Fasciolosis in India: an overview.
Abstract Fasciolosis in ruminants is a relentless constraint in the livestock industry across the world. Immuno-prophylactic vaccines against fasciolosis may not come up in near future, rendering the control of this scourge with chemotherapy and snail population control. With the alarming threats of anti-fasciolid drug resistance reported from certain parts of the world; the control of fasciolosis should be directed towards the development of rapid and reliable diagnostic tools to execute the specific and discrete treatment. Understanding the epidemiology of Fasciola, its genomics and proteomics, host-parasite int...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 11, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lalrinkima H, Lalchhandama C, Jacob SS, Raina OK, Lallianchhunga MC Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Identification of immunodominant proteins of Leishmania infantum by immunoproteomics to evaluate a recombinant multi-epitope designed antigen for serodiagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis.
Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean region including Iran. In 95% of cases, the disease can be fatal if not rapidly diagnosed and left untreated. We aimed to identify immunoreactive proteins of L. infantum (Iranian strain), and to design and evaluate a recombinant multi-epitope antigen for serodiagnosis of human VL. To detect the immunoreactive proteins of L. infantum promastigotes, 2DE immunoblotting technique was performed using different pooled sera of VL patients. The candidate immunoreactive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 8, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Heidari S, Hajjaran H, Kazemi B, Gharechahi J, Mohebali M, Ranjbar MM, Akhoundi B, Azarian B, Mirshahvaladi S, Raoofian R Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Long-lasting infectivity of Plasmodium vivax present in malarial patient blood to Anopheles aquasalis.
This study evaluates the duration of the infectivity of P. vivax to Anopheles aquasalis after collecting blood from malaria-infected patients. Blood was collected from patients and stored at 4 ºC and 37 ºC. Every day, for 4 days, the blood was fed to An. aquasalis adult females, and a Giemsa-stained thick blood smear was mounted to account for sexual (gametocytes) and asexual (trophozoites and schizonts) stages and calculate parasitemia. Oocysts in the midgut of the mosquitoes were counted on the seventh day after feeding. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean number of oocysts (MO) and the parasite de...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 6, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pereira-Silva JW, Martins-Campos KM, Sabrina Dos Reis Martins E, de Souza Menezes A, Guimarães Lacerda MV, Costa Pessoa FA, Ríos-Velásquez CM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

The potential therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major in BALB/c mice.
In this study, the potential effects of adipose-derived MSC (AD-MSCs) therapy and its combination with glucantime were evaluated in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis induced by L. major. The results showed that AD-MSCs improved wound healing and decreased parasite burden. The real-time PCR results obtained from mice treated with AD-MSCs showed that IL-12 and TNF-α genes were upregulated. IL-10, arginase, and FOXP3 genes were downregulated whereas no differences in expression of the IL-4 gene were found. Overall, it seems that AD-MSCs therapy enhances Th1 immune response in L. major infected BALB/c mice. Unexp...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 4, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahrami S, Safari M, Razi Jalali MH, Ghorbanpoor M, Tabandeh MR, Rezaie A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Differential expression of Acanthamoeba castellanii proteins during amoebic keratitis in rats.
In this study, we evaluated changes in the expression profile of Acanthamoeba proteins triggered by the invasive process, using an approach involving two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE PAGE), followed by mass spectrometry identification (ESI-IT-TOF LC-MSn). AK was induced by intrastromal inoculation in Wistar rats, using trophozoites from a T4 genotype, human case-derived A. castellanii strain under prolonged axenic culture. Cultures re-isolated from the lesions after two successive passages in the animals were used as biological triplicate for proteomic experiments. Analysis of the protein profile com...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 15, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Carvalho-Silva AC, Coelho CH, Cirelli C, Crepaldi F, Chagas IAR, Furst C, Pimenta DC, Toledo JS, Fernandes AP, Costa AO Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Ivermectin presents effective and selective antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo against Leishmania infantum and is therapeutic against visceral leishmaniasis.
