Humoral immune response of pigs infected with Toxocara cati.
This study demonstrates how the humoral immune response evolves in the acute and chronic stages of infection and provides evidence on the role of the pig as a paratenic host of T. cati. PMID: 32946882 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 15, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sierra MF, Ricoy G, Sosa S, Colavecchia SB, Santillán G, López CM, Mundo SL, Sommerfelt IE Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Isolation of intact Leishmania amazonensis large parasitophorous vacuoles from infected macrophages by density gradient fractionation.
Abstract As the causative agent of hard-to-treat diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania (L.) amazonensis persists in the host organism sheltered within large Parasitophorous Vacuoles (PVs) formed mainly in macrophages. In the present study, I present a simple and efficient method for L. amazonensis PV isolation. Isolated PVs are intact as demonstrated by the conservation of lysosomal probes loaded into PVs before the procedure. The method is useful for studies aiming at a complete and accurate molecular profile of these structures, to better understand the biogenesis of this pathogen-containing vacuole and it...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 14, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Real F Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Doramectin efficacy against Psoroptes ovis in sheep: Evaluation of pharmacological strategies.
Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two injectable formulations of doramectin (DRM) against Psoroptes ovis in sheep infested under controlled experimental conditions and to characterize the DRM plasma disposition kinetics in the infested animals. To this end, sheep were experimentally infested with a P. ovis strain from a farm with a history of treatment failure, and then treated either with DRM 1% (traditional preparation) on days 0 and 7 or with DRM 3.15% (long-acting formulation) on day 0. The efficacy of each treatment was calculated by counting live mites in skin scrapings. Plasma...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 14, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Larroza M, Soler P, Robles C, Cabrera R, Ballent M, Lanusse C, Lifschitz A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Effects of Acanthamoeba castellanii on the dissolved oxygen and the microbial community under the experimental aquatic model.
In this study, A. castellanii slightly increased the relative abundance of a few opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella, Roseomonas, and Haemophilus. This result may be related to the training ground hypothesis. On the other hand, the growth of some bacteria was inhibited, such as Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. Although A. castellanii did not drastically change the whole bacterial community, we surprisingly found the dissolved oxygen concentration was increased after incubation with A. castellanii. We applied environmental water at the laboratory scale to investigate the interactions among A. castellanii, complex micro...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 9, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tsai CM, Chen JW, Lin WC Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Halictine-2 antimicrobial peptide shows promising anti-parasitic activity against Leishmania spp.
Abstract The protozoan parasite Leishmania spp. causes leishmaniases, a group of diseases creating serious health problems in many parts of the world with significant resistance to existing drugs. Insect derived antimicrobial peptides are promising alternatives to conventional drugs against several human disease-causing pathogens because they do not generate resistance. Halictine-2, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the venom of eusocial honeybee, Halictus sexcinctus showed significant anti-leishmanial activity in vitro, towards two life forms of the dimorphic parasite, the free-swimming infective metacyclic prom...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pitale DM, Kaur G, Baghel M, Kaur KJ, Shaha C Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Design and development of porous terracotta disc: An eco-friendly novel control agent for mosquito larvae.
Abstract In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released fro...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sundaramahalingam B, Mahboob S, Jain C, Marimuthu N, Manickaraj P, Al-Ghanim KA, Al-Misned F, Ahmed Z Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Acacia farnesiana pods (plant: Fabaceae) possesses anti-parasitic compounds against Haemonchus contortus in female lambs.
érez N, Gives PM Abstract Acacia farnesiana pods are rich in secondary metabolites and their biological activities have been recorded as antibacterial, antioxidant and anthelmintic. Previously, an in vitro bioguided study showed the important ovicidal and larvicidal effects of an organic fraction (EtOAc-F) from a hydroalcoholic extract of A. farnesiana pods against Haemonchus contortus. The present study aimed to assess the in vivo anthelmintic effect of EtOAc-F from A. farnesiana pods on the H. contortus faecal egg elimination in female lambs and on the infective larvae (L3) population reduction in coprocu...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Olmedo-Juárez A, Zarza-Albarran MA, Rojo-Rubio R, Zamilpa A, González-Cortazar M, Mondragón-Ancelmo J, Rivero-Pérez N, Gives PM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Ovicidal in vitro activity of the fixed oil of Helianthus annus L. and the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758).
