Current Status of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Vaccine.
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens responsible for a wide variety of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections. Numerous vaccine candidates and several monoclonal antibodies have been developed over the past 40 years but only a few have reached clinical trials and none of these vaccine candidates has obtained market authorization. The increased understanding of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and its virulence factors is important in the identification of potential immunogens that can be used for a P. aeruginosa vaccine development. This review summarizes the current status of vacci...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Michelim L, Medeiros GS, Zavascki AP Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Progress in Development of Group A Streptococcus Vaccines.
Abstract Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major Gram-positive human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of an effective GAS vaccine is hindered by the occurrence of many unique GAS serotypes, the complexity of the global epidemiology of GAS infections, and safety concerns over the cross-reactivity of some antigen-specific antibodies with human tissues and proteins. Although no licensed GAS vaccine is available, a number of candidate vaccines have been or are being evaluated in laboratory or in clinical trials. This min...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Song Y, Zhang X, Lu C, Zhang F, Zhu H Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Update on the Development of TB Vaccines.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In 2012, the WHO estimated 8.7 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths caused by this disease. Under the Millennium Development Goals, the WHO aims to eradicate TB as a public health problem by 2050. However, reaching this goal will require the development and incorporation of new and more effective vaccines that can replace the current BCG vaccine. Much work is therefore ongoing in terms of the development of TB vaccines and more than 10 candidate vaccines are progressing well through the different...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zenteno-Cuevas R Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Vaccines Against Clostridium Perfringens Alpha-Toxin.
This article summarizes the current knowledge on vaccines against alpha-toxin. PMID: 24372250 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nagahama M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Shigella Vaccine Development: Prospective Animal Models And Current Status.
Abstract Shigella was first discovered in 1897 and is a major causative agent of dysenteric diarrhea. The number of affected patients has decreased globally because of improved sanitary conditions; however, Shigella still causes serious problems in many subjects, including young children and the elderly, especially in developing countries. Although antibiotics may be effective, a vaccine would be the most powerful solution to combat shigellosis because of the emergence of drug-resistant strains. However, the development of a vaccine is hampered by several problems. First, there is no suitable animal model that can...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yeon-Jeong K, Sang-Gu Y, Jae-Hak P, Hyun-Jeong K Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

First Steps Towards a Vaccine Against Acinetobacter Baumannii.
ll MJ Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important cause of human infections, most notably in the hospital setting. In addition, the global dissemination of multidrug resistant strains has complicated effective antibiotic therapy of infections produced by this pathogen, necessitating the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies. Active and passive immunization approaches have begun to be explored in experimental animal models as potential alternative therapies for A. baumannii. In the present review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each therapeutic strategy with respect t...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: García-Quintanilla M, Pulido MR, McConnell MJ Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Research Progress in Live Attenuated Brucella Vaccine Development.
This article discusses the approaches and strategies for novel live attenuated vaccine development. PMID: 24372253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang Z, Wu Q Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Rational Considerations about Development of Live Attenuated Y. Pestis Vaccines.
Abstract The risk of plague as a bioweapon has prompted increasing research efforts to develop plague vaccines due to its extreme virulence and the ease of its transmission. Subunit vaccines that contain F1 and LcrV antigens of Y. pestis have been tested for safety and immunogenicity, but doubts have been raised about whether subunit vaccines that engender antibody responses will protect against pneumonic plague, which requires both humeral and cellular immune responses for protection. The live, attenuated vaccine EV76, a pgm locus deficient Y. pestis strain, has been used for a long time in the Former Soviet Unio...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sun W, Curtiss R Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Activation of B Cells by A Dendritic Cell-Targeted Oral Vaccine.
Abstract Production of long-lived, high affinity humoral immunity is an essential characteristic of successful vaccination and requires cognate interactions between T and B cells in germinal centers. Within germinal centers, specialized T follicular helper cells assist B cells and regulate the antibody response by mediating the differentiation of B cells into memory or plasma cells after exposure to T cell-dependent antigens. It is now appreciated that local immune responses are also essential for protection against infectious diseases that gain entry to the host by the mucosal route; therefore, targeting the muco...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sahay B, Owen JL, Yang T, Zadeh M, Lightfoot YL, Jun-Wei G, Mohamadzadeh M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

An Important Role of Carotenoids in Protection of Photosynthetic Apparatus Under VAM Inoculation on Momordica Charantia.
