Endothelial injury and thrombotic microangiopathy in COVID-19: Treatment with the lectin-pathway inhibitor narsoplimab.
In this study, the first time a lectin-pathway inhibitor was used to treat COVID-19, six COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or intubation received narsoplimab under compassionate use. At baseline and during treatment, circulating endothelial cell (CEC) counts and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed. Narsoplimab treatment was associated with rapid and sustained reduction of CEC and concurrent reduction of serum IL-6, IL-8, CRP and LDH. Narsoplimab was well tolerated; no adverse drug re...
Source: Immunobiology - August 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rambaldi A, Gritti G, Micò MC, Frigeni M, Borleri G, Salvi A, Landi F, Pavoni C, Sonzogni A, Gianatti A, Binda F, Fagiuoli S, Di Marco F, Lorini L, Remuzzi G, Whitaker S, Demopulos G Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

RNASeq analysis reveals upregulation of complement C3 in the offspring gut following prenatal stress in mice.
In this study, we performed RNASeq analysis to determine the gene expression changes in the offspring gut following prenatal stress in pregnant mice and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and biological pathways. Notably, C3 was upregulated in the small intestine and contributed to a higher tissue injury score in a mesenteric ischemia model compared to unstressed controls. We discuss the potential implications of these stress-induced genes expression changes and their contribution to development of intestinal inflammation. PMID: 32747015 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yeramilli VA, Brawner KM, Crossman DK, Barnum SR, Martin CA Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Pyruvate kinase M2 in lung APCs regulates Alternaria-induced airway inflammation.
Abstract Sensitivity to allergenic fungi (Alternaria alternata) is associated with acute, severe asthma attacks. Antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the lung sense environmental perturbations that induce cellular stress and metabolic changes and are critical for allergic airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying such environmental sensing by APCs in the lung remains unclear. Here we show that acute Alternaria challenge rapidly induces neutrophil accumulation in airways, and alter expressions of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2) and hypoxia-inducible factor -1α (Hif-1α) that correlates with proinflamm...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jaiswal AK, Makhija S, Stahr N, Sandey M, Suryawanshi A, Mishra A Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

MerTK negatively regulates Staphylococcus aureus induced inflammatory response via SOCS1/SOCS3 and Mal.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings indicate the important role of MerTK in self-regulatory resolution of S. aureus-induced inflammatory pathways and cytokines through intrinsic SOCS1 and SOCS3 repressed feedback on TLR2, TLR6 both in vivo and in vitro. PMID: 32747017 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zahoor A, Yang C, Yang Y, Akhtar M, Umar T, Khan MA, Ahmad S, Deng G, Guo MY Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Identification of a novel TLR5 agonist derived from the P97 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
Abstract By modulating specific immune responses against antigens, adjuvants are used in many vaccine preparations to enhance protective immunity. The C-terminal domain of the protein P97 (P97c) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which is the etiologic agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, has been shown to increase the specific humoral response against an antigen when this antigen is merged with P97c and delivered by adenovectors. However, the immunostimulating mechanism of this protein remains unknown. In the present study, recombinantly expressed P97c triggered a concentration-dependent TLR5 activation and stimulates ...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gauthier L, Babych M, Segura M, Bourgault S, Archambault D Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection increases regulatory T cell counts in female C57BL/6 mice infected via two distinct routes.
erinaud LM Abstract Studies that show an overview of the peripheral immune response in a model of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) infection in females are scarce in the literature. We sought to characterize the innate and adaptive immune responses in female C57BL/6 mice infected with Pb through two distinct routes of administration, intranasal and intravenous. In addition to the lung, P. brasiliensis yeast cells were observed in liver and brain tissues of females infected intravenously. To our knowledge, our study is the first to prove the presence of this pathogenic fungus in the cerebral cortex of female mice...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Peron G, Oliveira J, Thomaz LL, Bonfanti AP, Thomé R, Rapôso C, Cardoso Verinaud LM Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Beta-naphthoflavone inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells via AKT/Nrf-2/HO-1-NF- κB signaling axis.