Abstract The fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of importance in veterinary medicine and public health. For this parasitosis, the treatment by synthetic fasciolicides is used and due to their intense use although they have been shown less effective because of the establishment of resistant Fasciola hepatica population to these drugs, with a global concern. The use of derived products of plants with biological activity has been shown promising in the control of parasites. In this context, we evaluated the chemical composition and action of ovicidal in vitro fixed oil of Helianthus annuus L. (FOH) and essential oil...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Machado Pereira da Silva MA, Zehetmeyr FK, Pereira KM, Pacheco BS, Freitag RA, Pinto NB, Machado RH, Villarreal Villarreal JP, de Oliveira Hubner S, Aires Berne ME, da Silva Nascente P Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

DNA extraction from individual Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) specimens: Which is the method with better results.
Abstract Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are a group of small insects of great concern for Public Health. These dipterous are intensely studied worldwide due to their involvement in the transmission of several pathogens, mainly Leishmania spp. parasites. Nowadays, the molecular tools have been included in Phlebotomine sand flies studies and has shown to be powerful tools in bioecology studies of these dipterous. Thereby, when molecular approaches are employed, there is a great concern regarding amount and quality DNA obtained for analysis. Here, seven methods of DNA extraction, betwee...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leonel JAF, Vioti G, Alves ML, da Silva DT, Meneghesso PA, Benassi JC, Spada JCP, Galvis-Ovallos F, Soares RM, de Sousa Oliveira TMF Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Synthetic nanoparticle-conjugated bisindoles and hydrazinyl arylthiazole as novel antiamoebic agents against brain-eating amoebae.
Abstract Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri are free-living amoebae also referred to as brain-eating amoebae can cause infections of the central nervous system, respectively known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The high mortality rates of these infections demonstrate an urgent need for novel treatment options against the amoebae. Considering that indole and thiazole compounds possess wide range of antiparasitic properties, novel bisindole and thiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against the amoebae. The antiamoebic properties of ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kanwal, Mungroo MR, Anwar A, Ali F, Khan S, Abdullah MA, Siddiqui R, Khan KM, Khan NA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Nematicidal and ovicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against the zoonotic nematode Ancylostoma caninum.
The objective of the current work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of B. thuringiensis on Ancylostoma caninum. Spore-crystal mixture of the strains was co-incubated with 120 adult nematodes (males, non-pregnant females and pregnant females) or with 4,800 eggs. GP526 showed a nematicidal effect with an LT50 of 35.8 h and an LC50 of 60 μg/ml. It also showed an ovicidal effect with an LC50 of 94.9 μg/ml. Histological analyses showed detachment of the cuticle and of the uterus in adult females, and vacuolization with destruction of the eggs. The effects of GP526 strain were comparable to those of albendazole, al...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dunstand-Guzmán E, Hallal-Calleros C, Hernández-Velázquez VM, Canales-Vargas E, Domínguez-Roldan R, Pedernera M, Peña-Chora G, Flores-Pérez FI Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory/secretory products trigger apoptosis and S-phase arrest of the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549.
Abstract Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) muscle larvae (ML) excretory/secretory products (ESPs) are antitumor substances extracted from the culture medium of T. spiralis ML. The ESPs inhibit tumor growth and induce tumor cell apoptosis. To explore the effects of these products on the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) line A549, logarithmically growing A549 cells were co-cultured with different concentrations of T. spiralis ML ESPs for 24, 36 and 48 h. Our results showed that T. spiralis ML ESPs significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation, which was dose-and time-dependent. To evaluate the inhibition...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wu H, Li M, Shao X, An Z, Du J, Yin H, Pan J, Li S, Zhang Y, Du L Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A modified two-color flow cytometry assay to quantify in-vitro reinvasion and determine invasion phenotypes at low Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia.
Abstract Invasion of human red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium parasites is a crucial yet poorly characterised phenotype. Two-color flow cytometry (2cFCM) promises to be a very sensitive and high throughput method for phenotyping parasite invasion. However, current protocols require high (∼1.0%) parasitemia for assay set-up and need to be adapted for low parasitemia samples, which are becoming increasingly common in low transmission settings. Background fluorescence from nuclei-containing uninfected RBCs and high autologous reinvasion rates (merozoite invasion of donor uninfected RBCs present at 50% assay vol...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Atuh NI, Nota AD, Cho FJ, Bojang F, Mbye H, Amambua-Ngwa A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Increased diversity and novel subtypes among clinical Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis isolates in Southern Ireland.