In conclusion, results suggest that IVE/Mic could be considered in future studies as a therapeutic alternative to treat VL. PMID: 33338468 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 15, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Reis TAR, Oliveira-da-Silva JA, Tavares GSV, Mendonça DVC, Freitas CS, Costa RR, Lage DP, Martins VT, Machado AS, Ramos FF, Silva AM, Ludolf F, Antinarelli LMR, Brito RCF, Chávez-Fumagalli MA, Humbert MV, Roatt BM, Coimbra ES, Coelho EAF Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Reduced expression levels of heat shock protein 90 in a diminazene aceturate-resistant Babesia gibsoni isolate.
Abstract Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperon and an essential component for stage differentiation and intracellular growth inside the host cells of many protozoans. HSP90 of Babesia gibsoni (BgHSP90) was suggested to function in the development of diminazene aceturate (DA)-resistance. Therefore, we examined the expression level of BgHSP90 in a DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate. Transcription of the BgHSP90 gene in the DA-resistant isolate and wild-type B. gibsoni was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). As a result, the copy number and relati...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yamasaki M, Idaka N, Abe M, Takiguchi M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Characterization of a protein with unknown function (LinJ.30.3360) in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum.
ade H Abstract Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by trypanosomatid protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In the Americas, the species Leishmania amazonensis is predominantly associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) while L. infantum is an agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The genome sequences of Leishmania spp. have shown that each genome can contain about 8,000 genes encoding proteins, more than half of which have an unknown function (''hypotheticals") at the time of publication. To understand the biology and genome of the organisms, it is important to discover the function of these "hypot...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Maia Souza AG, de Castro-Gomes T, Martins-Duarte ÉS, Queiroz-Oliveira T, Gomes D, Rocha Oliveira IH, Fonseca AM, Monteiro de Andrade H Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of crude adult Ascaris suum intestinal tract homogenate in inducing protective IgG production against A. suum larvae in BALB/c mice.
This study aims to measure antibody production and parasite load in male BALB/c mice immunized with crude Ascaris suum intestinal tract homogenate. Thirty-two (32) mice were randomized into: (1) unvaccinated, uninfected (UU); (2) unvaccinated, infected (UI); (3) vaccinated, uninfected (VU); and (4) vaccinated, infected (VI) groups. A 100-μL vaccine containing 50μg of homogenized A. suum intestines and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (1:1) were introduced intraperitoneally. Immunizations were done on days 0, 10, and 20. Oral gavage with 1000 embryonated eggs was done on day 30. Blood was obtained at day 40. To measure seru...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Girasol MJ, Grecia LR, Fabi JC, Fernandez AJ, Isabela Fernandez JN, Flores G, Flores R, Fontanilla EL, Fragante PJ, Genuino VC, Go SC, Gotico I, Gregorio ME, Grino MA, Guevarra PM, Guinal S, Guldam R, Infante GC, Jalandoni JP, Juyad IG, Valencia C, Makali Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro Potential effect of Pipper longum methanolic extract against Protoscolices of hydatid cysts.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of P. longum (PLM) against protoscolices of hydatid cyst in vitro. Four different concentrations of PLM extract (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml) were used for the experiments. The metabolites in the PLM extract were characterized by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed the highest lethality of PLM extract in 50 mg/ml for 60 min exposure. The IC50 value obtained about 20 mg/ml for 60 min of PLM extract exposure. In this study, valuable findings were obtained for the first time about the scolicidal activity of P. longum, which is expected ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cheraghipour K, Beiranvand M, Zivdari M, Amiri S, Masoori L, Nourmohammadi M, Maken Ali AS, Abbaszadeh S, Kobra Moradpour, Marzban A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Cyclophilin D deficient mice.
Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, which is endemic in Latin America and around the world through mother to child transmission. The heart is the organ most frequently affected in the chronic stage of the human infection and depends on mitochondria for the required energy for its activity. Cyclophilins are involved in protein folding and the mitochondrial isoform, Cyclophilin D (CyPD), has a crucial role in the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In the present study, we infected CyPD deficient mice, with ablation of the Ppif gene, with T. cruzi parasites and...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Milduberger N, Bustos PL, Gonzalez C, Perrone AE, Postan M, Bua J Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Age range implications of rats over Strongyloides venezuelensis infection.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dynamics of S. venezuelensis infection in Wistar rats of different age ranges. DESIGN: Thirty-five (n = 35, 7 per group) male Wistar rats were distributed according to age into five groups: 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months old (mo). The rats were infected by S. venezuelensis and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured at 3, 9, 15 and 21 days post-infection (dpi). All animals were killed at 21 dpi, thymus, lungs and small intestines were removed, and relative weight calculated. The adult worms recovered from the small intestines and blood cells were counted. RESUL...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tavore LC, Silva Bispo MT, Gama LA, Mati V, Anjos-Ramos L Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Assessing the in vitro sensitivity with associated drug resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates from Delhi, India.
Abstract The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates. During August - October 2017 a total of 86 samples of the febrile patients were screened and 31 sampl...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matlani M, Kumar A, Singh V Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Role of MgO nanoparticles in the suppression of Meloidogyne incognita, infecting cowpea and improvement in plant growth and physiology.
Abstract Root-knot disease, caused by Meloidogyne spp., alters histology as well as physiology of the roots thus influencing metabolism of vegetative and reproductive parts leading to huge losses in crop productivity. The experimental plant, Vigna unguiculata L. (cowpea of Fabaceae family) var. Gomti is an economically important pulse crop plant. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations (0, 25, 50 or 100 ppm) and various modes of applications (root dip, soil drench or foliar spray) of MgO nanoparticles on cowpea infected with M. incognita. The MgO nanoparticles were synthesiz...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tauseef A, Hisamuddin, Khalilullah A, Uddin I Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Berberine: A nematocidal alkaloid from Argemone mexicana against Strongyloides venezuelensis.
In conclusion, the extracts of A. mexicana and the main component have activity against S. venezuelensis, nevertheless, further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID: 33197440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 13, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Elizondo-Luévano JH, Castro-Ríos R, López-Abán J, Gorgojo-Galindo O, Fernández-Soto P, Vicente B, Muro A, Chávez-Montes A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Cystoisospora suis merozoite development assay for screening of drug efficacy in vitro.
Abstract Cystoisospora suis is a common diarrheal pathogen of piglets and typically controlled by metaphylactic toltrazuril application. Recently, toltrazuril resistance has been reported in the field; however, both evaluation of toltrazuril efficacy against field isolates and the anticoccidial drug development for pigs is hampered by costs and labor of animal experimentation. Therefore an in vitro merozoite development assay was developed to evaluate the efficacy of compounds against C. suis in vitro. Monolayers of IPEC-1 cells were infected with sporozoites derived from oocysts of defined C. suis laboratory st...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 12, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Joachim A, Ruttkowski B Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae casts NOX-independent NETosis and induces enhanced IL-12, TNF- α, IL-6, CCL2 and iNOS gene transcription in caprine PMN.
Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae casts NOX-independent NETosis and induces enhanced IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2 and iNOS gene transcription in caprine PMN. Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov 11;:108034 Authors: Pérez D, Muñoz-Caro T, Silva LMR, Muñoz MC, Molina JM, Taubert A, Hermosilla C, Ruiz A Abstract Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae represents a highly pathogenic coccidian parasite causing severe haemorrhagic typhlocolitis in goat kids worldwide. NETosis was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites in vitro and i...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pérez D, Muñoz-Caro T, Silva LMR, Muñoz MC, Molina JM, Taubert A, Hermosilla C, Ruiz A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Antileishmanial efficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with non-ionic surfactant vesicle formulations of sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin in dogs.
