T follicular regulatory cells suppress Tfh-mediated B cell help and synergistically increase IL-10-producing B cells in breast carcinoma
In this study, total circulating CD4 T cells were sorted into CD25+CXCR5− Treg-like, CD25+CXCR5+ Tfr-like, and CD25−CXCR5+ Tfh-like subsets. Data showed that the Tfr-like subset presented intermediate levels of both Foxp3 and Bcl-6, while the Treg-like subset was high in Foxp3 and low in Bcl-6, and the Tfh-like was high in Bcl-6 and low in Foxp3. Of note, the frequencies of Tfr-like and Treg-like cells were significantly elevated in breast cancer (BC) patients than in non-cancer (NC) controls. Tfr-like cells in BC patients also expressed significantly higher levels of Foxp3 than those in NC controls. Neither Tr...
Source: Immunologic Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparison of immunomodulatory properties of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and dental pulp stem cells
AbstractSubstantial discoveries suggested that exosomes released from multiple sources of stem cells can affect the biological functions of target cells. In present period, the immunosuppressive properties of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs-E) have been extensively recognized, but few studies have been reported about exosomes secreted from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs-E) in the field of medical immunity. Hence, the aim of this study is to compare the immunomodulatory capacity of BMMSCs-E and DPSCs-E. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with them respectively and the...
Source: Immunologic Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

On the immunoregulatory role of statins in multiple sclerosis: the effects on Th17 cells
AbstractStatins, the cholesterol-lowering drugs, also possess immunomodulatory properties, affecting among others T cell activation and differentiation, antigen presentation, and regulatory T cell (Tregs) maintenance and differentiation. Their effects on autoagression have led investigators to assess their clinical significance in autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of autoimmune nature. The dysregulated immunity noted in MS features a profound shift from Tregs dominance to Th17 cell superiority. In this review, we discuss the immunobiological basis of statins, t...
Source: Immunologic Research - August 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IgM ANCA in healthy individuals and in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis
We report the presence of low-level specific IgM ANCA in the sera of healthy individuals and in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. Bacterial infection did not affect the level of IgM ANCA in this small study. (Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - August 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Overall corrections and assessments of “Correlations between TLR polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis of 49 case-control studies”
(Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - July 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid: a review
AbstractOcular mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare, immuno-mediated chronic progressive condition of the conjunctiva characterized by blisters developing from sub-epithelial tissue through disruption of the adhesions between the conjunctival epithelium and the sub-epithelium. Patients with ocular MMP, in many cases, develop profound conjunctival scarring and visual impairment. Furthermore, ocular MMP may lead to a progressive secondary corneal vascularization and to corneal opacification. Ocular MMP is difficult to diagnose during the initial stages because of false negatives during biopsy and variability in the cli...
Source: Immunologic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evaluation of serum cytokine and chemokine levels in dermatitis herpetiformis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
(Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - July 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

B7-H3 modulates endothelial cell angiogenesis through the VEGF cytokine
In this study, we analyzed the serum expression of B7-H3 in 113 rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematous patients using the ELISA and found a positive correlation between B7-H3 and VEGF. Next, we investigated the involvement of B7-H3 in angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with transient knockdown of B7-H3 and an in vivo Matrigel model. Data from the in vitro experiments showed that B7-H3 increased cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, and correlated with the expression of VEGF. Furthermore, B7-H3 affected the formation of functional vascular networks in Matrigel plugs...
Source: Immunologic Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus -induced CXCR1 expression via inhibition of receptor mobilization and receptor shedding during dual receptor (TNFR1 and IL-1R) neutralization
This study aimed to investigate the role of inhibition of receptor mobilization from the intracellular pool (using brefeldin A) and surface receptor shedding (using TAPI-1) on CXCR1 expression during dual receptor (TNFR1 plus IL-1R) neutralization in peritoneal macrophages isolated from wild-type Swiss Albino mice. Release of superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide was measured and cytokine production was done by ELISA. Expression of surface receptors (TNFR1, IL-1R, and CXCR1) and inflammatory mediators was studied by Western blot. It was observed thatS. aureus-infected macrophages showed elevated ROS product...
