Alginate-azo/chitosan nanocapsules in vitro drug delivery for hepatic carcinoma cells: UV-stimulated decomposition and drug release based on trans-to-cis isomerization
In this study, a nanocapsule (AL-azo/CH) was prepared with the anionic alginate-azo (AL-azo) and cationic chitosan (CH) via layer-by-layer method. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), an anticancer drug, was entrapped inside the AL-azo nanocapsules to form the DOX-loaded nanocapsules (DOX/AL-azo/CH). When the DOX/AL-azo/CH nanocapsules were irradiated with 365-nm light, the electrostatic attraction between the layers would be weakened as the trans-to-cis isomerization of AL-azo, which would lead to the UV-responsive decomposition and drug-release. Furthermore, cellular experiments showed that DOX/AL-azo/CH nanocapsules could b...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qi Chen Xiaorong Li Yuan Xie Weicheng Hu Zhipeng Cheng Hui Zhong Hongjun Zhu Source Type: research

Synthesis of sulfonated lignin-derived ordered mesoporous carbon for catalytic production of furfural from xylose
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01606-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.155. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSulfonated lignin-derived ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC-SO3H) solid acid was synthesized through solvent evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method followed by sulfonation, using lignin as carbon precursor and glyoxal as cross-linking agent during the preparation process. The as-synthesized OMC-SO3H exhibited a typical 2D hexagonal meso-structure (space group p6mm) and showed a good catalytic performance for the catalytic conversion of hemicellulose-derived xylose to furfural. A highest furfural ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xiaoqi Wang Mo Qiu Yiwei Tang Jirui Yang Feng Shen Xinhua Qi Yingliang Yu Source Type: research

An eco-friendly NP flame retardant for durable flame-retardant treatment of cotton fabric
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01582-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.130. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA halogen-free, formaldehyde-free, efficient, durable, NP flame retardant, the ammonium salt of meglumine phosphoric ester acid (ASMPEA), was prepared. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 31P NMR) results indicated that ASMPEA was grafted onto cotton fibers by P-O-C covalent bonds. The LOI value of 30 wt% ASMPEA-treated cotton fabric was 40.2%, and after 50 laundering cycles (LCs), the LOI value decreased to 29.4%, indicat...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ying Liao Yu Chen Caiyan Wan Guangxian Zhang Fengxiu Zhang Source Type: research

Synthesis of a pH-responsive nano-cellulose/sodium alginate/MOFs hydrogel and its application in the regulation of water and N-fertilizer
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01603-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.154. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to circumvent the water eutrophication caused by nitrogen loss in agriculture, slow-release and high-water containing fertilizers have captured much attention. Considering the unstable release of traditional slow-released fertilizers, novel strategies need to be designed to meet the steady release of fertilizers. Herein, by integrating cellulose-based hydrogel with MIL-100(Fe), a pH-sensitive Cellulose/MOFs hydrogel (CAM) with a high surface area (45.25 m2/g) was devised. The volume changes an...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yuqi Wang Hiba Shaghaleh Youself Alhaj Hamoud Shuangsheng Zhang Pengfei Li Xu Xu He Liu Source Type: research

Design and fabrication of M-SAPO-34/chitosan scaffolds and evaluation of their effects on dental tissue engineering
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01555-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.104. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis research aimed to design innovative therapeutic bio-composites that enhance odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (h-DPSCs) in-vitro regeneration. Herein, we report the fabrication of scaffolds containing chitosan, Ca-SAPO-34 monometallic and/or Fe-Ca-SAPO-34 bimetallic nanoparticles by freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds and nanoparticles were characterized using ICP-AES, FT-IR, XRD, TGA, TEM, BET, SEM, and EDS methods. The effects of SA...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Golnaz Navidi Maryam Allahvirdinesbat Seyed Mohammad Mousavi Al-Molki Soodabeh Davaran Parvaneh Nakhostin Panahi Marziyeh Aghazadeh Abolfazl Akbarzadeh Aziz Eftekhari Kazem Dindar Safa Source Type: research

Catalytically active phospholipase A < sub > 2 < /sub > myotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus induces proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts dependent on prostaglandins produced by both COX-1 and COX-2 pathways
This study contributes to the knowledge that CB promote early myogenic events via regulatory mechanisms on PG-dependent COX pathways, showing new concepts about the effect of sPLA2-IIA in skeletal muscle repair.PMID:34314795 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.121 (Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules)
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nadine C Silva Angela M Alvarez Carlos DeOcesano-Pereira Consuelo L Fortes-Dias Vanessa Moreira Source Type: research

