21-Hydroxylase deficiency associated with an atypical CYP21A2 E6 cluster containing p.I236K
The combination of three mutations in exon 6 of CYP21A2 (p.I236N, p.V237E, and p.M239K), which is sometimes referred to as the E6 cluster, has been identified as an underlying cause of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD).1 Some patients with 21-OHD have also been identified as having an atypical E6 cluster containing p.I236K, p.V237E, and p.M239K. This genotype is rare, so the associated congenital adrenal hyperplasia phenotype has not been well described. Here, we report a case having 21-OHD caused by a combination of the p.I172N mutation and an atypical E6 cluster. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - May 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Daisuke Watanabe, Hideaki Yagasaki, Satoru Kojika, Takeshi Inukai Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Characterization of children younger than 5  Years of age with severe community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) requiring Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission
The purpose of this study was to determine factors characterizing children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) to help clinicians assess disease severity upon initial assessment in the emergency department. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - May 5, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yael Feinstein, David Greenberg, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Maya Mimran, Ron Dagan, Noga Givon-Lavi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Neonatal reticulocyte count during the early postnatal period
There are few reports on reticulocyte count during the early postnatal period, and its clinical significance is not well understood. To examine the relationships between neonatal reticulocyte count and other perinatal variables. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - May 4, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Mika Yamada, Mina Chishiki, Yuji Kanai, Aya Goto, Takashi Imamura Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 levels in children developing SARS-CoV-2 infection
Since the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic status, the total number of cases developing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has reached 1,696,588 worldwide, with a mortality rate of 6.24%.1 Interestingly, reports have shown that, compared to adults, the pediatric populations have lower infection rates, less severe clinical presentation with lower likelihood of progression, and more favorable prognosis.2 However, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains elusive. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - May 4, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Gita Vita Soraya, Zulvikar Syambani Ulhaq Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Inspissated bile syndrome: A rare cause of neonatal cholestasis
A male neonate with a birthweight of 3220  g was transferred to our hospital on the eighth day of life because of progressive neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. His serum total bilirubin and direct bilirubin levels were 22.3 and 0.8 mg/dL, respectively. After 72 h of adequate hydration and phototherapy, these levels had increased to 26.0 and 5 .8 mg/dL, respectively. Other liver function tests were normal except for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (234 IU/L) and alkaline phosphatase (230 IU/L). An obstruction of the common bile duct (CBD) due to biliary sludge was demonstrated on abdominal ultrasonography (Fig....
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 30, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Shan-Ming Chen, Yuan-Ya Liao, Ching-Pin Lin Tags: Images Source Type: research

Perinatal risk factors of symptomatic preterm patent ductus arteriosus and secondary ligation
There has been conflicting evidence for the association between antenatal factors and the development of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or failure of pharmacologic treatment, especially for maternal pregnancy –induced hypertension (PIH) or chorioamnionitis. We assessed the perinatal risk factors of symptomatic PDA in preterm infants and those of secondary ligation in infants with pharmacologic treatment for symptomatic PDA using a national cohort. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 30, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Jin A Lee, Jin A. Sohn, Sohee Oh, Byung Min Choi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of the Sputum Gram Stain in predicting sputum culture results for critically ill pediatric patients with pneumonia
This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this method in predicting sputum culture results for critically ill pediatric patients. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 26, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Wun-Yan Huang, Ming-Sheng Lee, Liang-Mei Lin, Yi-Chen Liu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus DNA in the nails of an infant diagnosed with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection
The diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) depends on the result of CMV PCR testing of saliva, urine, or both within the first 21 days of life.1 The nail plate is composed of keratinized epithelial cells, and CMV can infect epithelial cells.2 Moreover, CMV DNA is detectable in the skin.3 The purpose of this study is to determine whether CMV DNA is detectable in the fingernails of our patient, who is an infant with cCMV. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 26, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Haruki Komatsu, Kazutomo Tamaki, Masaaki Hirabayashi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Highly antimicrobial-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella from retail meats and clinical impact in children, Taiwan
