Management and neurodevelopmental outcomes of the tiniest babies
Care of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (BW) and having intact survival is still a challenge for neonatologists. In this issue of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagara reported the survival rate and the outcome of preterm infants with a BW of ≤500 g in a single institute during a 10-year period.1 Their strategy regarding the timing of delivery of live or stillborn infants with a BW of ≤500 g is to deliver cases where continued pregnancy would compromise maternal health or where non-reassuring fetal status is identified. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 24, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ming-Chou Chiang Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A new formula for estimating endotracheal tube insertion depth in neonates
The majority of extremely preterm infants require endotracheal intubation in the delivery room and neonatal intensive care units. Although the use of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure significantly reduces the intubation rate in extremely low birth weight infants, one-fourth of those who survive require reintubation within 7 days after extubation.1,2 When placed correctly, the tip of the endotracheal tube (ET) must be positioned in the midtracheal region, halfway between the inferior clavicle and the carina. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 24, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chung-Ming Chen Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Manifestations of hypomelanosis of ito
A 6-year-old boy adopted from China at 1 year of age had an unwitnessed fall with brief loss of consciousness. A noncontrast computed tomography of the head showed an incidental large left hemispheric hypodensity. He had history of anal stenosis and a rectal stricture requiring multiple dilations. His dentist had noticed that some of his teeth were missing and others were small. He did not have history of seizures and had achieved his developmental milestones on time. His skin showed multiple hypopigmented linear patches following Blaschko's lines exclusively on the left arm and leg (Fig.  1). (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 19, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ana C. Albuja, Arpan Shrivastava, Gulam Q. Khan Tags: Images Source Type: research

Phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and childhood eczema, rhinitis and wheeze
We examined the hypothesis that phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia modulates the infant's risk of developing eczema, rhinitis and wheeze in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 18, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M. Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Bee Wah Lee, Yap Seng Chong, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Vitamin D non-sufficiency is prevalent in children with chronic liver disease in a tropical country
To determine vitamin D status in children with chronic liver disease (CLD) in a tropical country. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 18, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Way Seah Lee, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin, Shin Yee Wong, Sik Yong Ong, Hee Wei Foo, Ruey Terng Ng Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and childhood eczema, rhinitis and wheeze
We examined the hypothesis that phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia modulates the infant's risk of developing eczema, rhinitis and wheeze in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 18, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M. Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Bee Wah Lee, Yap Seng Chong, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Vitamin D non-sufficiency is prevalent in children with chronic liver disease in a tropical country
To determine vitamin D status in children with chronic liver disease (CLD) in a tropical country. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 18, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Way Seah Lee, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin, Shin Yee Wong, Sik Yong Ong, Hee Wei Foo, Ruey Terng Ng Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Health literacy in children with asthma: A  systematic review
In this study, a systematic review of the relevant literature was conducted to elucidate the relationship between HL and asthma among children. An electronic database search was performed to obtain studies published between January 2005 –August 2016. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 17, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yu-Fen Tzeng, Bor-Luen Chiang, Yu-Hsia Chen, Bih-Shya Gau Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Factors affecting the efficacy and safety of aminophylline in treatment of apnea of prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential factors affecting the efficacy and safety of aminophylline in AOP treatment at standard doses and to determine appropriate patients for this therapy. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 16, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chaohui Ye, Caiyun Miao, Li Yu, Zhuoya Dong, Jie Zhang, Yingying Mao, Xiaodong Lu, Qin Lyu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Application of chromosome microarray analysis in patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability in South China
This study aimed to assess the usefulness of CMA for clinical diagnostic testing in the Chinese population. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 6, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Rongyue Wang, Tingying Lei, Fang Fu, Ru Li, Xiangyi Jing, Xin Yang, Juan Liu, Dongzhi Li, Can Liao Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The impact of TNF- α 308G > A gene polymorphism on children ’s overweight risk and an assessment of biochemical variables: A cross-sectional single-center experience