Characterization and functional study of a chimera galectin from yellow drum Nibea albiflora
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01569-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.118. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGalectins are protein that participates in a variety of immune responses in the process of pathogenic infections. In the present study, a chimera galectin gene was screened from the transcriptome database of Nibea albiflora, which was named as YdGal-3. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the mRNA transcripts of YdGal-3 were ubiquitously distributed in all the detected tissues. After infection with Vibrio harveyi, the expression of YdGal-3 in liver, spleen, and head kidney increased significantly. Immuno...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Baolan Wu Qing Song Wanbo Li Yangjie Xie Shuai Luo Qianqian Tian Ruixiang Zhao Tong Liu Zhiyong Wang Fang Han Source Type: research

Preparation and characterization of chitosan/polyvinyl porous alcohol aerogel microspheres with stable physicochemical properties
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01578-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.127. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTChitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (CS/PVA) porous aerogel microspheres with stable physicochemical properties were obtained by gelation and freeze-drying process, and modified by adding different content of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the microspheres. The physicochemical properties of porous aerogel microspheres, including porosity, swelling degree, acid-base resistance and compression performance were compared with chitosan (CS) microspheres. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electronic micro...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jian Xu Wei Song Nan Wu Jin Tong Lili Ren Source Type: research

Biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates production from wheat straw by recombinant Halomonas elongata A1
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01591-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.137. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWaste straw bio-transformation of high value-added macromolecule polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) was significance to environmental sustainable development. As a member of the PHA family, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) could be synthesized by Halomonas elongata A1 with maximal yields of 22.8% and 11.8% of bacterial weights using glucose and carboxymethyl cellulose as carbon sources, respectively. To improve PHB production, we generated three recombinant strains, the H. elongata P2 with highest PHB biosy...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Changli Liu Xiaotong Wang Hongyi Yang Chengwei Liu Guangchao Sui Guoqiang Chen Source Type: research

Chitosan-dipeptide hydrogels as potential anticancer drug delivery systems
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 24:S0141-8130(21)01585-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.134. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA novel chitosan-dipeptide hydrogel was fabricated through a combination of self-assembly of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-modified diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) and its electrostatic interaction with glycol chitosan (GCS). Hydrogel strength and stability depended on its composition. The highest gel strength was observed at a Fmoc-FF mass fraction (ϕFF) of 0.85, whereby the highest combined strength of the two interactions was achieved. As the ϕFF increased above 0.6, gel stability decreased in buffered sol...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 27, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jaemin Shim Jiseon Kang Seok Il Yun Source Type: research

Pineapple peel extract incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol)-corn starch film for active food packaging: Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01589-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.136. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis research study explores the fabrication of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and corn starch (ST) with pineapple peel extract (PPE) as a natural antioxidant agent, which is an abundant by-product from the food processing industry via casting method. The effects of PPEs concentration (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) on the antioxidant capacity, optical, thermal, mechanical, barrier properties, and changes in PVOH-starch molecular structure of PVOH/ST films were investigated. The results revealed that with the increa...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pardeep Kumar Rohit Tanwar Vidhi Gupta Aakash Upadhyay Anil Kumar Kirtiraj K Gaikwad Source Type: research

Fabrication and characterization of novel antibacterial chitosan/dialdehyde guar gum hydrogels containing pomegranate peel extract for active food packaging application
This study aimed to investigate synthesis and structural characteristics of the chitosan (CS) - modified dialdehyde guar gum (DAGG) hydrogel through the Schiff base reaction. The highest swelling capacity was achieved as about 12,000% of dry weight of the freeze-dried powder at CS: DAGG hydrogel with the mixing ratio of 30:70. The swelling ratio was not affected by changes in pH, which could be considered as an important property in the control of moisture in absorbent pad. The FTIR results indicated that the new amide groups have been formed at 1680 cm-1, which can be attributed to the covalent bond between the amide grou...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Leila Yavari Maroufi Mahnaz Tabibiazar Marjan Ghorbani Ali Jahanban-Esfahlan Source Type: research

Dual-enzymatically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel promotes neural differentiation and neurotrophin secretion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of moderate traumatic brain injury
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01562-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.111. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most devastating nervous injuries. Neural tissue engineering based on stem cells and bioactive scaffold is a promising but challenging approach for neural repair. A cutting-edge system with capability to control the fate of encapsulated stem cells is attractive to enhance neural regeneration after TBI. Herein, an injectable gelatin hydrogel dual-enzymatically cross-linked by horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and choline oxidase (ChOx) was performed as the neural s...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jinrui Li Dan Zhang Shen Guo Chengbin Zhao Luyu Wang Shanshan Ma Fangxia Guan Minghao Yao Source Type: research