Source: Immunologic Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dysregulation of helper T lymphocytes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients is highly associated with aberrant production of miR-21
AbstractDysregulation of helper T (Th) cell subsets has been contributed to the initiation and propagation ofesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Different microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to control the development and functions of tumor-associated immune cells in ESCC. Here, we aimed to assess the IL-10, TGF- β, IFN-γ, and IL-17a-producing CD3+CD8− T cells in association whit miR-21, miR-29b, miR-106a, and miR-155 expression in ESCC patients. A total of 34 ESCC patients including 12 newly diagnosed (ND) and 22 under-treatment (UT) cases and also 34 age-matched healthy donors were enrolled...
Source: Immunologic Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Noradrenaline modulates CD4+ T cell priming in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a role for the α 1 -adrenoceptor
AbstractPharmacological blockade of α1-adrenoceptor is shown to influence development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an IL-17-producing CD4+TCR+ (Th17) cell-mediated disease mimicking multiple sclerosis. Considering significance of CD4+ cell priming for the clinical outcome of EAE, the study examined α1-adrenoceptor-mediated influence of catecholamines, particularly those derived from draining lymph node (dLN) cells (as catecholamine supply from nerve fibers decreases with the initiation of autoimmune diseases) for CD4+ cell priming. The results confirmed diminishing effect of immunization ...
Source: Immunologic Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Late relapse of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a consequence of low-level chimerism from a carrier donor?
(Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - July 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

RGC-32 and diseases: the first 20  years
AbstractThe response gene to complement (RGC)-32 acts as a cell cycle regulator and mediator of TGF- β effects. However, recent studies have revealed other functions for RGC-32 in diverse processes such as cellular migration, differentiation, and fibrosis. In addition to its induction by complement activation and the C5b-9 terminal complement complex, RGC-32 expression is also stimulated by growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. RGC-32 is induced by TGF-β through Smad3 and RhoA signaling and plays an important role in cell differentiation. In particular, RGC-32 is essential for the differentiation of Th17 cells...
Source: Immunologic Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Downregulation of CD163 in monocytes and its soluble form in the plasma is associated with a pro-inflammatory profile in pregnant women with preeclampsia
This study evaluated CD163 expression by monocytes and sCD163 as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentration in the plasma of pregnant women with PE. Fifty-six women with PE and 28 normotensive pregnant women were included. Plasma levels of sCD163, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β), IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA, and CD163 expression by monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of CD163 by monocytes was significantly lower in severe and mild PE than in normotensive pr egnant. Plasma concentration...
Source: Immunologic Research - June 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immune reconstitution after HSCT in SCID —a cohort of conditioned and unconditioned patients
AbstractAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the effective mean of immune restoration in severe combined immunodefiency (SCID). Usually, HSCT without cytoreductive conditioning is attempted. Nevertheless, conditioning procedures are still preferred in a subset of patients. Herein, we describe the immunological outcome in a cohort of conditioned and unconditioned patients, from diagnosis, through transplantation, to follow-up. This retrospective study was conducted on 17 patients with SCID (10 conditioned, 7 unconditioned) who later underwent HSCT. Immune reconstitution was assessed in the post-trans...
Source: Immunologic Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Catalase expression of Propionibacterium acnes may contribute to intracellular persistence of the bacterium in sinus macrophages of lymph nodes affected by sarcoidosis
We examined catalase expression in culturedP. acnes isolated from 19 sarcoid and 18 control lymph nodes and immunohistochemical localization of the protein in lymph nodes from 43 sarcoidosis and 102 control patients using a novelP. acnes-specific antibody (PAC) that reacts with the catalase protein, together with the previously reportedP. acnes-specific PAB and TIG antibodies. High catalase expression ofP. acnes cells was found during stationary phase in more isolates from sarcoid than from non-sarcoid lymph nodes and was associated with bacterial survival under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. In many sarcoid and some contr...
Source: Immunologic Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 expression on monocytes in Egyptian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in chronic inflammation. Still, little is known about the expression of TLRs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herein, we tried to assess the prognostic value of TLR2 and TLR4 expression on circulating monocytes in HCC patients and correlate their levels with some clinical, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes. Forty patients with hepatic focal lesions diagnosed radiologically as HCC by triphasic multislice CT pelviabdominal and chest, and in some patients MRI diffusion and 38 age and sex matching healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Subjects were evaluated for liv...
