Contents Vol. 10, 2021
Eur Thyroid J 2021;10:I –VI (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical Consequences of Variable Results in the Measurement of Free Thyroid Hormones: Unusual Presentation of a Family with a Novel Variant in the < b > < i > THRB < /i > < /b > Gene Causing Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome
Conclusion: Variable results of TFTs on some immunoassays can be a cause of RTH β diagnostic delay, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in this family and functional studies support p.L428V as a novelTHRB variant expanding the spectrum of gene variants causing RTH β. In vivo, rather than in vitro, functional assays may be required to demonstrate the dominant negative action ofTHRB variants.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

< b > < i > European Thyroid Journal: < /i > < /b > Looking Backwards and Forwards
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 20, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Continuous, Large-Volume Hydrodissection to Protect Delicate Structures around the Thyroid throughout the Radiofrequency Ablation Procedure
Conclusions: Continuous, large-volume hydrodissection can protect the delicate structures around the thyroid throughout the RFA procedure and might be beneficial in large thyroid nodule ablation.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

3D-Printed Template-Guided < sup > 125 < /sup > I Seed Brachytherapy: A Salvage Approach for Locoregional Refractory Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a large thyroid carcinoma that was effectively treated by 3D-printed template-guided125I seed brachytherapy.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - October 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Case Report: A Rare Association of Diffuse Thyroid Lipomatosis with Amyloid Deposition
We report a case of a 46-year-old man with 1-year history of progressive goiter enlargement with compressive symptoms. Imaging studies revealed multiple coalescent nodules. The patient underwent surgery, and the microscopic appearance revealed a diffuse infiltration of thyroid stroma by mature adipose tissue with associated amyloid deposition. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was established. This patient represents one of the few reported cases of diffuse lipomatosis with coexisting deposition of amyloid protein of the thyroid gland and contributes to the better understanding of this extremely...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effect of Combined Dabrafenib and Trametinib Treatment of BRAF V600E-Mutated Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report
Conclusion: In this case, molecular diagnosis allowed a highly individualized treatment concept with combined dabrafenib and trametinib therapy.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - September 3, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Inherited Selenocysteine Transfer RNA Mutation: Clinical and Hormonal Evaluation of 2 Patients
Conclusion: We report on 2 members of a family with a variant in theTRU-TCA1-1 gene encoding for tRNA[Ser]Sec. Our study suggests that this tRNA[Ser]Sec variant is not exclusively causative of disruption in selenoprotein synthesis.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 26, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiac Metastasis from Medullary Thyroid Cancers with Long-Term Survival under Vandetanib
Conclusion: These cases illustrate long-term survival and effectiveness of clinical management of 2 patients who developed cardiac metastases from MTC, in the current era of personalized medicine with targeted therapy.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Evidence of a Causal Relationship between Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Osteoporotic Bone Fractures
Conclusions: EMRs linked to genomic data in large populations allow replication of GWAS discoveries without additional genotyping costs. This study suggests that genetically raised serum TSH concentrations are causally associated with decreased bone fracture risk in men.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 19, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Levothyroxine Administration during Ramadan: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions: Our data suggest that instructing patients to take levothyroxine at the time of breaking the fast 30 min before the Iftar meal minimizes unfavorable changes in plasma TSH post-Ramadan. In contrast, instructing patients to take levothyroxine 3 h post-Iftar or 30 min before Suhur led to a greater rise in post-Ramadan TSH.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

43rd Annual Meeting of the European Thyroid Association. Virtual Conference, September 4 –7, 2021
Eur Thyroid J 2021;10:I –III (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

43rd Annual Meeting of the European Thyroid Association. Virtual Conference, September 4 –7, 2021
Eur Thyroid J 2021;10:1 –56 (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - August 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New Reference Values for Thyroid Volume and a Comprehensive Assessment for Influencing Factors in Chinese Adults with Iodine Sufficiency
Conclusions: Quantile regression analyses showed that a high BSA index, a decreased TSH level, and the prevalence of TNs were essential factors associated with the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Our findings reported the new reference values for Tvol determined by ultrasound based on gender and BSA in Chinese adults.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - July 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Efficacy and Short- and Long-Term Side Effects of Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Pediatric Graves ’ Disease: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: RAI is a safe definitive treatment option for pediatric GD when aiming at complete thyroid destruction. When aiming at hypothyroidism, the efficacy of treatment seems to increase with a higher RAI activity. Prospective studies are needed to determine the optimal RAI dosing regimen in pediatric GD.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - July 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical Heterogeneity of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer between Children Less than 10 Years of Age and Those Older than 10 Years: A Retrospective Study of 70 Cases
Conclusion: Regional invasiveness, cervical lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis of DTC were more likely to occur in children ≤10 years old. Meanwhile, children ≤10 years old with DTC were more likely to have recurrence than adolescent’s postsurgical treatment. Thus, children younger than 10 years of age with DTC should be treated more aggressively.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - June 17, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