Carboxyl group-modified α-lactalbumin induces TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in leukemia and breast cancer cells through the NOX4/p38 MAPK/PP2A axis
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01587-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.133. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo clarify the mechanism of semicarbazide-modified α-lactalbumin (SEM-LA)-mediated cytotoxicity, we investigated its effect on human U937 leukemia cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in the current study. SEM-LA induced apoptosis in U937 cells, which showed increased NOX4 expression, procaspase-8 degradation, and t-Bid production. FADD depletion inhibited SEM-LA-elicited caspase-8 activation, t-Bid production, and cell death, indicating that SEM-LA activated death receptor-mediated apoptosis in U...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jing-Ting Chiou Yi-Jun Shi Yuan-Chin Lee Liang-Jun Wang Ying-Jung Chen Long-Sen Chang Source Type: research

Glutathione reductase: A cytoplasmic antioxidant enzyme and a potential target for phenothiazinium dyes in Neospora caninum
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01559-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNeospora caninum causes heavy losses related to abortions in bovine cattle. This parasite developed a complex defense redox system, composed of enzymes as glutathione reductase (GR). Methylene blue (MB) impairs the activity of recombinant form of Plasmodium GR and inhibits the parasite proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, MB and its derivatives inhibits Neospora caninum proliferation, however, whether the MB mechanism of action is correlated to GR function remains unclear. Therefore, here, N. ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jade Cabestre Venancio-Brochi Luiz Miguel Pereira Felipe Antunes Calil Ol ívia Teixera Luciana Baroni P éricles Gama Abreu-Filho Gilberto Úbida Leite Braga Maria Cristina Nonato Ana Patr ícia Yatsuda Source Type: research

Chemical structure of native and modified sulfated heterorhamnans from the green seaweed Gayralia brasiliensis and their cytotoxic effect on U87MG human glioma cells
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01596-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.145. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA water-soluble sulfated heterorhamnan (Gb1) was isolated from the green seaweed Gayralia brasiliensis and purified by ultrafiltration, yielding a homogeneous polysaccharide (Gb1r). Both fractions contained rhamnose, xylose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids, galactose, and glucose. Chemical and spectroscopic methods allowed the determination of Gb1 and Gb1r chemical structure. Their backbones were constituted by 3-, 2-, and 2,3-linked rhamnosyl units (1:0.49:0.13 and 1:0.58:0.17, respectively), which ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ester Mazepa Miguel D Noseda Luciana G Ferreira Mariana M de Carvalho Alan G Gon çalves Diogo R B Ducatti Daniel de L Bellan Rafaela P Gomes Edvaldo da S Trindade C élia R C Franco F M Pellizzari Sheila M B Winnischofer Maria E R Duarte Source Type: research

Microbial degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate with embedded polyhexamethylene guanidine derivatives
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01588-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.135. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to isolate biofilm-forming bacteria that are capable of degrading polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) derivatives. The three types of derivatives incorporated in PHB and their concentration affected the biodegradability of the tested films in both water and compost. The PHMG derivative granular polyethylene wax at the highest concentration significantly inhibited BOD in both environments. At the same time, in water, PHB with PHMG stearate at 1% co...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Maria Swiontek Brzezinka Agnieszka Richert Agnieszka Kalwasi ńska Joanna Świątczak Edyta Deja-Sikora Maciej Walczak Marta Michalska-Sionkowska Katarzyna Piekarska Beata Kaczmarek-Szczepa ńska Source Type: research

Modification with N-benzylisatin restricts stress-induced aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme: Anti-amyloidogenic property of isatin derivative with possible clinical implications
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01543-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.092. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) is a structural homolog of human lysozyme and is widely used as a model protein to investigate protein aggregation. The effect of N-benzylisatin on stress-induced aggregation of HEWL has been investigated in the present study. Interaction of the isatin derivative with HEWL induced changes in protein secondary and tertiary structural conformation as evident from different biophysical and spectroscopic studies. In addition, modification with N-benzylisatin was found to incre...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sauradipta Banerjee Source Type: research

Synthesis and ex vivo evaluation of PLGA chitosan surface modulated double walled transdermal Pluronic nanogel for the controlled delivery of Temozolomide
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01581-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.129. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA surface modulated biodegradable transdermal strategy has been exploited for improving the biopharmaceutical properties of Temozolomide augmented in Poly Lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) chitosan double walled nanogel (PCNGL). The PCNGL was synthesized by dual approach methodology showing consistent nanosize particle range of 210 nm and PDI 0.325 ± 0.43 with cationic zeta potential values +29.34 ± 0.79 mV. The PCNGL showed qualitative endothermic & exothermic temperature dependent degr...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Prashant Sahu Sushil K Kashaw Varsha Kashaw J P Shabaaz Rajiv Dahiya Source Type: research