González F Abstract Infection with Leishmania infantum causes the disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is a serious clinical and veterinary problem. The drugs used to treat canine leishmaniasis (CanL) do not cause complete parasite clearance; they can be toxic, and emerging drug resistance in parasite populations limits their clinical utility. Therefore, in this study we have evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of joint treatment with a 1:1 mixture of sodium stibogluconate-NIV (SSG-NIV, 10 mg Sbv/day) and paromomycin-NIV (PMM-NIV, 10 mg PMM/kg/day), given intravenously daily for seven days from da...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Miret JA, Moreno J, Nieto J, Carter KC, Mullen AB, Ambros L, Rodríguez C, San Andrés MI, González F Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Dipeptidyl nitrile derivatives suppress the Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro infection.
e;o A Abstract Chagas disease affects several countries around the world with health and sanitation problems. Cysteine proteases are essential for the virulence and replication of the Trypanosoma cruzi, being modulated by dipeptidyl nitriles and derivatives. Here, four dipeptidyl nitrile derivatives were assayed in three T. cruzi morphologies and two strains (Tulahuen and Y) using a set of assays: (i) analysis of the inhibitory activity against cysteine proteases; (ii) determination of the cytotoxic activity and selectivity index; (iii) verification of the inhibition of the trypomastigote invasion in the host cell...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Quilles JC, Shamim A, Tezuka DY, Batista PHJ, Lopes CD, de Albuquerque S, Montanari CA, Leitão A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Applicability of Brugia malayi immune antibody library for the isolation of a human recombinant monoclonal antibody to Echinococcus granulosus antigen B.
Abstract Echinococcus granulosus is a worldwide zoonotic infection that causes human cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. The present study describes the isolation and production of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant AgB protein using the developed Human AntibodY Disease ENhanced (HAYDEN)-Filariasis library. The DNA sequences of the isolated clones were analyzed, followed by gene analysis and binding assays. Clone E1 showed a full-length sequence and represents the IgHV5-LV3 antibody gene family. The antibody protein yield was satisfactory, and it reacted specifically against rAgB. The novel E1 pr...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rahumatullah A, Ahmad A, Noordin R, Lai JY, Baharudeen Z, Lim TS Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger and its antiamoebic effect against Allovahlkampfia spelaea trophozoite and cyst.
CONCLUSION: AgNPs may give a promising future to the treatment of Allovahlkampfia spelaea infections in humans. PMID: 33091422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mahmoud Farrag HM, Aziz Mohamed Mostafa FA, Mohamed ME, Mahmoud Huseein EA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A longitudinal study reveals the alterations of the Microtus fortis colonic microbiota during the natural resistance to Schistosoma japonicum infection.
In this study, we exposed the M. fortis to the S.japonicum infection, carried out a longitudinal research (uninfected control, infected for 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 31 days) on their colonic microbiota based on the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial composition disclosed a disturbance-recovery alteration followed by the resistance to S. japonicum. The alpha diversity of colon microbiota was reduced after the infection, but it gradually recovered along with self-healing process. Further LEfSe analysis revealed that phyla shifted from Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, which were mainly driven by an increase of ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhang D, Hu Q, Liu X, Liu X, Gao F, Liang Y, Zou K, Su Z, Zhi W, Zhou Z Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an ex vivo model to study the host parasite interaction in Toxoplasma gondii.
Gómez-Marín JE Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can invade any cell in the human body. Here, we implemented and described an ex vivo model with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) without using culture supplements/antibiotics and without cryopreserved cells (EXMOWS) to study the interactions between T. gondii and human cells. To establish the EXMOWS, three independent tests were carried out. Firstly, blood samples from 5 individuals were included to assess the viability and adherence of PBMCs in plate culture. In a second trial, blood samples from three seropositive and two...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 12, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Acosta-Dávila A, Acosta-Espinel A, Hernández-de-Los-Ríos A, Gómez-Marín JE Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Duplex qPCR for Leishmania species identification using lesion imprint on filter paper.
nti M Abstract BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is caused by different Leishmania parasites, which stimulate and direct the immune response against the infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the TaqMan probe technology applicability to diagnose and identifying of Leishmania spp. related to the ACL etiology. METHODOLOGY: Through the MEGA 6.0 software, performed an in silico analysis using multiple alignments of Leishmania spp. which were available on GenBank for different genomic targets. The efficiency (e), specificity and detection limit (DL) were calculated for each system, these were asso...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Silva de Morais RC, Nunes de Melo MG, Correia de Goes T, Pessoa E Silva R, Freire de Morais R, Augusto de Oliveira Guerra J, Felinto de Brito ME, Brandão-Filho SP, de Paiva Cavalcanti M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Nanotechnology enabled the enhancement of antitrypanosomal activity of piperine against Trypanosoma evansi.
