In vitro effects of environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba T4 and T5 over human erythrocytes and platelets.
te; E Abstract Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba have been associated with keratitis and encephalitis. Some factors related to their pathogenic potential have been described, including the release of hydrolytic enzymes, and the adhesion and phagocytosis processes. However, other factors such as their effect over the hemodynamics and microcirculation elements have not been fully investigated. This work determines the in vitro activity of potentially pathogenic environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 and T5 over erythrocytes and platelets. The hemolytic activity (dependent and independent of c...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 21, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Alvarado-Ocampo J, Retana-Moreira L, Abrahams-Sandí E Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Low-dose of benznidazole promotes therapeutic cure in experimental chronic Chagas' disease with absence of parasitism in blood, heart and colon.
Abstract Studies suggest that the dose of the standard benznidazole (BNZ) treatment regimen might be too high. We investigated the efficacy of BNZ 20 and 40 mg/kg/day compared with standard dose (100 mg/kg/day) to induce cure in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in the acute and chronic phases of Chagas' disease. Our findings indicate that an experimental treatment with a low BNZ dose (40 mg/kg/day) is similarly effective as the usual dose in the chronic mice model (100% of cure). In addition, the treatment in the chronic model of Chagas' disease presented better results than the acute model and ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 21, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Perin L, Fonseca KDS, de Carvalho TV, Carvalho LM, Madeira JV, Medeiros LDF, Molina I, Correa-Oliveira R, Carneiro CM, Vieira PMA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Combination of tert-butyl hydroperoxide with vorinostat induces cell death of Acanthamoeba through cell cycle arrest.
In this study, amoebicidal effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was investigated and its efficacy was compared to those of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 and tBHP showed dose dependent amoebicidal effect, however high concentration of these compounds demonstrated cytotoxicity in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. To reduce their cytotoxicity, the concentrations of both compounds were diluted to 50 μM and subsequently combined with 10 μM vorinostat to enhance amoebicidal effect. Addition of vorinostat induced high amoebicidal effect against Acanthamoeba trophozoites, even at low concentrations of H2O2 or t...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lee HA, Moon EK, Quan FS Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Drug screening of food and drug administration-approved compounds against Babesia bovis in vitro.
Abstract Babesia (B.) bovis is one of the main etiological agents of bovine babesiosis, causes serious economic losses to the cattle industry. Control of bovine babesiosis has been hindered by the limited treatment selection for B. bovis, thus, new options are urgently needed. We explored the drug library and unbiasedly screened 640 food and drug administration (FDA) approved drug compounds for their inhibitory activities against B. bovis in vitro. The initial screening identified 13 potentially effective compounds. Four potent compounds, namely mycophenolic acid (MPA), pentamidine (PTD), doxorubicin hydrochloride...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Li Y, Liu M, Rizk MA, Moumouni PFA, Lee SH, Galon EM, Guo H, Gao Y, Li J, Beshbishy AM, Nugraha AB, Ji S, Tumwebaze MA, Benedicto B, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I, Xuan X Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Newly excysted juveniles of Fasciola gigantica trigger the release of water buffalo neutrophil extracellular traps in vitro.
This study demonstrates, for the first time, that parasitic trematode juveniles can trigger NET formation. PMID: 31917163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Guo AJ, Wang L, Meng XL, Zhang SH, Sheng ZA, Wei ZK, Luo XN, Huang WY, Zhu XQ, Zhang XC, Cai XP Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Targeting epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi with a peptide isolated from a phage display random library.
In this study, we used a phage display approach to identify peptides from one library-LX8CX8 (17 aa) (where X corresponds to any amino acid). After testing different biopanning conditions using live or fixed epimastigotes, 10 clones were sequenced that encoded the same peptide, named here as EPI18. The bacteriophage expressing EPI18 binds to epimastigotes from distinct strains of T. cruzi. To confirm these results, this peptide was synthetized, biotinylated, and assayed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses. These assays confirmed the specificity of the binding capacity of EPI18 toward epimastigote surfaces...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sáenz-Garcia JL, Yamanaka IB, Pacheco-Lugo LA, Miranda JS, Córneo ES, Machado-de-Ávila RA, De Moura JF, DaRocha WD Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Essential and nonessential metal effects on extracellular Leishmania amazonensis in vitro.
