Expression of stem cell markers: OCT4, KIT, ITGA6, and ITGB1 in the male germinal epithelium.
usa M Abstract Efforts have been made for the isolation and characterization of human stem spermatogonia (SG) which would be of major interest for fertility preservation in oncologic patients. We evaluated the expression of mammalian SG stem cell markers, KIT, OCT4, integrin alpha 6 (ITGA6), and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1) as possible indicators for the isolation of those cells in humans. Two different types of SG were individually isolated by micromanipulation from testicular biopsies of men with conserved spermatogenesis. Expression of mRNA showed the absence of KIT and ITGB1 markers in SG. By immunocytochemistry (I...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - June 13, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sá R, Miranda C, Carvalho F, Barros A, Sousa M Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Impact of sperm retrieival on testis and epididymis: an experimental study using Wistar albino rats.
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm an...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - June 13, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Prithiviraj E, Suresh S, Manivannan M, Prakash S Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

The three-dimensional image analysis of the chromocenter in motile and immotile human sperm.
Abstract Chromosomes in human spermatozoa are arranged non-randomly with the centromeres of non-homologous chromosomes forming a chromocenter. We have compared motile and immotile sperm populations in normozoospermic patients to determine if there is any dissimilarity in the formation of the chromocenter and the nuclear position of chromosome 17. Based on the differences between motile and immotile populations, we propose for the 'optimal' nuclear organization to be defined as containing 1 to 3 chromocenter(s) with central radial and median longitudinal position for the centromere of chromosome 17. By this definit...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 22, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Alladin N, Moskovtsev SI, Russell H, Kenigsberg S, Lulat AG, Librach CL Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

A novel sorting technology allows for highly efficient selection of sperm without chromatin damage.
Abstract Sperm chromatin damage has been associated with male infertility, increased risk for spontaneous abortion, and poor embryo development. Available methods for detecting chromatin damage render the sperm no longer suitable for clinical use. Early apoptotic events resulting in chromatin damage are associated with increased permeability of the cell membrane to large ions. We propose the use of a large fluorescent organic cation, proprietary fluorochrome (PF-1), for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for negative selection of sperm without chromatin damage. Sperm with chromatin damage are PF-1 positive...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 22, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Funaro MG, Kim HH, Mazel S, Bolyakov A, Goldstein M, Schlegel PN, Paduch DA Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Conception and development of the Second Life® Embryo Physics Course.
Conception and development of the Second Life® Embryo Physics Course. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013 Jun;59(3):131-9 Authors: Gordon R Abstract The study of embryos with the tools and mindset of physics, started by Wilhelm His in the 1880s, has resumed after a hiatus of a century. The Embryo Physics Course convenes online allowing interested researchers and students, who are scattered around the world, to gather weekly in one place, the virtual world of Second Life®. It attracts people from a wide variety of disciplines and walks of life: applied mathematics, artificial life, bioengineering, biophysics...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 22, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Gordon R Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Dedication.
PMID: 23634712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 22, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Krawetz SA Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of potential protein biomarkers in patients with high sperm DNA damage.
In this study, we anticipated to establish a normal sperm parameter profile which would be compared to abnormal sperm samples and reveal candidate proteins. Our preliminary results indicate that no normal uniform profile could be established, which affirms the complexity of male fertility and confirms the limitations of standard semen analysis. Four main protein groups were identified in correlation with abnormal DNA fragmentation and/or motility. The first group included sperm nuclear proteins such as the SPANX (sperm protein associated with the nucleus on the X chromosome) isoforms and several types of histones. The seco...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 22, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Behrouzi B, Kenigsberg S, Alladin N, Swanson S, Zicherman J, Hong SH, Moskovtsev SI, Librach CL Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Silymarin protects from varicocele-induced damages in testis and improves sperm quality: evidence for E2f1 involvement.
This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin (SMN) on varicocele-induced damage in testis and its effects on sperm parameters and on antioxidant status. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control-sham, varicocele-induced, and SMN-treated varicocelized (50mg/kg, orally) rats. The sperm count, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine transition was evaluated after 42 days. The antioxidant status was analyzed by determining testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol molecules (TTM). The endocrine status of the testicular tissue was estimated by counting the normal Leydig cell distribution/...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 10, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Moshtaghion SM, Malekinejad H, Razi M, Shafie-Irannejad V Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Increased pregnancy after reduced male abstinence.
