BCG immunomodulation: From the 'hygiene hypothesis' to COVID-19.
Abstract The century-old tuberculosis vaccine BCG has been the focus of renewed interest due to its well-documented ability to protect against various non-TB pathogens. Much of these broad spectrum protective effects are attributed to trained immunity, the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of innate immune cells. As BCG vaccine is safe, cheap, widely available, amendable to use as a recombinant vector, and immunogenic, it has immense potential for use as an immunotherapeutic agent for various conditions including autoimmune, allergic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases as well as a preventive measure ...
Source: Immunobiology - December 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Moulson AJ, Av-Gay Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Benznidazole: Hero or villain of cellular immune response in chronic Chagas disease patients?
In conclusion, these results highlight the relevance of using Bz that, despite not being a true hero, it is also not a villain, as it presents a wide range of pharmacological/immunological response interactions, important for the immune balance in the clinical progression of CCD. PMID: 33341661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - December 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Soares AKA, Neves PAF, Nascimento AV, Esmeraldo AAM, Moreira LR, Higino TMM, C B Q Figueiredo R, G A M Cavalcanti M, Martins SM, Carrazone C, Júnior WO, Gomes YM, Lorena VMB Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate murine bone marrow granulocyte functions.
α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate murine bone marrow granulocyte functions. Immunobiology. 2020 Dec 03;226(1):152047 Authors: Safronova VG, Vulfius CA, Astashev ME, Tikhonova IV, Serov DA, Jirova EA, Pershina EV, Senko DA, Zhmak MN, Kasheverov IE, Tsetlin VI Abstract Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) are extremely important in defense of the organism against infections and in inflammatory processes including neuroinflammation and pain sensation. Different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in modulation of PMN activities. Ear...
Source: Immunobiology - December 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Safronova VG, Vulfius CA, Astashev ME, Tikhonova IV, Serov DA, Jirova EA, Pershina EV, Senko DA, Zhmak MN, Kasheverov IE, Tsetlin VI Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Decrease in na ïve T cell production due to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) development.
In conclusion, HAM/TSP development could interfere with thymic function because the results showed TREC particle reduction in HAM/TSP patients in relation to HCs, and it could be associated with a concomitant reduction in IL-7 expression. PMID: 33338979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - December 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gomes JAN, da Silva Dias GA, Fujihara S, Yoshikawa GT, Koyama RVL, Sousa RCM, Quaresma JAS, Fuzii HT Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Effect of pathogenic crystals on the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by different leukocyte populations.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that PMN, monocytes and lymphocytes from the same donor respond differently after stimulation with MSU, CPP or BCP crystals, depending on the dose and the time of exposure. Crystals induce a rapid increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas longer time is required to release high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID: 33285354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - November 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Scanu A, Oliviero F, Luisetto R, Ramonda R, Doria A, Punzi L, Dayer JM Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

IL-27 regulates IL-4-induced chemokine production in human bronchial epithelial cells.
In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-27 on the activation of IL-4-induced human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Compared to controls, both IL-4 and IL-27 (25-100 ng/mL) increased the concentrations of CCL2 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. However, compared to cells stimulated individually with IL-4 or IL-27, treatment with a combination of both cytokines reduced CCL2 and IL-8 concentrations in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-4 increased the activation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, STAT6 and NF-κB, while IL-27 increased the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 but not STAT6 and NF-κB. Compared ...
Source: Immunobiology - November 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pereira ABM, de Oliveira JR, Teixeira MM, da Silva PR, Rodrigues Junior V, Rogerio AP Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Myeloid arginase-1 controls excessive inflammation and modulates T cell responses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.
Abstract Regulatory properties of macrophages associated with alternative activation serve to limit the exaggerated inflammatory response during pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Arginase-1 is an important effector of these macrophages believed to play an essential role in decreasing injury and promoting repair. We investigated the role of arginase-1 in the control of inflammatory immune responses to P. aeruginosa pneumonia in mice that exhibit different immunologic phenotypes. C57BL/6 mice with conditional knockout of the arginase-1 (Arg1) gene from myeloid cells (Arg1ΔM) or BALB/c mice ...