Abstract Protozoan parasites like Leishmania amazonensis are excellent models to test the effects of new drugs against a functional molecular arsenal used to establish successfully an infection in the vertebrate host, where they invade the cells of the monocytic system. However, little is known about the influence of metal ions on the cellular functionality of the infective forms of L. amazonensis. In the present work, we show that ZnCl2 (an essential metal to cellular metabolism) did not induce drastic effects on the survival of the promastigote under the conditions tested. However, incubation of ZnCl2 prior to s...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 24, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pessanha de Carvalho L, Held J, de Melo EJT Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Silver nanoparticles are lethal to the ciliate model Tetrahymena and safe to the pike silverside Chirostoma estor.
This study is the first report on microscopic and ultrastructural changes in Tetrahymena after exposure to significantly low concentrations of UTSA AgNPs with antiprotozoal efficacy without evidence of harmful effects on fish. These results provide the basis for further studies of both pet aquarium and commercial fish that may validate these findings at a larger experimental scale, taking into account AgNPs bioaccumulation, safety for human consumption and environmental impact. PMID: 31877275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 23, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fuentes-Valencia MA, Fajer-Ávila EJ, Chávez-Sánchez MC, Martínez-Palacios CA, Martínez-Chávez CC, Junqueira-Machado G, Lara HH, Raggi L, Gómez-Gil B, Pestryakov AA, Bogdanchikova N Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

The effects of environmental and nutritional conditions on the development of Perkinsus olseni prezoosporangia.
In this study, we observed that trophozoites of P. olseni successfully developed into prezoosporangia when mixed with minced tissue of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum and placed in seawater. We were thus able to establish a new method to examine the development of P. olseni to prezoosporangia under artificially simulated natural environmental conditions. Using this method, we found that low temperatures (5 °C, 15 °C) significantly suppressed prezoosporangia development. In addition, we found that prezoosporangia were developed in a wide range of salinities (10-50 practical salinity unit) and that P. ols...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 23, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Umeda K, Yang X, Waki T, Yoshinaga T, Itoh N Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Surface waters as a potential source of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Serbia.
Abstract Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are recognized by the WHO as important emerging diseases of the 21st century. Symptoms are similar and include diarrhoea and vomiting, which may be severe, even life-threatening, for the immunocompromised and children under five years of age. Between 2013 and 2017, the Institute for Public Health in Serbia recorded 10 waterborne epidemics that manifested as gastrointestinal disease. Routine testing for enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses did not identify the aetiological agents of these outbreaks. As water is not examined for the presence of protozoa in Serbia, we perfor...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ćirković V, Klun I, Utaaker KS, Uzelac A, Tysnes KR, Robertson LJ, Djurković-Djaković O Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Nicotinamide induces G2 cell cycle arrest in Giardia duodenalis trophozoites and promotes changes in sirtuins transcriptional expression.
acute;dez-Cruz RM Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that commonly causes diarrheal disease throughout the world. Treatment of giardiasis is limited to nitroheterocyclic compounds as metronidazole and benzimidazoles as albendazole, where remarkably treatment failure is relatively common. Consequently, the need for new options to treat this disease is underscored. We predicted by a bioinformatic approach that nicotinamide inhibits Giardia sirtuins by the nicotinamide exchange pathway, and since sirtuins are involved in cell cycle control, they could be related with arr...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lagunas-Rangel FA, Bazán-Tejeda ML, García-Villa E, Bermúdez-Cruz RM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparative study of different forms of Jellein antimicrobial peptide on Leishmania parasite.
Abstract Typically, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short positive charged peptides serving a key role in innate immunity as well as antimicrobial activity. Discovering novel therapeutic agents is considered as an undeniable demand due to increasing microbial species with antibiotic resistance. In this direction, the unique ability of AMPs to modulate immune responses highlighted them as novel drug candidates in the field of microbiology. Patients affected by leishmaniasis; a neglected tropical disease, confront serious problems for their treatment including resistance to common drugs as well as toxicity and hig...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zahedifard F, Lee H, No JH, Salimi M, Seyed N, Asoodeh A, Rafati S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Priorities in research on foodborne parasites indicated by short-term scientific missions as part of COST action a European work for foodborne parasites (Euro-FBP).