Abstract Reported incidence rates of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland are consistently among the highest in Europe. Despite the national prevalence of this enteric parasite and the compulsory nature of incidence surveillance and reporting, in-depth analyses seeking to genotype clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium on an intra-species level are rarely undertaken in Ireland. This molecular epidemiology study of 163 clinical Cryptosporidium isolates was conducted in Southern Ireland, from 2015 to 2018, in order to ascertain population subtype heterogeneity. Analysis was conducted via real-time PCR amplification and gp60 g...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: O' Leary JK, Blake L, Corcoran D, Sleator RD, Lucey B Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo activity of cinnamaldehyde against Eimeria kofoidi in chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar).
Abstract One hundred and twenty one-day-old chukar partridges were randomly divided into eight groups which received diets with different supplementations. There were four unchallenged groups. One group received salinomycin (50 ppm), two groups received cinnamaldehyde (CINN) (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet), and another one received only the basal diet from the 1st to the 31st day. There were also four corresponding groups orally challenged by 3 × 105Eimeria kofoidi sporulated oocysts at the 21st day. Three samplings were done at the 24th, 26th, and 31st days of rearing for pathological and biochemical as...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 24, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Abbasi R, Abdi-Hachesoo B, Razavi SM, Namazi F, Nazifi S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Modulation in the expression of type 1 (CR1/CD35) and type 3 (CR3/CD11b) complement receptors on leukocytes from patients with Visceral leishmaniasis.
a LM Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis endemic in Brazil. We included 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL and 20 healthy individuals to evaluate the expression levels of complement receptor 1 (CR1)/CD35 and CR3/CD11b on leukocytes in the peripheral blood and determine their correlation with the clinical state of patients. CR1/CD35 expression increased on CD11b+CD35+granulocytes of patients, while CR1/CD35 and CR3/CD11b expression levels increased on CD14+CD11b+CD35+ monocytes. Among patients, those with severe clinical state had higher expression of CR3/CD11b on CD14+monocytes. The...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Campelo CM, Pinheiro IC, de Melo Tavares B, Alves de Lima Henn G, Fernandes C, Albuquerque-Pinto LC, Carneiro Câmara LM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Assessing the composition of the plasma membrane of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and L. (L.) amazonensis using label-free proteomics.
Abstract Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, a wide range of diseases affecting 12 million people worldwide. The species L. infantum and L. amazonensis are etiologic agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Most proteome analyses of Leishmania have been carried out on whole-cell extracts, but such an approach tends to underrepresent membrane-associated proteins due to their high hydrophobicity and low solubility. Considering the relevance of this category of proteins in virulence, invasiveness and the host-parasite interface, this study applied la...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Oliveira IHR, Figueiredo HCP, Rezende CP, Verano-Braga T, Melo-Braga MN, Reis Cunha JL, de Andrade HM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Effect of different floatation solutions on E. tenella oocyst purification and optimization of centrifugation conditions for improved recovery of oocysts and sporocysts.
This study aimed to investigate the best suitable floatation solution, along with optimal centrifugation speed and time for Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) oocyst and sporocyst purification. Different floatation solutions i-e, saturated salt, Sheather's sugar and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at 20-60% concentrations were used to purify oocyst. It was found that about 96.99% oocysts (8609×g for 10 min) were recovered under these conditions without any effect on the viability of sporocysts. The recovery rate of oocysts using 50% NaClO (V/V) was significantly higher than 35% saturated salt flotation solution (P 
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Qi N, Liao S, Abuzeid AMI, Li J, Wu C, Lv M, Lin X, Hu J, Xiao W, Sun M, Li G Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Helminth Egg Automatic Detector (HEAD): Improvements in development for digital identification and quantification of helminth eggs and their application online.
M, Román A Abstract Helminths are parasitic worms that constitute a major public health problem. Conventional analytical techniques to evaluate helminth eggs in environmental samples rely on different steps, namely sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, and flotation, to separate the eggs from a variety of particles and concentrate them in a pellet for direct observation under an optical microscope. To improve this process, a new approach was implemented in which various image processing algorithms were developed and implemented by a Helminth Egg Automatic Detector (HEAD). This allowed identification an...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jiménez B, Maya C, Velásquez G, Barrios JA, Perez M, Román A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of 60S ribosomal protein L12 of E. tenella.