Source: Immunobiology - November 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Haydar D, Gonzalez R, Garvy BA, Garneau-Tsodikova S, Thamban Chandrika N, Bocklage TJ, Feola DJ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Effect of lipopolysaccharide structure on functional response of whole blood cells.
Abstract Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) induce a wide spectrum of functional activities after interaction with blood cells. Effect of structure of toxic LPS from S- and Re-chemotypes of E. coli and/or non-toxic LPS of Rhodobacter capsulatus PG (R. caps.) on activation of neutrophils and monocytes of human whole blood were studied, particularly, expression of TLR4, CD14 and CD11b receptors, phagocytosis of BioParticles Alexa Fluor 488, synthesis of cytokines and chemokines. A leading role of CD11b receptor in phagocytic activity of neutrophils primed by LPS from various E. coli chemotypes was shown. The non-toxic LPS o...
Source: Immunobiology - November 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zubova SV, Grachev SV, Prokhorenko IR Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Modulatory effect of rapamycin and tacrolimus on monocyte-derived dendritic cells phenotype and function.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive-drugs are needed after solid organ transplantation to prevent allograft rejection but induce severe side effects. Understanding the alloimmune response is critical to modulate it and to achieve graft operational tolerance. The role of regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells (Tol-DCs) is undoubtedly essential in tolerance induction. Tacrolimus is considered as the cornerstone of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. mTOR inhibitor such as rapamycin are thought to induce tolerance and are used as anticancer drugs in several cancers. The aim of this study ...
Source: Immunobiology - November 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dahlqvist G, Renaud S, Barjon C, Lefebvre A, Aoudjehane L, Horsmans Y, Delhem N, Conti F Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

PAF-R on activated T cells: Role in the IL-23/Th17 pathway and relevance to multiple sclerosis.
Abstract IL-23 is a potent stimulus for Th17 cells. These cells have a distinct developmental pathway from Th1 cells induced by IL-12 and are implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-1, the transcriptional regulator RORγt (RORC) and IL-23 are implicated in Th17 development and maintenance. In human polyclonally activated T cells, IL-23 enhances IL-17 production. The aims of our study were: 1). To validate microarray results showing preferential expression of platelet activating factor receptor (PAF-R) on IL-23 stimulated T cells. 2). To d...
Source: Immunobiology - November 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Midgley A, Barakat D, Braitch M, Nichols C, Nebozhyn M, Edwards LJ, Fox SC, Gran B, Robins RA, Showe LC, Constantinescu CS Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Study on the additive protective effect of PGLYRP3 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis Reuter 1963 on severity of DSS-induced colitis in Pglyrp3 knockout (Pglyrp3 -/-) and wild-type (WT) mice.
This study shows that Pglyrp3 facilitates recognition of bifidobacterial cell wall-derived peptidoglycan, thus leading additively to a reduction of metaflammation through an increase in the number of bifidobacteria, which were able to mitigate intestinal immunopathology in the context of Pglyrp3 blockade. PMID: 33242664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - November 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ghadimi D, de Vrese M, Ebsen M, Röcken C, Olaf Frahm S, Zahlten J, Fölster-Holst R, Heller KJ, Bockelmann W Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 attachment to host cells is possibly mediated via RGD-integrin interaction in a calcium-dependent manner and suggests pulmonary EDTA chelation therapy as a novel treatment for COVID 19.
Abstract SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus that has caused serious health crisis world-wide resulting into a pandemic situation. As per the literature, the SARS-CoV-2 is known to exploit humanACE2 receptors (similar toprevious SARS-CoV-1) for gaining entry into the host cell for invasion, infection, multiplication and pathogenesis. However, considering the higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 along with the complex etiology and pathophysiological outcomes seen in COVID-19 patients, it seems that there may be an alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2. I performed comparative protein sequence analysis, database based g...
Source: Immunobiology - November 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dakal TC Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Hypothyroidism impairs the host immune response during the acute phase of Chagas disease.
ute;nior JC Abstract Diseases associated with thyroid hypofunction have been the subject of studies in infectious models, since several authors have demonstrated a pivotal role of iodinated hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) in the modulation of immune effector responses. Using a model of hypothyroidism induced by anti-thyroid drug, we investigated the influence of hypothyroidism in the course of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. For this, male Hannover Wistar rats were challenged with methimazole for 21 days (0.02% in drinking water), and water for control counterparts. After confirmation of the hypo...