The epidemiology of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) resistant to ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone and its impact on patients ’ clinical course are rarely reported. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 24, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yi-Jung Chang, Mi-Chi Chen, Ye Feng, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Chieh Li, Hsin-Ping Yang, Min-Jia Yu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Reply: Thymopoiesis, inflamm-aging, and COVID-19 phenotype
We agree that the age-related immune response, especially the thymus-dependent T-cell differentiation, may play a key role in the varied severity of COVID-19 in different age groups.1,2 It is intriguing to learn that the thymopoiesis and thymic output are greatly reduced after reaching 40 years of age, which is consistent with the observation that the COVID-19 severity increased significantly in patients beyond this age.3 (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 24, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chih-Jung Chen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Lactate and intestinal fatty acid binding protein as essential biomarkers in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis: ultrasonographic and surgical considerations
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a neonatal disease with its pathogenesis still not well understood, although it is hypothesized to be related to decreased perfusion of the intestinal wall. The current study aimed to evaluate the plasma lactate levels and assess the validity of plasma and urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABPp and I-FABPu/Cru respectively) in NEC. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 23, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ahmed El-Abd Ahmed, Mohammed H. Hassan, Nezar Abo-Halawa, Ghada M. Abdel-Razik, Fatma A. Moubarak, Hala M. Sakhr Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impact of antipyretics on acute asthma exacerbation during respiratory infection —A nationwide population-based study
Antipyretics are frequently used in pediatric practice. Both acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. The study investigated antipyretic use during respiratory infection in children and analyzed the risk of acetaminophen and NSAID for severe asthma exacerbation (AE) in asthmatic children in Taiwan. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 22, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ruei-Sian Chung, Yung-Chieh Huang, Yi-Huei Chen, Lin-Shien Fu, Ching-Heng Lin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Successful bleeding control of refractory hemothorax in two hemophilia A patients with high-titer inhibitors
Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited bleeding disorder, resulting from factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency due to F8 gene defect. Whenever hemorrhage occurs in patients with HA, clotting factor concentrates (CFCs) replacement therapy should be administered for hemostasis. CFC replacement therapy becomes ineffective with the presence of antibodies against FVIII, which are the inhibitors in HA. This is a serious complication associated with a high risk of severe bleeding. Bleeding control for HA with inhibitors requires a bypassing agent therapy, such as activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) or activated prothrombin complex conc...
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 21, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ting-Chih Lin, Shu-Huey Chen, Chung-Che Wu, Chia-Yau Chang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Should single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy be the new standard for pediatric appendicitis?
To compare single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) with conventional (CLA) and transumbilical laparoscopic appendectomy (TULA). (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 18, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Paul Chia-Yu Chang, Sheng-Chieh Lin, Yih-Cherng Duh, Hsuan Huang, Yu-Wei Fu, Yao-Jen Hsu, Chin-Hung Wei Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Role of thymopoiesis and inflamm-aging in COVID-19 phenotype
We have read the article by Hong H. et  al. with interest in which the authors highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is reported in fewer cases of children and that pediatric clinical manifestations are relatively milder compared with those of adult patients.1 (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 18, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Antonio Del Puente, Francesco Caso Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical risk stratification of children with SIOPEL high-risk hepatoblastoma in Taiwan
Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver malignancy in young children. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 11, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Wei-Yun Hsu, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Meng-Yao Lu, Yung-Li Yang, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Huey-Ling Chen, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Hong-Yuan Hsu, Mei-Hwei Chang, Jia-Feng Wu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The multimodality neuroimage findings in individuals with Tourette syndrome