This study analyzed the large-subunit (60S) ribosomal protein L12 of Eimeria tenella (Et60s-RPL12). A full-length cDNA was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 and inoculated in rabbits to produce the polyclonal antibody. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to analyze the transcription levels of Et60s-RPL12 and translation levels in different developmental stages of E. tenella. The results showed that the mRNA transcription level of Et60s-RPL12 was highest in second-generation merozoites, whereas the translation level was highest in unsporulated oocys...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Liang S, Zhu S, Zhao Q, Yu Y, Dong H, Wang Q, Wang H, Yu S, Huang B, Han H Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Complement receptor 3 mediates ruffle-like, actin-rich aggregates during phagocytosis of Leishmania infantum metacyclics.
on ME Abstract The parasitic protozoan Leishmania infantum resides primarily in macrophages throughout mammalian infection. Infection is initiated by deposition of the metacyclic promastigote into the dermis of a mammalian host by the sand fly vector. Promastigotes enter macrophages by ligating surface receptors such as complement receptor 3 (CR3), inducing phagocytosis of the parasite. At the binding site of metacyclic promastigotes, we observed large asymmetrical aggregates of macrophage membrane with underlying actin, resembling membrane ruffles. Actin accumulation was observed at the point of initial contact, ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dixit UG, Rodríguez NE, Polando R, McDowell MA, Wilson ME Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Temperature is a key factor influencing the invasion and proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii in fish cells.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii has long been considered a ubiquitous parasite possessing the capacity of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals globally. Occasionally, this parasite can also infect cold-blooded animals such as fish if their body temperature reaches 37 °C. However, we are currently lacking an understanding of key details such as the minimum temperature required for T. gondii invasion and proliferation in these cold-blooded animals and their cells. Here, we performed in vitro T. gondii infection experiments with rat embryo fibroblasts (REF cells), grouper (Epinephelus coioides) splenocytes (...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yang Y, Yu SM, Chen K, Hide G, Lun ZR, Lai DH Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

The scabicide effect of moxidectin in vitro and in experimental animals: Parasitological, histopathological and immunological evaluation.
Abstract Scabies is considered one of the commonest dermatological diseases that has a global health burden. Current treatment with ivermectin (IVM) is insufficient and potential drug resistance was noticed. Moxidectin (MOX), with a better pharmacological profile may be a promising alternative. The efficacy of moxidectin against Sarcoptes scabiei was assessed both in vitro and in vivo in comparison with ivermectin. For the in vitro assay, both drugs were used in two concentrations (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml). For the in vivo assay, twenty rabbits infected with Sarcoptes scabiei were divided into three group...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sharaf M, Antonios S, Mina S, Eliwa K, Rayia DA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Prophylactic versus therapeutic roles of transplanted CD34+ Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells and Wharton Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells in acute hepatic S. mansoni granulomas reversal in mice; a novel approach.
CONCLUSION: CD34+UCBSCs exerted the best prophylactic and therapeutic roles in prevention and complete cure of acute hepatic S.mansoni granulomas over WJMSCs and PZQ. In contrast, only pre-infection WJMSCs exhibited similar preventive (prophylactic) effect. On the contrary, post-infection WJMSCs were the worst (incompletely reversed granulomas). Post-infection Praziquantel was overall better therapeutically than WJMSCs in this regard. Accordingly, when it comes to WJMSCs application, WJMSCs are better used as a pre-infection prophylactic and preventive tool rather than a post-infection therapy. Further studies are needed. ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Magdy M, Fahmy A, Zaki NI, Mohamed AK Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A ferric reductase of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcFR) is involved in iron metabolism in the parasite.
yra A Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan that infects various species of domestic and wild animals, triatomine bugs and humans. It is the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas Disease, which affects about 17 million people in Latin America and is emerging elsewhere in the world. Iron (Fe) is a crucial micronutrient for almost all cells, acting as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. T. cruzi has a high requirement for Fe, using heminic and non-heminic Fe for growth and differentiation. Fe occurs in the oxidized (Fe3+) form in aerobic environments and needs to be ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 4, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dick CF, de Moura Guimarães L, Carvalho-Kelly LF, Cortes AL, da Silva Lara Morcillo L, da Silva Sampaio L, Meyer-Fernandes JR, Vieyra A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A pond-side test for Guinea worm: Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of Dracunculus medinensis.