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that continuous epididymal sperm depletion after recurrent ejaculations (REC) in contrast to a period of abstinence (ABS) results in a decreased level of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and a consequent increased rate of pregnancy. Forty couples undergoing intra-cytoplasmic injection (ICSI) were asked to abstain from ejaculation for a period of 4 days and then ejaculate once per day for a period of 4 days, followed by a period of abstinence for 12 hours; sperm samples obtained after ABS and REC were assessed for volume, concentration, motility, and SDF and compared in 25 of the...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sánchez-Martín P, Sánchez-Martín F, González-Martínez M, Gosálvez J Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Effects of molybdenum on sperm quality and testis oxidative stress.
In conclusion, Mo affects the sperm quality through regulating the testicular oxidative stress in a complex manner. PMID: 23651332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhai XW, Zhang YL, Qi Q, Bai Y, Chen XL, Jin LJ, Ma XG, Shu RZ, Yang ZJ, Liu FJ Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Recurrent implantation success in consecutive embryo transfer cycles: a unique case report.
We describe here a unique case of a woman with an azoospermic male partner conceiving each time during ten consecutive in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. A 27 year old woman reported with primary infertility to our out-patient department at the Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Salt Lake, India in November 2001. Ten consecutive IVF-ET cycles including both, fresh and frozen embryos were performed over a span of ten years. Following each ET, the woman became pregnant; however, viable babies were not achieved. Finally, after the tenth consecutive IVF-ET cycle, a caesarean section (CS) was performed at ...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ghosh S, Chattopadhyay R, Goswami S, Ganesh A, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty B Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Haptoglobin phenotypes and in vitro fertilization treatment outcomes.
Abstract The haptoglobin (Hp) protein has been implicated in various aspects of reproduction. One possible mechanism is through its effect on angiogenesis. Angiogenesis plays a major role in follicle production. The Hp insertion polymorphism results in the production of Hp proteins denoted Hp 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2, with markedly different angiogenic activities. We sought to determine if the number of oocytes aspirated during in vitro fertilization is related to the Hp type and to compare clinical data and treatment outcomes. We conducted a prospective non-interventional study in an academic in vitro fertilization cent...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Weiss A, Ozeri D, Beck-Fruchter R, Lavee M, Geslevich Y, Levy AP Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Perinatal exposure to fluoxetine via placenta and lactation inhibits the testicular development in male rat offspring.
In conclusion, fluoxetine exposure via the placenta and lactation may inhibit and delay testicular development, adversely affecting several testicular parameters important for the establishment of sperm production in adulthood. PMID: 23651434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Oliveira WM, Sá IR, Torres SM, Morais RN, Andrade AM, Maia FC, Tenorio BM, Junior VA Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.
Abstract In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration  20x10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marria...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sengupta M, Deb I, Sharma GD, Kar KK Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

The PGAM4 gene in non-obstructive azoospermia.
Abstract Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is considered to be a severe infertility factor due to impaired spermatogenesis with the consequent absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. However, the underlying etiology and mechanism(s) remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation and association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4) gene in Chinese Han infertile men with NOA. The entire coding region of PGAM4 gene was sequenced from 214 participants including 103 infertile men with NOA and 111 controls with proven fertility. Screening was carried ...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 1, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jin Q, Pan H, Wang B, Wang J, Liu T, Yu X, Jia C, Fang X, Peng Y, Ma X Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Fetal growth restriction alters hippocampal 17-beta estradiol and estrogen receptor alpha levels in the newborn male rat.