Chronic tic disorder and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome are very common childhood-onset diseases. However, the pathophysiology underlying these disorders is not yet clear and most studies focus on the disinhibition of the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although dysfunction of this circuit is possible, routine clinical neuroimaging studies such as T1-weighted or T2-weighted MRI usually reveal normal results. Therefore, special neuroimaging techniques may be needed to investigate the possible microstructural or functional changes in the brain. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 10, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chia-Jui Hsu, Lee Chin Wong, Hsin-Pei Wang, Wang-Tso Lee Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Mortality from necrotizing enterocolitis: Greater racial inequalities and differences in risk factors
Mortality rates from necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have remained relatively stable. In contrast, overall, infant deaths have declined.1 Racial inequalities in NEC have been reported,1 but less is known about risk factors for NEC and non-NEC mortality. We explored racial inequalities in NEC mortality and their risk factors. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ovini D. Rodrigo, Sarah K. Wood, Maria C. Mejia, Jason L. Salemi, Charles H. Hennekens, Robert S. Levine Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in very low birth weight premature infants
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequently encountered in premature infants. Optimal management of PDA remains undefined. We aim to assess the national trend for PDA ligation over 18 years and evaluate mortality and associated morbidities. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hasan F. Othman, Debra T. Linfield, Mohamed A. Mohamed, Hany Aly Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Postnatal serum creatinine is elevated in preterm infants with PPROM-induced anhydramnios
The reason for increased serum creatinine levels in preterm infants often remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether postnatal serum creatinine in preterm infants correlates with intake of amniotic fluid, represented by the amount of amniotic fluid after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Nora Bruns, Ann-Christin St ähling, Sandra Greve, Christel Weiss, Angela Köninger, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Hanna Müller Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A single-center observational study on congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Outcome, predictors of mortality and experience from a tertiary perinatal center in Singapore
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common birth defect associated with significant mortality and morbidity. There is limited outcome data on CDH in the Southeast Asian region. Rapid accessibility to our CDH Perinatal Center, as a consequence of the small geographic size of our country and efficient land transportation system, has largely eliminated deaths of live outborn babies prior arrival at our center. We selected a study period when extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support was not available at our institution. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Wan-Yee Teo, Bhavani Sriram, AA Abdul Alim, Xucong Ruan, V.S. Rajadurai Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Acquired platelet dysfunction with eosinophilia in two patients
Acquired platelet dysfunction with eosinophilia (APDE) is a transient bleeding disorder characterized by spontaneous bruising in a healthy person. Spontaneous ecchymosis appears in 100% of patients with APDE.1 Other symptoms include epistaxis, gum or oral bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, bleeding of the genital organs, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and excessive bleeding after tooth extraction. The diagnosis of APDE requires three elements: (1) clinical manifestation with spontaneous ecchymosis on the trunk or extremities, (2) hemogram showing eosinophilia, and (3) platelet dysfunction. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 2, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ming-Yang Shih, Ren-Ching Wang, Chiung-Wen Liang, Jiaan-Der Wang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

An unusual case of acute postpartum bleeding in a mother and her newborn
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease due to acquired IgG1-4 autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This causes patients, who have negative family and personal histories, to present with a sudden onset of heavy bleeding.1 –3 Although rare, the presence of antibodies against factors V and IX is possible.4 (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 2, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Patrizia Tessiatore, Riccardo Guan à, Salvatore Garofalo, Riccardo Lemini, Valentina Marchese, Berardino Pollio, Fabrizio Gennari Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Turner syndrome and cardiovascular anomalies: Care for girls and women
Turner syndrome (TS) occurs in about one of 2500 live-born females, and it is the most common sex chromosome abnormality1 in pregnant women who were undergoing amniocentesis. The common clinical features include short stature, renal anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and primary amenorrhea. Adults with TS may be susceptible to a range of disorders, such as osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, and others.2 Currently, growth hormone therapy is effective in treating the short stature, and TS patients may reach an adult height of 150.0  ± 5.1 cm. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - April 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hsin-Hui Chiu, Yin-Hsiu Chien Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Early prediction of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants
The objective of this study is to identify risk factors for Moderate/Severe BPD in an era of widespread availability of NIV in the DR. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 23, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Amit Sharma, Yuemin Xin, Xinguang Chen, Beena G. Sood Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evidence base multi-discipline critical strategies toward better tomorrow for very preterm infants
The objective of this new term evidence-based perinatal critical strategies (EBPCS), is to provide beneficial intervention towards better neurodevelopmental outcomes, specifically for preterm infants below 28 weeks gestational age. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 19, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hsiao-Yu Chiu, Shih-Ming Chu, Hsiang-Yu Lin, Ming-Luen Tsai, Yin-Ting Chen, Hung-Chih Lin Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Use of sodium glycerophosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions to increase calcium and phosphate compatibility for preterm infants
This study aimed to evaluate the solubility of organic phosphate with calcium gluconate in neonatal PN solutions, simulating its clinical use. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 18, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hsueh-Ju Wang, Ya-Ting Hsieh, Ling-Yu Liu, Chih-Fen Huang, Shu-Chiao Lin, Po-Nien Tsao, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ting-An Yen, Chien-Yi Chen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in newborns, infants and children
Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been emerging in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.1 It has spread to other areas of China and further to more than 40 countries and regions around the world.2 In Singapore, Japan, Korea, Italy, and Thailand, there have been community-based infections. A few cases of pneumonia in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. Pediatric cases are mainly family cluster cases, and most of them have epidemiological links to adult patients. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 18, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hao Hong, Yuan Wang, Hung-Tao Chung, Chih-Jung Chen Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Segmental isodisomy in Prader –Willi syndrome patients: The experience of a single diagnostic center
Prader –Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by the distinguishing dysmorphic facial and body features, infantile hypotonia, developmental delay, and morbid obesity that results from polyphagia. It is caused by a lack of expression of paternal-inherited genes on chromosome 15q11.2–15q13 through variou s mechanisms, including paternal deletion that accounts for 70% of cases, maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15 that accounts for 20%–30% of cases, and the least common, the imprinting center defects. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 17, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yu-Wen Pan, Chia-Wei Chang, Yiin-Jeng Jong, Yen-Yin Chou, Pao-Lin Kuo Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Septic arthritis in children: Updated epidemiologic, microbiologic, clinical and therapeutic correlations
Septic arthritis (SA) is an infection characterized by significant epidemiologic and microbiologic differences between developed and developing regions and between age groups. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Eugen Cohen, Tiberiu Katz, Eldad Rahamim, Shlomi Bulkowstein, Yaron Weisel, Ron Leibovitz, Yariv Fruchtman, Eugene Leibovitz Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Clinical predictive score of predischarge screening for severe hyperbilirubinemia in late preterm and term infants
This study aims to develop the clinical predictive score to predict subsequent severe hyperbilirubinemia in healthy Thai infants. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Pichaya Thanomsingh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen activation as a predictor for clinical outcome of pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease
The most severe form of pneumococcal disease is invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), including empyema, sepsis and meningitis. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA; Gal β1-3GalNAc) activation is known to be a predictor of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (Sp-HUS). There have been limited data to correlate TA activation and overall disease severity of IPD in children. The study aimed to prove the positive correlation between TA activati on and disease severity and to demonstrate the trend of TA level during the disease course. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Yi-Ching Chen, Hsin-Hang Chen, Rajendra-Prasad Janapatla, Anna Dudek, Mei-Hua Hsu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The association between the microbes in the tracheobronchial aspirate fluid and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants
The study aimed to evaluate the association between microbes in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and the srisk for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) in premature infants. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 3, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Xiao-yan Gao, Yi-heng Dai, Da-zhi Fan, Xiao-yun Xie, Guang-di Yang, Xin Xiao, Ping-ming Gao Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The optimal inserted length of percutaneous central venous catheters on neonates