Abstract The effect of mixed inoculums of VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizas ) fungi on seed growth and photosynthetic apparatus in green house was monitored. The plants were watered daily with tap water. Plants were cultivated in natural environment in mid of March (2011). A direct relation between root length and water contents suggests a defense mechanism of MP (microrihzal plants) against the fungal stress. It was also supported by the fact that the leaf area of MP was much greater as compared to the NMP (non microrihzal plants) with elevated concentration of all chlorophyllus pigments in 30 days. An increa...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Azmat R Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Natural Products from Cyanobacteria With Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity.
This study focused on the antitumor and antimicrobial activities of intra and extracellular cyanobacterial extracts. A total of 411 cyanobacterial strains were screened for antimicrobial activity using a subset of pathogenic bacteria as target. The in vitro antitumor assays were performed with extracts of 24 strains tested against two murine cancer cell lines (colon carcinoma CT-26 and lung cancer 3LL). Intracellular extracts inhibited 49 and 35% of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacterial growth, respectively. Furthermore, the methanolic intracellular extract of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CYP011K and Nosto...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Silva-Stenico ME, Kaneno R, Zambuzi FA Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Salinity and Drought Induced Antioxidant Responses in Different Cultivars of Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius, L).
Abstract Six cultivars of safflower which were (PI-387820, PI-251978, PI-170274, PI-387821, PI-386174 and Thori-78) grown in net house of NIAB under salinity (10 ds m-1) and drought (60% field capacity) conditions and compared to their oxidative damage and antioxidative responses. Plant samples (leaves) were collected for the determination of malonidialdehyde (MDA), antioxidative enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase), proline, and photosynthetic pigments. Salinity and drought decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents but a decrease in chlorophyll a and b was less in saffl...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Javed S, Bukhari SA, Bukhari IH, Meraj M, Mahmood S, Farooq M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Proteolytic Activity of Oenococcus Oeni Enables the Increase in Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Activities From Wine.
Vaquero MJ Abstract Oenococcus oeni is a lactic acid bacterium involved in winemaking where it generally carries out the malolactic fermentation converting the wine's malic acid into lactic acid. In this work were used the strain m of Oenococcus oeni. The culture was inoculated at 108 Log CFU/mL in a synthetic wine medium (SW) supplemented with a protein and polypeptide fraction (PPF) of high molecular weight (higher than 12,400 Da) obtained from Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah wines from Colalao del Valle, Tucumán, Argentine. In presence of PPF, O. oeni maintains viability after 48 h incubation time and enab...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Apud GR, Stivala MG, Fernández PA, Rodríguez Vaquero MJ Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biofilm Inhibition of Spoilage Bacteria by Argentinean Fruit Juices With Antihypertensive Activity.
Vaquero MJ Abstract Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vallejo CV, Aredes Fernández PA, Farias ME, Rodríguez Vaquero MJ Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

New Mixes Based on Collagen Extracts with Bioactive Properties, for Treatment of Seeds in Sustainable Agriculture.
Abstract The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall h...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gaidau C, Niculescu M, Stepan E, Doru-Gabriel E, Gidea M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bixin Action in the Healing Process of Rats Mouth Wounds.
cute;gio AM Abstract Oral lesions that manifest as ulcer lesions are quite common and can cause discomfort to the patient. Searching for drugs to accelerate the healing of these lesions is nonstop process. Bixin is a molecule found in annatto (urucum) seeds and is considered a viable therapeutic option to treat such lesions due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and healing properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bixin solution in the ulcer healing process in the oral mucosa of rats. Ulcers were induced with punches of 0.5 cm in the middle of the dorsum of the tongue of 64...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 26, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Piva RM, Rodrigues Johann AC, Costa CK, Miguel OG, Rosa ER, de Azevedo-Alanis LR, Trevilatto PC, Ignácio SA, Cassi Bettega PV, Grégio AM Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Using the Glycoarray Technology in Biology and Medicine.
Abstract Glycoarrays are very useful tools to investigate the carbohydrate-protein interactions in high-throughput manner. Carbohydrates can be immobilized on the support surface by covalent or noncovalent binding. The biological and medical uses of glycoarrays were summarized herein. PMID: 24372229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huang G, Peng D, Chen X Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Efficient Expression and Purification of Recombinant Therapeutic Protein Candidates, Human Midkine and Pleiotrophin.
