Park DY Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

The Role of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein in Steatosis-Associated Hepatic Tumors Related to Chronic Hepatitis B virus Infection.
Abstract The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phas...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chung YL, Wu ML Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Global Effects of DDX3 Inhibition on Cell Cycle Regulation Identified by a Combined Phosphoproteomics and Single Cell Tracking Approach.
In this study we used a dual phosphoproteomic and single cell tracking approach to evaluate the effect of RK-33 on cancer cells. MDA-MB-435 cells were treated for 24 hours with RK-33 or vehicle control. Changes in phosphopeptide abundance were analyzed with quantitative mass spectrometry using isobaric mass tags (Tandem Mass Tags). At the proteome level we mainly observed changes in mitochondrial translation, cell division pathways and proteins related to cell cycle progression. Analysis of the phosphoproteome indicated decreased CDK1 activity after RK-33 treatment. To further evaluate the effect of DDX3 inhibition on ce...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Heerma van Voss MR, Kammers K, Vesuna F, Brilliant J, Bergman Y, Tantravedi S, Wu X, Cole RN, Holland A, van Diest PJ, Raman V Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Precision Medicine with Imprecise Therapy: Computational Modeling for Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer.
Abstract Medical oncology is in need of a mathematical modeling toolkit that can leverage clinically-available measurements to optimize treatment selection and schedules for patients. Just as the therapeutic choice has been optimized to match tumor genetics, the delivery of those therapeutics should be optimized based on patient-specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties. Under the current approach to treatment response planning and assessment, there does not exist an efficient method to consolidate biomarker changes into a holistic understanding of treatment response. While the majority of research on ch...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: McKenna MT, Weis JA, Brock A, Quaranta V, Yankeelov TE Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Liquid Biopsy from Tumor-Draining Vein Indicates that High Expression of Exosomal ECM1 Is Associated with Relapse in Stage I-III Colon Cancer.
CONCLUSION: High levels of exosomal ECM1 protein can identify CC patients with a higher risk of relapse. The analysis of exosomes isolated from the tumor-draining MV is a promising method for the identification of biomarkers before they reach the target organ. PMID: 29660691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Santasusagna S, Moreno I, Navarro A, Castellano JJ, Martinez F, Hernández R, Muñoz C, Monzo M Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Aggressive Phenotype of Cells Disseminated via Hematogenous and Lymphatic Route in Breast Cancer Patients.
Abstract Intratumoral heterogeneity of breast cancer remains a major challenge in successful treatment. Failure of cancer therapies can also be accredited to inability to systemically eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent evidence points to the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in expanding the pool of tumor cells with CSCs features. Thus, we assessed expression level as well as heterogeneity of CSCs markers in primary tumors (PT), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-enriched blood fractions in order to correlate them with signs of EMT activation as well as clinicopat...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Markiewicz A, Nagel A, Szade J, Majewska H, Skokowski J, Seroczynska B, Stokowy T, Welnicka-Jaskiewicz M, Zaczek AJ Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Unravels Carboxypeptidases as the Novel Biomarker in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Abstract Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers, with a high mortality rate and poor prognosis. However, little is known concerning the molecular mechanism of PDAC at the proteomics level. Here we report a proteomics analysis of PDAC tumor and adjacent tissues by shotgun proteomics followed by label-free quantification, and in total, 3031 and 3306 proteins were identified in three pairs of PDAC tumor and adjacent tissues, respectively; 40 of them were differentially expressed for at least three-fold in PDAC tumor tissues. Ontological and interaction network analysis highlighted t...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Song Y, Wang Q, Wang D, Junqiang Li, Yang J, Li H, Wang X, Jin X, Jing R, Yang JH, Su H Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers by Combined mRNA and miRNA Expression Microarray Analysis in Pancreatic Cancer.
In conclusion, we think that data mining method can do well in biomarker screening, and ECT2 and NRP2 can play as potential biomarker or therapy target by Crispr Cas9 in pancreatic cancer. PMID: 29631214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - April 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liu B, Yang H, Taher L, Denz A, Grützmann R, Pilarsky C, Weber GF Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy for Solid Tumors.
Abstract As a treatment for solid tumors, dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has not been as effective as expected. Here, we review the reasons underlying the limitations of DC-based immunotherapy for solid tumors and ask what can be done to improve immune cell-based cancer therapies. Several reports show that, rather than a lack of immune induction, the limited efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy in cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) likely results from inhibition of immune responses by tumor-secreted TGF-β and an increase in the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells in and around the solid tumor. Indeed,...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jung NC, Lee JH, Chung KH, Kwak YS, Lim DS Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

3D Imaging Detection of HER2 Based in the Use of Novel Affibody-Quantum Dots Probes and Ratiometric Analysis.
z OR, García N, Altamirano J Abstract Patients with breast cancer (BC) overexpressing HER2 (HER2+) are selected for Trastuzumab treatment, which blocks HER2 and improves cancer prognosis. However, HER2+ diagnosis, by the gold standard, immunohistochemistry, could lead to errors, associated to: a) variability in sample manipulation (thin 2D sections), b) use of subjective algorithms, and c) heterogeneity of HER2 expression within the tissue. Therefore, we explored HER2 3D detection by multiplexed imaging of Affibody-Quantum Dots conjugates (Aff-QD), ratiometric analysis (RMAFI) and thresholding, using BC mul...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pérez-Treviño P, la Cerda HH, Pérez-Treviño J, Fajardo-Ramírez OR, García N, Altamirano J Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Up-Regulation of PI 3-Kinases and the Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Cancer Stem-Like Cells Through DNA Hypomethylation Mediated by the Cancer Microenvironment.
In this study, we further characterized miPS-LLCcm cells both in vivo and in vitro. The tumors formed by subcutaneous injection showed the structures with pathophysiological features consisting of undifferentiated and malignant phenotypes generally found in adenocarcinoma. Metastasis in the lung was also observed as nodule structures. Excising from the tumors, primary cultured cells from the tumor and the nodule showed self-renewal, differentiation potential as well as tumor forming ability, which are the essential characters of CSCs. We then characterized the epigenetic regulation occurring in the CSCs. By comparing the D...
Source: Translational Oncology - April 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Oo AKK, Calle AS, Nair N, Mahmud H, Vaidyanath A, Yamauchi J, Khayrani AC, Du J, Alam MJ, Seno A, Mizutani A, Murakami H, Iwasaki Y, Chen L, Kasai T, Seno M Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research

Chemotherapy and Radiofrequency-Induced Mild Hyperthermia Combined Treatment of Orthotopic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Xenografts.
In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects (~20 days and 65 days, respectively) of combination chemotherapy and RF hyperthermia in an orthotopic PDAC model in mice. The benefit of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine treatment was confirmed in mice; however, the effect of treatment was statistically insignificant in comparison to saline treated mice during long-term observation. The benefit of RF was minimal in the short-term and completely insignificant during long-term observation. PMID: 29621664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Translational Oncology)
Source: Translational Oncology - April 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Krzykawska-Serda M, Agha MS, Ho JC, Ware MJ, Law JJ, Newton JM, Nguyen L, Curley SA, Corr SJ Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research