HLA Haplotype Frequencies and Genetic Profiles of the Kuwaiti Population
Conclusion: Identifying the haplotype diversity in the Kuwaiti population will contribute to the selection of an HLA-match for HSCT, disease associations, pharmacogenomics and knowledge of population HLA diversity. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 15, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Female Physicians Leading Health Care in the Arab World
Conclusion: While women make up more than half of medical graduates in Kuwait at present, significant barriers had restricted their entry into formal medical leadership roles in the past. However, it is now seen that females currently occupy more leade rship positions in government hospitals in Kuwait. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 15, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Oral Health Status of Kuwaiti Children with a History of Chronic Liver Disease
Objective: To investigate the oral health status and dental manifestations of children with a history of chronic liver disease (CLD) compared to healthy children. Subjects and Methods: Twenty children (15 boys, 5 girls) with history of CLD were compared to twenty healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Clinical examination was carried out by the same dentist. Caries prevalence, using the decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth indices (dmft/DMFT) was recorded. Developmental enamel defects, plaque score and gingival overgrowth were also investigated. Results: No statistically significant differences we...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 15, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Platelet Rich Plasma Diffusion in Achilles Tendon: Relationship with Therapeutic Outcomes
Conclusions: Platelet-rich plasma diffusion has no effect on clinical outcome, which mainly depends on the metabolic activation of the whole structure of the tendon. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Thyroid Nodules are More Prevalent in Subjects with Colon Polyps, Independent of Insulin Resistance
Conclusion: These results may support the presence of other common mechanisms in the development of these two pathologies other than insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Forensic Epigenetic Analysis: The Path Ahead
Unlike DNA fingerprinting which scores for differences in the genome that are phenotype neutral, epigenetic variations are gaining importance in forensic investigations. Methylation of DNA has a broad range of effects on the lifestyle, health status and physical appearance of individuals. DNA methylation profiling of forensic samples is useful in the determination of the cell or tissue type of DNA source and also for estimation of age. The quality and quantity of biosample available from crime scene limits the possible number of DNA methylation tests and also selection of the technology that can be used. Several techniques...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

An Atypical Presentation of Raynaud ’s Disease
Conclusion: Despite still lacking a formal diagnosis, her constellation of symptoms is most likely the result of an atypical presentation of Raynaud ’s Disease. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

FINDRISC Modified for Latin America As A Screening Tool For Persons With Impaired Glucose Metabolism In Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the FINDRISC modified for Latin America (LA-FINDRISC) as a screening tool for persons with impaired glucose metabolism in Ciudad Bol ívar - Venezuela. Methods: Subjects aged between 18-70 years of both sexes without known diabetes were invited to participate. After informed consent they were screened with the LA-FINDRISC questionnaire and then given an oral glucose tolerance test, using the American Diabetes Association criteria for diagnosis. To obtain the cut-off point of LA-FINDRISC for predicting impaired glucose regulation, a receptor operating curve was constructed. ...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Primary Large Cell Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Ureter
Conclusion: LCUC of the ureter is an aggressive tumor with a high proliferation index. Patients might be diagnosed at an advanced stage. LCUC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary tract pathologies. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Determination of Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Immunoglobulin E and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha after Complete Denture Insertion
Conclusion: A non-significant i ncrease in levels of MPO was observed on day 7 decreasing at the end of 30 days. TNFα also tended to increase in a non-significant manner. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 8, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Altered Expression Levels of CD59, but not CD55, on Red Blood Cells in Stored Blood
Objective: Red blood cells (RBCs) in storage undergo structural and biochemical changes that may cause functional effects. Studies exploring structural changes affecting the expression levels of CD55 and CD59 on RBCs are limited. The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of expression of CD55 and CD59 on RBCs in stored blood from Arab donors. Materials and Methods: Flow cytometric analysis was performed on RBCs from 92 packed RBC (PRBC) units, stored for varying times, and from 56 not-stored RBC from healthy controls using the commercial REDQUANT kit. Results: The proportions of CD55-deficient and CD59-deficient ...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 8, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Abstracts of Thesis Approved for the MSc and PhD degrees at the Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Med Princ Pract (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 8, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Micro-CT Calibration Using Polymers and Minerals for Enamel Mineral Content Quantitation
Conclusions: This is a simple, valid and re producible method to quantitate enamel mineral content. This simple, yet accurate system, could be used to expand knowledge in the field of enamel caries research. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