The aim of this study was to assess the role of TNF- α 308 G>A gene polymorphism in children's overweight risk so as to correlate this polymorphism with anthropometric and biochemical variables. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 28, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Cristina Oana M ărginean, Claudiu Mărginean, Mihaela Iancu, Valeriu G. Moldovan, Lorena Elena Melit, Claudia Bănescu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nuchal cord at delivery and perinatal outcomes: Single-center retrospective study, with emphasis on fetal acid-base balance
Our study objectives were to evaluate umbilical cord blood acid-base balance in presence of nuchal cord at delivery, effects of nuchal cord at delivery on perinatal outcomes and incidence of nuchal cord in a racially diverse population. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 24, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Rohitkumar Vasa, Roger Dimitrov, Shivani Patel Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Prediction of vesicoureteral reflux in children with febrile urinary tract infection using relative uptake and cortical defect in DMSA scan
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is an important urologic anomaly that causes renal injury in children with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of abnormalities detected on technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans, focusing on the association with VUR of the levels of relative decrease in kidney function and cortical defects after a first febrile UTI in children. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 22, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Il Ki Hong, Mi Hae Chung, Joong Hyun Bin, Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung Sue Kim, Chung Ho Kim, Jin-Soon Suh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents born premature and small-for-gestational age: A scenario of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)
Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, which was first described in the 1950s, is a disorder characterized by central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. With insulin resistance being one of the pathogenetic factors, it predisposes individuals to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.1 However, metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents has no universally accepted definition. The majority of current definitions have been adapted from the adult criteria developed by the National Cholesterol Education Program. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 17, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yuh-Jyh Lin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The effect of palivizumab prophylaxis on respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia
We read with great interest the article authored by Resch et  al.1 [1] that reported a moderate risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalizations in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and that palivizumab prophylaxis resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in the number of RSV-associated hospitalizations. Although this is a n important finding having clinical implications, this study has some limitations, and we would like to make some comments on this article. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 16, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Pei-Lan Shao Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Hepcidin correlates with interleukin-1 β and interleukin-6 but not iron deficiency in children with Helicobacter pylori infection
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with iron deficiency (ID) in children. Inflammatory cytokine reactions could influence the consequences of H. pylori infection. Hepcidin is an important regulator in iron homeostasis and could be induced by chronic inflammation. The relationship between hepcidin and cytokine levels in children infected with H. pylori remains controversial. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 13, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Szu-Ta Chen, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Chuan-Chun Li, Shing-Hwa Liu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Thrombotic microangiopathy in a very young infant with mitral valvuloplasty
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are microvascular occlusive disorders characterized by systemic or intrarenal platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and red cell fragmentation. Post-operative TMA mostly occurs in adult patients with cardiovascular surgery, with the distinct pathophysiology from classical thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 6, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yuka Matsunaga, Masataka Ishimura, Hazumu Nagata, Kiyoshi Uike, Tadamune Kinjo, Masayuki Ochiai, Kenichiro Yamamura, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihisa Tanoue, Masaki Hayakawa, Masanori Matsumoto, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Total antioxidant status in fresh and stored human milk from mothers of term and preterm neonates
The objective of this study was to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS) of human milk and to evaluate the differences between premature milk and term milk at different moments of lactation (colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk). (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 5, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Lumini ţa Păduraru, Daniela Cristina Dimitriu, Andreea Luciana Avasiloaiei, Mihaela Moscalu, Gabriela Ildiko Zonda, Maria Stamatin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