Abstract Guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis causes debilitating disease in people and is subject to an ongoing global eradication programme. Research and controls are constrained by a lack of diagnostic tools. We developed a specific and sensitive LAMP method for detecting D. medinensis larval DNA in copepod vectors. We were able to detect a single larva in a background of field-collected copepods. This method could form the basis of a "pond-side test" for detecting potential sources of Guinea worm infection in the environment, in copepods, including in the guts of fish as potential transport hosts, enab...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Boonham N, Tomlinson J, Ostoja-Starzewska S, McDonald RA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A tick cell line as a powerful tool to screen the antimicrobial susceptibility of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale.
fre S Abstract Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of the severe bovine anaplasmosis. The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the main vectors of A. marginale in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. After the tick bite, the bacterium invades and proliferates within the bovine erythrocytes leading to anemia, impairment of milk production and weight loss. In addition, infection can cause abortion and high mortality in areas of enzootic instability. Immunization with live and inactivated vaccines are employed to control acute bovine anaplasmosis. However, they do not prevent persistent infection. ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Alonso BI, Ventura ES, Esteves E, Galletti MFBM, Dall Agnol B, Martins JR, Klafke G, Reck J, Fogaça AC, Daffre S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A natural cell-penetrating nanopeptide combined with pentavalent antimonial as experimental therapy against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of combined therapy between crotamine (CTA) from Crotalus durissus terrificus and the pentavalent antimonial Glucantime® (GLU). The assays were in vitro performed measuring the inhibition of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes, followed by the evaluation of cellular production of cytokines and nitrites. After that, analytical methods were performed in order to characterize the molecules involved in the study by Mass Spectrometry, molecular affinity through an in silico assay and Surface Plasmon Resonance. In vivo experiments with BALB/c mice were p...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Valentim Silva JR, de Barros NB, Aragão Macedo SR, Ferreira ADS, Moreira Dill LS, Zanchi FB, do Nascimento JR, Fernandes do Nascimento FR, Lourenzoni MR, de Azevedo Calderon L, Soares AM, Nicolete R Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Immunomodulator mediated changes in plasma membrane calcium ATPase in controlling visceral leishmaniasis.
Abstract Immunomodulation is an emerging concept to combat infection in recent years. Immunomodulators like arabinosylated-lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) and glycyrrhizic-acid (GA) possess anti-leishmanial property, whereas sodium-antimony-gluconate (SAG) is still considered as the first choice for chemotherapy against leishmaniasis. During infection, invasion of Leishmania donovani needs the potential requirement of Ca2+, which is further responsible for apoptosis in intracellular amastigotes. However, suppression of elevated intracellular calcium by the activation of plasma-membrane-calcium-ATPase (PMCA4) facilitat...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Roy N, Ghosh S, Juin SK, Ghosh R, Majumdar SB, Majumdar S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Assessment of the F200Y mutation frequency in the β tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus following the exposure to a discriminating concentration of thiabendazole in the egg hatch test.
Assessment of the F200Y mutation frequency in the β tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus following the exposure to a discriminating concentration of thiabendazole in the egg hatch test. Exp Parasitol. 2020 Jul 17;:107957 Authors: Baltrušis P, Komáromyová M, Várady M, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Höglund J Abstract The ruminant livestock production sector is under threat due to the infections with gastrointestinal nematode parasites and the subsequent development of anthelmintic resistance. One of most common and pathogenic species in small ruminants is Haemonchus c...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Baltrušis P, Komáromyová M, Várady M, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Höglund J Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiiae) from angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) and Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus).
Abstract The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 10, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bolland S, Zahedi A, Oskam C, Murphy B, Ryan U Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Ultrasound-assisted extraction extracts from Stemona japonica (Blume) Miq. And Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss. Could be used as potential Rhipicephalus sanguineus control agents.