Source: Immunobiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sampaio PA, Goulart A, Brazão V, Anchieta NF, Providello MV, Portapilla GB, Duarte A, da Silva JL, do Prado Júnior JC Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Roles of protein ubiquitination in inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) seriously affects the quality of life for patients. The pathogenesis of IBD contains the environmental, host genetic and epigenetic factors. In recent years, the studies of protein ubiquitination, an important protein post-translational modification as an epigenetic factor, have emerged in the pathogenesis and development of IBD. In the past few years, accumulative evidence illustrated that six E3 ubiquitin ligases, namely, ring finger protein (RNF) 183, RNF 20, A20, Pellino 3, TRIM62 and Itch, exhibited clear mech...
Source: Immunobiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xiao Y, Huang Q, Wu Z, Chen W Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

IL-33 synergistically promotes the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro by inducing antibacterial peptide LL-37 and proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages.
In conclusion, our study identified that IL-33 aggravated the inflammation of lung cancer by increasing LL-37 expression in macrophages, thereby promoting lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro. It is contributed to our present understanding of the immunomodulatory relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibacterial peptides in the tumor immune response, and offer a novel perspective for controlling the progress of lung cancer. PMID: 33190003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - November 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jiang Y, Liao H, Zhang X, Cao S, Hu X, Yang Z, Fang Y, Wang H Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Anti-neutrophil antibodies (anti-MPO-ANCAs) are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Abstract Anti-neutrophil antibodies are capable of activating neutrophils in sterile environments, releasing extracellular traps containing myeloperoxidase (MPO) and anti-MPO antibodies (MPO-ANCAs or anti-MPO-ANCAs), which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The present study evaluated systemic and tumor tissue levels of anti-MPO-ANCAs breast cancer patients, and its relation to clinicopathological characteristics. Anti-MPO-ANCAs were measured in serum and tissue samples of 150 patients by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Samples were pooled according to clinicopathological characteristics of p...
Source: Immunobiology - September 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Scandolara TB, da Silva JC, Malanowski J, de Oliveira JA, Rech D, Panis C Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

In vitro immunobiological assays of methotrexate-stearic acid conjugate in human PBMCs.
Abstract In the present research, a lipophilic methotrexate (MTX) prodrug was developed by covalent conjugating of MTX to stearic acid (SA) as a lipid moiety via amid bond. The structure of synthesized conjugate, MTX-SA, was confirmed by IR and NMR spectra. To evaluate inflammatory response of MTX-SA conjugate and MTX, human PBMCs were isolated and exposed to 50, 500 and 5000 nM of MTX-SA conjugate and free MTX. The expression of four key genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-10 and Bcl2 depicted that the MTX-SA had controversial behavior in different doses on the inflammatory...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fattahi N, Bahari A, Ramazani A, Koolivand D Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

The role of macrophages type 2 and T-regs in immune checkpoint inhibitor related adverse events.
Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitory (ICI) therapy represents a novel approach in a variety of cancers, with impressive survival benefit. With ICIs, however, a new spectrum of immune related adverse events (irAE) including life threatening hypohysitis has emerged. This autopsy study aimed to investigate inflammatory cells, PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in cases of patients who developed hypophysitis and involvement of other organs. We analysed 6 patients, who were treated with ICIs and developed hypophysitis. Two received an additional MAP-kinase inhibitor, MEK-inhibitor and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Besides the pituit...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mihic-Probst D, Reinehr M, Dettwiler S, Kolm I, Britschgi C, Kudura K, Maggio EM, Lenggenhager D, Rushing EJ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Transient Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell depletion enhances protective Th1/Th17 immune response in murine sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii.
, Carlos IZ Abstract The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) on protective immunity in fungal infections, is controversial. Sporotrichosis is an emerging and worldwide-distributed subcutaneous mycosis caused by various related thermodimorphic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. Previously, we showed an elevated percent of Tregs around 21 days post-infection (dpi) in C57BL/6 mice infected with either Sporothrix schenckii or Sporothrix brasiliensis, but the effect of these cells in the ongoing infection was not evaluated. Here, we aim to characterize the role of Foxp3+ Tregs in a subcutaneous S. schenckii infection model....