An occurrence of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturation events resulting in a delay of discharge in late preterm and full term infants
Apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation (ABD) events together encompass one of the most ubiquitous problems encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with persistent events often resulting in variable lengths of stay.1 ABD events have been well studied in infants born prior to 34-weeks gestational age (GA), although they also affect 4% –12% of late preterm infants born at>34 0/7 to 36 6/7  weeks GA.2,3 The clinical significance of immaturity-related ABD events in the late preterm and full term population is unclear. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 3, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Brian Montenegro, Christina Freiberger, Lauren Veit, Michael Amberson, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Lawrence Rhein Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Identification of one novel homozygous mutation in the NPR2 gene in a patient from Taiwan with acromesomelic dysplasia Maroteaux type
Acromesomelic dysplasia Maroteaux type (AMDM) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal disorder characterized by disproportionately short stature, predominantly affecting the acromesomelic sections of the limbs. AMDM results from a mutation in the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) gene, located on chromosome 9p13.3, and impairs skeletal growth.1 (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 2, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Wei-De Lin, Chung-Hsing Wang, Fuu-Jen Tsai Tags: Images Source Type: research

The clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with persistent periventricular echogenicity
Periventricular echogenicity (PVE) presents as diffuse echo dense lesions of the periventricular white matter on cranial ultrasonography. Beyond two weeks of life, it is considered as prolonged or persistent PVE. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of preterm infants with persistent PVE beyond 2 weeks after birth and to determine whether these infants had an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Mi Hye Bae, Hyun Ji Jang, Na Rae Lee, Young Mi Han, Shin Yun Byun, Kyung Hee Park Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Warfarin embryopathy: Balancing maternal and fetal risks with anticoagulation therapy
A male baby weighing 3170  g was born to a 21-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0) at 39 weeks of gestation. The mother had a history of rheumatic heart disease with mechanical mitral valve replacement, and she was receiving warfarin for thrombotic prophylaxis. She had a complicated first pregnancy, with transient ischemic at tack at 23 weeks of gestation, which resulted in miscarriage, while she was receiving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulation with the dose adjusted according to the anti-factor Xa level. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Sara Ferreira, Raquel Costa, Duarte Malveiro, Filipa Vieira, Madalena Tuna Tags: Images Source Type: research

Outbreak of recombinant coxsackievirus A2 infection and polio-like paralysis of children, Taiwan, 2014
Patients with coxsackievirus A2 (CVA2) infection mostly present with herpangina and rarely have central nervous system complications.1 However, in 2012, a Hong Kong study reported that a naturally occurring recombinant CVA2 caused an outbreak of severe respiratory symptoms, leading to two deaths.2 In the current study, we report an outbreak of CVA2-infection-related acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Taiwan. Sequencing and analysis of the viruses isolated from fecal samples revealed that the currently prevalent CVA2 strain is highly similar to the Hong Kong recombinant. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kuo-Liang Chiang, Sung-Hsi Wei, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Yu-Kung Chou, Jyh-Yuan Yang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with persistent periventricular echogenicity
Periventricular echogenicity (PVE) presents as diffuse echo dense lesions of the periventricular white matter on cranial ultrasonography. Beyond two weeks of life, it is considered as prolonged or persistent PVE. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of preterm infants with persistent PVE beyond 2 weeks after birth and to determine whether these infants had an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Mi Hye Bae, Hyun Ji Jang, Na Rae Lee, Young Mi Han, Shin Yun Byun, Kyung Hee Park Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Warfarin embryopathy: Balancing maternal and fetal risks with anticoagulation therapy
A male baby weighing 3170  g was born to a 21-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0) at 39 weeks of gestation. The mother had a history of rheumatic heart disease with mechanical mitral valve replacement, and she was receiving warfarin for thrombotic prophylaxis. She had a complicated first pregnancy, with transient ischemic at tack at 23 weeks of gestation, which resulted in miscarriage, while she was receiving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulation with the dose adjusted according to the anti-factor Xa level. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Sara Ferreira, Raquel Costa, Duarte Malveiro, Filipa Vieira, Madalena Tuna Tags: Images Source Type: research

Outbreak of recombinant coxsackievirus A2 infection and polio-like paralysis of children, Taiwan, 2014