List of Reviewers Vol. 27, 2018
Med Princ Pract 2018;27:591 –592 (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 27, 2018
Med Princ Pract 2018;27:I –VII (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical Performance of Allplex Respiratory Panel 1 Test Compared to Simplexa Flu A/B and RSV for the Detection of Influenza Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Including Their Subtyping
Conclusion: The Allplex panel showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of Flu A, Flu B, and RSV. This assay is fast and easy to perform because it takes only about 150 minutes, and there is no need for post-PCR electrophoresis. The ARP can be used as a reliable and convenient assay in clinical laboratories. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Differentiation of Cognitive Deficit Profiles in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Latent Profile Analysis
Conclusion: ARCS has the ability to differentiate persons with a cognitive deficit from those without, both in a sample of persons suffering from MS and in a sample of persons from the general population. This finding indicates that this instrument is well suited for profiling the cognitive status into specific categories, which puts it among the instruments with a wide range of implementation. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Multilevel Botulinum Toxin A Injection with Integrated Treatment Program on Spasticity Reduction in Non-ambulatory Young Children with Cerebral Palsy
Conclusion: Multilevel BTX-A injection as part of an integrated approach can be used for focal treatment of spasticity, especially of hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles, in non-ambulatory young children with CP GMFCS level IV. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Diversity of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria In Kuwait: Rapid Identification And Differentiation Of Mycobacterium species by multiplex PCR, INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay and PCR-sequencing of rDNA
Conclusions: mPCR rapidly differentiated MTB from NTM. LiPA identified 44 of 52 NTM isolates at species/species complex-level and two mixed cultures. PCR-sequencing yielded more specific identification at species/subspecies-level. Rapid differentiation as MTB or NTM by mPCR, followed by species-specific NTM identification by LiPA/PCR-sequencing is suitable for proper management of mycobacterial infections in Kuwait. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Whipple ’s Disease: A Case Report
ConclusionWe aimed to emphasize the Whipple ’s disease to be kept in mind for the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with malabsorption. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Association between peripheral artery disease and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome: findings from the Gulf COAST registry
Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: Data was analyzed from 4044 consecutive patients diagnosed with ACS admitted to 29 hospitals in four Arabian Gulf countries from January 2012 to January 2013. PAD was defined as any of the following: claudication, amputation for arterial vascular insufficiency, vascular reconstruction, bypass surgery, or percutaneous intervention in the extremities, documented aortic aneurysm or ankle brachial index of (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Thyroid Ultrasound Reports: Deficiencies and Recommendations
Conclusion: Despite easily accessible templates, reporting of thyroid nodule sonogram continues to be incomplete and inconsistent. This in turn constitutes a waste of a significant tool that could otherwise help in making timely informed medical decisions and in providin g a significant platform for patients’ future follow up. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Age-Specific Reference Ranges of Prostate-Specific Antigen Among Saudi Men As a Representation of the Arab Population
Conclusions: PSA serum levels in Saudi men are lower than in other communities. Creating age-specific reference ranges could improve the sensitivity of the PSA tests by allowing the detection of treatable tumors in younger men if the threshold of 4.0 ng/mL is lowered. Furthermore, unnecessary biopsies among older men may be avoided if the threshold is increased. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Affects Angiogenesis in Celiac Disease
Conclusions: Our data indicate that PEDF levels are significantly higher in CD patients than those in the healthy controls. This result suggests that PEDF negatively affects angiogenesis in CD. Although we did not observe any differences of PEDF levels among celiac patients, additional studies including more patients could clarify this issue. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Galectin-3 in acute myocardial infarction patients with atrial fibrillation
Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and galectin-3 is possibly involved in its occurrence. Galectin-3 has been shown to play a central role in fibrosis and tissue remodeling and has a role in inflammatory and proliferative responses. The aim of our study was to measure galectin-3 levels in patients with myocardial infarction and to compare its levels in patients with or without AF, in order to investigate the potential predictive role of galectin-3 in this setting. Subjects and Methods: The study included 51 consecutive AMI patients with AF; 27 AMI patients (52.9%) had perman...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of Subjective and Objective Assessments of Neurosensory Function after Lingual Nerve Repair
Objective: Mandibular third molar extractions are important in oral maxillofacial surgery. Damage to the lingual nerves, although rare, is a possible complication. There are reports of postoperative recovery after lingual nerve repair, but few reports compared subjective and objective assessments of neurosensory function. Therefore, this study aims to compare subjective and objective assessments of neurosensory function after lingual nerve repair. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 52 patients with lingual nerve anesthesia after third molar extraction at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Orthodontically-Relevant Manifestations in People with Rare Diseases
Conclusions: Orthodontics play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of orofacial manifestations in rare diseases. Databases such as ROMSE are a first step toward providing valid information in publicly accessible databases. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Glomerular filtration rate as a prognostic factor for long-term mortality after acute pulmonary embolism
Conclusion:Decreased renal function is a prognostic factor for increased all-cause mortality in 90 days and one year after acute PE. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Abstracts of Award-Winning Posters, 23rd Annual Health Sciences Poster Conference, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Kuwait University, Kuwait, March 13-15, 2018
Med Princ Pract 2018;27:586 –590 (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Attitudes of Physicians Towards Different Types of Euthanasia in Kuwait
Conclusion: The attitude of the physicians towards euthanasia are diverse, therefore the Ministry of Health should provide guidelines for physicians dealing with situations where patients or their families request euthanasia. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - February 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