This article provides a short overview of the short-term scientific missions that were approved during this action, as well as the relation of these actions to several relevant socio-economic parameters. The subjects of these STSM, the majority of which were concerned with detection techniques, probably reflect the priorities for research skills on foodborne parasites in Europe. PMID: 31830462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 9, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sotiraki S, Santos R, Robertson LJ Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Concordance of Giardia duodenalis assemblages determined by different PCR methodologies in three observational studies in Cuba.
a IM, Müller N, Robertson LJ Abstract Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important intestinal parasites globally, especially in children, and in Cuba is the leading cause of chronic paediatric diarrhoea in this population. G. duodenalis is composed of eight genetic groups (or assemblages), two of which (A and B) are apparently zoonotic, occurring in both humans and other animals. However, consensus on the most appropriate genotyping scheme for optimal characterization of G. duodenalis isolates is lacking. In this article we present the results of three descriptive observational studies conducted in Havana,...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 6, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jerez Puebla LE, Núñez Fernández FA, Fraga J, Rivero LR, Millán IA, Valdés LA, Silva IM, Müller N, Robertson LJ Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Updating the application of Metarhizium anisopliae to control cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
This article discusses several aspects of bovine tick control related to the use of M. anisopliae, which is one of the most studied and viable alternative tools for effective tick control. PMID: 31809704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Beys-da-Silva WO, Rosa RL, Berger M, Coutinho-Rodrigues CJB, Vainstein MH, Schrank A, Bittencourt VREP, Santi L Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Can an entomopathogenic nematode serve, as proxy for strongyles, in assessing the anthelmintic effects of phenolic compounds?
Abstract As gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) become increasingly resistant to chemical anthelmintics, and because consumers scrutinize chemical residues in animal products, the use of herbal anthelmintics and in particular, phenolic compounds, has become attractive. Most life stages of GINs cannot be grown in the lab as they are obligatory parasites, which limits our understanding of the effects of phenolic compounds on their parasitic stages of life. We hypothesized that a species phylogenetically close to GINs and grown in vitro, the insect-parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorh...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Landau SY, Santhi VS, Glazer I, Salame L, Muklada H, Haj-Zaroubi M, Awwad S, Markovics A, Azaizeh H Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Generation of oxidative stress and induction of apoptotic like events in curcumin and thymoquinone treated adult Fasciola gigantica worms.
Abstract Fasciolosis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica. The absence of successful vaccine and emerging resistance in flukes against the drug of choice, triclabendazole, has initiated the search for alternatives including phyto-therapeutic approaches. Curcumin and thymoquinone, the active ingredients of Curcuma longa and Nigella sativa plants respectively, were first screened for their binding affinity with Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) molecule through in silico molecular docking followed by in vitro treatment of worms with varying concentrations of the test compounds. ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rehman A, Ullah R, Gupta D, Khan MAH, Rehman L, Beg MA, Khan AU, Abidi SMA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparative evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) vs qPCR for detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts DNA in mussels.
Abstract The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and cause toxoplasmosis. T. gondii has been highly prioritized among the foodborne parasites regarding its global impact on public health. Human infection can occur through multiple routes, including the ingestion of raw or undercooked food contaminated with T. gondii oocysts, such as fresh produce and bivalves. As filter-feeders, bivalves can accumulate and concentrate contaminants, including protozoan (oo)cysts. Although detection of T. gondii in different bivalves by molecular techniques (PCR and qPCR) has been achieved, routine application ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 27, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Durand L, La Carbona S, Geffard A, Possenti A, Dubey JP, Lalle M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Risk-based surveillance for meat-borne parasites.
S R Abstract There is a plethora of meat-borne hazards - including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators - irrespective of whether they are farmers or abattoir operators - are preoccupied with maintaining a profit and minimizing costs. Still, customers and trade partners expect that meat products placed on the market are safe to consume and should not bear any risks of causing disease. Risk-based surveillan...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: L A, Häsler B, van Schaik G, S R Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

How globalization and climate change could affect foodborne parasites.