Abstract Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes in affected newborns. The pathogenesis of FGR-associated neurodevelopmental impairment implicates abnormal hippocampal function. The steroid hormone estrogen and its receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), are involved in the normal programming of hippocampal development and structure. However, the impact of FGR on hippocampal estrogen and hippocampal ERα is not well characterized. We hypothesized that FGR will reduce hippocampal and serum levels of 17-beta estradiol and its receptor, ERα, in the newb...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 1, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Numpang B, Ke X, Yu X, Callaway C, McKnight R, Joss-Moore L, Lane R Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Anterior positioning of sex chromosomes on the head of human sperm sorted using visible wavelengths.
tos J Abstract The human ejaculate contains subpopulations of sperm with distinct properties. Human X- and Y-bearing sperm were separated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. To avoid the use of UV light the quantitative DNA dyes DRAQ5® and Dyecycle™ Vybrant® Violet were used. Sorting efficiency was similar for both dyes, but lower than what is usually obtained with the classical method involving Hoechst 33342 and UV light (60-70% enrichment, versus 80-90%). A total of 2,739 spermatozoa were evaluated, from seven distinct samples using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosomal probes...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - May 1, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Alçada-Morais S, Sousa AP, Paiva A, Almeida-Santos T, Ramalho-Santos J Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Contraindication of ART following a sperm FISH analysis, even though only 12% of the spermatozoa had enlarged heads.
We report on a couple with a five-year history of idiopathic primary infertility. Two early miscarriages had followed intrauterine insemination (IUI). The man's fertility was then re-evaluated, in order to establish whether or not IUI was the best treatment option. Although the semen parameters were normal (sperm concentration: 89 million/ml; progressive motility: 40%; percentage of typical forms: 20%), a computer-assisted sperm morphology analysis with strict criteria found that 12% of the spermatozoa had enlarged heads. All of the latter had a normal form and none had multiple flagella. Using fluorescence in situ hybridi...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - March 21, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Guthauser B, Boitrelle F, Albert M, Ketata F, Meynant C, Ferfouri F, Selva J, Vialard F Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Disruption of HDX gene in premature ovarian failure.
We present a case of a 19-year-old phenotypically normal girl with premature ovarian failure. Cytogenetic analysis using G banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) from cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient and the family revealed a de novo X;15 translocation and the imbalance to be 46,X,t(X;15)(Xpter → Xq21::15q11 → 15qter;15pter → 15q11::Xq21 → Xqter). ish (CEPX+, wep15+, ISNRPN+, PML+, D15S10+, wcp15-, SNRRN-, PML-)[20]. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay revealed a completely skewed XCI pattern in which selec...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - February 26, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Okten G, Gunes S, Onat OE, Tukun A, Ozcelik T, Kocak I Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic patients with Klinefelter syndrome and other sex-chromosomal anomalies.
In this study, the outcome of micro-TESE appeared not to differ between Klinefelter syndrome and other sex-chromosome abnormalities. PMID: 23402654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - February 12, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ando M, Yamaguchi K, Chiba K, Miyake H, Fujisawa M Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Association of rs6166 polymorphism with FSH receptor transcript variants and steroid production in human granulosa cell cultures.
Abstract Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genetic variation at position 2039 A > G (rs6166, p.Asn680Ser) was repetitively shown to correspond to the measures of ovarian sensitivity and the outcomes of gonadotropin stimulation. However, to date, there has been no study revealing the mechanisms behind the associations observed. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between rs6166 and mRNA expression of FSHR-dependent genes such as LHCGR, CYP19A1, and FSHR itself with particular reference to the FSHR transcript variants (deletions of exon 2, 6, and 9 and...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - February 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zalewski G, Wołczyński S, Chyczewski L Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Use of multivariate statistics to identify unreliable data obtained using CASA.
artínez AA Abstract In order to identify unreliable data in a dataset of motility parameters obtained from a pilot study acquired by a veterinarian with experience in boar semen handling, but without experience in the operation of a computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, a multivariate graphical and statistical analysis was performed. Sixteen boar semen samples were aliquoted then incubated with varying concentrations of progesterone from 0 to 3.33 µg/ml and analyzed in a CASA system. After standardization of the data, Chernoff faces were pictured for each measurement, and a principal compone...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - February 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Martínez LB, Crispín RH, Mendoza MM, Gallegos OH, Martínez AA Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Ion currents modulating oocyte maturation in animals.