Beta-naphthoflavone inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells via AKT/Nrf-2/HO-1-NF-κB signaling axis. Immunobiology. 2020 Jul;225(4):151965 Authors: Gao X, He D, Liu D, Hu G, Zhang Y, Meng T, Su Y, Zhou A, Huang B, Du J, Fu S Abstract Numerous studies have shown that over-activation of microglia could cause neuroinflammation and release pro-inflammatory mediators, which could result in neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease etc. Beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in borderline tissues, but BNF has not been reported t...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gao X, He D, Liu D, Hu G, Zhang Y, Meng T, Su Y, Zhou A, Huang B, Du J, Fu S Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Mannose-binding lectin and associate serine protease complex modulates neutrophil respiratory burst and gene expression in Capra hircus.
Abstract Neutrophils are an essential cellular component of the innate immune system, responsible for multiple effector mechanisms and aspects of inflammation. Neutrophil priming results in a rapid elevation in antimicrobial activities and can be measured by reactive oxygen species production, bacterial endocytosis, and de-novo synthesis of components such as interleukins. Mannose binding lectin (MBL), a C-type lectin pathogen recognition receptor is associated with immune functions including complement activation, opsonization and modulating immune responses. Whether MBL opsonization of pathogen can induce neutro...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Patel PK, Choudhary K, Patidar P, Sharma S, Hajela K Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

ST6GAL1 polymorphisms influence susceptibility and progression of IgA nephropathy in a Chinese Han population.
CONCLUSIONS: Our research suggested that ST6GAL1 gene polymorphisms were implicated in IgAN susceptibility and clinical outcome in a Chinese Han population. PMID: 32747022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fu D, Zhong Z, Shi D, Peng Y, Li B, Wang D, Guo L, Li Z, Mao H, Yu X, Li M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Cellular immune response of asthmatic children in the presence of anti-Ascaris antibody.
In this study, we analyzed the relationships between serum levels of anti-Asc IgE, IgG1, and IgG4, without concurrent infection by the parasite, and the presence of asthma. We measured cytokine levels from Th1, Th2, and Th17 profiles. Children aged 2-14 years old, asthmatics (n = 64), and non-asthmatics (n = 40) were selected according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood criteria. Asthmatic patients who had positive skin allergy tests were considered to have allergic asthma. Stool exams were performed to exclude children who were parasitized by helminths/protozoans and blood samples were...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nóbrega C, Nascimento W, Lorena V, Medeiros D, Costa V, Albuquerque M, Barbosa C, Solé D, Sarinho E, Souza V Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

In vitro characterization of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) production by dendritic cells and macrophages during Streptococcus suis infection.
In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that S. suis induces G-CSF production in vivo and DCs and macrophages are key cellular sources of this cytokine mediator, mainly via the binding of lipoproteins to TLR2. The CPS significantly reduced this activation, confirming the powerful role of this component in S. suis virulence. As such, this study contributes to better understand how DCs and macrophages produce G-CSF in response to S. suis, and potentially to other streptococci. PMID: 32747024 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bleuzé M, Auger JP, Lavagna A, Gisch N, Gottschalk M, Segura M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Exploring Kawasaki disease-specific hub genes revealing a striking similarity of expression profile to bacterial infections using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and co-expression modules identification tool (CEMiTool): An integrated bioinformatics and experimental study.
Abstract Kawasaki disease (KD) has been declared a rare idiopathic condition for a long time. The children age less than five years, as the most susceptible group, are at risk of this disease. Since the cause of the disease is unknown, this study was designed to investigate the cause of KD. We applied metaDE and WGCNA packages in order to perform a meta-analysis and identify network modules of co-expressed genes, respectively, on three expression array datasets and also CEMiTool package to confirm detected modules by WGCNA. Using the Pearson correlation coefficient, the resemblance of KD to other symptomatic-simil...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Esmaeili S, Mehrgou A, Kakavandi N, Rahmati Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

The role of IL-17A/IL-17RA and lung injuries in children with lethal non-pandemic acute viral pneumonia.