Abstract Foodborne parasites, most of which are zoonotic, represent an important human health hazard. These pathogens which include both protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii) and helminths (e.g., liver and intestinal flukes, Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp., Angiostrongylus spp., Anisakis spp., Ascaris spp., Capillaria spp., Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Trichostrongylus spp.), have accompanied the human species since its origin and their spread has often increased due to their behavior. Since both domesticated and wild animals play an i...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pozio E Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Effect of dexamethasone on albendazole cysticidal activity in experimental cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps in BALB/c mice: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.
ury A Abstract Taenia solium is a parasite whose larvae (cysticerci) can locate in the central nervous system of humans and cause neurocysticercosis (NC). The introduction of cysticidal drugs such as albendazole (ABZ) for the treatment of NC has significantly improved its prognosis. However, treatment is not always effective, and the high levels of corticosteroids used to prevent inflammatory complications in this disease could be, partly, the cause of this observation. In this context, this study investigated, using the experimental mouse model of intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps, the influence of...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Palomares-Alonso F, Toledo A, Hernández GP, Jung-Cook H, Fleury A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Diet composition has a differential effect on immune tolerance in insect larvae exposed to Mesorhabditis belari, Enterobacter hormaechei and its metabolites.
In this study we tested the influence of diet composition involving varying concentrations of macronutrients and zinc on the immune-tolerance following parasite and pathogen exposure in Spodoptera litura larvae. We also tested the insecticidal potential of Mesorhabditis belari, Enterobacter hormaechei and its secondary metabolites on Spodoptera litura larvae. The results shows macronutrient composition does not directly affect the larval tolerance to nematode infection. However, Zinc supplemented diet improved the immune tolerance. While larvae exposed to bacterial infection performed better on carbohydrate rich diet. Seco...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Manjula P, Lalitha K, Shivakumar MS Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Cystic echinococcosis: Development of an intermediate host rabbit model for using in vaccination studies.
In conclusion, the domestic rabbits could be used as a laboratory model for CE. Developing of the germinal layer antigen is more immunogenic than the protoscoleces one and could be used as a promising vaccine. Attention should be directed towards the existing rabbit in the environment adjacent to infected dogs as it could be a part of Echinococcus life cycle. PMID: 31726054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 11, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kandil OM, Abdelrahman KA, Mahmoud MS, Mahdy OA, Ata EB Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast impacts Schistosoma mansoni ovipositing in vitro but displays only modest antischistosomal activity in vivo.
This study investigates the potential antischistosomal activity of human PDE4 and potent SmPDE4A inhibitor roflumilast, either alone or combined with PZQ. In vitro, roflumilast resulted in a significant, concentration-dependent reduction in egg production but not of worm viability. In vitro exposure to roflumilast in combination with a low concentration of PZQ was less effective than PZQ alone, pointing to antagonism. S. mansoni-infected mice treated with roflumilast showed significant reductions in worm burden (27%) as well as hepatic and intestinal egg burdens (∼28%) two weeks post treatment. Scanning EM of worms iso...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 8, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Botros SS, El-Lakkany NM, Seif El-Din SH, William S, Sabra AN, Hammam OA, de Koning HP Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro nitazoxanide exposure affects energetic metabolism of taenia crassiceps.
In conclusion, NTZ induced a significant metabolic stress in the parasite indicating that it may be used as an alternative therapeutic choice for cysticercosis treatment. The use of metabolic approaches to establish comparisons between anti parasitic drugs mode of actions is proposed. PMID: 31707003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Isac E, Picanço GA, Costa TL, Lima NF, de S M M Alves D, Fraga CM, de S Lino Junior R, Vinaud MC Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii parasite in captive Mexican jaguars determined by recombinant surface antigens (SAG1) and dense granular antigens (GRA1 and GRA7) in ELISA-based serodiagnosis.
This study shows that GRA7 + SAG1 can be successfully used to diagnose T. gondii infection in jaguars for effective monitoring of prevalence and for devising control methods and prevention strategies against toxoplasmosis. PMID: 31704144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Reynoso-Palomar A, Moreno-Gálvez D, Villa-Mancera A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Experimental infection by Neospora caninum in gerbil reduces activity of enzymes involved in energy metabolism.