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that piperine-loaded NCs induced more generation of ROS that contributed inhibitory effect on the growth of Trypanosoma evansi as compared to pure drug. PMID: 33049224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 10, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rani R, Kumar S, Dilbaghi N, Kumar R Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Rhipicephalus microplus (acari: Ixodidae): Clinical safety and potential control by topical application of cottonseed oil (Gossypium sp.) on cattle.
Abstract The present study was performed to determine the acaricidal activity of the cottonseed oil (CSO) against cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. CSO was analyzed using Gas Chromatograph with high-resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS) to identify the presence of active compounds. In vitro bioassays were performed using larval packet test (LPT) and adult immersion test (AIT) by taking different concentrations of CSO (i.e. 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5%). In vivo acaricidal activity of CSO was evaluated by its topical application on red Sahiwal calves for 144 h. Clinical safety of CSO was evaluated...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jain P, Satapathy T, Pandey RK Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial behavior during nuclear and mitochondrial DNA repair in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.
Gadelha FR Abstract Different genotoxic agents can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks, base modification and oxidation. As most living organisms, Trypanosoma cruzi is subjected to oxidative stress during its life cycle; thus, DNA repair is essential for parasite survival and establishment of infection. The mitochondrion plays important roles beyond the production of ATP. For example, it is a source of signaling molecules, such as the superoxide anion and H2O2. Since T. cruzi has only one mitochondrion, the integrity of this organelle is pivotal for parasite viability. H2O2 and methyl methanesulfonate cau...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Antônio Salgado Martins TM, de Figueiredo Peloso E, Costa-Silva HM, Rajão MA, Van Houten B, Machado CR, Gadelha FR Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Ultraconserved element bait set for trypanosomatida target enrichment and phylogenetics.
In this study I design a target enrichment bait set for UCE loci for this group. In silico testing showed good loci recovery rates across 63 taxa and produced consistent, highly supported phylogenetic trees. This bait set adds a new resource of useful genetic markers for Trypanosomatidae phylogenetics. PMID: 33031787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kieran TJ Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Analytical sensitivity of loopamp and quantitative real-time PCR on dried blood spots and their potential role in monitoring human African trypanosomiasis elimination.
The objective set by WHO to reach elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) as a public health problem by 2020 is being achieved. The next target is the interruption of gambiense-HAT transmission in humans by 2030. To monitor progress towards this target, in areas where specialized local HAT control capacities will disappear, is a major challenge. Test specimens should be easily collectable and safely transportable such as dried blood spots (DBS). Monitoring tests performed in regional reference centres should be reliable, cheap and allow analysis of large numbers of specimens in a high-throughput format. The aim ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Alfred Compaoré CF, Ilboudo H, Kaboré J, Kaboré JW, Camara O, Bamba M, Sakande H, Koné M, Camara M, Kaba D, Gaston Belem AM, Deborggraeve S, Büscher P, Bucheton B, Lejon V, Jamonneau V Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract and systemic alterations triggered by experimental oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.
Abstract Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in almost all countries of Latin America. In Brazil, oral infection is becoming the most important mechanism of transmission of the disease in several regions of the country. The gastrointestinal tract is the gateway for the parasite through this route of infection, however, little is known about the involvement of these organs related to oral route. In this sense, the present study evaluated the impact of oral infection on the digestive tract in mice infected by Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strain, in comparison with the intraperitonea...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Carvalho LM, de Carvalho TV, Ferraz AT, de Souza Marques F, Roatt BM, da Silva Fonseca K, Reis LES, Carneiro CM, de Abreu Vieira PM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacy and GC-fingerprints of selected medicinal plant extracts.