A Rare Variant of the Great Cardiac Vein Draining Directly into the Superior Vena Cava
Conclusion: This variant of the great cardiac vein is interesting due to its rarity, and is important for procedures that require venous access such as coronary surgery requiring retrograde cardioplegia, surgical ablation of aberrant conducting pathways, pacemaker insertion and valve surgery.   (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - January 27, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Precision Diabetes is Slowly Becoming a Reality
The concept of precision medicine is becoming increasingly popular. The use of big data, genomics and other 'omics ’ like metabolomics, proteomics and trancriptomics could make the dream of personalized medicine become a reality in the near future. As far as polygenic forms of diabetes like type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are concerned, interesting leads are emerging, but precision diabetes i s still in its infancy. However, with regard to monogenic forms of diabetes like Maturity-Onset-diabetes of the young (MODY) and Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM), rapid strides have been made and precision diab...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - January 27, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Maternal Haematological Parameters and Placental and Umbilical Cord Histopathology in Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Conclusion:Maternal haematological parameters do not seem to affect neonatal outcome. Our main findings are the correlation of maternal platelet count with placental weight, the correlation of placental volume with birthweight is stronger than the correlation of placental weight with birthweight, and the correlation of umbilical artery lumen cross sectional area with neonatal weight. Mild histopathologic alterations might be present in normal pregnancies, and still sufficient fetal nutrition can be maintained. This compensatory residual of the placenta becomes insufficient when two or more pathologies are present, that is ...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - January 27, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Probable Etoricoxib-Induced Severe Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report
Conclusion: The prevalence of thrombocytopenia induced by eterocoxib should be studied as it may not be very rare. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - January 17, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Different Doses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin on Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of evidence from randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of different doses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) to provide the scientific basis for clinical practice. Methods: A search of PubMed-Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP database (until 30 June 2017) was performed and Software RevMan5.3 was used to evaluate the effect of different doses of IVIG on HFMD in RCTs, We used random effects models (or fixed effects models) and generic inverse variance methods to process quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sen...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - January 16, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

A Pilot Study: Urinary Uromodulin-Creatinine Ratio as a Potential Clinical Biomarker for CKD Patients with Gout
Conclusion: The association of decreased uUMCR with CKD status was identified only in patients with gout in the present study. We believe that uUMCR might serve as an indicator of differential CKD in patients with gout. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - January 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

A Meta-analysis on the Relationship Between Hair Dye and the Incidence of Non-Hodgkin ’s Lymphoma
Conclusion: The outcomes indicate that hair dye use increases the risk of NHL, especially for females. Hence, peopl e who frequently use hair dyes or have been using hair dyes for more than 20 years should minimize their exposure to hair dye products to prevent the risk of NHL. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 25, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