Abstract Neospora caninum is a protozoan that has tropism for the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine whether experimental infection of gerbils would interfere with activity of enzymes associated with energy metabolism. We randomized 20 gerbils into two groups (ten animals per group): the control group (healthy animals; uninfected) and the infected group (experimentally infected with dose 7.8 x 102 tachyzoites of N. caninum per gerbil). On day six and twelve post-infection (PI), brain and spleen tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological analyses. No histopathological l...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - November 4, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Da Silva AS, Gebert RR, Reis JH, Baldissera MD, Souza CF, Barros LD, Garcia JL, Gris A, Mendes RE Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

CXCL10 treatment promotes reduction of IL-10+ regulatory T (Foxp3+ and Tr1) cells in the spleen of BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania infantum.
Teixeira MJ Abstract American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. The control of the disease depends on the magnitude of the Th1 cell response and IL-10 producing regulatory T cells. Administration of chemokine, such as CXCL10, has shown promising results in the leishmaniasis treatment. Previous studies from our group have shown that CXCL10 induces a reduction in parasite burden in the spleen and a decrease in IL-10 and TGF-β production in L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice. This work investigated whether CXCL10-treatment reduces IL-10 + Treg cell populations (CD4+CD...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 24, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Eufrásio Figueiredo WM, Heredia FF, Santos AS, da Rocha Braga R, Marciano Fonseca FR, Lúcia de Castro Rodrigues N, Abreu TM, Maria de Lima Pompeu M, Barbosa HS, Teixeira MJ Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Acanthamoeba and its pathogenic role in granulomatous amebic encephalitis.
Abstract Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba that is widely distributed in the environment. It is an opportunist protist, which is known to cause rare yet fatal infection of the central nervous system (CNS), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in humans. GAE cases are increasingly been reported among immunocompromised patients, with few cases in immunocompetent hosts. Diagnosis of GAE primarily includes neuroimaging, microscopy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, histopathology, serology and molecular techniques. Early diagnosis is vital for proper management of infected patients. Combination therapeutic appr...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 21, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kalra SK, Sharma P, Shyam K, Tejan N, Ghoshal U Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Potassium usnate, a water-soluble usnic acid salt, shows enhanced activity against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro.
In conclusion, our results indicate that potassium usnate represents a possible candidate for a new drug in the control of schistosomiasis. PMID: 31634474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Araújo HDA, Silva NH, Albuquerque MCPA, Aires AL, Lima VLM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Effect of mice Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci infection on the ovarian folliculogenesis, enzyme expression, and serum estradiol.
, Romano MC Abstract The murine infection with Taenia crassiceps WFU (T. crassiceps WFU) cysticerci has been widely used as an experimental model to better understand human cysticercosis. Several reports have established that the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility and severity of many parasite infections. Female mice are more susceptible to infection with T. crassiceps cysticerci suggesting that a rich estrogen environment facilitates their reproduction. Ovarian androgens and estrogens are synthesized by key enzymes as P450-aromatase and 17α-hydroxilase/17, 20 lyase (P450C17). The aim of...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Veloz A, Reyes-Vázquez L, Patricio-Gómez JM, Romano MC Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Ultrastructure changes induced by the phloroglucinol derivative agrimol G isolated from Leucosidea sericea in Haemonchus contortus.
Abstract Plant extracts used for the treatment of helminth infections in sheep are an alternative to chemical anthelmintic drugs. Previous studies have reported the anthelmintic activity of acetone leaf extracts of Leucosidea sericea. For this study, we evaluate the ultrastructure changes induced by the acetone leaf extract of L. sericea and the component agrimol G (AG) that was isolated for the first time on adult haemonchus parasites. Adult haemonchus parasites harvested from sheep were incubated with the plant extract and AG for 3 h and evaluated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy in compar...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Adamu M, Mukandiwa L, Awouafack MD, Ahmed AS, Eloff JN, Naidoo V Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Testing the impact of Whole Genome Amplification on genome comparison using the polyploid flagellated Giardia duodenalis as a model.
