Contents Vol. 9, 2020
Eur Thyroid J 2020;9:I –VI (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - February 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers 2020
Eur Thyroid J 2020;9:329 –330 (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - February 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Malignant Struma Ovarii with Concurrent Thyroid Cancer: Outcomes during and after Pregnancy
Conclusion: As for DTC, pregnancy seems to represent a stimulus to malignant SO growth. This can be caused by the high levels of estrogen during pregnancy that may bind to receptors in malignant cells and/or by the high levels of hCG which is known to stimulate TSH receptors.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction Facing Metabolic Syndrome: A Prospective Comparative Study with 9 Years of Follow-Up
Conclusion: MetS is not associated with thyroid hypofunction considering other important confounders such as age, sex, smoking, BMI, and TPOAb positivity. There is also no difference in the trend of thyroid hormones and incidence of TD between MetS and non-MetS subjects during a 10-year follow-up.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Iodine, Seaweed, and the Thyroid
Backgound: Even a minor iodine deficiency can result in adverse thyroidal health consequences while excess iodine intake can also result in thyroid function disorders. One source of iodine is seaweed which as a foodstuff is enjoying an increasing profile in Western countries. Apart from its potential involvement in thyroidal health, gaseous iodine released from seaweeds plays a significant role in influencing coastal climate through cloud formation.Summary: Sources of dietary iodine, its assessment, recommended dietary intake, and consequences of iodine excess are outlined. The benefits and possible dangers of dietary inta...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metabolic Changes after Radioiodine Correction of Grade 1 and Grade 2 Subclinical Hyperthyroidism
Conclusions: After correction of eSCH, increases in BMI and LDL levels were observed only in patients with grade 2 eSCH. Pretreatment serum TSH was the main independent factor associated with BMI changes after radioiodine treatment.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

2021 European Thyroid Association Guideline on Thyroid Disorders prior to and during Assisted Reproduction
Severe thyroid dysfunction may lead to menstrual disorders and subfertility. Fertility problems may persist even after restoring normal thyroid function, and then an assisted reproductive technology (ART) may be a solution. Prior to an ART treatment, ovarian stimulation is performed, leading to high oestradiol levels, which may lead to hypothyroidism in women with thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), necessitating levothyroxine (LT4) supplements before pregnancy. Moreover, women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome and idiopathic subfertility have a higher prevalence of TAI. Women with hypothyroidism treated with LT4 prior to ART s...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Erratum
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preliminary Pages
Eur Thyroid J 2020;9(suppl 1):I –IV (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes of Tamoxifen Citrate Therapy and Histo- and Immunopathological Properties in Riedel Thyroiditis
Conclusion: Even though RT is suggested to be a member of IgG4-RD, serologic or histological evidence of IgG4 elevation or positivity is only useful for diagnosis and follow-up of RT. The diagnosis should be based on clinical and radiological evidence and confirmed by histopathology. GCs are effective for initial treatment, and TMX is a successful and safe therapeutic option for long-term maintenance therapy.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Body Weight Changes in Hyperthyroidism: Timing and Possible Explanations during a One Year Repeated Measurement Study
Conclusion: In this study, treatment of hyperthyroidism was associated with marked increase in body weight in the patients. This increase correlated to a decrease in REE and only to a negligible extent to changes in energy efficiency and not at all to changes in physical activity level of daily living.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Natural Course of the American Thyroid Association Response to Therapy Statuses (Dynamic Risk Stratification) in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Conclusions: The response to therapy at the initial evaluation is predictive of the long-term outcome. Most patients with the indeterminate response and some in the biochemically incomplete statuses spontaneously regress to an excellent status. Mortality and progression of DTC occur mostly in the structurally incomplete status.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ultrasound-Based Indications for Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration: Outcome of a TIRADS-Based Approach versus Operators ’ Expertise
Conclusions: Recommendations for FNA based on the investigators ’ US expertise demonstrated a better sensitivity for thyroid cancer in the 2 best prognostic groups, while TIRADS methodology showed superior specificity over the full prognostic range of cancers. Thus, personal experience provided more accurate diagnoses of malignancy, missing a lower number of s mall thyroid cancers, but the TIRADS approach resulted in a similar accuracy for the diagnosis of potentially aggressive lesions while sparing a relevant number of FNAs. Until it is not clearly stated what the goal of the US evaluation is, that is to diagnose a...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Investigating the Sources of Heterogeneity in Systematic Review of Recurrence Rate after Hemithyroidectomy for Low-Risk Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid with Severe Tracheal Invasion: A Case Report