Source: Immunologic Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Patients with atopy exhibit reduced cortisol awakening response but not cortisol concentrations during the rest of the day
In conclusion, this study presents evidence on reduced CAR suggesting an insufficient HPA axis reactivity in atopy. Furthermore, the data in atopic patients demonstrate that reduced HPA axis reactivity does not necessarily mean lower cortisol concentrations throughout the day. This might be of relevance to immune system function and the course of the disease. (Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - April 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Putative loss of CD83 immunosuppressive activity in long-standing complication-free juvenile diabetic patients during disease progression
AbstractThe CD83 molecule is a known marker of dendritic cell differentiation process, and its soluble form (sCD83) exerts immunosuppressive functions. In our research, we examined whether the sCD83 plasma concentration is impaired in DM1 children and if the expected changes are in line with the disturbed process of monocyte ’s transformation into mCD83+ monocyte-derived cells. 28 newly diagnosed (ND-DM1) and 30 long-standing (LS-DM1) patients were enrolled into our study. We revealed that the examined cells show a high mCD83 expression level in ND-DM1, which was significantly downregulated by the TNF- α stimul...
Source: Immunologic Research - April 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The emerging role of STING-dependent signaling on cell death
AbstractSTING is a newly identified adaptor protein for sensing cytosolic nucleic acid. It is well established that STING plays a crucial role in innate immune response via inducing production of type I IFN. Emerging evidence suggests that the activation of STING-dependent signaling is also implicated in the process of cell death, such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy. Of note, the pro-death outcome is even predominant in certain cell types, like lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and hepatocytes. Given that STING agonists are being tested for enhancing antitumor immune responses, it is necessary to fully unde...
Source: Immunologic Research - March 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Monocytes of newly diagnosed juvenile DM1 patients are prone to differentiate into regulatory IL-10 + M2 macrophages
AbstractAlternatively activated macrophages (M2) exert anti-inflammatory effects and are crucial for keeping balance between protective and destructive cell-mediated immunity in healing phase of inflammation. Two members of the interferon regulatory factors family, IRF5 and IRF4, are known to promote M1 or M2 phenotype, respectively. Our study aimed to analyse the effectiveness of the M2 differentiation process in vitro (achieved by IL-4 stimulation) and its relationship to the stage of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) in juvenile patients. To identify the basic changes in M2 phenotype, we examined the expression of the surf...
Source: Immunologic Research - March 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Editorial: autoimmunity —the ever endless world
(Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - March 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Consideration concerning similarities and differences between ANCA-associated vasculitis and IgG-4-related diseases: case series and review of literature
AbstractAnti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and immunoglobulin G4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) are regarded as entirely different disease types with different etiological mechanisms. However, we experienced two cases that had clinical features of both AAV and IgG4-RD. The first case is an 81-year-old woman who showed periaortitis and retroperitoneal fibrosis and periarteritis with elevation of myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and IgG4 levels. The second case is a 63-year-old woman who had dura mater, ear, nose, lung, and kidney involvement with serum negative for ANCA a...
Source: Immunologic Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Suspected adverse effects after human papillomavirus vaccination: a temporal relationship
AbstractIn Japan, a significant number of adolescent girls complained unusual symptoms after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, and the vast majority of them were initially diagnosed as having psychiatric illness because of the absence of pathologic  findings, radiological images and specific abnormalities in laboratory test results. Later, these symptoms were supposed to be adverse effects after HPV vaccination, and the recommendation for HPV vaccination was withdrawn by Japanese Ministry of Public Health, Labour and Welfare 4 years and 9 m onths ago. However, a causal link has not been demonstrated be...