In this study, we evaluated the effect of WGA using the intestinal flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis as a model, due to its genome compactness (12 Mb), the presence of two diploid nuclei with variable levels of allelic sequence heterogeneity (ASH), and the availability of reference genomes. We selected one isolate (ZX15) belonging to the same genetic group of the reference isolate WB, namely Assemblage A, sub-Assemblage AI. Genomic DNA from the ZX15 isolate (GEN dataset) and that obtained by WGA of 1 ng of the same genomic DNA (WGA dataset) were sequenced on a HiSeq Illumina platform. Trimmed reads from the GEN ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 16, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Weisz F, Lalle M, Nohynkova E, Sannella AR, Dluhošová J, Cacciò SM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Inter- and intra-genotype differences in induced cystogenesis of recombinant strains of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from chicken and pigs.
WJ, Mota RA Abstract The ability to differentiate from the proliferative (tachyzoite) to the latent (bradyzoite) stage of isolates of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant genotypes (I/II/III and I/III) and reference strains from a clonal line (RH and ME49) was investigated in this study. Two isolates from chicken (#114 and #277; ToxoDB) and 3 from pigs (#114; ToxoDB) were the subjects for evaluation. The isolates were grown in cell culture under 2 different conditions: culture medium at pH 7.0 (neutral, without stress induction) or pH 8.0 (alkaline, stress inducing). After 4 days, the cultures were fixed and the events r...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 16, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ribeiro-Andrade M, de Crasto Souza Carvalho J, Amorim da Silva R, da Conceição Carvalho M, Nascimento Porto WJ, Mota RA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Effects of Acacia mearnsii supplementation on nutrition, parasitological, blood parameters and methane emissions in Santa In ês sheep infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus.
Effects of Acacia mearnsii supplementation on nutrition, parasitological, blood parameters and methane emissions in Santa Inês sheep infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus. Exp Parasitol. 2019 Oct 15;:107777 Authors: de Mello Tavares Lima P, Crouzoulon P, Sanches TP, Zabré G, Kabore A, Niderkorn V, Hoste H, Talamini do Amarante AF, Costa-Júnior LM, Abdalla AL, Louvandini H Abstract Gastrointestinal nematodes are a main problem for ruminant production, reducing animal performance and increasing environmental impact per unit of animal product generated....
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 15, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: de Mello Tavares Lima P, Crouzoulon P, Sanches TP, Zabré G, Kabore A, Niderkorn V, Hoste H, Talamini do Amarante AF, Costa-Júnior LM, Abdalla AL, Louvandini H Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Tissue dissemination and humoral response after experimental reinfection with atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from congenital human toxoplasmosis in Brazil.
This study aimed to evaluate the dissemination of the parasite after reinfection with the virulent TgCTBr9 and EGS strains in BALB/c mice chronically infected with the avirulent TgCTBr5 strain. Three mice were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours post challenge (p.c.) and at 7, 14 and 30 days p.c.. Intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs and brains were collected for PCR-RFLP. Blood samples were collected to measure total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a by ELISA. The reinfected animals survived and presented reduced morbidity after challenge with the virulent strains. Mice challenged with the TgCTBr9 strain showed a slight inc...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 15, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: de Lima Bessa G, Ladeia Costa JG, Fontes Rêgo WM, Araújo Baraviera RC, Pinto LV, Nazar Lopes RE, Wagner de Almeida Vitor R Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of synergism and development of a formulation with thymol, carvacrol and eugenol for Rhipicephalus microplus control.
Abstract The acaricidal activity of combinations of thymol, carvacrol and eugenol was evaluated on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The first step assessed the compounds separately, in concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL. Then tests were performed with the compounds combined in the ratio of 1:1 at concentrations of 3.125 and 6.25 mg/mL, along with the control group treated with the solvent (3% DMSO). In the second step, combinations were tested incorporated in a formulation at the concentration de 6.25 mg/mL, using the larval packet and female...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Novato TLP, Marchesini P, Muniz N, Cristina de Azevedo Prata M, Furlong J, Vilela FMP, Daemon E, Maturano R, Monteiro C Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Silver nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent in experimental cyclosporiasis.