Dextran-polylactide micelles loaded with doxorubicin and DiR for image-guided chemo-photothermal tumor therapy
In this study, an optimally synthesized dextran-polylactide (DEX-PLA) copolymer was assembled with doxorubicin (DOX) and DiR, a kind of NIR dye, to construct desirable micelles ((DiR + DOX)/DEX-PLA) for performing image-guided chemo-photothermal therapy. These (DiR + DOX)/DEX-PLA micelles had good physical and photothermal stability in aqueous media and showed high photothermal efficiency in vivo. Based on the H22-tumor-bearing mouse model, (DiR + DOX)/DEX-PLA micelles were found to accumulate inside tumors sustainably and to emit strong fluorescence signals for more than three days. The (DiR + DOX)@DEX-PLA micelles togeth...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yanmei Shi Ronghua Tan Chan Yu Ying Wan Source Type: research

Pineapple peel extract incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol)-corn starch film for active food packaging: Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01589-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.136. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis research study explores the fabrication of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and corn starch (ST) with pineapple peel extract (PPE) as a natural antioxidant agent, which is an abundant by-product from the food processing industry via casting method. The effects of PPEs concentration (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) on the antioxidant capacity, optical, thermal, mechanical, barrier properties, and changes in PVOH-starch molecular structure of PVOH/ST films were investigated. The results revealed that with the increa...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pardeep Kumar Rohit Tanwar Vidhi Gupta Aakash Upadhyay Anil Kumar Kirtiraj K Gaikwad Source Type: research

Fabrication and characterization of novel antibacterial chitosan/dialdehyde guar gum hydrogels containing pomegranate peel extract for active food packaging application
This study aimed to investigate synthesis and structural characteristics of the chitosan (CS) - modified dialdehyde guar gum (DAGG) hydrogel through the Schiff base reaction. The highest swelling capacity was achieved as about 12,000% of dry weight of the freeze-dried powder at CS: DAGG hydrogel with the mixing ratio of 30:70. The swelling ratio was not affected by changes in pH, which could be considered as an important property in the control of moisture in absorbent pad. The FTIR results indicated that the new amide groups have been formed at 1680 cm-1, which can be attributed to the covalent bond between the amide grou...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Leila Yavari Maroufi Mahnaz Tabibiazar Marjan Ghorbani Ali Jahanban Source Type: research

Dual-enzymatically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel promotes neural differentiation and neurotrophin secretion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of moderate traumatic brain injury
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01562-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.111. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most devastating nervous injuries. Neural tissue engineering based on stem cells and bioactive scaffold is a promising but challenging approach for neural repair. A cutting-edge system with capability to control the fate of encapsulated stem cells is attractive to enhance neural regeneration after TBI. Herein, an injectable gelatin hydrogel dual-enzymatically cross-linked by horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and choline oxidase (ChOx) was performed as the neural s...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jinrui Li Dan Zhang Shen Guo Chengbin Zhao Luyu Wang Shanshan Ma Fangxia Guan Minghao Yao Source Type: research

Carboxyl group-modified α-lactalbumin induces TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in leukemia and breast cancer cells through the NOX4/p38 MAPK/PP2A axis
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01587-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.133. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo clarify the mechanism of semicarbazide-modified α-lactalbumin (SEM-LA)-mediated cytotoxicity, we investigated its effect on human U937 leukemia cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in the current study. SEM-LA induced apoptosis in U937 cells, which showed increased NOX4 expression, procaspase-8 degradation, and t-Bid production. FADD depletion inhibited SEM-LA-elicited caspase-8 activation, t-Bid production, and cell death, indicating that SEM-LA activated death receptor-mediated apoptosis in U...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jing-Ting Chiou Yi-Jun Shi Yuan-Chin Lee Liang-Jun Wang Ying-Jung Chen Long-Sen Chang Source Type: research

Glutathione reductase: A cytoplasmic antioxidant enzyme and a potential target for phenothiazinium dyes in Neospora caninum
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01559-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNeospora caninum causes heavy losses related to abortions in bovine cattle. This parasite developed a complex defense redox system, composed of enzymes as glutathione reductase (GR). Methylene blue (MB) impairs the activity of recombinant form of Plasmodium GR and inhibits the parasite proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, MB and its derivatives inhibits Neospora caninum proliferation, however, whether the MB mechanism of action is correlated to GR function remains unclear. Therefore, here, N. ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jade Cabestre Venancio-Brochi Luiz Miguel Pereira Felipe Antunes Calil Ol ívia Teixera Luciana Baroni P éricles Gama Abreu-Filho Gilberto Úbida Leite Braga Maria Cristina Nonato Ana Patr ícia Yatsuda Source Type: research