Abstract A hallmark of mortality and morbidity, malaria is affecting nearly half of the world's population. Emergence of drug-resistant strains of malarial parasite prompts identification and evaluation of medicinal plants and their constituents that may hold the key to a new and effective anti-malarial drug. In this context, nineteen methanolic extracts from seventeen medicinal plants were evaluated for anti-plasmodial potential against Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 (Chloroquine (CQ) sensitive) and INDO (CQ resistant) using florescence based SYBR-Green assay and for cytotoxic effects against mammalian cell lin...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sachdeva C, Mohanakrishnan D, Kumar S, Kaushik NK Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Short communication: Efficacy of albendazole in Echinococcus multilocularis-infected mice depends on the functional immunity of the host.
n B Abstract Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a deadly parasitic disease that requires lifelong treatment with albendazole. Development of host immunity is pivotal with regard to the clinical outcome of AE, but its influence on conventional albendazole treatment is unknown. Using T-cell deficient athymic nude mice, we demonstrated that functional immunity is required for albendazole to be efficacious against murine AE. These results call for attention given the increasing number of immunocompromised patients with AE. PMID: 33010287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang J, Marreros N, Rufener R, Hemphill A, Gottstein B, Lundström-Stadelmann B Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Chemotactic activities of vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y and substance P in Leishmania braziliensis.
nte-Sucre A Abstract Cell-cell interaction and active migration (and invasion) of parasites into skin host-cell(s) are key steps for successful infection by Leishmania. Chemotaxis constitutes a primordial chapter of Leishmania-host cell interaction, potentially modulated by neuropeptides released into the skin due, for example, to the noxious stimuli represented by the insect bite. Herein we have evaluated in vitro the effect of sensory (Substance P, SP) and autonomic (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, VIP, and Neuropeptide Y, NPY) neuropeptides on parasite taxis, and investigated the potential modulatory effect of S...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Giammarressi M, Vanegas O, Febres A, Silva-López A, López ED, Ponte-Sucre A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro effect of a novel protease inhibitor cocktail on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.
Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease and a global food and water-borne infection. The disease is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is a highly successful and remarkable pathogen because of its ability to infect almost any nucleated cell in warm-blooded animals. The present study was done to demonstrate the effect of protease inhibitors cocktail (PIC), which inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases, on in vitro cultured T. gondii tachyzoites on HepG2 cell line. This was achieved by assessing its effect on the invasion of the host cells and the intracellular development of T.gondii tachyzoite...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: El-Kerdany ED, Elnassery SM, Arafa FM, Zaki SA, Mady RF Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii: Cytokine responses in mice reinfected with atypical strains cytokine responses in T. gondii reinfection.
This study aimed to elucidate the cellular immune response against Toxoplasma gondii in chronically infected mice reinfected with different strains of the parasite to elucidate the immunological basis for chronicity or virulence and to uncover the involvement of genes that encode virulence proteins and modulate the immune response. BALB/c mice were infected by oral gavage with non-virulent D8 strain and challenged 45 days post-infection with virulent EGS or CH3 strains. Cytokine measurement was performed 2 days post-challenge in cell extracts of the small intestine and 2, 7, and 14 days post-challenge in serum. Virulence g...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ladeia Costa JG, Pinto LV, Araujo de Castro Baraviera R, Geiger SM, Silva Araújo MS, Martins Filho OA, Almeida Vitor RW Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Temperature stress response: A novel important function of Dermatophagoides farinae allergens.
In this study, we described for the first time that these allergens have temperature-stress response functions. This new scientific discovery has important clinical value for revealing the more frequent and serious allergic diseases caused by D. farinae during the change of seasons. PMID: 32980317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 23, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Niu D, Zhao Y, Zhang W Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Nanoparticles based therapeutic efficacy against Acanthamoeba: Updates and future prospect.
Abstract Acanthamoeba sp. is a free living amoeba that causes severe, painful and fatal infections, viz. Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis among humans. Antimicrobial chemotherapy used against Acanthamoeba is toxic to human cells and show side effects as well. Infections due to Acanthamoeba also pose challenges towards currently used antimicrobial treatment including resistance and transformation of trophozoites to resistant cyst forms that can lead to recurrence of infection. Therapeutic agents targeting central nervous system infections caused by Acanthamoeba should be able to cross b...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sharma G, Kalra SK, Tejan N, Ghoshal U Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

"Genetic variability of molecules involved in the disease pathogenesis in Leishmania infection".