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modulating TSH Receptor Signaling for Therapeutic Benefit
Autoimmune thyroid-stimulating antibodies are activating the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) in both the thyroid and the eye, but different molecular mechanisms are induced in both organs, leading to Graves ’ disease (GD) and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO), respectively. Therapy with anti-thyroid drugs to reduce hyperthyroidism (GD) by suppressing the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones has only an indirect effect on GO, since it does not causally address pathogenic TSHR activation itself. GO is thus very d ifficult to treat. The activated TSHR but also the cross-interacting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) co...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress in Graves Disease and Graves Orbitopathy
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Graves hyperthyroidism (GH) and Graves orbitopathy (GO) and an antioxidant approach has been proposed for both. In GH, a disbalance of the cell redox state is associated with thyroid hyperfunction and antithyroid medications may reduce oxidative stress. Tissue hypoxia participates in the pathogenesis of GO, and oxygen free radicals are involved in the typical changes of orbital tissues as reported by in vitro and clinical studies. Antioxidant agents, especially selenium, have been proposed as a therapeutic option for GH and GO. A clinical study regarding the use of seleni...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroidectomy in Pediatric Patients with Graves ’ Disease: A Systematic Review of Postoperative Morbidity
Conclusion: The results of this systematic review suggest that thyroidectomy is a safe treatment option for pediatric GD patients. The minority of patients will experience transient and benign morbidities, with hypocalcemia being the most common transient postoperative morbidity. Permanent postoperative morbidities are relatively rare.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Growth Kinetics of Collision Nodal Metastasis from Medullary and Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas: A Case Report
We report a 27-year-old male patient who had collision nodal metastases from PTC and sporadic MTC in the central compartment. This was treated with total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection. The collision nodal metastasis persisted and presented with a single sonographically enlarging central compartmental lymph node postoperatively. The volume of the collision nodal metastasis increased from 226 to 507 mm3 over the first 8 months, from 507 to 572 mm3 over the next 6 months, and from 572 to 762 mm3 over the next 31 months. The calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) fluctuated in the first 19 months followed by...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Microbiome and Graves ’ Orbitopathy
Background: Studies from animal models of autoimmunity have highlighted the potential importance of microorganisms and their metabolic products in shaping the immune system.Summary: This review provides an introduction to the current state-of-the-art in microbiome research both from the perspective of “what is known” and of methodologies for its investigation. It then summarises the evidence for a role for the microbiome in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease and Graves’ orbitopathy with reference to animal models and studies in human cohorts, from both published and ongoing sources.Key Message: Mic...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Subacute Thyroiditis from COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Conclusion: We compared the clinical and diagnostic findings of our patient with other well-documented cases of subacute thyroiditis presumed to be triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. We also reviewed the literature related to the potential mechanisms leading to thyroiditis. Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction after COVID-19 infection. Early recognition and timely anti-inflammatory therapy help in successful management.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Intrathyroidal Thymus (Incidentaloma) Mimicking Thyroid Neoplasia in DICER1 Syndrome
Conclusion: This case exemplifies that thyroid incidentalomas in DICER1 syndrome patients should be viewed with great suspicion, but that not all thyroid disorders are indeedDICER1-related in these patients.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Targeting TSH and IGF-1 Receptors to Treat Thyroid Eye Disease
Graves ’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease caused in part by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). In Graves’ hyperthyroidism (GH), TSAbs cause persistent stimulation of thyroid cells leading to continuous thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. Thyroid eye disease (TED), also called Graves’ orbitopathy, is an orbital manifestation of GD. We review the important roles of the TSHR and the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the pathogenesis of TED and discuss a model of TSHR/IGF-1R crosstalk that considers two pat hways init...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Subacute Thyroiditis in COVID-19 Patients
Conclusion: This report may help physicians to identify lesser-known manifestations and complications of COVID-19. Early diagnosis of COVID-19 infection results in the prevention of further transmission.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Noel Rose (1927 –2020)
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Calcitonin Levels in Thyroid Disease Are Not Affected by Autoimmune Thyroiditis or Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma
Conclusions: AIT and DTC seem not to affect serum CT levels in patients with thyroid nodules. Therefore, hypercalcitoninemia, in these patients, should be submitted to the same diagnostic workup than patients without AIT or DTC.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Salt Iodization Program on Iodine Status and Intakes in Schoolchildren of S ão Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal
Conclusion: Five years after the implementation of the government salt iodization program, the mUIC increased from 70.9 to 106.7 μg/L. This study confirms the efficacy of the adopted measures in schoolchildren population.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disappearance of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies following Thymectomy in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis
Conclusions: Our findings suggest a role of the thymus in the maintenance of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Differences in Outcomes Following Thyroidectomy: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Conclusions: Male patients undergoing thyroidectomy have higher 30-day hospital readmission and ICU admission rates. Following surgery, male patients revealed higher rates of neck hematoma, while hypocalcemia was more frequent among female patients.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Treatment Outcomes of Marine-Lenhart Syndrome in Japan
Conclusions: The prevalence of MLS among patients with Graves ’ disease was 0.26% in Japan. RAI therapy induces hypothyroidism more frequently than in those with AFTNs probably because RAI is taken up in the surrounding Graves’ tissues.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcome of Lobectomy for Thyroid Cancer
Conclusion: The outcome of thyroid cancer treated by lobectomy is very good, particularly for cancer ≤40 mm. A prolonged follow-up is required due to the risk of late recurrence.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiac Troponin Is Elevated in Patients with Thyrotoxicosis and Decreases as Thyroid Function Improves and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels Decrease
Conclusions: In thyrotoxicosis, the myocardial biomarker hsTnI is elevated in about 20% of patients; hsTnI levels decrease as thyroid function improves and BNP decreases.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Proposal for Standardization of Primary and Secondary Outcomes in Patients with Active, Moderate-to-Severe Graves ’ Orbitopathy
Standardization of treatment outcomes in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for active, moderate-to-severe Graves ’ orbitopathy (GO) is needed to make results of different RCTs comparable and to draw sound conclusions on the efficacy of a given treatment. Both subjective patient-reported outcome (PRO) and objective clinician-reported outcome (CRO) are important in this regard. In this paper, it is proposed th at primary PRO should be the evaluation of treatment-related changes in the quality of life by the use of a validated and disease-specific questionnaire (GO-QoL). The proposed primary CRO is a revised composite i...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Reproducibility and Interobserver Agreement of Different Thyroid Imaging and Reporting Data Systems (TIRADS)
Conclusion: Despite the wide variability in the description of single ultrasonographic features, both Kw-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS may be a useful diagnostic tool in clinical practice.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

High Prevalence and Conservative Management of Acute Cholecystitis during Lenvatinib for Advanced Thyroid Cancer
Conclusions: In patients with RAI-R DTC treated with LEN, a high prevalence of AC in the first months of treatment was documented. Mainly due to the low specificity of symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, this AE is likely to be frequently misdiagnosed. The onset of the disease was associated to the weight loss observed during the first months of treatment and contributes to further decrease in body weight. Therefore, particularly during the first months of treatment, or at any time of huge reduction of body weight, monitoring of γGT and US is crucial for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Conservative medic...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Benefits and Limitations of TKIs in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Treatment with TKIs in MTC patients with progressive disease is associated with a moderate therapeutic benefit, with achievement of either disease stability or partial response in 73%. The toxicity of these drugs is not negligible, but it is, nonetheless, manageable.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Twentieth EUGOGO Anniversary Symposium
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism
Conclusions: Our findings indicate a high prevalence of HI among patients with CH, predominantly of the conductive type. HI was not associated with the etiology of CH or with delayed initiation of LT4 therapy. Audiometry is recommended for children diagnosed with CH and repeat monitoring may be warranted to identify acquired HI and to prevent long-term sequelae of undiagnosed deafness.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glycosylation of Anti-Thyroglobulin IgG1 and IgG4 Subclasses in Thyroid Diseases
Conclusion: Our study describes different distributions of TgAb IgG1 glycosylation in various thyroid diseases. The aberrantly increased glycosylation levels of TgAb IgG1 observed in HT, PTC, and PTC-T might be indicative of immune disorders and participate in the pathogenesis of these diseases.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Medullary Thyroid Cancer Patient ’s Assessment of Quality of Life Tools: Results from the QaLM Study
Conclusions: MTC patients regardless of their performance status, disease aetiology and disease burden did not express a preference for any one particular questionnaire suggesting any of the tools studied could be utilized in this patient cohort. The least preferred questionnaire being a gastrointestinal NET specific tool suggests that diarrhoea was not a significant symptom and concern for the population studied.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Macro-TSH: A Diagnostic Challenge