Chemical structure of native and modified sulfated heterorhamnans from the green seaweed Gayralia brasiliensis and their cytotoxic effect on U87MG human glioma cells
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01596-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.145. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA water-soluble sulfated heterorhamnan (Gb1) was isolated from the green seaweed Gayralia brasiliensis and purified by ultrafiltration, yielding a homogeneous polysaccharide (Gb1r). Both fractions contained rhamnose, xylose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids, galactose, and glucose. Chemical and spectroscopic methods allowed the determination of Gb1 and Gb1r chemical structure. Their backbones were constituted by 3-, 2-, and 2,3-linked rhamnosyl units (1:0.49:0.13 and 1:0.58:0.17, respectively), which ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ester Mazepa Miguel D Noseda Luciana G Ferreira Mariana M de Carvalho Alan G Gon çalves Diogo R B Ducatti Daniel de L Bellan Rafaela P Gomes Edvaldo da S Trindade C élia R C Franco F M Pellizzari Sheila M B Winnischofer Maria E R Duarte Source Type: research

Microbial degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate with embedded polyhexamethylene guanidine derivatives
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01588-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.135. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to isolate biofilm-forming bacteria that are capable of degrading polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) derivatives. The three types of derivatives incorporated in PHB and their concentration affected the biodegradability of the tested films in both water and compost. The PHMG derivative granular polyethylene wax at the highest concentration significantly inhibited BOD in both environments. At the same time, in water, PHB with PHMG stearate at 1% co...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Maria Swiontek Brzezinka Agnieszka Richert Agnieszka Kalwasi ńska Joanna Świątczak Edyta Deja-Sikora Maciej Walczak Marta Michalska-Sionkowska Katarzyna Piekarska Beata Kaczmarek-Szczepa ńska Source Type: research

Modification with N-benzylisatin restricts stress-induced aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme: Anti-amyloidogenic property of isatin derivative with possible clinical implications
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01543-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.092. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) is a structural homolog of human lysozyme and is widely used as a model protein to investigate protein aggregation. The effect of N-benzylisatin on stress-induced aggregation of HEWL has been investigated in the present study. Interaction of the isatin derivative with HEWL induced changes in protein secondary and tertiary structural conformation as evident from different biophysical and spectroscopic studies. In addition, modification with N-benzylisatin was found to incre...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sauradipta Banerjee Source Type: research

Synthesis and ex vivo evaluation of PLGA chitosan surface modulated double walled transdermal Pluronic nanogel for the controlled delivery of Temozolomide
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 23:S0141-8130(21)01581-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.129. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA surface modulated biodegradable transdermal strategy has been exploited for improving the biopharmaceutical properties of Temozolomide augmented in Poly Lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) chitosan double walled nanogel (PCNGL). The PCNGL was synthesized by dual approach methodology showing consistent nanosize particle range of 210 nm and PDI 0.325 ± 0.43 with cationic zeta potential values +29.34 ± 0.79 mV. The PCNGL showed qualitative endothermic & exothermic temperature dependent degr...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Prashant Sahu Sushil K Kashaw Varsha Kashaw J P Shabaaz Rajiv Dahiya Source Type: research

Dextran-polylactide micelles loaded with doxorubicin and DiR for image-guided chemo-photothermal tumor therapy
In this study, an optimally synthesized dextran-polylactide (DEX-PLA) copolymer was assembled with doxorubicin (DOX) and DiR, a kind of NIR dye, to construct desirable micelles ((DiR + DOX)/DEX-PLA) for performing image-guided chemo-photothermal therapy. These (DiR + DOX)/DEX-PLA micelles had good physical and photothermal stability in aqueous media and showed high photothermal efficiency in vivo. Based on the H22-tumor-bearing mouse model, (DiR + DOX)/DEX-PLA micelles were found to accumulate inside tumors sustainably and to emit strong fluorescence signals for more than three days. The (DiR + DOX)@DEX-PLA micelles togeth...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 26, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yanmei Shi Ronghua Tan Chan Yu Ying Wan Source Type: research