This study is a first advance in the analysis of polymorphisms of genes involved in the signaling pathway of the macrophage and their relationship with leishmaniases infection and disease progression. PMID: 32979344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sánchez L KY, Zerpa O, Paz Villarraga CA, Fernández-Mestre M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Calhoun et al. HOW parasite exposure and time drive infection how parasite exposure and time interact to determine Australapatemon burti (Trematoda: Digenea) infections in second intermediate host (Erpobdella microstoma) (Hirudinea: Erpodellidae).
Abstract Australapatemon spp. are cosmopolitan trematodes that infect freshwater snails, aquatic leeches, and birds. Despite their broad geographic distribution, relatively little is known about interactions between Australapatemon spp. and their leech hosts, particularly under experimental conditions and in natural settings. We used experimental exposures to determine how Australapatemon burti cercariae dosage (number administered to leech hosts, Erpobdella microstoma) affected infection success (fraction to encyst as metacercariae), infection abundance, host survival, and host size over the 100 days following ex...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 21, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Calhoun DM, Esfahani E, Locke SA, Moser WE, Johnson PTJ Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia: Nematicidal effects of single and combined use after passage through cattle gastrointestinal tract.
uacute;jo J Abstract Nematodiosis are responsible for financial losses in cattle production systems due to treatment costs, falling production rates and animal deaths. The incorporation of sodium alginate pellets containing nematophagous fungi in the bovine diet is a method for the control of nematodiosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the viability of Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia contained in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the bovine gastrointestinal tract, as well as to evaluate the effects of single and combined use of these fungi against bovine parasitic nematodes....
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Vieira ÍS, de Castro Oliveira I, Campos AK, Victor de Araújo J Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro effects of Moringa oleifera seed lectins on Haemonchus contortus in larval and adult stages.
This study evaluated the in vitro effect of proteins from Moringa oleifera (WSMoL - Water Soluble M. oleifera Lectin and cMoL - coagulant M. oleifera Lectin) on the motility of infective larvae and adult male and female worms of H. contortus. The specific activity of total proteases and the morphology of the worms exposed to the lectins were observed. Both lectins inhibited motility of all parasite stages tested. WSMoL and cMoL at 500 μg mL-1 interfered in the motility of larvae. Values of 11.1% and 8.1% were the lowest motility indices of larvae with sheath, and 30.6% and 16.4% were the lowest motility indices of e...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Medeiros MLS, Alves RRV, Oliveira BF, Napoleão TH, Paiva PMG, Coelho LCBB, Bezerra ACDS, Silva MDC Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Identification of cross-reactive markers to strengthen the development of immunodiagnostic methods for angiostrongyliasis and other parasitic infections.
ti AL Abstract Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EoM) in humans. Molecular diagnostic methods are essential since the identification of larvae in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extremely rare. To date, the detection of a 31 kDa antigen by Western blotting has been the primary immunodiagnostic method for EoM caused by A. cantonensis. However, cross-reactivity with other parasites has been observed. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis using sera from individuals with angiostrongyliasis. We also characterized proteins isolated from different cellul...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cognato BB, Handali S, de Mattos Pereira L, Barradas JR, Januário da Silva A, Graeff-Teixeira C, Morassutti AL Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Humoral immune response of pigs infected with Toxocara cati.
This study demonstrates how the humoral immune response evolves in the acute and chronic stages of infection and provides evidence on the role of the pig as a paratenic host of T. cati. PMID: 32946882 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 14, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sierra MF, Ricoy G, Sosa S, Colavecchia SB, Santillán G, López CM, Mundo SL, Sommerfelt IE Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Isolation of intact Leishmania amazonensis large parasitophorous vacuoles from infected macrophages by density gradient fractionation.
Abstract As the causative agent of hard-to-treat diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania (L.) amazonensis persists in the host organism sheltered within large Parasitophorous Vacuoles (PVs) formed mainly in macrophages. In the present study, I present a simple and efficient method for L. amazonensis PV isolation. Isolated PVs are intact as demonstrated by the conservation of lysosomal probes loaded into PVs before the procedure. The method is useful for studies aiming at a complete and accurate molecular profile of these structures, to better understand the biogenesis of this pathogen-containing vacuole and it...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 13, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Real F Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Doramectin efficacy against Psoroptes ovis in sheep: Evaluation of pharmacological strategies.
Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two injectable formulations of doramectin (DRM) against Psoroptes ovis in sheep infested under controlled experimental conditions and to characterize the DRM plasma disposition kinetics in the infested animals. To this end, sheep were experimentally infested with a P. ovis strain from a farm with a history of treatment failure, and then treated either with DRM 1% (traditional preparation) on days 0 and 7 or with DRM 3.15% (long-acting formulation) on day 0. The efficacy of each treatment was calculated by counting live mites in skin scrapings. Plasma...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 13, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Larroza M, Soler P, Robles C, Cabrera R, Ballent M, Lanusse C, Lifschitz A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Effects of Acanthamoeba castellanii on the dissolved oxygen and the microbial community under the experimental aquatic model.
In this study, A. castellanii slightly increased the relative abundance of a few opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella, Roseomonas, and Haemophilus. This result may be related to the training ground hypothesis. On the other hand, the growth of some bacteria was inhibited, such as Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. Although A. castellanii did not drastically change the whole bacterial community, we surprisingly found the dissolved oxygen concentration was increased after incubation with A. castellanii. We applied environmental water at the laboratory scale to investigate the interactions among A. castellanii, complex micro...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tsai CM, Chen JW, Lin WC Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Halictine-2 antimicrobial peptide shows promising anti-parasitic activity against Leishmania spp.
Abstract The protozoan parasite Leishmania spp. causes leishmaniases, a group of diseases creating serious health problems in many parts of the world with significant resistance to existing drugs. Insect derived antimicrobial peptides are promising alternatives to conventional drugs against several human disease-causing pathogens because they do not generate resistance. Halictine-2, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the venom of eusocial honeybee, Halictus sexcinctus showed significant anti-leishmanial activity in vitro, towards two life forms of the dimorphic parasite, the free-swimming infective metacyclic prom...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pitale DM, Kaur G, Baghel M, Kaur KJ, Shaha C Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Design and development of porous terracotta disc: An eco-friendly novel control agent for mosquito larvae.
Abstract In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released fro...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 1, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sundaramahalingam B, Mahboob S, Jain C, Marimuthu N, Manickaraj P, Al-Ghanim KA, Al-Misned F, Ahmed Z Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Acacia farnesiana pods (plant: Fabaceae) possesses anti-parasitic compounds against Haemonchus contortus in female lambs.
érez N, Gives PM Abstract Acacia farnesiana pods are rich in secondary metabolites and their biological activities have been recorded as antibacterial, antioxidant and anthelmintic. Previously, an in vitro bioguided study showed the important ovicidal and larvicidal effects of an organic fraction (EtOAc-F) from a hydroalcoholic extract of A. farnesiana pods against Haemonchus contortus. The present study aimed to assess the in vivo anthelmintic effect of EtOAc-F from A. farnesiana pods on the H. contortus faecal egg elimination in female lambs and on the infective larvae (L3) population reduction in coprocu...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Olmedo-Juárez A, Zarza-Albarran MA, Rojo-Rubio R, Zamilpa A, González-Cortazar M, Mondragón-Ancelmo J, Rivero-Pérez N, Gives PM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Ovicidal in vitro activity of the fixed oil of Helianthus annus L. and the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758).
Abstract The fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of importance in veterinary medicine and public health. For this parasitosis, the treatment by synthetic fasciolicides is used and due to their intense use although they have been shown less effective because of the establishment of resistant Fasciola hepatica population to these drugs, with a global concern. The use of derived products of plants with biological activity has been shown promising in the control of parasites. In this context, we evaluated the chemical composition and action of ovicidal in vitro fixed oil of Helianthus annuus L. (FOH) and essential oil...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Machado Pereira da Silva MA, Zehetmeyr FK, Pereira KM, Pacheco BS, Freitag RA, Pinto NB, Machado RH, Villarreal Villarreal JP, de Oliveira Hubner S, Aires Berne ME, da Silva Nascente P Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research