Conclusion: The patient harboured macro-TSH, which is a rare condition. The complex binding of TSH to other plasma proteins, most often immunoglobulins, results in elevated plasma TSH. However, the biologically active fraction of TSH is normal, reflected by clinical and biochemical euthyroidism.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Usefulness of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in the Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules
Conclusions: Color Doppler study of thyroid nodules does not improve the risk stratification ability of the ACR TI-RADS US classification system.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Multinational Survey of Treatment Practices of Clinicians Managing Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Older People in 2019
Conclusion: The majority of clinicians are aware of guidelines regarding management of SCH in older individuals. However, a considerable proportion of clinicians would still treat an older person with non-specific symptoms and mild SCH. These guidelines need to be disseminated more widely and more research is required to understand barriers to adherence to international recommendations.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dose-Dependent Influence of Antithyroid Drugs on the Difference in Free Thyroxine Levels between Mothers with Graves ’ Hyperthyroidism and Their Neonates
Conclusions: We found a dose-dependent influence of ATDs on the difference in serum FT4 levels between mothers with Graves ’ hyperthyroidism and their neonates. Further studies to evaluate the optimal target FT4 and FT3 levels for the mother and neonate during pregnancy may improve the outcome of pregnant women with Graves’ hyperthyroidism.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Approaches for Immunosuppression in Graves ’ Hyperthyroidism and Associated Orbitopathy
Background: Both Graves ’ hyperthyroidism (GH) and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) are associated with significant adverse health consequences. All conventional treatment options have limitations regarding efficacy and safety. Most importantly, they do not specifically address the underlying immunological mechanisms. We aim t o review the latest development of treatment approaches in these two closely related disorders.Summary: Immunotherapies of GH have recently demonstrated clinical efficacy in preliminary studies. They include ATX-GD-59, an antigen-specific immunotherapy which restores immune tolerance to the thyro...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adherence to Active Surveillance and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Not Referred for Thyroidectomy
Conclusions: Most patients with initially unoperated B3/B4 nodules adhere, at least partially, to active surveillance. For B3 nodules, subsequent thyroidectomy and thyroid cancer detection are rare events, and patients may be safely managed without using molecular markers. Thyroid cancer is diagnosed in most B4 patients who undergo thyroidectomy in our institution.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Analyzing the Role of DICER1 Germline Variations in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
We report 1 new germline possibly pathogenic variant, besides 15 others already been identified in ClinVar. We found that the DICER1-positive PTC group more frequently includes PTC variants, namely the oncocytic, follicular, and aggressive (hobnail variant of PTC) variants. A previous association of DICER1 had been demonstrated, mainly with the follicular variant of PTC and follicular thyroid carcinomas. Tumours harbouring germline DICER1 mutations were more frequently “bilateral” and “encapsulated.” The frequent association of DICER1 germline variants with other mutations associated with thyroid ca...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Congenital Hypothyroidism due to a Low Level of Maternal Thyrotropin Receptor-Blocking Antibodies
Conclusion: We report herein a case of transient congenital hypothyroidism with a normal neonatal TRAbs level. In case of maternal TBAbs, similar activity of maternal TBAbs must be expected in the neonate, independently of the neonatal level of TRAbs.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Recommendations on Surveillance for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Children with PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome
Conclusions: Children with PHTS are at increased risk for developing DTC, with 4 years being the youngest age reported at presentation and FTC being overrepresented. DTC in pediatric PHTS patients does not seem to be more aggressive than sporadic DTC.Recommendations: Surveillance for DTC in pediatric PHTS patients seems justified, as early diagnosis may decrease morbidity. Consensus within the study team was reached to recommend surveillance from the age of 10 years onwards, since at that age the incidence of DTC seems to reach 5%. Surveillance for DTC should consist of yearly neck palpation and triennial thyroid ultrasoun...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - July 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Novel Long-Term Graves ’ Disease Animal Model Confirmed by Functional Thyrotropin Receptor Antibodies
Conclusions: TBAb/TSAb were highly prevalent in Ad-TSHR-immunized mice, thus confirming the successful establishment of a novel, long-term murine model for GD. All TBAb- and TSAb-positive Ad-TSHR-immunized mice were TBII-positive. Thus, the binding immunoassay did not differentiate between TSHR-Ab functionality.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - July 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research