Abstract Nicotiana tabacum, Stemona japonica, and Cnidium monnieri are common plants that are widely used for their anti-parasitic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts from these plants against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A composition analysis of crude extracts by GC-MS was conducted to discover compounds with acaricidal effects. The toxicity of extraction against the engorged nymphs of R. sanguineus was evaluated by an immersion test. The results showed that the crude extracts of S. japonica and C. monnieri in varying ratios, concentrations, ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ni J, Ren Q, Luo J, Chen Z, Xu X, Guo J, Tan Y, Liu W, Qu Z, Wu Z, Wang J, Li Y, Guan G, Luo J, Yin H, Liu G Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparative study of the use of miltefosine, miltefosine plus allopurinol, and allopurinol in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
, Sousa VRF Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, an intracytoplasmic parasite that affects humans and other species of domestic and wild mammals. In Brazil, the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) with miltefosine has been implemented since 2016, and the reports on the clinical and immunological conditions of treated dogs are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to assess and monitor the clinical, laboratory, and immunological condition of dogs with CVL before (D0) and after (D29) using three pharmacotherapeutic prot...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: de Lima Ruy Dias ÁF, Ayres EDCBS, de Oliveira Martins DT, Maruyama FH, de Oliveira RG, de Carvalho MR, Almeida ADBPF, Louisa de Souza Teixeira A, Mendonça AJ, Sousa VRF Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A new Leishmania hypothetical protein can be used for accurate serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis and as a potential prognostic marker for human disease.
In conclusion, results suggested that rLiHyG could be considered for future studies as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker for canine and human VL. PMID: 32622940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Machado AS, Ramos FF, Santos TTO, Costa LE, Ludolf F, Lage DP, Bandeira RS, Tavares GSV, Oliveira-da-Silva JA, Steiner BT, Chaves AT, Oliveira JS, Chávez-Fumagalli MA, de Magalhães-Soares DF, Silveira JAG, Duarte MC, Machado-de-Ávila RA, Lyon S, Gonça Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

RAGE modulatory effects on cytokines network and histopathological conditions in malarial mice.
This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) during malaria infection and the effects of modulating RAGE on the inflammatory cytokines release and histopathological conditions of affected organs in malarial animal model. Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA-infected ICR mice were treated with mRAGE/pAb and rmRAGE/Fc Chimera drugs from day 1 to day 4 post infection. Survival and parasitaemia levels were monitored daily. At day 5 post infection, mice were sacrificed, blood were drawn for cytokines analysis and major organs including kidney, spleen, liver, brain ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - July 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chin VK, Chuah YK, Lee TY, Nordin N, Ibraheem ZO, Zakaria ZA, Hassan H, Basir R Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Measuring of IgG2c isotype instead of IgG2a in immunized C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium vivax TRAP as a subunit vaccine candidate in order to correct interpretation of Th1 versus Th2 immune response.
Abstract Evaluation of the murine isotype antibodies is essential in subunit vaccine development because inbred mouse strains with diverse genetic backgrounds respond different to recombinant proteins. In this regard, the main goal of this study was to measuring and comparing the profile of IgG isotype responses in C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, the extracellular region of plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PvTRAP) gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)-pET23a. Then, the recombinant PvTRAP alone or emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant were applied for immunization of the...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nazeri S, Zakeri S, Mehrizi AA, Sardari S, Djadid ND Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Still na ïve or primed: Anticoccidial vaccines call for memory.
Still naïve or primed: Anticoccidial vaccines call for memory. Exp Parasitol. 2020 Jun 29;:107945 Authors: Wang S, Suo X Abstract Despite decades of investigation to clarify protective mechanisms of anticoccidial responses, one crucial field is neglected, that is, protective memory responses in primed birds. Protective memory immunity is critical for host resistance to reinfection and is the basis of modern vaccinology, especially in developing successful subunit vaccines. There are important differences between the immune responses induced by infections and antigens delivered either as killed, r...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang S, Suo X Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Urological detection of specific antibodies against Neospora caninum infection in mice: A prospect for novel diagnostic approach of Neospora.
Abstract The intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is incriminated to induce drastic economic losses in both livestock and pet animal industries. Neosporosis is primarily characterized by abortion in cattle and paralytic symptoms in dogs. Because there are no effective treatments or vaccines, diagnosis is critical for Neospora control. Thus, diversification of laboratory tests and specimens used for diagnosis of N. caninum is an essential scientific endeavor to judge and select the most appropriate diagnostic tool. Herein, we provide the first evidence for the utility of urine samples for demonstration...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fereig RM, Nishikawa Y Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

The therapeutic potential of phytol towards Trypanosoma congolense infection and the inhibitory effects against trypanosomal sialidase.