Source: Immunologic Research - February 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Expression of human REG family genes in inflammatory bowel disease and their molecular mechanism
AbstractThe pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) reflects a balance between mucosal injury and reparative mechanisms. Some regenerating gene (Reg) family members have been reported to be expressed in Crohn ’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to be involved as proliferative mucosal factors in IBD. However, expression of all theREG family genes in IBD is still unclear. Here, we analyzed expression of all theREG family genes (REGI α,REGI β,REG III,HIP/PAP, andREG IV) in biopsy specimens of UC and CD by real-time RT-PCR.REG I α,REG I β, andREG IV genes were overexpressed i...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A novel third-generation TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a murine monoclonal TSH receptor-binding antibody
AbstractTSH receptor (TSHR) autoantibody (TRAb) is the serological hallmark of Graves ’ disease (GD). Third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using monoclonal TRAbs instead of TSH have been found useful for TRAb analysis recently. For the first time, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) against TSHR was analyzed for TRAb detection and compared with human mAb M22 a nd TSH by the same competitive binding assay technique. A mouse monoclonal antibody (T7) binding to the TSH receptor and inhibiting TSH binding was generated and used for TRAb analysis in a third-generation ELISA. Obtained TRAb levels were...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tryptophan-kynurenine profile in pediatric autoimmune hepatitis
AbstractThe impairment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a characteristic feature of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and the degradation of tryptophan (Trp) to kynurenine (Kyn), by gamma interferon-induced indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), is a central metabolomics check point in the differentiation of Tregs. For this reason, we investigate whether or not Kyn and IDO activity is potentially useful biomarkers in pediatric AIH.Between January 2016 and January 2017, children of AIH type-1 (AIH-1,n = 37), AIH type-2 with liver kidney microsome-1 autoantibodies (AIH-2-LKM-1,n = 8), and autoantibody-n...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage phenotype bioengineered by magnetic, genetic, or pharmacologic interference
AbstractIn all eukaryotes, the cell shape depends on the actin filament cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the small GTPase RhoA. It is well known that the cell shape determines cell function and behavior. Inversely, any change in the cell behavior and/or function reverberates at the cell shape. In this review, we describe how mechanical/magnetic, genetic, or pharmacologic interference with the actin cytoskeleton enforces changes in cell shape and function and how such techniques can be used to control the phenotype and functions of immune cells such as macrophages and to develop novel anti-cancer and anti-rejection clini...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Potential roles of neutrophils in maintaining the health and productivity of dairy cows during various physiological and physiopathological conditions: a review
AbstractNeutrophils represent the first line of innate immunity and are the most prominent line of cellular defence against invading microorganisms. On stimulation, they can quickly move through the walls of veins and into the tissues of the body to immediately attack or monitor the foreign antigens. Neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells which are endowed with highly sensitive receptor-based perception systems. They were traditionally classified as short-lived phagocytes actively involved during infection and inflammation, but recently, it has been seen that neutrophils are capable of detecting the prese...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The relationship between pemphigus and systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study, systematic review, and meta-analysis
In conclusion, the meta-analysis provides epidemiologic evidence that these B cell-driven diseases are significantly associated. Further research is required to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this association. (Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - January 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Concentrations of immunoglobulin free light chains in cerebrospinal fluid predict increased level of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis
In this study, we aimed to determine the possible link between immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) and brain atrophy in patients with MS. Ninety-two patients (32 males and 60 females) with MS were included. Kappa and lambda FLC concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of MS patients were measured using ELISA assay. FLC quotients (Q-k and Q- λ, respectively) were calculated. In a cross-sectional group (n = 92), the MRI data were acquired within 6 months from the date of the lumbar puncture. Twenty patients from this cohort performed a follow-up MRI after 1 year of obser...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

From the bluetongue vaccination campaigns in sheep to overimmunization and ovine ASIA syndrome
AbstractThe use of vaccines has proven to be very effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases, both in veterinary and human medicine; however, vaccines can be also the source of an array of problems caused by procedures such as overimmunization. Bluetongue, an orbiviral disease that affects ruminants, is best controlled by the use of inactivated vaccines. During the last years of the past decade, these vaccines were applied all over Europe to control the spreading of the disease, a goal that was accomplished; however, at the same time, several adverse effects related to the vaccination were reported. Espec...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The paramount role of cytokines and chemokines in papillary thyroid cancer: a review and experimental results