Patients with coxsackievirus A2 (CVA2) infection mostly present with herpangina and rarely have central nervous system complications.1 However, in 2012, a Hong Kong study reported that a naturally occurring recombinant CVA2 caused an outbreak of severe respiratory symptoms, leading to two deaths.2 In the current study, we report an outbreak of CVA2-infection-related acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Taiwan. Sequencing and analysis of the viruses isolated from fecal samples revealed that the currently prevalent CVA2 strain is highly similar to the Hong Kong recombinant. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kuo-Liang Chiang, Sung-Hsi Wei, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Yu-Kung Chou, Jyh-Yuan Yang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Cardiomyopathy in the pediatric patients
Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a group of myocardial diseases with complex taxonomies. Cardiomyopathy can occur in children at any age, and it is a common cause of heart failure and heart transplantation in children. The incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy is increasing with time. They may be associated with variable comorbidities, which are most often arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden death. Medical imaging technologies, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear cardiology, are helpful in reaching a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 14, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Shi-Min Yuan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Risk factors for failure in the newborn hearing screen test in very preterm twins
We aimed to identify prenatal and postnatal risk factors associated with abnormal newborn hearing screen (NHS) results and subsequently confirmed sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in preterm twin neonates. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 7, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: So Young Kim, Byung Yoon Choi, Eun Young Jung, Hyunsoo Park, Ha-Na Yoo, Kyo Hoon Park Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effectiveness of the IMFeD tool for the Identification and Management of Feeding Difficulties in Taiwanese children
This study aimed to assess its acceptance and effectiveness in clinical practice in Taiwan. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 5, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chieh-Chung Lin, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Lung-Huang Lin, Beng-Huat Lau, Hsun-Chin Chao, Hung-Chang Lee Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Novel TGM1 mutation in a Pakistani family affected with severe lamellar ichthyosis
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of cornification disorders comprising the  following three clinical subtypes: lamellar ichthyosis (LI; OMIM#146750), harlequin ichthyosis (HI; OMIM#242500), and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE; OMIM#242100).1 LI is a rare form of ARCI (prevalence 1:200,000) presenting with a collodion membrane at birth along with erythema that l ater develops into thick brown-colored scales accompanied by palmoplantar keratoderma, ectropion, eclabium, alopecia, and hypohidrosis. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 3, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Madiha Rasheed, Noreen Karim, Faiez Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Naeem Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Awareness of attenuated mucopolysaccharidoses in a pediatric orthopedic clinic
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of  the enzyme α-l-iduronidase, leading to widespread accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in all tissues and organs. The clinical presentations of MPS I include learning difficulties (severe form), corneal clouding, coarse facial features, recurrent ear , nose, and throat infections, airway obstruction, valvular heart disease, umbilical and inguinal hernias, joint stiffness and skeletal deformities. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 3, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chih-Kuang Chuang, Shih-Chia Liu, Shuan-Pei Lin Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Novel TGM1 mutation in a Pakistani family affected with severe lamellar ichthyosis
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of cornification disorders comprising the  following three clinical subtypes: lamellar ichthyosis (LI; OMIM#146750), harlequin ichthyosis (HI; OMIM#242500), and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE; OMIM#242100).1 LI is a rare form of ARCI (prevalence 1:200,000) presenting with a collodion membrane at birth along with erythema that l ater develops into thick brown-colored scales accompanied by palmoplantar keratoderma, ectropion, eclabium, alopecia, and hypohidrosis. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 3, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Madiha Rasheed, Noreen Karim, Faiez Ahmed Shah, Muhammad Naeem Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Awareness of attenuated mucopolysaccharidoses in a pediatric orthopedic clinic
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of  the enzyme α-l-iduronidase, leading to widespread accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in all tissues and organs. The clinical presentations of MPS I include learning difficulties (severe form), corneal clouding, coarse facial features, recurrent ear , nose, and throat infections, airway obstruction, valvular heart disease, umbilical and inguinal hernias, joint stiffness and skeletal deformities. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 3, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chih-Kuang Chuang, Shih-Chia Liu, Shuan-Pei Lin Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research