In this study, the in vivo therapeutic potentials of phytol toward Trypanosoma congolense infection and the inhibitory effects on trypanosomal sialidase were investigated. Rats were infected with T. congolense and administered daily oral treatment of 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of phytol. Within the first 10 days of the treatment, no antitrypanosomal activity was recorded but a moderate trypanostatic activity was observed from day 17-day 21 pi. However, at 100 mg/kg BW, phytol demonstrated a significant (p 
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Saad SB, Ibrahim MA, Jatau ID, Shuaibu MN Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Behavioral changes in host foraging: Experiments with Cinostomum (Trematoda, Digenea) parasitizing Loricariichtys platymetopon (Loricariidae).
Abstract Complex life cycle parasites can manipulate the behavior of intermediate hosts in order to reduce their fitness and increase the chance of completing life cycle. In order to understand the effects of the trematode parasites of the genus Clinostomum on host fish Loricariichthys platymetopon, a filmed experiment was carried out to quantify the foraging activity of hosts with different intensities of infection. The results suggest that hosts with higher parasite intensities reduced foraging activity early in the morning when compared to hosts with low intensities. This period may be critical for hosts since ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 23, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nicola DN, Paiva IA, Takemoto RM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of ursolic acid derivatives with potential anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity.
In this study, we synthesized eight series of UA derivatives bearing a tetrazole moiety and evaluated their anti-T. gondii activity in vitro using spiramycin as a positive control. Most of the synthesized derivatives exhibited better anti-T. gondii activity in vitro than UA, among which compound 12a exhibited the most potent anti-T. gondii activity. Furthermore, the results of biochemical parameter determination indicated that 12a effectively restored the normal body weight of mice infected with T. gondii, reduced hepatotoxicity, and exerted significant anti-oxidative effects compared with the findings for spiramycin. Addi...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhang LH, Jin LL, Liu F, Jin C, Jin CM, Wei ZY Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

An ex vivo multiparametric flow cytometric assay using human whole blood to simultaneously measure cytotoxicity and leishmanicidal activities.
es EM Abstract Therapeutic options for the treatment of leishmaniasis are insufficient and need improvements owing to their low efficiency and high toxicity as well as the emergence of resistant strains. The limited number of new drugs for neglected diseases and lack of innovation in your development are still challenges. In this context, the process of discovery and development of biological assays play a pivotal role for the identification of bioactive compounds. The assays currently used for screening of drugs with cytotoxic activity against Leishmania parasites, include different processes that utilize intact ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ribeiro JM, Bandeira CC, de Faria BG, Alves MLR, Vieira FO, Giunchetti RC, Uzonna JE, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Peruhype-Magalhães V, de Souza-Fagundes EM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Galectin-3 mediates survival and apoptosis pathways during Trypanosoma cruzi-host cell interplay.
lo LD Abstract Neglected tropical diseases, such as Chagas disease caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, affect millions of people worldwide but lack effective treatments that are accessible to the entire population, especially patients with the debilitating chronic phase. The recognition of host cells, invasion and its intracellular replicative success are essential stages for progression of the parasite life cycle and the development of Chagas disease. It is predicted that programmed cell death pathways (apoptosis) would be activated in infected cells, either via autocrine secretion or mediated by cytotoxic ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: de Oliveira Chain M, Augusto de Medeiros Paiva C, de Oliveira Maciel I, Neto AN, Castro VF, Oliveira CP, Mendonça BDS, Nestal de Moraes G, Albert Dos Reis S, Alex de Carvalho M, Barbosa De-Melo LD Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vitro acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus and Mentha arvensis against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
elo I Abstract The chemical composition and acaricidal activity of plant-derived essential oils was assessed against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. The essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus were assessed for acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oils (EO) of plants were separated by hydrodistillation (three times) and analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). For bioassays, engorged females of R. microplus were exposed to C. citratus and C. nardus EO at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations; and to M. arvensis EO at 1%, 3%, and 5% for 5 min....