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Batista-Duharte A, Téllez-Martínez D, de Andrade CR, Polesi MC, Portuondo DL, Carlos IZ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells acquire immunogenicity concurrent with differentiation to insulin-producing cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MSCs acquire immunogenicity after differentiation to functional IPCs, which might cause decreased efficacy in the case of allogeneic transplantation. Careful precautions might be critical for saving the IPCs against the detrimental allogeneic responses. PMID: 32962814 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mohammadi N, Mardomi A, Hassannia H, Enderami SE, Ranjbaran H, Rafiei A, Abediankenari S Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Estrogen signaling differentially alters iron metabolism in monocytes in an Interleukin 6-dependent manner.
Abstract The ability of monocytes to release or sequester iron affects their role in cancer and inflammation. Previous work has shown that while IL-6 upregulates hepcidin synthesis and enhances iron sequestration, E2 reduces hepcidin synthesis and increases iron release. Given that E2 upregulates IL-6 production in monocytes, it is likely that the exact effect of E2 on iron metabolism in monocytes is shaped by its effect on IL-6 expression. To address this issue, the expression of key iron regulatory proteins was assessed in E2-treated U937, HuT-78, THP-1 and Hep-G2 cells. Iron status was also evaluated in U937 ce...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bajbouj K, Shafarin J, Muhammad JS, Ali A, Unnikannan H, Suleiman B, Al-Jabi N, Menon K, Hamad M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Different roles of intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species of neutrophils in type 2 diabetic mice with invasive aspergillosis.
Abstract Diabetic patients have an increased risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), but the mechanism is still unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by neutrophils play a key role in defense against Aspergillus infection. Since diabetes mellitus affects the production of ROS from neutrophils, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether this effect is related to the susceptibility of diabetic mice to IA. C57BL/6 mice were used to establish type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model, and IA was induced by airway infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. After infection, the fungal load, neutrophil count and R...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xu X, Xia C, Huang Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Adiponectin and leptin levels in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A new method for BAL and serum assessment.
Abstract Adipokines (APN) are mainly secreted by adipocytes, macrophages and various other cells, along with their role in the regulation and mediation of inflammatory responses. APN is almost exclusively synthesized by adipocytes and regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) that is involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, linked lung fibrosis. Leptin is involved in acute lung injury with a role in lung fibrogenesis. Little is known about the relationship between APN/leptin and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the few studies available in the literature used EL...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: d'Alessandro M, Bergantini L, Refini RM, Cameli P, Perillo F, Landi C, Icorne F, Perrone A, Sestini P, Bonella F, Bargagli E Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

The establishment of humanized IL-4/IL-4RA mouse model by gene editing and efficacy evaluation.
Abstract Asthma is a common respiratory immune disease in children and adults, and interleukin-4 (IL-4) is one of the key factors for the onset of asthma. Therefore, targeting human IL-4 and IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4RA) has become one of the strategies for targeted therapy of cytokines. Herein, we established an animal model of asthmatic airway inflammation using double humanized IL-4/IL-4RA (hIL-4/hIL-4RA) mice, where human IL-4 and IL-4RA replaced their murine counterparts, respectively. We successfully identified the phenotype by Southern blotting, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The hIL-4/hIL-4RA mice induced by ov...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yan P, Su Y, Shang C, Zhou X, Yang Y, An W, An W, Yu C, Wang S Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin expression in semen fluid: Novel markers of male infertility risk?
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate MPO/LAC analysis as a potential diagnostic tool to identify asymptomatic conditions eventually related to male infertility, even when the number of leukocytes in semen fluid is below 1 million/mL. PMID: 32962819 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Omes C, De Amici M, Tomasoni V, Todaro F, Torre C, Nappi RE Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Anti-complement factor I antibody associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome - A new insight for future perspective!