Abstract Growing oocytes are arrested at the first prophase of meiosis which is morphologically identified by the presence of a large and vesicular nucleus, called the germinal vesicle. The dissolution of the germinal vesicle marks the resumption of meiosis during which the oocyte undergoes massive modifications up to the second meiotic block, which is removed at fertilization. The interval between the first and the second meiotic block is defined as maturation and the events occurring during this period are crucial for ovulation, fertilization, and embryo development. Oocytes are excitable cells that react to sti...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 11, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tosti E, Boni R, Gallo A, Silvestre F Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Comparison of three differential mouse blastocyst staining methods.
cute;ñez E Abstract Among the different techniques available to evaluate blastocyst quality, the most frequently used are those that allow the counting of the number of cells of the two distinct cell lineages present at this stage (trophectoderm or TE and inner cell mass or ICM), through differential staining. The goal of this study was to compare three different methods for the differential staining of mouse blastocysts: a TE selective labelling method using a lectin, a TE permeabilization method based on the use of a detergent, and immunodetection of TE and ICM specific markers. Mouse blastocysts produced...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 11, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mallol A, Santaló J, Ibáñez E Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Dermatan sulfate synergizes with heparin in murine sperm chromatin decondensation.
Abstract The mammalian sperm nucleus contains an unusually condensed chromatin, due to replacement of the majority of histones by protamines. However, soon after the spermatozoon penetrates the ooplasm at fertilization, decondensation of this densely packed chromatin must occur to allow formation of the male pronucleus and syngamy. Decondensation is accomplished by protamine disulfide bond reduction by oocyte glutathione and replacement of protamines by oocyte histones with the aid of an acceptor molecule. Previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS) present in the ooplasm funct...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 9, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sanchez MC, Sedo CA, Julianelli VL, Romanato M, Calvo L, Calvo JC, Fontana VA Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Genome constraint through sexual reproduction: application of 4D-Genomics in reproductive biology.
Abstract Assisted reproductive technologies have been used to achieve pregnancies since the first successful test tube baby was born in 1978. Infertile couples are at an increased risk for multiple miscarriages and the application of current protocols are associated with high first-trimester miscarriage rates. Among the contributing factors of these higher rates is a high incidence of fetal aneuploidy. Numerous studies support that protocols including ovulation-induction, sperm cryostorage, density-gradient centrifugation, and embryo culture can induce genome instability, but the general mechanism is less clear. A...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 8, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Horne SD, Abdallah BY, Stevens JB, Liu G, Ye KJ, Bremer SW, Heng HH Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Oxidative status in granulosa cells of infertile women undergoing IVF.
Abstract Studies on elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in granulosa cells (GC) and its subsequent effect on fertilization are limited. Oxidative stress (OS) mediated alterations in GC of infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) was investigated. GC were obtained from 28 women with endometriosis (Group A), 26 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Group B), and 32 women with tubal factor infertility (Group C). GC characteristics including cell count, viability, morphology and number of oocytes retrieved, and oocyte quality were assessed. OS parameters such as...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 2, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Karuputhula NB, Chattopadhyay R, Chakravarty B, Chaudhury K Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Somatic and reproductive outcomes in mice treated with cyclophosphamide in pre-pubertal age.
Abstract Disruption in the normal timing of female puberty, such as in pre-pubertal cancer treatments, can cause abnormal somatic development. We sought to evaluate the impact of cyclophosphamide (CTX) on the somatic, uterine, and ovarian, development of pre-pubertal mice. Pre-pubertal (day 18 of life) C57BL/6J female mice were randomized to receive placebo (group 1A and 1B), 200 mg/kg CTX (group 2A), or 120 mg/kg CTX (group 2B). Mice were euthanized on day 56 (A groups) or 95 (B groups) of life. Body weight and length, uterine and ovarian weight and right femur length and weight were measured, and o...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 2, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Detti L, Martin DC, Williams RW, Schlabritz-Loutsevich N, Williams LJ, Uhlmann RA Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype.
The objective of the current study was to characterize luteal function in vervet monkeys. Urine from 12 adult female vervets housed at an academic research center was collected for 10 weeks from single-caged monkeys in order to assess evidence of luteal activity (ELA) as determined by urinary excretion of pregnanediol glucuronide (Pdg) and estrone conjugates (E1c). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on the monkeys to assess body composition, bone density, and fat mass. Menstrual cyclicity was determined using records of vaginal bleeding. ELA was observed in 9 monkeys and was characterized by a late follic...
Source: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine - January 2, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kundu MC, May MC, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Lasley B, Gee N, Santoro N, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research