In this study, silver nanoparticles were chemically synthesized to be evaluated for the first time for their anti-cyclospora effects in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed experimental mice in comparison to the standard treatment. The effect of silver nanoparticles was assessed through studying stool oocyst load, oocyst viability, ultrastructural changes in oocysts, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Toxic effect of the therapeutic agents was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes, urea and creatinine in mouse sera. Results showed that silver nanoparticles had promising anti-cyclospora potentials. The animals th...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 11, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gaafar MR, El-Zawawy LA, El-Temsahy MM, Shalaby TI, Hassan AY Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

PCR primers designed for new world Leishmania: A systematic review.
Abstract Studies of the primers that were designed to detect New World Leishmania were systematically reviewed to report the characteristics of each target, detection limit, specificity of the primers designed and diagnostic sensibility. The papers identified in the databases PubMed and Web of Science involved 50 studies. Minicircle is the most applied target in molecular research for diagnosis, due to its high sensitivity in detecting Leishmania in different clinical samples, a characteristic that can be partially attributed to the higher number of copies of the minicircle per cell. The other molecular targets sh...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 9, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Conter CC, Mota CA, Dos Santos BA, de Souza Braga L, de Souza Terron M, Navasconi TR, Fernandes ACBS, Demarchi IG, de Castro KRR, Aristides SMA, Lonardoni MVC, Teixeira JJV, Silveira TGV Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii induces extracellular traps release in cat neutrophils.
In conclusion, our results showed that neutrophils isolated from cats exposed to T. gondii release structures composed of DNA and histones, similar to what has already been described in other neutrophil species infected with the parasite. PMID: 31586454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 2, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lacerda LC, Dos Santos JL, Wardini AB, da Silva AN, Santos AG, Silva Freire HP, Dos Anjos DO, Romano CC, Mendes ÉA, Munhoz AD Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit III (cox3) gene as a sensitive and specific target for molecular detection of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.
Abstract A PCR targeting mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit III (cox3) for molecular detection of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs has been developed in this study. Fifty blood samples from suspected clinical cases from dogs, brought to the veterinary college clinics, were examined for presence of B. gibsoni using conventional diagnosis by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood smears. In addition, species specific PCRs targeting ITS-1 region (BgITS-1 PCR) and nested PCR targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene (Bg18SnPCR) were carried out. A634 bp PCR fragment of B. gibsoni cox3 gene was amplified in...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - October 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Betgiri AA, Jadhav SN, Pawde M, Shukla A, Mote C, Pawar PD, Shanmugam D, Kundu K Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro maintenance of Mansonella perstans microfilariae and its relevance for drug screening.
CONCLUSION: Both RPMI and DMEM in the presence of LLC-MK2 cells are suitable for the maintenance of M. perstans mf in vitro. In absence of the feeder cells, the addition of 10% FBS to RPMI-1640 medium improved the parasite survival rate and motility. The microfilaricidal activity of mefloquine and artesunate on M. perstans mf was documented for the first time in this study and can therefore be considered as reference for further screening of agents against this parasite stage. PMID: 31580876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Njouendou AJ, Kien CA, Esum ME, Ritter M, Chounna Ndongmo WP, Fombad FF, Gandjui NVT, Njiokou F, Enyong P, Pfarr K, Turner J, Layland LE, Hoerauf A, Wanji S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine (paromomycin)-allopurinol combination in dogs with leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum: A randomized, blinded, controlled study.
Abstract Canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease. Although aminosidine can be an effective treatment, current therapeutic recommendations do not advocate its use, mainly due to concerns regarding the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of this drug. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine-allopurinol combination and compare it with that of meglumine antimonate-allopurinol combination in non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis. Forty dogs with leishmaniosis were randomly assigned to be treated ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kasabalis D, Chatzis MK, Apostolidis K, Xenoulis PG, Buono A, Petanides T, Leontides LS, Polizopoulou ZS, Steiner JM, Suchodolski JS, Saridomichelakis MN Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Cocktail Babesia bovis antigens for global detection of Babesia bovis infection in cattle.
Abstract The diagnostic performance of a cocktail formula consisting of two Babesia (B.) bovis recombinant proteins, including spherical body protein 1 (BbSBP-1) and spherical body protein 4 (BbSBP-4), was evaluated in the present study for the global detection of B. bovis infection in cattle and for the differentiation between B. bovis and B. bigemina infections. The efficacy and the practicality of the rBbSBP-1 and rBbSBP-4 cocktail formula for differentiation between the infection caused by both parasites were assessed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) with serum samples collected from c...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: El-Salam El-Sayed SA, Rizk MA, Terkawi M, Igarashi I Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Recognition of Schistosoma mansoni egg-expressed ovalbumin by T cell receptor transgenic mice.