2021 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Iodine-Based Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction
Given the fact that a large number of radiological examinations using iodine-based contrast media (ICM) are performed in everyday practice, clinicians should be aware of potential ICM-induced thyroid dysfunction (TD). ICM can induce hyperthyroidism (Hyper) or hypothyroidism (Hypo) due to supraphysiological concentrations of iodine in the contrast solution. The prevalence of ICM-induced TD varies from 1 to 15%. ICM-induced Hyper is predominantly found in regions with iodine deficiency and in patients with underlying nodular goiter or latent Graves ’ disease. Patients at risk for ICM-induced Hypo include those with aut...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - June 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Oncosuppressor-Mutated Cell-Based Diagnostic Platform for Liquid Biopsy Diagnoses Benign Head and Neck Masses and Predicts Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules: Results from a Consecutive Cohort of Patients
Conclusions: These data show that liquid biopsy combined with an OMC-based in vivo platform has the potential to diagnose benign head and neck masses and predict whether a thyroid nodule is malignant. These results strengthen the concept that OMCs can be used to detect circulating malignant factors in cancer patients.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - June 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of Thyromimetic GC-1 Selective Signaling on Reproductive and Lactational Performance in the Hypothyroid Rat
Conclusions: Our findings show the differential effect of thyroid hormone selective signaling during gestation and the indirect exposure of the pups; we also emphasize the plausible use of GC-1 for treatment of hypothyroid mothers during the lactation period.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - May 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Change in Practice of Radioactive Iodine Administration in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Single-Centre Experience
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an evolution of RAI activities consistent with translation of ATA guidelines into clinical practice. Use of lower RAI activities was not associated with an increase in recurrence in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Our data also suggest lower RAI activities may be as efficacious for adjuvant therapy in intermediate- and high-risk patients.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - May 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