Abstract Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused mainly by complement dysregulation. Although various defects in the complement system explaining pathophysiology have been described in recent years, the etiology still remains unclear in about thirty percent of cases. In exploring other causes, similar to anti- complement factor H (anti-CFH) antibody associated HUS, we hypothesized that anti-complement factor I (anti-CFI) antibody could play a role in aHUS. Further, we tried to describe the clinical profile and outcome of those with high anti CFI antibody titers. Eleven of thirty five children (31 %) di...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Govindarajan S, Rawat A, Ramachandran R, Hans R, Dawman L, Tiewsoh K Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

The TGFB1 -509C/T polymorphism and elevated TGF- β1 levels are associated with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis.
In conclusion, the TGFB1 -509C> T polymorphism is associated with a risk of developing chronic hepatitis C, leading to increased TGF-β1, which inhibits IFN-γ production, contributing to the progression to cirrhosis. PMID: 32962821 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Brito WB, Queiroz MAF, da Silva Graça Amoras E, Lima SS, da Silva Conde SRS, Dos Santos EJM, Cayres-Vallinoto IMV, Ishak R, Vallinoto ACR Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Absence of complement factor H reduces physical performance in C57BL6 mice.
In this study, we investigated the role of FH and downstream C5a/C5aR signaling in muscle architecture and function. Using the FH knockout (fh-/-) and fh-/-/C5aR-/double knockout mice we explored the role of C, specifically the alternative C pathway in muscle dysfunction. Substantial C3 and C9 deposits occur along the walls of the fh-/- muscle fibers indicative of unrestricted C activation. Physical performance assessments of the fh-/- mice show reduced grip endurance (76 %), grip strength (14 %) and rotarod balance (36 %) compared to controls. Histological analysis revealed a shift in muscle fiber populations indicated by...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Seldeen KL, Thiyagarajan R, Redae Y, Jacob A, Troen BR, Quigg RJ, Alexander JJ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

B-lymphocyte deficiency and recurrent respiratory infections in a 6-month-old female infant with mosaic monosomy 7.
We report a case of a 6-month-old female infant with mosaic monosomy 7 who presented with clinical and laboratory evidences of immunodeficiency. The patient had suffered from recurrent respiratory infections since she was born. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets revealed an extremely low level of CD19+ B lymphocytes (0.3∼0.8%, normal range: 6.4∼22.6%) and a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (0.67∼1.12, normal range: 1.4∼2.0). Decreased serum levels of IgG (1.53 g/L, normal range: 4.09∼7.03 g/L), IgA (0.10 g/L, normal range: 0.21∼0.47 g/L) and IgM (0.26 g/L, normal range: 0.33∼0.73 g/L) were d...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mai K, Chen X, Wang C, Wu S, Yang L, Huang Z, Zhang G, Zhang VW, Wang J, Chen D Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

TEAD4 transcriptional regulates SERPINB3/4 and affect crosstalk between keratinocytes and T cells in psoriasis.
In this study, we found the expression level of TEAD4 in the skin of psoriasis was significantly higher than that of normal skin. In patients with the pathological keratinocytes, TEAD4 can transcriptionally regulate the expression of SERPINB3/4 and affect the secretion of chemokines, and the depletion of SERPINB3/4 inhibited the secretion of chemokines. In addition, the supernatant of keratinocytes of patients can significantly increase the migration ability of T cells, and the supernatant of T cells cultured by the supernatant of keratinocytes of patients can significantly enhance the proliferation ability of keratinocyte...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ren C, Liu Q, Ma Y, Wang A, Yang Y, Wang D Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Soluble cluster of differentiation 74 regulates lung inflammation through the nuclear factor- κB signaling pathway.
Soluble cluster of differentiation 74 regulates lung inflammation through the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Immunobiology. 2020 Sep;225(5):152007 Authors: Zhu B, Wu G, Wang C, Xiao Y, Jin J, Wang K, Jiang Y, Sun Y, Ben D, Xia Z Abstract The soluble form of the migration inhibitory factor receptor cluster of differentiation 74 (sCD74) has previously been shown to be elevated during the development of acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. However, the biological role of increased sCD74 in ALI remans poorly understood. Synthesized recombinant sCD74 protein was administered to mice intratracheally...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhu B, Wu G, Wang C, Xiao Y, Jin J, Wang K, Jiang Y, Sun Y, Ben D, Xia Z Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Fungal β-glucans and mannan stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to cytokine production in Syk-dependent manner.