We read with great interest the article by Chen et  al. that reported on equations for estimating the optimal insertion length of percutaneous central venous catheters (PCVCs) at different body regions.1 Estimating the insertion length prior to the procedure for reducing following adjustment rate is crucial in neonatal care. Although the study prov ided interesting and creative methods of deciding the insertion length of PCVCs, we have certain concerns regarding this article. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 28, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Hsin-Chung Huang, Po-Nien Tsao Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Association of gut microbiota composition and copy number variation with Kasai procedure outcomes in infants with biliary atresia
Biliary atresia (BA), which is the most important cause of liver cirrhosis in children, is characterized by progressive fibro-obliterative inflammation involving the extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts in infancy.1 A successful Kasai portoenterostomy procedure establishes bile drainage and may  prevent hepatic fibrogenesis and the need for liver transplantation. However, the procedure is unsuccessful in a significant portion of patients, who have persistent jaundice and liver dysfunction. Intestinal bile acids modulate the gut microbiota and may have a role in disease progression in BA. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 22, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ying-Fang Elaine Chen, Ming-Wei Lai, Chi-Neu Tsai, Jin-Yao Lai, Yu-Chen Yang, Shih-Yen Chen Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Upper spinal neurenteric cyst presenting as right upper abdominal pain and sudden onset of lower limb paralysis: A case report
Neurenteric cysts (NECs) are rare congenital tumors generally found intraspinally and account for 0.7% –1.3% of all spinal tumors.1 They may cause serious neurological deficits due to their compression effect on nerve roots. NECs are easy to treat by excision if diagnosed early,1–5 but usually neglected by clinicians due to rare incidence. Here, we report the case of a 2-year-old child with simul taneous NEC and common viral infection, whose clinical manifestation may mislead clinicians to fall into a pitfall of diagnosis. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 21, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Shang-Chi Liu, Yin-Chih Feng, Chu-Chuan Lin, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Ken-Pen Weng Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Serosal surface small vessel vasculitis in Henoch-Schonlein purpura
A previously healthy 8-year-old girl complained of painful bilateral swelling of the ankles and elbows followed by recurrent vomiting and severe abdominal pain the following day. Physical examination on admission at day 4 of illness showed that the girl was in pain. Clinically she was febrile, with a body temperature of 38.0  °C and her abdomen was tender. Petechial rashes were noted over the dorsum of both feet and buttocks. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Way Seah Lee, Chong Tuan Koh Tags: Images Source Type: research

A wild goose chase: Increasing serum albumin with albumin infusions in preterm infants
A premature male infant was delivered at 25 3/7 weeks to a 19-year-old gravida 2, para 1-0-0-1 mother. She presented to the labor unit with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding and delivered the infant. All prenatal labs, including rapid plasma reagin, HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, were negative. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Shabih Manzar Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Enterococci and food safety – Are all probiotics beneficial?
The Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare Taiwan, announced on October 19, 2017, that the use of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in food materials should be prohibited in Taiwan, and it has been in effect since July 1, 2019 (http://www.mohw.gov.tw/cp-3680-45129-1.html). Many pediatricians and children's parents showed great concerns regarding the safety of enterococci in food because of their wide use as probiotics. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 7, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Shiuh-Bin Fang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - February 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Asia: Epidemiology and natural history
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) in Asia, once considered a rare entity, has seen a sharp increase in incidence over the preceding decade. However, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on PIBD in Asia, and the true disease burden is difficult to estimate due to the lack of national disease registries, prospective databases and the fact that much of existing published data are limited to single-center experiences. This sets the stage for examining recent published data on epidemiological trends and its natural history. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 28, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: James Guoxian Huang, Marion M. Aw Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of graves disease in children treated with anti-thyroid drugs
Graves disease (GD) is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in children and adolescents, accounting for 15% of all thyroid diseases during childhood. Anti-thyroid drugs (ATD) are recommended as the first-line treatment in children and adolescents. However, the remission rate is lower in children than in adults, and the optimal treatment duration and favorable factors associated with remission remain unknown. We aimed to investigate long-term outcomes of pediatric GD patients receiving ATD. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 21, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ya-Ting Chiang, Wei-Hsin Ting, Chi-Yu Huang, Shih-Kang Huang, Chon-In Chan, Bi-Wen Cheng, Chao-Hsu Lin, Yi-Lei Wu, Chen-Mei Hung, Hsin-Jung Li, Chia-Jung Chan, Yann-Jinn Lee Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Genetic Polymorphisms of LPCAT1, CHPT1 and PCYT1B and Risk of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome among a Chinese Han Population