This study aimed to evaluate IL-17A (interleukin 17A) and IL-17RA (IL-17A receptor) in a pediatric population that died with non-pandemic acute viral pneumonia compared to the non-viral pneumonia group. Necropsy lung samples (n = 193) from children that died after severe acute infection pneumonia were selected and processed for viral antigen detection by immunohistochemistry. After this, they were separated into two groups: virus-positive (n = 68) and virus-negative lung samples (n = 125). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the presence of IL-17A and IL-17RA in the lung tissue. The virus-positive group showed str...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Azevedo MLV, Malaquias MAS, de Paula CBV, de Souza CM, Júnior VHC, Raboni SM, Halila R, Rosendo G, Gozzo P, do Carmo LAP, Neto PC, Nagashima S, de Noronha L Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Identification of a peptide targeting CD56.
Abstract Neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1/CD56) is expressed on immune cells, myoblasts, and malignant cells, and there is a growing demand for the genetic detection of CD56 and CD56-targeted therapy. In the present study, we developed a novel peptide ligand (designated Natein) that binds to human CD56 by using T7 phage display technology. Natein recognized the extracellular region of CD56 and could bind to natural killer (NK) cells and CD56-positive (CD56+) cancer cells. CD56+ cells enriched from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using biotinylated Natein-conjugated microbeads, similarly to C...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huang H, Liu Y, Ouyang X, Wang H, Zhang Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Generation of novel trimeric fragments of human SP-A and SP-D after recombinant soluble expression in E. coli.
ark H Abstract Surfactant treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome has dramatically improved survival of preterm infants. However, this has resulted in a markedly increased incidence of sequelae such as neonatal chronic inflammatory lung disease. The current surfactant preparations in clinical use lack the natural lung defence proteins surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D. These are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective properties essential for maintaining healthy non-inflamed lungs. Supplementation of currently available animal derived surfactant therapeutics with these anti-inflammatory prot...
Source: Immunobiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Watson A, Sørensen GL, Holmskov U, Whitwell HJ, Madsen J, Clark H Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Multinucleated giant cell phenotype in response to stimulation.
This study and future research using other stimulants and environments are important to gaining a fundamental MGC cell biology understanding. This will inform approaches to controlling the foreign body response to particle exposure, medical implants, and many diseases associated with granulomas. PMID: 32517879 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Trout KL, Holian A Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Treatment with inhaled formulation of angiotensin-(1-7) reverses inflammation and pulmonary remodeling in a model of chronic asthma.
pagnole-Santos MJ Abstract Asthma is characterized by inflammation, pulmonary remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We have previously shown that treatment with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] promotes resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and prevents chronic allergic lung inflammation. Here, we evaluated the effect of treatment with the inclusion compound of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) given by inhalation on pulmonary remodeling in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; 4 injections over 42 days, 14 days apart...
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Magalhães GS, Gregório JF, Ramos KE, Cançado-Ribeiro ATP, Baroni IF, Barcelos LS, Pinho V, Teixeira MM, Santos RAS, Rodrigues-Machado MG, Campagnole-Santos MJ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Correlation between serum levels of endothelin-1 and disease severity in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.
CONCLUSION: ET-1 and IL-6 might exert pro-inflammatory effects in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, whereas IL-10 played an anti-inflammatory role in this process. ET-1 might be a potential biomarker for predicting the severity of NMOSD. However, the serum levels of ET-1 were not correlated with the changes of other cytokines/chemokines in patients with NMOSD. The involvement of ET-1 in the development of NMOSD needs to be further studied. PMID: 32517881 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yi M, Liu MQ, Chou LS, Jiang SM, Zhang LJ, Huang CN, Wang N, Zhang QX, Yang L Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Immunoinformatics-guided designing of epitope-based subunit vaccines against the SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).
This study should contribute to uphold the present efforts of the researches to secure a definitive preventative measure against this lethal disease. PMID: 32517882 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sarkar B, Ullah MA, Johora FT, Taniya MA, Araf Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Epigenetics in non-classical monocytes support their pro-inflammatory gene expression.