A Case of Massive Cerebral Arterial Air Embolism Induced by Artificial Pneumothorax and Its Analysis
Conclusion: Artificial pneumothorax may induce cerebral arterial air embolism. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 20, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

miR-192 is Overexpressed and Promotes Cell Proliferation in Prostate Cancer
Conclusion: These results suggest that miR-192 may be considered for use as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target of PCa. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 14, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoglycemia but not Hyperglycemia is Associated with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Diabetes
Background: Both severe hyperglycemia (>200mg/dL) and hypoglycemia ( ≤70mg/dL) are known to be associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Therefore, we investigated associations of a single episode of blood glucose deviation (concentration either ≤70mg/dL mg/dL and/or above 200mg/dL) during an ICU stay with mortality in these patients. Metho ds: 4,986 patients (63 ± 16 years; 38% female; 14% diabetics based on medical records) admitted to a German ICU in a tertiary care hospital were retrospectively investigated. Intra-ICU and long-term follow-up of patients between four to seven years ...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 14, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome: A Possible Cause for Growth Retardation and Pubertal Delay
Conclusion: Given that growth retardation and pubertal delay are rare in BRBNS patients, this case reminds us to include BRBNS in the differential diagnosis of growth retardation. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 13, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

In Vivo Assessment of Combined Effects of Glibenclamide and Losartan in Diabetic Rats
Conclusion: Adding LT to GLI therapy revealed prospective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, while no synergistic or additive effects were observed. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 13, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

The Influence of Sleep Apnea on 24-hour and Nocturnal ECG and Blood Pressure Parameters in Patients with Acute Heart Failure
Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep apnea on ECG and blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Methods: 51 hospitalized patients with AHF (13 women, 38 men, mean age 60.8 years) underwent 24-hour combined monitoring of ECG and blood pressure and sleep apnea testing before discharge. Heart rhythm (mean heart rate, arrhythmias, pauses, QT-interval, heart rate variability) and blood pressure (mean systolic and diastolic values, variability, Circadian variation) parameters were obtained for the whole day and for nighttime (22:00-06:00). Depending on sleep apnea severity, the ...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 13, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Over-the-counter Weight-Loss Herbal Supplements in Egypt: Label Claim, Microbiological, Pharmaceutical Quality and Safety Assessments
Conclusions: These products threaten the health of consumers. There is a need to raise the awareness on the lethal consequences of illegal nutraceuticals. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 5, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Unusual Maculopapular Rash on the Scalp of a Patient with Mediterranean Spotted Fever
Conclusion: The rash on the scalp described in this report enriches our knowledge on the clinical characteristics of MSF. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 3, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Knowledge About and Attitudes of Interdisciplinary Team Members Toward Occupational Therapy Practice: Implications and Future Directions
Objectives: In Kuwait, knowledge and attitudes of the health care teams toward occupational therapy practice (OTP) have not been investigated. This current study, sought to explore the knowledge about, and attitudes of interdisciplinary team members toward OTP. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved developing and validating a tool to serve the purpose of the study. We used a modified Delphi method to develop a tool that assessed OT knowledge (OT areas of practice, domains and philosophy) as well as attitudes toward OTP. Descriptive statistics were utilized and non-parametric tests were used to compare k...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - December 3, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

The Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontal diseases: A Survey of the Opinions of Dental Professionals
Conclusions: Both dentists and dental assistants in Saudi Arabia revealed a satisfactory knowledge level regarding the periodontal-diabetes interactions with no significant difference between the two groups. Further studies are recommended to assess the attitude of dental care providers while dealing with diabetic patients. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - November 29, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Relationship between Aortic Arch Calcification, Detected by Chest X-Ray, and Renal Resistive Index in Patients with Hypertension < br > < br >
In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the relationship between Renal Resistive Index and aortic arch calcification in patients with hypertension. Materials and Methods: Patients with hypertension underwent a chest x-ray and renal Doppler ultrasound. They were divided into two groups according to the Renal Resistive Index (Group I: Renal Resistive Index ≥ 0.70, Group II: Renal Resistive Index (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - November 28, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) and Digital Mammography (DM) for Detection of Breast Cancer in Women in Kuwait
Objective: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of dig ¬ital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) for the detection of breast cancer in comparison to histopathology findings. Subjects and Methods: We included 65 breast lesions in 58 women, each detected by two diagnostic mammography techniques: DM and DBT using Senographe Essential m achine (GE Healthcare, Buc, France), and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. The Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was used for charac¬terizing the lesions. Results: The average age of women was 48.3 years (range; 26-81 years). There ...
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - November 27, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Modesty, Objectification, and Disordered Eating Patterns - A Comparative Study Between Veiled and Non-Veiled Muslim Women Residing in Kuwait
Conclusion: The results of the study are significant as they clearly demonstrate a weak negative relationship between clothing preferences/affiliations and eating disorders. (Source: Medical Principles and Practice)
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - November 20, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research