AbstractOur study demonstrates that (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 and 11 (CXCL9, CXCL11) chemokines were absent basally in non-neoplastic thyroid (TFC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells. Interferon (IFN) γ induced the chemokine secretion in TFC and PTC, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α induced it only in PTC. IFNγ+TNFα induced a synergistic chemokines release in PTC, and at a lower level in TFC. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists suppressed dose-dependently IFNγ+TNFα -induced chemokine release in TFC, while stimulated it in PTC. PPARγ knocking do...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correlations between TLR polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis of 49 case-control studies
AbstractRecently, the roles of toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were intensively explored, with conflicting results. Therefore, we performed this study to better assess the relationship betweenTLR polymorphisms and the risk of IBD. Eligible studies were searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate associations betweenTLR polymorphisms and IBD. Significant associations with the risk of IBD were detected for theTLR1 rs5743611, TLR4 rs4986790, TLR4 rs4986791, and TLR6 rs5743810 polymorphisms in ove...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Altered expression of regulatory molecules in the skin of psoriasis
AbstractThe presence of T regulatory cells (Tregs) is highly required in normal skin in order to maintain immune tolerance to commensal microbes and to prevent the development of immune-mediated inflammation. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which effector T cells, namely, Th17 and their relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in peripheral blood as well as in the inflamed skin. The status of Tregs in psoriatic skin is continuously studied. In this case, CD4  + CD25high T cells and other regulatory cytokines such as IL-35 are demonstrated to be significantly decreased. Aiming to b...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Role of microRNAs in host defense against Echinococcus granulosus infection: a preliminary assessment
The published article unfortunately contained mistake. After replacing the image from colored version to black and white, the Fig.  1 caption, unfortunately, was left unupdated. (Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - December 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Microparticles and autophagy: a new frontier in the understanding of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis
AbstractMicroparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles released by many cell types under physiological and pathological conditions. In the last years, these particles were considered as inert cell debris, but recently many studies have demonstrated they could have a role in intercellular communication. Increased levels of MPs have been reported in various pathological conditions including infections, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is an autoimmune systemic inflammatory disease characterized by chronic synovial inflammation, resulting in cartilage and bone damage with accelera...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Autonomic dysfunction and HPV immunization: an overview
In the recently published paper, “Autonomic dysfunction and HPV immunization: an overview”, the last name of the lead author is listed incorrectly. The author’s name is Svetlana Blitshteyn. (Source: Immunologic Research)
Source: Immunologic Research - December 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Routinely utilized in-house assays for infliximab, adalimumab and their anti-drug antibody levels
AbstractBy monitoring serum concentrations of infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADL) and levels of their antibodies in patients with inflammatory diseases, clinicians can adjust dose and increase safety and effectiveness of treatment. The aim was to develop and validatein-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for IFX and ADL, together with anti-IFX and anti-ADL ELISAs for routine detection and further analysis with acid dissociation of immune complexes. Furthermore, the objectives were to comparein-house assays with commercial ELISAs and reporter gene assays (RGAs) and to determine cross-reactivity between origi...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Plant and human aquaporins: pathogenesis from gut to brain
AbstractCorn, soybean, spinach leaf, and tomato aquaporins have been shown to share homology with human aquaporin-4, which is abundantly expressed by brain astrocytic endfeet. Thus, antibodies formed against the dietary aquaporins may potentially cross-react with brain aquaporin, leading to blood-brain barrier permeability and setting the stage for neuroautoimmunity and neurodegeneration. Here, we review the role of aquaporins in plants and humans in maintaining a healthy organism and mechanisms by which dietary aquaporins may contribute to neurological disorders. We include clinical data on the correlation between four re...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intravenous immunoglobulins for rheumatic disorders and thromboembolic events —a case series and review of the literature
AbstractTo report the temporal association between a series of thromboembolic events and intravenous immunoglobulin infusion in patients with rheumatic diseases, and to review the literature on the subject. The clinical presentation, course, and outcome of thromboembolic events occurring post-immunoglobulin infusion in nine patients is described. A web-based literature review using the PubMed database from 1996 to 2017 was performed, searching for the keywords: thrombosis, thromboembolism, intravenous immunoglobulin, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, cerebrovascular event, and acute myocardial infarction. Nine pati...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Molecular mimicry, genetic homology, and gene sharing proteomic “molecular fingerprints” using an EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-derived microarray as a potential diagnostic method in autoimmune disease
AbstractEBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) and other human DNA viruses are associated with autoimmune syndromes in epidemiologic studies. In this work, immunoglobulin G response to EBV-encoded proteins which share regions with human immune response proteins from the human host including ZEBRA (BZLF-1 encoded protein), BALF-2 recombinase expressed primarily during the viral lytic replication cycle, and EBNA-1 (Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen) expressed during the viral latency cycle respectively were characterized using a laser-printed micro-array (PEPperprint.com). IgG response to conserved “A/T hooks” in EBV-encoded ...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tuftsin phosphorylcholine —a novel compound harnessing helminths to fight autoimmunity