Abstract Non-classical human monocytes are characterized by high-level expression of cytokines like TNF, but the mechanisms involved are elusive. We have identified miRNAs and CpG-methylation sites that are unique to non-classical monocytes, defined via CD14 and CD16 expression levels. For down-regulated miRNAs that are linked to up-regulated mRNAs the dominant gene ontology term was intracellular signal transduction. This included down-regulated miRNA-20a-5p and miRNA-106b-5p, which both are linked to increased mRNA for the TRIM8 signaling molecule. Methylation analysis revealed 16 hypo-methylated CpG sites upstr...
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang L, Hofer TP, Zawada AM, Rotter B, Krezdorn N, Noessner E, Devaux Y, Heine G, Ziegler-Heitbrock L Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Antibodies in sera from multiple sclerosis patients recognize Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory antigens.
Abstract Helminths, as complex pathogens, possess a large number of different epitopes, some of which may be similar to the epitopes of the host. Besides being the cause for the activation of self-reactive immune cells, molecular mimicry may also be the cause for the expansion of regulatory T cells, crucial for the host tolerance of self-antigens. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), caused by Trichinella spiralis infection or application of its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), was achieved through activation of Th2 and regulat...
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gruden-Movsesijan A, Drulovic J, Pekmezovic T, Mitic I, Cvetkovic J, Gnjatovic M, Sofronic-Milosavljevic L Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Diagnosis of radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency disease (RS-SCID) by Comet Assay, management of bone marrow transplantation.
In this study, five SCID patients and healthy controls were examined. Skin fibroblasts were cultured. After X-irradiation, cells either underwent clonogenic assay or incubated to allow DNA repair and examined by the alkaline comet assay. Finally, DCLRE1C, RAG-1, and RAG-2 genes sequenced. RESULTS: By clonogenic assay, three patients were detected as radiosensitive with possible mutations in NHEJ genes such as DCLRE1C gene. The percentage of DNA in the tail measured by comet assay, in all three patients, was significantly different from the two other patients and the control group (p-value
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fayez EA, Qazvini FF, Mahmoudi SM, Khoei S, Vesaltalab M, Teimourian S Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Increased levels of the soluble oncostatin M receptor (sOSMR) and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) in systemic sclerosis patients and associations with clinical parameters.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of soluble oncostatin M (OSM), OSM receptor (sOSMR) and glycoprotein130 (sgp130) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and the possible associations and correlations with clinical parameters. METHODS: Serum levels of OSM, sOSMR and sgp130 were evaluated by ELISA in eighty-four SSc patients and eighty-four healthy volunteers. RESULTS: SSc patients had significantly elevated levels of sOSMR and sgp130 when compared with healthy individuals (p
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Almeida AR, Dantas AT, Pereira MC, de Melo Rêgo MJB, Guimarães Gonçalves RS, Pitta IDR, Branco Pinto Duarte AL, Parra Abdalla DS, da Rocha Pitta MG Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Exploiting the reverse vaccinology approach to design novel subunit vaccines against Ebola virus.
In this study, approaches of reverse vaccinology were utilized in combination with different tools of immunoinformatics to design subunit vaccines against Ebola virus strain Mayinga-76. Three potential antigenic proteins of this virus i.e., matrix protein VP40, envelope glycoprotein and nucleoprotein were selected to construct the subunit vaccine. The MHC class-I, MHC class-II and B-cell epitopes were determined initially and after some robust analysis i.e., antigenicity, allergenicity, toxicity, conservancy and molecular docking study, EV-1, EV-2 and EV-3 were constructed as three potential vaccine constructs. These vacci...
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ullah MA, Sarkar B, Islam SS Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

GTS-21, an α7nAChR agonist, suppressed the production of key inflammatory mediators by PBMCs that are elevated in COPD patients and associated with impaired lung function.
This study provides the first evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of α7nAChR agonists in COPD due to their ability to suppress the production of key inflammatory markers associated with disease severity. PMID: 32387130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Douaoui S, Djidjik R, Boubakeur M, Ghernaout M, Touil-Boukoffa C, Oumouna M, Derrar F, Amrani Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Association between severe diabetic retinopathy and lectin pathway proteins - an 18-year follow-up study with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients.
rd JA PMID: 32381273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - April 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Holt CB, Hoffmann-Petersen IT, Hansen TK, Parving HH, Thiel S, Hovind P, Tarnow L, Rossing P, Østergaard JA Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Dioscin protects against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting renal inflammation through TLR4/NF- κB pathway in mice.