European Thyroid Association and Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Minimally Invasive Treatments in Malignant Thyroid Lesions
The growing detection of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) is paralleled by an increase in surgical procedures. Due to the frequent indolent nature, cost, and risk of surgery, active surveillance (AS) and ultrasound-guided minimally invasive treatments (MITs) are in suitable cases of incidental PTMC proposed as alternatives to thyroidectomy. Surgery and radioiodine are the established treatments for relapsing cervical differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) metastases. But radioiodine refractoriness, risk of surgical complications, adverse influence on quality of life, or declining repeat surgery have led to AS and ...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - May 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Erratum
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - April 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevention of Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Hyperthyroidism in Patients with Euthyroid Goiter
Conclusions: Patients with euthyroid goiter receiving ICM are at risk of developing hyperthyroidism. The occurrence of hyperthyroidism after ICM in euthyroid patients with goiter is higher in those with larger thyroid volume. The frequency of ICM-induced hyperthyroidism in euthyroid patients with goiter is lower in those receiving prophylactic therapy with thiamazole in monotherapy or in combination with sodium perchlorate than in those not receiving prophylactic treatment.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - April 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Increased Trend of Medical Treatment for Thyroid Diseases during Pregnancy: A 13-Year National Study
Conclusions: Our study shows that the rate of levothyroxine use in pregnancy has markedly increased. This suggests that tracing and screening relevant patients and awareness of thyroid disorders on pregnancy and their significance for the pregnancy outcome have increased and the threshold to treat thyroid disorders has declined.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - April 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Developing Fistula or Organ Perforation in Patients Treated with Lenvatinib for Radioiodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer
Conclusions: In metastatic thyroid cancer patients treated with lenvatinib, the presence of tumor infiltration and histological type should be considered as potential risk factors for the development of fistula or organ perforation, although they do not represent an absolute contraindication. Although EBRT and the presence of diverticulosis were not significantly associated with the development of fistula and organ perforation, they should be regarded as potential additional reasons for the development of these complications. According to our findings, there is no reason to start lenvatinib at a lower daily dose when tumor...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - March 23, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Two Important Issues in Subacute Thyroiditis Management: Delayed Diagnosis and Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics
Conclusion: The diagnosis of SAT is often delayed, and misdiagnosis leads to erroneous antibiotic overuse. Physicians should increase their awareness of the diagnosis of SAT in patients with neck pain.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Letter Response to “Investigating the Sources of Heterogeneity in Systematic Review of Recurrence Rate after Hemi-Thyroidectomy for Low-Risk Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer”
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - March 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyperfunctioning Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with a < b > < i > BRAF < /i > < /b > Mutation: The First Case Report and a Literature Review
Conclusions: We report a case of hyperfunctioning PTC with aBRAF V600E mutation for the first time. Our literature search yielded 16 cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in which a mutational analysis was conducted. We identifiedTSHR mutations in 13 of these cases. One case revealed a combination ofTSHR andKRAS mutations; the other case revealed aTSHR mutation with aPAX8/PPARG rearrangement. These findings suggest that the concomitant activation of oncogenes (in addition to constitutive activation of the TSHR-cyclic AMP cascade) are associated with the malignant phenotype in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.Eur Thyr...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - March 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Improving the Dutch Newborn Screening for Central Congenital Hypothyroidism by Using 95% Reference Intervals for Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
Conclusion: Established DBS RIs provided possibilities to improve the PPV of the Dutch CH NBS algorithm. We conclude that by taking partial TBG deficiency into account, approximately half of T4 false-positive referrals may be prevented while maintaining NBS sensitivity at the current level.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - March 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Use of Levothyroxine/Liothyronine Combinations in Treating Hypothyroidism: A Consensus Document
This article summarizes the areas discussed and presents Consensus Statements to guide development of future clinical trials of LT4/LT3 combination therapy. The results of such redesigned trials are expected to be of benefit to patients and of value to inform future thyroid hormone replacement clinical practice guidelines treatment recommendations.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 9, 2020
Eur Thyroid J 2020;9:I –VI (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - February 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers 2020
Eur Thyroid J 2020;9:329 –330 (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - February 9, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Malignant Struma Ovarii with Concurrent Thyroid Cancer: Outcomes during and after Pregnancy
Conclusion: As for DTC, pregnancy seems to represent a stimulus to malignant SO growth. This can be caused by the high levels of estrogen during pregnancy that may bind to receptors in malignant cells and/or by the high levels of hCG which is known to stimulate TSH receptors.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction Facing Metabolic Syndrome: A Prospective Comparative Study with 9 Years of Follow-Up
Conclusion: MetS is not associated with thyroid hypofunction considering other important confounders such as age, sex, smoking, BMI, and TPOAb positivity. There is also no difference in the trend of thyroid hormones and incidence of TD between MetS and non-MetS subjects during a 10-year follow-up.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Iodine, Seaweed, and the Thyroid
Backgound: Even a minor iodine deficiency can result in adverse thyroidal health consequences while excess iodine intake can also result in thyroid function disorders. One source of iodine is seaweed which as a foodstuff is enjoying an increasing profile in Western countries. Apart from its potential involvement in thyroidal health, gaseous iodine released from seaweeds plays a significant role in influencing coastal climate through cloud formation.Summary: Sources of dietary iodine, its assessment, recommended dietary intake, and consequences of iodine excess are outlined. The benefits and possible dangers of dietary inta...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 27, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metabolic Changes after Radioiodine Correction of Grade 1 and Grade 2 Subclinical Hyperthyroidism
Conclusions: After correction of eSCH, increases in BMI and LDL levels were observed only in patients with grade 2 eSCH. Pretreatment serum TSH was the main independent factor associated with BMI changes after radioiodine treatment.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