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: da Silva LC, de Souza Perinotto WM, Sá FA, de Souza MAA, de Oliveira Barbosa Bitencourt R, Sanavria A, Santos HA, Marie-Magdeleine C, da Costa Angelo I Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Chemical inhibition of β-glucocerebrosidase does not affect phagocytosis and early containment of Leishmania by murine macrophages.
Chemical inhibition of β-glucocerebrosidase does not affect phagocytosis and early containment of Leishmania by murine macrophages. Exp Parasitol. 2020 Jun 11;:107939 Authors: Ribeiro H, Rocha MI, Castro H, Macedo MF Abstract Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease in which a genetic deficiency in β-glucocerebrosidase leads to the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in lysosomes. Macrophages are amongst the cells most severely affected in Gaucher disease patients. One phenotype associated with Gaucher macrophages is the impaired capacity to fight bacterial infections. Here, we investig...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ribeiro H, Rocha MI, Castro H, Macedo MF Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Germination capacity of the Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus after its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
This study evaluated the germination capacity of Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) fungus after its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens and its interaction with Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum eggs. Twenty-two domestic chickens were divided in two groups: control group (G1) received shredded corn substrate without VC4; and treatment group (G2) received a single dose of 29 g corn substrate containing 3.3 × 106 conidia/chlamydospores (VC4). Subsequently, chicken fecal samples were collected at intervals of 0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h. Petri dishes from fecal samples of the trea...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Valadão MC, Millena de Carvalho L, Vieira ÍS, Neves PH, Ferreira VM, Campos AK, Elias de Freitas Soares F, Ferraz CM, Ribeiro Vilela VL, Braga FR, Araújo JV Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

In vivo studies of the effect of PPQ-6, a quinoline-based agent against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.
Abstract Schistosomiasis is still a public health problem. Praziquantel is the only drug available for treatment of all forms of human schistosomiasis. Although praziquantel is an effective drug against all species of human schistosomes, concerns about resistance have been raised, especially in endemic areas. A hybrid compound containing several pharmacophore within a single molecule is a promising strategy. Here, we described the anti-schistosomal effect of 4-(2-Chloroquinolin-3-yl)-2-oxo-6-(p-tolyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (PPQ-6), a hybrid drug based on quinoline and pyridine. PPQ-6 was given as two ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Taman A, Alhusseiny SM, El-Zayady WM, Elblihy AA, Mansour B, Massoud M, Youssef MY, Saleh NE Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

A potential vaccine candidate towards chicken coccidiosis mediated by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum with surface displayed EtMIC2 protein.
In conclusion, this study proves the possibility to use L. plantarum as a vessel to deliver protective antigen to protect chickens against coccidiosis. PMID: 32525007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)
Source: Experimental Parasitology - June 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Huang H, Jiang Y, Zhou F, Shi C, Yang W, Wang J, Kang Y, Cao X, Wang C, Yang G Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Development of a molecular xenomonitoring protocol to assess filariasis transmission.
ra Ayres CF Abstract According to the World Health Organization, lymphatic filariasis (LF), a mosquito-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD), should be eliminated as a public health concern by the end of 2020. To this end, the goals of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) include interrupting transmission through mass drug administration (MDA). After two decades, several countries have implemented MDA and are now ready to confirm whether transmission has been interrupted. The method for detecting the parasites in mosquito vectors known as xenomonitoring is a non-invasive tool for assessi...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lima de Albuquerque A, Alexandre de Araújo T, Tenório Varjal de Melo DC, Santos Paiva MH, Lopes de Melo F, Fontes de Oliveira CM, Junqueira Ayres CF Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Antichagasic effect of hemocyanin derived from antimicrobial peptides of penaeus monodon shrimp.
Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is responsible for the infection of millions of people worldwide and it is a public health problem, without an effective cure. Four fragments with antimicrobial potential from the hemocyanin of Penaeus monodon shrimp were identified using a computer software AMPA. The present study aimed to evaluate the antichagasic effect of these four peptides (Hmc364-382, Hmc666-678, Hmc185-197 and Hmc476-498). The peptides were tested against the epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain (benznidazole-resistant strain) an...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - May 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Monteiro ML, Lima DB, Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes RR, Sampaio TL, Silva BP, Serra Nunes JV, Cavalcanti MM, Morlighem JE, Costa Martins AM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research