In conclusion, our study highlights the potential of dioscin as a novel approach to treat DN in diabetic patients. PMID: 32359778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - April 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cai S, Chen J, Li Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Inflammasome activation by NLRP1 and NLRC4 in patients with coronary stenosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Inflammasome activation in atherosclerosis's patients can be systemic altered and may be triggered by NLRP1 and NLRC4 receptors. IL-1β gene expression was identified in our study as an important systemic detectable marker of plaque severity. PMID: 32276737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Borborema MEA, Crovella S, Oliveira D, de Azevêdo Silva J Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

M-CSF- and L929-derived macrophages present distinct metabolic profiles with similar inflammatory outcomes.
a PM Abstract Macrophages are essential components of the immune system. Macrophages can be derived from the bone marrow of mice with either recombinant M-CSF or L929 supernatant. Recent literature considers recombinant M-CSF- and L929-derived macrophages as equals, even though L929-derived macrophages are exposed to other substances secreted in the L929 supernatant, and not only M-CSF. Thus, we decided to perform a comparative analysis of both inflammatory and metabolic profiles of macrophages differentiated under the aforementioned conditions, which is relevant for standardization and interpretation of in vitro ...
Source: Immunobiology - March 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Brito Monteiro L, Davanzo GG, de Aguiar CF, Corrêa da Silva F, Andrade JR, Campos Codo A, Silva Pereira JAD, Freitas LP, Moraes-Vieira PM Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Agaphelin modulates the activation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide and IL-4.
io AP Abstract Sand fly saliva presents molecules with potential to development of compounds for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Agaphelin, isolated from the saliva of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties such as neutrophils chemotaxis inhibition. Here, we extend these results and evaluated the role of agaphelin (0.1-100 nM) in an in vitro model consisting in the activation of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by IL-4 (50 ng/mL) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 ng/mL). Agaphelin is non-cytotoxic for BEAS-2B cells. Notably, agaphelin markedly redu...
Source: Immunobiology - March 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Favarin DC, Pereira ABM, Francischetti IMB, da Silva MV, Rodrigues V, da Silva PR, Valenzuela JG, Teixeira DNS, Oliveira CJF, Rogério AP Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Crotalus neutralising factor and its role in human leukocyte modulation.
The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of CNF on human leukocyte modulation in vitro by analysing the following parameters: cell viability, phagocytic capacity, lipid droplet formation, reactive oxygen species production, nitric oxide production, p38 MAPK activation, and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) gene expression. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were isolated via the density gradient method, resuspended in RPMI medium, and incubated with RPMI (negative control), LPS, or PMA (positive control) or CNF (sample test) at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Results showed that...
Source: Immunobiology - March 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Macedo Tavares MN, Reis VP, Alves Rego CM, Paloschi MV, Santana HM, Ferreira E Ferreira AA, Souza Silva MD, Setúbal SS, Fortes-Dias CL, Zuliani JP Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Leucine rich repeats and calponin homology domain containing 1 inhibits NK-92 cell cytotoxicity through attenuating Src signaling.
In conclusion, our study revealed the role of LRCH1 as a negative regulator of NK-92 cell cytotoxicity. PMID: 32173150 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - March 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dai K, Chen Z, She S, Shi J, Zhu J, Huang Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

PAC1 deficiency attenuates progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice under cholesterol-enriched diet.
Abstract The neuropeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is vasoactive and cytoprotective and exerts immunoregulatory functions throughout the nervous, neuroendocrine cardiovascular and immune systems in health and disease. PACAP mainly acts through PAC1 receptor signaling in neuronal communication, but the role of PAC1 in immune regulation of atherosclerosis is not known. Here, we generated PAC1-/-/ApoE-/- mice to test, whether PAC1-/- influences plasma cholesterol-/triglyceride levels and/or atherogenesis in the brachiocephalic trunk (BT) seen in ApoE-/- mice, under standard chow (SC...
Source: Immunobiology - February 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Splitthoff P, Rasbach E, Neudert P, Bonaterra GA, Schwarz A, Mey L, Schwarzbach H, Eiden LE, Weihe E, Kinscherf R Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Novel inflammatory targets for immunotherapies in pediatric patients with trichotillomania.