Conformational changes and binding property of the periplasmic binding protein BtuF during vitamin B < sub > 12 < /sub > transport revealed by collision-induced unfolding, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and molecular dynamic simulation
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 22:S0141-8130(21)01571-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.120. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe periplasmic binding protein (PBP) BtuF plays a key role in transporting vitamin B12 from periplasm to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter BtuCD. Conformational changes of BtuF during transport can hardly be captured by traditional biophysical methods and the exact mechanism regarding B12 and BtuF recognition is still under debate. In the present work, conformational changes of BtuF upon B12 binding and release were investigated using hybrid approaches including collision-induced unfolding (C...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 25, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lijun Zhou Defu Wang Mehwish Iftikhar Yinghong Lu Min Zhou Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides enzymatic hydrolysis from Hericium erinaceus on the MODE-K/DCs co-culture model
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 22:S0141-8130(21)01583-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.131. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to explore the indirect immunomodulatory activities and its mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides (EHEP) in the MODE-K/DCs co-culture model. According to the TEER value, transmission of phenol red and AKP activity of MODE-K cells, single model was established in order to evaluate the eligibility of MODE-K cells monolayer. Then the MODE-K/DCs co-culture model was set up and HEP and EHEP were added into the apical chamber, DCs were obtained for ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 25, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ruihong Yu Mengke Sun Zhen Meng Jingchao Zhao Tao Qin Zhe Ren Source Type: research

The lipid lowering and antioxidative stress potential of polysaccharide from Auricularia auricula prepared by enzymatic method
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 22:S0141-8130(21)01590-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.138. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn efficient extraction method of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAPs) by neutral protease was developed and optimized by response surface methodology. AAPs were graded by stepwise ethanol precipitation, the fraction with high recovery rate and strong radical scavenging rate were obtained, then its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect were studied using Caenorhabditis elegans as model organism. The extract yield and ABTS+ scavenging rates of AAPs could reach 14.90% and 86.0% at 50 °C, 75 mL...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 25, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bin Xiao Shuang Chen Qiqi Huang Jingjing Tan Jiangying Zeng Jing Yao Tao Feng Ge Wang Yongjun Zhang Source Type: research

Development and characterization of electrospun nanofibers based on pullulan/chitin nanofibers containing curcumin and anthocyanins for active-intelligent food packaging
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 22:S0141-8130(21)01593-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.140. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn electrospun nanofiber based on pullulan/chitin nanofibers (PCN) containing curcumin (CR) and anthocyanins (ATH) was developed using an electrospinning technique for active-intelligent food packaging. The results of scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that CR and ATH were successfully immobilized on the film-forming substrate based on PCN. The physical and chemical properties of nanofibers with no colorant, a single colorant, ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 25, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mengxia Duan Shan Yu Jishuai Sun Haixin Jiang Jianbo Zhao Cailing Tong Yaqin Hu Jie Pang Chunhua Wu Source Type: research

Synthesis and characterization of chitosan/polyacrylamide hydrogel grafted poly(N-methylaniline) for methyl red removal
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 22:S0141-8130(21)01575-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.124. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTChitosan/polyacrylamide hydrogel grafted poly(N-methylaniline) (CS/PACM-gr-PNMA) was good synthesized by chemical oxidative radical polymerization using potassium persulphate (KPS). The obtained polymer samples are characterized using IR and Uv-visible spectroscopy. Both surface properties and thermal stability were studied using XRD, SEM, BET and TGA techniques respectively. The characterized polymeric samples were used as a new sorbent for methyl red (MR). MR as an example of azo-dyes presence as pol...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 25, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hanem G Mohamed Ahmed A Aboud H M Abd El-Salam Source Type: research

Development and characterization of aldehyde-sensitive cellulose/chitosan/beeswax colorimetric papers for monitoring kiwifruit maturity
In this study, we developed an in-package colorimetric paper to monitor the ripeness of kiwifruit by detecting the release of aldehydes. Strongly hydrophobic composite films were prepared using chitosan as the matrix and beeswax as an additive. A piece of cellulose paper containing methyl red and bromocresol violet as color indicators was heat-sealed between two hydrophobic films to protect the indicators from the effects of fruit respiration and transpiration. The nucleophilic addition reaction between aldehydes and OH- (Cannizzaro reaction) changes the pH in the paper and triggers a color change in the indicators. As the...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 25, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yaowen Liu Yanlan Ma Tan Feng Jie Luo Dur E Sameen Md Alomgir Hossen Jianwu Dai Suqing Li Wen Qin Source Type: research