Fungal β-glucans and mannan stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to cytokine production in Syk-dependent manner. Immunobiology. 2020 Sep;225(5):151985 Authors: Kozłowska E, Brzezińska-Błaszczyk E, Rasmus P, Żelechowska P Abstract There is evidence that major components of the fungi cell wall not only define fungal properties and survival but also are responsible for their biological activities. Some data indicate that structural components of the fungal cell wall exert stimulatory/modulatory effects on immunocompetent cells acting as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Fun...
Source: Immunobiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kozłowska E, Brzezińska-Błaszczyk E, Rasmus P, Żelechowska P Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Endothelial injury and thrombotic microangiopathy in COVID-19: Treatment with the lectin-pathway inhibitor narsoplimab.
In this study, the first time a lectin-pathway inhibitor was used to treat COVID-19, six COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or intubation received narsoplimab under compassionate use. At baseline and during treatment, circulating endothelial cell (CEC) counts and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed. Narsoplimab treatment was associated with rapid and sustained reduction of CEC and concurrent reduction of serum IL-6, IL-8, CRP and LDH. Narsoplimab was well tolerated; no adverse drug re...
Source: Immunobiology - August 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rambaldi A, Gritti G, Micò MC, Frigeni M, Borleri G, Salvi A, Landi F, Pavoni C, Sonzogni A, Gianatti A, Binda F, Fagiuoli S, Di Marco F, Lorini L, Remuzzi G, Whitaker S, Demopulos G Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

RNASeq analysis reveals upregulation of complement C3 in the offspring gut following prenatal stress in mice.
In this study, we performed RNASeq analysis to determine the gene expression changes in the offspring gut following prenatal stress in pregnant mice and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and biological pathways. Notably, C3 was upregulated in the small intestine and contributed to a higher tissue injury score in a mesenteric ischemia model compared to unstressed controls. We discuss the potential implications of these stress-induced genes expression changes and their contribution to development of intestinal inflammation. PMID: 32747015 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yeramilli VA, Brawner KM, Crossman DK, Barnum SR, Martin CA Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Pyruvate kinase M2 in lung APCs regulates Alternaria-induced airway inflammation.
Abstract Sensitivity to allergenic fungi (Alternaria alternata) is associated with acute, severe asthma attacks. Antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the lung sense environmental perturbations that induce cellular stress and metabolic changes and are critical for allergic airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying such environmental sensing by APCs in the lung remains unclear. Here we show that acute Alternaria challenge rapidly induces neutrophil accumulation in airways, and alter expressions of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2) and hypoxia-inducible factor -1α (Hif-1α) that correlates with proinflamm...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jaiswal AK, Makhija S, Stahr N, Sandey M, Suryawanshi A, Mishra A Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

MerTK negatively regulates Staphylococcus aureus induced inflammatory response via SOCS1/SOCS3 and Mal.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings indicate the important role of MerTK in self-regulatory resolution of S. aureus-induced inflammatory pathways and cytokines through intrinsic SOCS1 and SOCS3 repressed feedback on TLR2, TLR6 both in vivo and in vitro. PMID: 32747017 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zahoor A, Yang C, Yang Y, Akhtar M, Umar T, Khan MA, Ahmad S, Deng G, Guo MY Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Identification of a novel TLR5 agonist derived from the P97 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
Abstract By modulating specific immune responses against antigens, adjuvants are used in many vaccine preparations to enhance protective immunity. The C-terminal domain of the protein P97 (P97c) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which is the etiologic agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, has been shown to increase the specific humoral response against an antigen when this antigen is merged with P97c and delivered by adenovectors. However, the immunostimulating mechanism of this protein remains unknown. In the present study, recombinantly expressed P97c triggered a concentration-dependent TLR5 activation and stimulates ...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gauthier L, Babych M, Segura M, Bourgault S, Archambault D Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection increases regulatory T cell counts in female C57BL/6 mice infected via two distinct routes.
erinaud LM Abstract Studies that show an overview of the peripheral immune response in a model of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) infection in females are scarce in the literature. We sought to characterize the innate and adaptive immune responses in female C57BL/6 mice infected with Pb through two distinct routes of administration, intranasal and intravenous. In addition to the lung, P. brasiliensis yeast cells were observed in liver and brain tissues of females infected intravenously. To our knowledge, our study is the first to prove the presence of this pathogenic fungus in the cerebral cortex of female mice...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Peron G, Oliveira J, Thomaz LL, Bonfanti AP, Thomé R, Rapôso C, Cardoso Verinaud LM Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Beta-naphthoflavone inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells via AKT/Nrf-2/HO-1-NF- κB signaling axis.