Abstract Schistosoma mansoni eggs can influence immune responses directed at them, and the mechanisms by which this is achieved are being unravelled. Going towards, developing effective tools for the study of how S. mansoni influences naïve T cells, we have developed S. mansoni eggs expressing chicken ovalbumin (OVA), using a lentiviral transduction system. Indeed, such a parasite could be used in conjunction with cells from OT-II transgenic mice as a source of naïve, antigen-specific T cells. The expression of the transgenic protein was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR of OVA-specific mRNA and western blot...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 11, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tedla MG, Nahar MF, Hagen J, Every AL, Scheerlinck JY Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro activities of adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 against Trypanosoma cruzi: Antiproliferative and Ultrastructural effects.
Abstract Phospholipids are the main component of membranes and are responsible for cell integrity. Alkylphospholipid analogues (APs) were first designed as antitumoral agents and were later tested against different cell types. Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease etiological agent, is sensitive to APs (edelfosine, miltefosine and ilmofosine) in vitro. We investigated the effect of synthetic ring substituted AP against epimastigotes, amastigotes, and trypomastigotes. TCAN26, could inhibit the in vitro growth of epimastigotes and amastigotes with the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the nanomolar range. Tryp...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Barrias E, Reignault L, Calogeropoulou T, de Souza W Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Antigenicity assessment of the Theileria equi merozoite antigen (EMA-2) expressed in Pichia pastoris in mice and horses.
In this study, a recombinant equi merozoite antigen-2 (rEMA-2) of T. equi was used as an immunogen. Two groups of 10 mice each were divided into control and vaccinated groups. Sixty mares seronegative for theileriosis were divided in two groups, one vaccinated and another group as a control animal. Mice and mares of the vaccinated groups were inoculated with 150 μL of the vaccine containing 50 μg of rEMA-2 and 2 mL of the vaccine containing 200 μg of rEMA-2, respectively, at days 0 and 21. The immunogenicity of rEMA-2 was evaluated by ELISA and fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using serum from vaccinated mice, mar...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Vianna AM, Santos AC, Cunha RC, de Souza Stori de Lara AP, Weege GB, Leivas Leite FP Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Biological evaluation of newly synthesized quinoline-based compound PPQ-8 in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis: An experimental study.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite, which affects worm-blooded animals including human. The commonest chemotherapeutics used for treatment of symptomatic toxoplasmosis have numerous adverse effects. Thus there is an eminent need to develop new therapeutic agents. Here we described the therapeutic efficacy of 4-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (PPQ-8); a quinoline-related compound in a mouse model of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. In acute infection, PPQ-8 decreased the parasite load in liver and spleen with amelioration of...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Elgawad HA, Alhusseiny SM, Taman A, Youssef MY, Mansour B, Massoud M, Handousa A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Excreted and secreted products (72/60  kDa) from Haemonchus placei larvae induce in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and activate the expression of cytokines and FCεR1A receptor.
Excreted and secreted products (72/60 kDa) from Haemonchus placei larvae induce in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and activate the expression of cytokines and FCεR1A receptor. Exp Parasitol. 2019 Sep 04;:107755 Authors: Contreras-Ochoa CO, Lagunas-Martínez A, Reyes-Guerrero DE, Bautista-García GA, Tello-López AT, González-Garduño R, López-Arellano ME Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of cytokines and FCεR1A receptor stimulated by Haemonchus placei larval excretory and secretory (ES) prod...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 4, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Contreras-Ochoa CO, Lagunas-Martínez A, Reyes-Guerrero DE, Bautista-García GA, Tello-López AT, González-Garduño R, López-Arellano ME Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Screening of reference genes and quantitative real-time PCR detection and verification in Dermatophagoides farinae under temperature stress.
This study provided technical support for DEGs expression studies in D. farinae using qRT-PCR. PMID: 31473211 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Niu D, Zhao Y, Gong X, Zhang W, Yang R, Hu L, Xiong G, Ding S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research