This study was aimed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory markers (i.e. IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with TTM and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with clinical variables. Seventy-seven patients with TTM and 107 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood was collected in standardized conditions. The mean age of patients and controls did not differ significantly (10.8 ± 4.4 and 12.0 ± 3.2 years; respectively). The majority of patients with TTM and controls were females...
Source: Immunobiology - February 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kutuk MO, Tufan AE, Kilicaslan F, Mutluer T, Gokcen C, Karadag M, Yektas C, Kandemir H, Buber A, Guler Aksu G, Topal Z, Giray A, Celik F, Acikbas U, Kutuk O Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Quercetin induces an immunoregulatory phenotype in maturing human dendritic cells.
Abstract The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environmental sensor and ligand-activated transcription factor that is critically involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses and the induction of tolerance by modulating immune cells. As dendritic cells (DCs) express high AhR levels, they are efficient to induce immunomodulatory effects after being exposed to AhR-activating compounds derived from the environment or diet. To gain new insights into the molecular targets following AhR-activation in human monocyte-derived (mo)DCs, we investigated whether the natural AhR ligand quercetin or the synthetic liga...
Source: Immunobiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Michalski J, Deinzer A, Stich L, Zinser E, Steinkasserer A, Knippertz I Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Ex vivo expansion of regulatory T cell and T helper 2 cells using a hematosphere culture.
Abstract Regulatory T cells (T-reg) are important components of immune system required to understand the mechanistic details of cancer immunity and autoimmune diseases. However, reliable and efficient methods of regulatory T cell expansion have not been established yet. Here, we show that a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) derived blood-born hematosphere (BBHS) culture without cytokine treatment increased T-reg and T helper 2 cell (Th2) populations in the cell suspension. We found that the isolated cells suspended around the hematospheres expressed T helper cell markers. Importantly, the Foxp3+/CD25...
Source: Immunobiology - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kim DH, Song P, Han JH, Hur J Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Linking murine resistance to secondary cystic echinococcosis with antibody responses targeting Echinococcus granulosus tegumental antigens.
Abstract Successful establishment of a parasite infection depends partially on the host intrinsic susceptibility to the pathogen. In cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease caused by the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, the infection outcome in the murine model of secondary CE varies according to the mouse strain used. In this regard, intrinsic differences in susceptibility to the infection were previously reported for Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice, being C57Bl/6 animals less permissive to secondary CE. Induction of parasite-specific antibodies has been suggested to play relevant roles in such susceptibi...
Source: Immunobiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Miles S, Magnone J, Cyrklaff M, Arbildi P, Frischknecht F, Dematteis S, Mourglia-Ettlin G Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

The host response to bacterial bone infection involves a local upregulation of several acute phase proteins.
rd K, Jensen LK Abstract Bone infections often become chronic and can be difficult to diagnose. In the present study, the osseous gene expression of several acute phase proteins (APPs) during osteomyelitis was investigated in a porcine model of implant associated osteomyelitis (IAO) (sampled 5, 10 and 15 days after infection) and in slaughter pigs with spontaneous hematogenous osteomyelitis, and compared to gene expression in liver tissue. Furthermore, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of the APP complement component C3 (C3) was performed on the porcine osteomyelitis lesions together with material from human pati...
Source: Immunobiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lüthje FL, Blirup-Plum SA, Møller NS, Heegaard PMH, Jensen HE, Kirketerp-Møller K, Gottlieb H, Skovgaard K, Jensen LK Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

A young girl with hypogammaglobulinemia and granulomatous hepatitis caused by a novel mutation in ZBTB24 gene: A case based analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Facial features should be looked for in all patients presenting with hypogammaglobulinemia. Next generation sequencing should be considered in patients who have a CVID like presentation in early age with unusual manifestations. PMID: 32061411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Banday AZ, Jindal AK, Kaur A, Kumar Y, Nameirakpam J, Patra PK, Rawat A Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Changes in macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) family members expression induced by traumatic brain injury in mice.