Beta-naphthoflavone inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells via AKT/Nrf-2/HO-1-NF-κB signaling axis. Immunobiology. 2020 Jul;225(4):151965 Authors: Gao X, He D, Liu D, Hu G, Zhang Y, Meng T, Su Y, Zhou A, Huang B, Du J, Fu S Abstract Numerous studies have shown that over-activation of microglia could cause neuroinflammation and release pro-inflammatory mediators, which could result in neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease etc. Beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in borderline tissues, but BNF has not been reported t...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gao X, He D, Liu D, Hu G, Zhang Y, Meng T, Su Y, Zhou A, Huang B, Du J, Fu S Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Mannose-binding lectin and associate serine protease complex modulates neutrophil respiratory burst and gene expression in Capra hircus.
Abstract Neutrophils are an essential cellular component of the innate immune system, responsible for multiple effector mechanisms and aspects of inflammation. Neutrophil priming results in a rapid elevation in antimicrobial activities and can be measured by reactive oxygen species production, bacterial endocytosis, and de-novo synthesis of components such as interleukins. Mannose binding lectin (MBL), a C-type lectin pathogen recognition receptor is associated with immune functions including complement activation, opsonization and modulating immune responses. Whether MBL opsonization of pathogen can induce neutro...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Patel PK, Choudhary K, Patidar P, Sharma S, Hajela K Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

ST6GAL1 polymorphisms influence susceptibility and progression of IgA nephropathy in a Chinese Han population.
CONCLUSIONS: Our research suggested that ST6GAL1 gene polymorphisms were implicated in IgAN susceptibility and clinical outcome in a Chinese Han population. PMID: 32747022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fu D, Zhong Z, Shi D, Peng Y, Li B, Wang D, Guo L, Li Z, Mao H, Yu X, Li M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Cellular immune response of asthmatic children in the presence of anti-Ascaris antibody.
In this study, we analyzed the relationships between serum levels of anti-Asc IgE, IgG1, and IgG4, without concurrent infection by the parasite, and the presence of asthma. We measured cytokine levels from Th1, Th2, and Th17 profiles. Children aged 2-14 years old, asthmatics (n = 64), and non-asthmatics (n = 40) were selected according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood criteria. Asthmatic patients who had positive skin allergy tests were considered to have allergic asthma. Stool exams were performed to exclude children who were parasitized by helminths/protozoans and blood samples were...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nóbrega C, Nascimento W, Lorena V, Medeiros D, Costa V, Albuquerque M, Barbosa C, Solé D, Sarinho E, Souza V Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

In vitro characterization of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) production by dendritic cells and macrophages during Streptococcus suis infection.
In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that S. suis induces G-CSF production in vivo and DCs and macrophages are key cellular sources of this cytokine mediator, mainly via the binding of lipoproteins to TLR2. The CPS significantly reduced this activation, confirming the powerful role of this component in S. suis virulence. As such, this study contributes to better understand how DCs and macrophages produce G-CSF in response to S. suis, and potentially to other streptococci. PMID: 32747024 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bleuzé M, Auger JP, Lavagna A, Gisch N, Gottschalk M, Segura M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Exploring Kawasaki disease-specific hub genes revealing a striking similarity of expression profile to bacterial infections using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and co-expression modules identification tool (CEMiTool): An integrated bioinformatics and experimental study.