An in silico, structural, and biological analysis of lactoferrin of different mammals
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21;187:119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.102. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of transferrins having multifunctional roles associated with the immune system of animals. To follow the aims for this study was selected 20 sequences of LF from mammalian species to evaluate the chemical, biological, and structural properties. Bioinformatics approaches used programs such as MAFFT for sequence alignment; PartitionFinder and MrBayes for phylogenetic approaches; I-TASSER, PROCHECK, Molecular Operating Environment (MOE), SWISS Model server, Peptide DB and Expa...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dielson da S Vieira Richard C Polveiro Thomas J Butler Timothy A Hackett Camila P Braga Bhanwar Lal Puniya Weslen F P Teixeira Pedro de M Padilha Jiri Adamec Francisco L F Feitosa Source Type: research

Effect of natural deep eutectic solvents on thermal stability, syneresis, and viscoelastic properties of high amylose starch
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01550-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.099. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis work aimed to use natural deep eutectic solvents to modify the thermal, textural, freeze-thaw, and rheological properties of high amylose rice starch. Three different natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) composed of sugar and organic acids were applied to modify the properties of starch dispersion. In presence of NADES, the onset temperature of starch was decreased, in comparison with starch in aqueous and glycerol medium. During thermal decomposition, starch with the aqueous and glycerol system...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vivek Gupta Rahul Thakur Amit Baran Das Source Type: research

The role of lignin and lignin-based materials in sustainable construction - A comprehensive review
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01576-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.125. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe construction industry in the 21st century faces numerous global challenges associated with growing concerns for the environment. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of lignin and its derivatives in sustainable construction. Lignin's properties are defined in terms of their structure/property relationships and how structural differences arising from lignin extraction methods influence its application within the construction sector. Lignin and lignin composites allow the partial replacement of...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Patryk J ędrzejczak Maurice N Collins Teofil Jesionowski Łukasz Klapiszewski Source Type: research

Genome-wide identification of ascorbate-glutathione cycle gene families in soybean (Glycine max) reveals gene duplication events and specificity of gene members linked to development and stress conditions
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01554-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.103. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAscorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle plays an important role in tuning beneficial ROS accumulation for intracellular signals and imparts plant tolerance to oxidative stress by detoxifying excess of ROS. Here, we present genome-wide identification of AsA-GSH cycle genes (APX, MDHAR, DHAR, and GR) in several leguminous species and expression analyses in G. max during stress, germination and tissue development. Our data revealed 24 genes in Glycine genus against the maximum of 15 in other leguminous spec...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jos é Hélio Costa Andr é Luiz Maia Roque Shahid Aziz Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos Thais Andrade Germano Mathias Coelho Batista Karine Leit ão Lima Thiers K átia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt Source Type: research

An in silico, structural, and biological analysis of lactoferrin of different mammals
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01553-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.102. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of transferrins having multifunctional roles associated with the immune system of animals. To follow the aims for this study was selected 20 sequences of LF from mammalian species to evaluate the chemical, biological, and structural properties. Bioinformatics approaches used programs such as MAFFT for sequence alignment; PartitionFinder and MrBayes for phylogenetic approaches; I-TASSER, PROCHECK, Molecular Operating Environment (MOE), SWISS Model server, Peptide D...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dielson da S Vieira Richard C Polveiro Thomas J Butler Timothy A Hackett Camila P Braga Bhanwar Lal Puniya Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira Pedro de M Padilha Jiri Adamec Francisco L F Feitosa Source Type: research

Effect of natural deep eutectic solvents on thermal stability, syneresis, and viscoelastic properties of high amylose starch
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01550-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.099. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis work aimed to use natural deep eutectic solvents to modify the thermal, textural, freeze-thaw, and rheological properties of high amylose rice starch. Three different natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) composed of sugar and organic acids were applied to modify the properties of starch dispersion. In presence of NADES, the onset temperature of starch was decreased, in comparison with starch in aqueous and glycerol medium. During thermal decomposition, starch with the aqueous and glycerol system...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vivek Gupta Rahul Thakur Amit Baran Das Source Type: research

The role of lignin and lignin-based materials in sustainable construction - A comprehensive review
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01576-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.125. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe construction industry in the 21st century faces numerous global challenges associated with growing concerns for the environment. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of lignin and its derivatives in sustainable construction. Lignin's properties are defined in terms of their structure/property relationships and how structural differences arising from lignin extraction methods influence its application within the construction sector. Lignin and lignin composites allow the partial replacement of...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Patryk J ędrzejczak Maurice N Collins Teofil Jesionowski Łukasz Klapiszewski Source Type: research