Abstract A deep knowledge of the profound immunological response induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) raises the possibility of novel therapeutic interventions. Existing studies have highlighted the important roles of C-C motif ligands in the development of neuroinflammation after brain injury; however, the participation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) family members in this phenomenon is still undefined. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate changes in macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) family members (CCL3, CCL4, and CCL9) and their receptors (CCR1 and CCR5) in a mouse model of ...
Source: Immunobiology - February 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ciechanowska A, Popiolek-Barczyk K, Pawlik K, Ciapała K, Oggioni M, Mercurio D, De Simoni MG, Mika J Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Natural Killer cell transcriptome during primary EBV infection and EBV associated Hodgkin Lymphoma in children-A preliminary observation.
Abstract Epstein Barr Viral infection is a common childhood infection in India and is also nearly 100 % etiologically associated with pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). The main question in EBV immunobiology has been, why only a small subset of infected individuals develop EBV associated malignancies, while the vast majority carry this virus asymptomatically for life. Natural Killer (NK) cells, with a phenotype of CD56dim CD16+ exhibit potent cytotoxicity towards both virus infected cells and transformed cells and hence have been considered to be crucial in preventing the development of symptomatic EBV infection and...
Source: Immunobiology - February 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: M A, Chatterjee S, A P, S M, Davuluri S, Ar AK, T A, M P, Cs P, Sinha M, Chugani A, R VP, Kk A, R S J Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Trophoblast cell influence on peripheral blood natural killer cell proliferation and phenotype in non-pregnant women and women in early pregnancy.
Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells are the main population of leukocytes in decidua during the first trimester of pregnancy. NK cells can have contact with trophoblast cells during pregnancy, which raises the possibility of mutual influence. This research aimed to evaluate the proliferation and phenotype of peripheral blood NK cells in the presence of trophoblast cells of the JEG-3 cell line. We showed that trophoblast cells of the JEG-3 cell line (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), USA) produced TGFβ. However, co-culturing of NK and trophoblast cells did not change the SMAD2/3 to pSMAD2/3 ratio within ...
Source: Immunobiology - February 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mikhailova VA, Kudryavtsev IV, Serebryakova MK, Milyutina YP, Demidova ES, Panina AN, Bazhenov DO, Belikova ME, Selkov SA, Sokolov DI Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Selected factors of the innate immunity in Polish patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis.
Abstract We conducted a prospective study of 453 Polish patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis and 267 healthy controls. Selected polymorphisms of the genes encoding for collectins, ficolins and MBL-associated serine protease 2 were investigated as were serum concentrations of mannose-binding lectin, surfactant protein D, ficolin-1 and ficolin-3. The number of MBL2 gene exon 1 variant allele carriers was significantly higher in patients, compared with controls. The homozygosity for SFTPA2 +26 C > A SNP variant allele occurred less commonly within TB, while homozygosity for the FCN1 -542 G > A...
Source: Immunobiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sokołowska A, Świerzko AS, Szala-Poździej A, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Kozińska M, Niemiec T, Błachnio M, Borkowska-Tatar D, Jensenius JC, Thiel S, Dziadek J, Cedzyński M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory effects and potential clinical applications of dimethyl sulfoxide.
Abstract Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was discovered during the 19th century by the German chemical industry. DMSO comprises a highly polar group and two non-polar domains, which render it soluble in both aqueous solutions and organic solutions. Furthermore, DMSO can penetrate the cell membrane of both the mammalian cells and the non-mammalian cells and prevent freeze-thaw injuries to the cells. Thus, it is frequently used for the cryopreservation of cells and tissues for laboratory and clinical applications. In contrast to this traditional application, DMSO has recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory effects...
Source: Immunobiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huang SH, Wu CH, Chen SJ, Sytwu HK, Lin GJ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Human B cells infected by Trypanosoma cruzi undergo F-actin disruption and cell death via caspase-7 activation and cleavage of phospholipase C γ1.