Abstract Kawasaki disease (KD) has been declared a rare idiopathic condition for a long time. The children age less than five years, as the most susceptible group, are at risk of this disease. Since the cause of the disease is unknown, this study was designed to investigate the cause of KD. We applied metaDE and WGCNA packages in order to perform a meta-analysis and identify network modules of co-expressed genes, respectively, on three expression array datasets and also CEMiTool package to confirm detected modules by WGCNA. Using the Pearson correlation coefficient, the resemblance of KD to other symptomatic-simil...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Esmaeili S, Mehrgou A, Kakavandi N, Rahmati Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

The role of IL-17A/IL-17RA and lung injuries in children with lethal non-pandemic acute viral pneumonia.
This study aimed to evaluate IL-17A (interleukin 17A) and IL-17RA (IL-17A receptor) in a pediatric population that died with non-pandemic acute viral pneumonia compared to the non-viral pneumonia group. Necropsy lung samples (n = 193) from children that died after severe acute infection pneumonia were selected and processed for viral antigen detection by immunohistochemistry. After this, they were separated into two groups: virus-positive (n = 68) and virus-negative lung samples (n = 125). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the presence of IL-17A and IL-17RA in the lung tissue. The virus-positive group showed str...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Azevedo MLV, Malaquias MAS, de Paula CBV, de Souza CM, Júnior VHC, Raboni SM, Halila R, Rosendo G, Gozzo P, do Carmo LAP, Neto PC, Nagashima S, de Noronha L Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Identification of a peptide targeting CD56.
Abstract Neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1/CD56) is expressed on immune cells, myoblasts, and malignant cells, and there is a growing demand for the genetic detection of CD56 and CD56-targeted therapy. In the present study, we developed a novel peptide ligand (designated Natein) that binds to human CD56 by using T7 phage display technology. Natein recognized the extracellular region of CD56 and could bind to natural killer (NK) cells and CD56-positive (CD56+) cancer cells. CD56+ cells enriched from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using biotinylated Natein-conjugated microbeads, similarly to C...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huang H, Liu Y, Ouyang X, Wang H, Zhang Y Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Generation of novel trimeric fragments of human SP-A and SP-D after recombinant soluble expression in E. coli.
ark H Abstract Surfactant treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome has dramatically improved survival of preterm infants. However, this has resulted in a markedly increased incidence of sequelae such as neonatal chronic inflammatory lung disease. The current surfactant preparations in clinical use lack the natural lung defence proteins surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D. These are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective properties essential for maintaining healthy non-inflamed lungs. Supplementation of currently available animal derived surfactant therapeutics with these anti-inflammatory prot...
Source: Immunobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Watson A, Sørensen GL, Holmskov U, Whitwell HJ, Madsen J, Clark H Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Multinucleated giant cell phenotype in response to stimulation.
This study and future research using other stimulants and environments are important to gaining a fundamental MGC cell biology understanding. This will inform approaches to controlling the foreign body response to particle exposure, medical implants, and many diseases associated with granulomas. PMID: 32517879 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - April 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Trout KL, Holian A Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Treatment with inhaled formulation of angiotensin-(1-7) reverses inflammation and pulmonary remodeling in a model of chronic asthma.
pagnole-Santos MJ Abstract Asthma is characterized by inflammation, pulmonary remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We have previously shown that treatment with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] promotes resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and prevents chronic allergic lung inflammation. Here, we evaluated the effect of treatment with the inclusion compound of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) given by inhalation on pulmonary remodeling in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; 4 injections over 42 days, 14 days apart...
Source: Immunobiology - April 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Magalhães GS, Gregório JF, Ramos KE, Cançado-Ribeiro ATP, Baroni IF, Barcelos LS, Pinho V, Teixeira MM, Santos RAS, Rodrigues-Machado MG, Campagnole-Santos MJ Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Correlation between serum levels of endothelin-1 and disease severity in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.
CONCLUSION: ET-1 and IL-6 might exert pro-inflammatory effects in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, whereas IL-10 played an anti-inflammatory role in this process. ET-1 might be a potential biomarker for predicting the severity of NMOSD. However, the serum levels of ET-1 were not correlated with the changes of other cytokines/chemokines in patients with NMOSD. The involvement of ET-1 in the development of NMOSD needs to be further studied. PMID: 32517881 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunobiology)
Source: Immunobiology - April 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yi M, Liu MQ, Chou LS, Jiang SM, Zhang LJ, Huang CN, Wang N, Zhang QX, Yang L Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research