The study of genetic polymorphisms of surfactant-lipids related genes can help to understand individual variability in the susceptibility to development of pulmonary pathologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of polymorphisms of surfactant-lipids related genes (LPCAT1, CHPT1 and PCYT1B) with the risk/severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates among the Chinese Han population in Southern China. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 18, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Wei Shen, Penghao Kuang, Bin Wang, Qiyi Zeng, Chao Chen, Xinzhu Lin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Mysterious scrotal ecchymosis: Clues of child abuse
A 4-year-old boy presented with facial swelling and respiratory distress of 3-day duration. Mild cough and rhinorrhea were reported with no associated fever. On examination, facial swelling, engorged jugular veins, tachypnea, and subcostal retractions were noted. Furthermore, mild language delay was observed. Chest X-ray revealed right pleural effusion, and blood tests showed mild anemia and normal albumin level. Nephrotic syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome were initially suspected, but the history and physical findings were not consistent with the diagnoses. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 17, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chao-Hsu Lin, Hsing-Fen Tsai, Ching-Ling Chang, Chun-Chih Peng, Nan-Chang Chiu, Chien-Yu Lin Tags: Images Source Type: research

Reply-the optimal inserted length of percutaneous central venous catheters on neonates
Thanks to the authors for the thoughtful response to our recent article, “The Equations of the Inserted Length of Percutaneous Central Venous Catheters on Neonates in NICU”.1,2 We have attempted to calculate the equations of percutaneous central venous catheters (PCVCs) from lower extremities based on body landmark, such as the tip of the toe. Nevertheless, the accur acy of the equations was not superior to that of those based on body weight or length. As routine practice, the large veins were chosen on each body region for PCVC insertion on these tiny babies in our NICU either as they were easier to approach o...
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: I-Lun Chen, Hsin-Chun Huang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Complications of umbilical venous catheters in neonates: A safety reappraisal
Umbilical venous catheters (UVC) are frequently used for fluid resuscitation, blood sampling and transfusions, administration of intravenous medication, central venous pressure monitoring, and parenteral nutrition in neonates, particularly premature neonates, in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Although it is considered relatively safe, an indwelling UVC is associated with complications that may cause morbidity and mortality. Blood stream infection is the most common serious adverse event, with reported incidence ranging from 3% to more than 36% depending on the diagnostic criteria applied and the demographics of t...
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Chun-Yan Yeung Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Neonatal seizures in the U.S. National Inpatient Population: Prevalence and outcomes
This study aims to determine 1) prevalence of neonatal seizures in all GA groups, 2) associated mortality in each GA group and 3) impact of seizures on length of stay (LOS) of survivors in each GA group. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 13, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Swetha Padiyar, Leen Nusairat, Amer Kadri, Jalal Abu-Shaweesh, Hany Aly Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Slow oral immunotherapy for cow's milk allergy with anaphylaxis to extensively hydrolyzed formula
Cow's milk (CM) is a common allergen present in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy in children. The management of CM allergy (CMA) requires the replacement of milk protein with alternative protein and calcium sources. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas (eHFs) are alternative, hypoallergenic formulas that are recommended as standards for children with CMA.1 IgE-mediated immediate reactions to eHFs, such as life-threatening anaphylaxis, rarely occur.2 Patients with hyperresponsiveness to eHFs may be at a high risk because they are on a complete elimination diet. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 13, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Satoshi Horino, Taiki Satou, Masato Nihei, Katsushi Miura Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome and nutcracker syndrome
A 15-year-old asthenic boy (38  kg, 160 cm, body mass index 14.8) presented with postprandial discomfort, nausea, and vomiting for 1 month. In addition, there were complaints of painless gross hematuria and left flank pain. Urinalysis revealed numerous isomorphic erythrocytes. Epigastralgia and distended abdomen were noted on p hysical examination. The boy had a history of anorexia and rapidly lost 17 kg during a 3-month period. Psychiatrists had made the diagnosis of depression and anorexia nervosa. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - January 2, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tzu-Hua Lin, Chun-Chen Lin, Jeng-Daw Tsai Tags: Images Source Type: research