AbstractThe distinction that in areas where helminthic infections are common, autoimmune diseases are less prevalent, led to the investigation of immune modulatory properties of helminths and their derivatives. Such are phosphorylcholine (PC) moieties which are a component of secreted products of helminths. PC has been broadly studied for its attenuating effects on the human immune system. In an attempt to develop a novel therapeutic small molecule for the treatment of autoimmune conditions, we have conjugated PC with tuftsin, a natural immunomodulatory tetrapeptide, to create TPC. Herein, we review our findings regarding ...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

FcR γ deficiency improves survival in experimental sepsis by down-regulating TLR4 signaling pathway
In this study, we found that deficiency of FcRγ resulted in increased survival in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine andE. coli-induced sepsis in mice. This protective effect was characterized by decreased TNF- α, IL-6, and IL-10. Further experiments in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in vitro also showed that FcRγ deficiency resulted in decreased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 upon LPS stimulation. The mechanism study showed that FcRγ was physiologically associated with toll-like recepto r 4 (TLR4), and tyrosine phosphorylation of FcRγ mediated TLR4 signaling pathway...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Specific features of immune complexes in patients with sarcoidosis and pulmonary tuberculosis
AbstractClinical and radiological features of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are quite overlapping, and therefore, a diagnostic dilemma often persists. There are no commonly accepted criteria for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis due to the lack of data on the etiology of the disease. The exclusion of tuberculosis in every patient with suspected sarcoidosis is a mandatory stage of diagnosis, especially in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. A prospective study was conducted with two groups of patients: group I (n = 50)—patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis established according to standard criteria; gr...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Organochlorine pesticides exposure in female adolescents: potential impact on sexual hormones and interleukin-1 levels
The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on IL-1 axis in exposed female adolescents through an observational cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in Sary-Agach District (OCPs  exposed girls) and Sairam District (OCPs unexposed controls), South Kazakhstan. The study included 524 female adolescents aged 10–17 years (OCPs exposed,n = 253; OCPs unexposed,n = 271). The main outcome was assessment of OCPs blood levels (correlating to pubertal development and sexual hormonal status) and IL-1 levels. The delaye...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Review of the “X chromosome-nucleolus nexus” hypothesis of autoimmune diseases with an update explaining disruption of the nucleolus
AbstractThe “X chromosome-nucleolus nexus” hypothesis provides a comprehensive explanation of how autoantibodies can develop following cellular stress. The hypothesis connects autoimmune diseases with the impact of environmental factors, such as viruses, through epigenetic disruption. The inactive X chromos ome, a major epigenetic structure in the female cell’s nucleus, is a key component of the hypothesis. The inactive X is vulnerable to disruption due to the following: (1) its heavy requirements for methylation to suppress gene expression, (2) its peripheral location at the nuclear envelope, (3) it s la...
Source: Immunologic Research - December 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity, inflammation, and dysbiosis mutually govern the transition from the preclinical to the clinical stage of rheumatoid arthritis
AbstractCurrently, it is well recognized that in the natural history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an at-risk phase, characterized by the development of autoimmunity, precedes the onset of clinical symptoms in a large proportion of patients. For individuals who later develop seropositive RA, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications (PTM). These anti-PTM autoantibodies (APMA) are an important biomarker and risk factor for future RA. However, the triggers of autoimmunity remain unknown. This review summarizes data supporting the view that the tra...
Source: Immunologic Research - November 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of microRNAs in host defense against Echinococcus granulosus infection: a preliminary assessment
AbstractCystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected helminthic zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the tapewormEchinococcus granulosus s.l. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that have been linked with the pathogenesis of several human diseases, but little exists in the available literature about miRNAs in CE. Here, we investigate the expression profiles of 84 microRNAs relevant to the function of lymphocytes and other immune cells during CE infection in the peripheral blood of patients with cysts in active and inactive stages. We applied the microRNA PCR array technology to blood samples from 20 patient...
Source: Immunologic Research - November 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autonomic dysfunction and HPV immunization: an overview
This article reviews the case series reported from several countries describing patients with suspected severe side effects to the HPV vaccines. The described symptom clusters are remarkably similar and include disabling fatigue, headache, widespread pain, fainting, gastrointestinal dysmotility, limb weakness, memory impairment episodes of altered awareness, and abnormal movements. This constellation of symptoms and signs has been labeled with different diagnoses such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), small fiber neuropathy (SFN), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic f...
Source: Immunologic Research - November 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research