2021 European Thyroid Association Guideline on Thyroid Disorders prior to and during Assisted Reproduction
Severe thyroid dysfunction may lead to menstrual disorders and subfertility. Fertility problems may persist even after restoring normal thyroid function, and then an assisted reproductive technology (ART) may be a solution. Prior to an ART treatment, ovarian stimulation is performed, leading to high oestradiol levels, which may lead to hypothyroidism in women with thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), necessitating levothyroxine (LT4) supplements before pregnancy. Moreover, women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome and idiopathic subfertility have a higher prevalence of TAI. Women with hypothyroidism treated with LT4 prior to ART s...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - January 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Erratum
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preliminary Pages
Eur Thyroid J 2020;9(suppl 1):I –IV (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes of Tamoxifen Citrate Therapy and Histo- and Immunopathological Properties in Riedel Thyroiditis
Conclusion: Even though RT is suggested to be a member of IgG4-RD, serologic or histological evidence of IgG4 elevation or positivity is only useful for diagnosis and follow-up of RT. The diagnosis should be based on clinical and radiological evidence and confirmed by histopathology. GCs are effective for initial treatment, and TMX is a successful and safe therapeutic option for long-term maintenance therapy.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Body Weight Changes in Hyperthyroidism: Timing and Possible Explanations during a One Year Repeated Measurement Study
Conclusion: In this study, treatment of hyperthyroidism was associated with marked increase in body weight in the patients. This increase correlated to a decrease in REE and only to a negligible extent to changes in energy efficiency and not at all to changes in physical activity level of daily living.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Natural Course of the American Thyroid Association Response to Therapy Statuses (Dynamic Risk Stratification) in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Conclusions: The response to therapy at the initial evaluation is predictive of the long-term outcome. Most patients with the indeterminate response and some in the biochemically incomplete statuses spontaneously regress to an excellent status. Mortality and progression of DTC occur mostly in the structurally incomplete status.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - December 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ultrasound-Based Indications for Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration: Outcome of a TIRADS-Based Approach versus Operators ’ Expertise
Conclusions: Recommendations for FNA based on the investigators ’ US expertise demonstrated a better sensitivity for thyroid cancer in the 2 best prognostic groups, while TIRADS methodology showed superior specificity over the full prognostic range of cancers. Thus, personal experience provided more accurate diagnoses of malignancy, missing a lower number of s mall thyroid cancers, but the TIRADS approach resulted in a similar accuracy for the diagnosis of potentially aggressive lesions while sparing a relevant number of FNAs. Until it is not clearly stated what the goal of the US evaluation is, that is to diagnose a...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Investigating the Sources of Heterogeneity in Systematic Review of Recurrence Rate after Hemithyroidectomy for Low-Risk Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid with Severe Tracheal Invasion: A Case Report
Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modulating TSH Receptor Signaling for Therapeutic Benefit
Autoimmune thyroid-stimulating antibodies are activating the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) in both the thyroid and the eye, but different molecular mechanisms are induced in both organs, leading to Graves ’ disease (GD) and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO), respectively. Therapy with anti-thyroid drugs to reduce hyperthyroidism (GD) by suppressing the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones has only an indirect effect on GO, since it does not causally address pathogenic TSHR activation itself. GO is thus very d ifficult to treat. The activated TSHR but also the cross-interacting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) co...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress in Graves Disease and Graves Orbitopathy
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Graves hyperthyroidism (GH) and Graves orbitopathy (GO) and an antioxidant approach has been proposed for both. In GH, a disbalance of the cell redox state is associated with thyroid hyperfunction and antithyroid medications may reduce oxidative stress. Tissue hypoxia participates in the pathogenesis of GO, and oxygen free radicals are involved in the typical changes of orbital tissues as reported by in vitro and clinical studies. Antioxidant agents, especially selenium, have been proposed as a therapeutic option for GH and GO. A clinical study regarding the use of seleni...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroidectomy in Pediatric Patients with Graves ’ Disease: A Systematic Review of Postoperative Morbidity
Conclusion: The results of this systematic review suggest that thyroidectomy is a safe treatment option for pediatric GD patients. The minority of patients will experience transient and benign morbidities, with hypocalcemia being the most common transient postoperative morbidity. Permanent postoperative morbidities are relatively rare.Eur Thyroid J (Source: European Thyroid Journal)
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Growth Kinetics of Collision Nodal Metastasis from Medullary and Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas: A Case Report
We report a 27-year-old male patient who had collision nodal metastases from PTC and sporadic MTC in the central compartment. This was treated with total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection. The collision nodal metastasis persisted and presented with a single sonographically enlarging central compartmental lymph node postoperatively. The volume of the collision nodal metastasis increased from 226 to 507 mm3 over the first 8 months, from 507 to 572 mm3 over the next 6 months, and from 572 to 762 mm3 over the next 31 months. The calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) fluctuated in the first 19 months followed by...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Microbiome and Graves ’ Orbitopathy
Background: Studies from animal models of autoimmunity have highlighted the potential importance of microorganisms and their metabolic products in shaping the immune system.Summary: This review provides an introduction to the current state-of-the-art in microbiome research both from the perspective of “what is known” and of methodologies for its investigation. It then summarises the evidence for a role for the microbiome in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease and Graves’ orbitopathy with reference to animal models and studies in human cohorts, from both published and ongoing sources.Key Message: Mic...
Source: European Thyroid Journal - November 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research