Human B cells infected by Trypanosoma cruzi undergo F-actin disruption and cell death via caspase-7 activation and cleavage of phospholipase Cγ1. Immunobiology. 2020 Jan 16;:151904 Authors: Dos Santos MA, Alves Martins F, Borges BC, de Gouveia Santos J, Nascimento Alves R, Dias MH, BrígidoTavares PC, E Silva Brígido RT, Teixeira TL, Costa Rodrigues C, Cota Teixeira S, da Costa MS, da Silva AA, Barbosa Silva MJ, de Melo Rodrigues Ávila V, Patriarca Mineo TW, de Souza MA, Bahia D, da Silva CV Abstract B cells contribute to the immune system in many ways such as antigen present...
Source: Immunobiology - January 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dos Santos MA, Alves Martins F, Borges BC, de Gouveia Santos J, Nascimento Alves R, Dias MH, BrígidoTavares PC, E Silva Brígido RT, Teixeira TL, Costa Rodrigues C, Cota Teixeira S, da Costa MS, da Silva AA, Barbosa Silva MJ, de Melo Rodrigues Ávila V, Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Innate immunity is a late event in the onset of gliadin-specific enteropathy in the HLA-DQ8 mice.
Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is a food enteropathy that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals following the ingestion of gluten. Both gluten cytotoxicity and immunity activation play a role in CD pathogenesis; however, the chronological assessment of the different pathogenic mechanisms remains elusive. The models developed so far have only partially addressed this issue. Herein, Ab°DQ8 transgenic mice were administered wheat gliadin and indomethacin for 10 days to induce enteropathy. Gliadin-induced alteration of the small intestinal architecture was associated with increased expression of tissue trans...
Source: Immunobiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maurano F, Ogita T, Luongo D, Rotondi Aufiero V, Bergamo P, Mazzarella G, Tanabe S, Rossi M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances the expression of functional TSH receptor in orbital fibroblasts from thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
Abstract Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), an autoimmune disease, occurs in approximately 50 % of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) that is expressed in orbital fibroblasts is the autoimmune target in the development of TAO. In addition to thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is also involved in the development of TAO. IGF-1 has been reported to potentiate the effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TSI on TSHR signaling. In the current study, we investigated the effects of IGF-1 on the cell surface expression ...
Source: Immunobiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Paik JS, Kim SE, Kim JH, Lee JY, Yang SW, Lee SB Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Positive association of Bx genotype, KIR2L5, KIR2DS5 and full-length KIR2DS4 with the risk of meningioma.
CONCLUSION: This case- control study suggests carriers of Bx genotype, KIR2DL5, KIR2DS5, 2DS4fl, ≥ 4 iKIR, CxTx subset as well as Cen AB and Tel AB are associated with an increased risk of developing meningioma whereas carrying KIR2DS4del, AA, C4TX genotypes and Cen AA, Tel AA, Tel BB reduce the genetic predisposition for meningioma. PMID: 31899050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - December 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Barani S, Taghipour M, Ghaderi A Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation induced by TGF- β in oral lichen planus - Possible implications for the development of oral cancer.
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation induced by TGF-β in oral lichen planus - Possible implications for the development of oral cancer. Immunobiology. 2019 Dec 19;:151901 Authors: Jablonska E, Garley M, Surazynski A, Grubczak K, Iwaniuk A, Borys J, Moniuszko M, Ratajczak-Wrona W Abstract Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) including Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) are associated with risk of transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Available data show that innate immune cells involving polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) with their ability to neutrophil extracellular t...
Source: Immunobiology - December 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jablonska E, Garley M, Surazynski A, Grubczak K, Iwaniuk A, Borys J, Moniuszko M, Ratajczak-Wrona W Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Titration of Igs contained in an intravenous IgM-enriched preparation against selected pathogens involved in sepsis.
Abstract The goal of our work was to titer the IgG, IgM and IgA in Pentaglobin® (a preparation enriched in IgM), targeting specific surface antigens of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as a C. albicans strain. Lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria, peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from the other microorganisms were extracted and used in several ELISA assays in order to determine the titration of immunoglobulins in Pentaglobin® directed towards the aforementioned surface antigens. Our results showed an overall immunoglobulin titer of at least 103 in Pentaglobin® with some ex...
Source: Immunobiology - December 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Stracquadanio S, Lo Verde F, Cialfi A, Zega A, Stefani S, Cafiso V Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research