Genome-wide identification of ascorbate-glutathione cycle gene families in soybean (Glycine max) reveals gene duplication events and specificity of gene members linked to development and stress conditions
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 21:S0141-8130(21)01554-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.103. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAscorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle plays an important role in tuning beneficial ROS accumulation for intracellular signals and imparts plant tolerance to oxidative stress by detoxifying excess of ROS. Here, we present genome-wide identification of AsA-GSH cycle genes (APX, MDHAR, DHAR, and GR) in several leguminous species and expression analyses in G. max during stress, germination and tissue development. Our data revealed 24 genes in Glycine genus against the maximum of 15 in other leguminous spec...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 24, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jos é Hélio Costa Andr é Luiz Maia Roque Shahid Aziz Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos Thais Andrade Germano Mathias Coelho Batista Karine Leit ão Lima Thiers K átia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt Source Type: research

Purification of MBP fusion proteins using engineered DARPin affinity matrix
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 20:S0141-8130(21)01568-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.117. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMaltose binding protein (MBP) has a long history as an expression tag with the ability to increase the solubility of fused proteins. A critical step for obtaining a sufficient amount of the MBP fusion protein is purification. Commercially available amylose matrix for the affinity purification of MBP fusion proteins has two main issues: (i) low (micromolar) affinity and (ii) the limited number of uses due to the cleavage of polysaccharide matrix by the amylases, present in the crude cell extract. Here, ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 23, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Michal Nemergut Rostislav Škrabana Martin Berta Andreas Pl ückthun Erik Sedl ák Source Type: research

Unmodified cassava starches with high phosphorus content
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 20:S0141-8130(21)01567-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.116. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOur study was based on the fact that physiological changes in the plant resulting from the growth conditions alter the properties of the starch. An experimental trial was installed with cassava plants in poor phosphorus soil. A part of plants received phosphate fertilization at a level three times higher than the recommended dose, in order to provide high availability of phosphorus in the soil. The plants grew for two years and the starches were isolated at three times in the second vegetative cycle. T...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 23, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Magali Leonel Daiana de Souza Fernandes Tha ís Paes Rodrigues Dos Santos Source Type: research

Temperature-resistant and solvent-tolerant lipases as industrial biocatalysts: Biotechnological approaches and applications
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 20:S0141-8130(21)01552-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.101. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe development of new biocatalytic systems to replace the chemical catalysts, with suitable characteristics in terms of efficiency, stability under high temperature reactions and in the presence of organic solvents, reusability, and eco-friendliness is considered a very important step to move towards the green processes. From this basis, the use of lipase as a catalyst is highly desired for many industrial applications because it offers the reactions in which could be used, stability in harsh conditio...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 23, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Abdallah R Ismail Hamdy Kashtoh Kwang-Hyun Baek Source Type: research

Characterization and expression pattern of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase gene families in Populus
In this study, 13 PtTPS and 10 PtTPP genes were identified in the Populus genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated PtTPS and PtTPP genes were both divided into two subfamilies, and gene members of each subfamily have highly conserved intron structures. Analysis of cis-acting elements showed that PtTPS and PtTPP genes were involved in plant hormones and environmental stress responses. Expression profiles also found PtTPSs and PtTPPs expressed differently in response to salt stress, cold, mechanical damage, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate treatment. Furthermore, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR results fo...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 23, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yuhan Gao Xiaoyu Yang Xiong Yang Tianyun Zhao Xinmin An Zhong Chen Source Type: research

3D-printed antioxidant antibacterial carboxymethyl cellulose/ ε-polylysine hydrogel promoted skin wound repair
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 20:S0141-8130(21)01566-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.115. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDeveloping a wound dressing for the treatment of large and irregular-shaped wounds remains a great challenge. Herein we developed novel printable bionic hydrogels with antibacterial and antioxidant properties which could effectively overcome the challenge by inhibiting inflammation and accelerating wound healing. The CMC/PL (CP) hydrogels were customized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) modified carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and ε-polylysine (ε-PL) via ultraviolet (UV) light polymerizat...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 23, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xiaoxue Wang Jingjie Qi Wenjie Zhang Yajie Pu Rong Yang Penghui Wang Shuai Liu Xiaoyan Tan Bo Chi Source Type: research

3D structure prediction, dynamic investigation and rational construction of an epitope-masked thermostable bovine hyaluronidase
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jul 20:S0141-8130(21)01548-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.098. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHyaluronidase (HAase) from bovine testes (BTH) has long been used in broad pharmaceutical areas, while it is associated with drawbacks in aspects of solubility, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics. These issues can be addressed by gaining structural insights and designing rational modifications to the enzyme structure, as proposed in this study. A 3D structural model was built for HAase and underwent 40 ns of molecular dynamic simulation to examine its thermostability under normal, melting, and extreme...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - July 23, 2021 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mansour Amin Ebrahim Barzegari Aminollah Pourshohod Majid Zeinali Mostafa Jamalan Source Type: research