Abstract Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor that promotes cell growth, survival, and migration. Externally added midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction in the mouse. Preclinical testing of this protein is in progress. Externally added pleiotrophin, a member of the midkine protein family, promotes functional recovery after neural transplantation in rats. Thus, pleiotrophin is also a candidate therapeutic protein. Large amounts of these proteins were obtained by using the heterologous protein expression system of Pichia pastoris, and the recombinan...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Murasugi A Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Ultrasound and Microbubble Guided Drug Delivery: Mechanistic Understanding and Clinical Implications.
Abstract Ultrasound mediated drug delivery using microbubbles is a safe and noninvasive approach for spatially localized drug administration. This approach can create temporary and reversible openings on cellular membranes and vessel walls (a process called "sonoporation"), allowing for enhanced transport of therapeutic agents across these natural barriers. It is generally believed that the sonoporation process is highly associated with the energetic cavitation activities (volumetric expansion, contraction, fragmentation, and collapse) of the microbubble. However, a thorough understanding of the ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tzu-Yin W, Wilson KE, Machtaler S, Willmann JK Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Intraoperative Targeted Optical Imaging: A Guide towards Tumor-Free Margins in Cancer Surgery.
Abstract Over the last several decades, development of various imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography greatly facilitated the early detection of cancer. Another important aspect that is closely related to the survival of cancer patients is complete tumor removal during surgical resection. The major obstacle in achieving this goal is to distinguish between tumor tissue and normal tissue during surgery. Currently, tumor margins are typically assessed by visual assessment and palpation of the tumor intraoperatively. However, the possibility of micr...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Orbay H, Bean J, Zhang Y, Cai W Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Optical Image-Guided Cancer Therapy.
Abstract Optical molecular imaging holds great promise for image guiding cancer therapy. The non-invasive guidance of therapeutic strategies would enable the removal of cancerous tissue while avoiding side effects and systemic toxicity, preventing damage of healthy tissues and decreasing the risk of postoperative problems. This review article highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the optical imaging techniques that are currently available, including their recent applications in image-guided cancer therapy. Three approaches for optical image-guided cancer therapy were discussed in this review, namely, biol...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bu L, Ma X, Tu Y, Shen B, Cheng Z Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Clinical Applications of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Monitoring Anti-Cancer Therapies.
This article reviews the current status of monitoring anti-cancer therapies, including the evolution of evaluation criteria from the World Health Organization to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor and the PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumor. The advantages of 18F-FDG PET/CT for response evaluation are analyzed in various malignant tumors, and the pertinent weaknesses are discussed. Finally, several future directions in monitoring anti-cancer therapies are prospected. PMID: 24372234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wu P, Zhang Y, Sun Y, Shi X, Li F, Zhu Z Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Nanoparticle-Based Tumor Theranostics with Molecular Imaging.
Abstract The past few decades have brought on a dramatic change in the treatment of cancer; however, routine treatments fail to specifically clear tumorigenic cells and may be followed by cancer recurrence. Recent advances in developing multifunctional nanoparticles provide exciting new possibilities for drug delivery used in tumor-targeted therapy. Moreover, molecular imaging is an invaluable tool in evaluating new molecular targets, cancer diagnosis, predicting of tumor response to available therapies and monitoring response to therapy as well as developing new drugs prior to clinical translation. Combining of t...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang L, Wang Y, Li Z Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Guidance: Role of Mri And Mri Probes in the Era of Molecular Imaging.
Abstract MRI plays a unique role in cancer treatment from three perspectives: Firstly, MRI has superior soft tissue resolution, which makes it indispensible in delineating, staging and monitoring treatment efficacy for certain tumors; Secondly, several techniques which use real-time MRI to map such physiological parameters as temperature, water content or pH have been developed to guide course of anticancer therapies; Thirdly, different targeted probes or hybrid nanoparticles are being developed to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of tumor under guidance of MRI. In this review article, we will briefly review...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lu J, Feng F Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Tracers for Predicting and Monitoring Cancer Therapy.
Abstract Cancer is a lethal disease, and its therapy should be tailed to individual patients by functional imaging to optimize therapy strategies. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a quantitative functional imaging modality used by oncologists to monitor tumor response. SPECT can track therapy-induced biological and metabolic changes in tumors; such changes usually precede anatomical alterations. Assessment of treatment response using SPECT tracers may result in modifications in treatment planning and predicting the long-term outcome. These SPECT tracers can be classified into metabolism, cell ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cai J, Li F Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

PET Imaging to Monitor Cancer Therapy.
Abstract Improved knowledge and understanding of key aspects of cancer has led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics acting through complex pathways and mode of actions. The success of these novel cancer therapeutics is often difficult to predict using standard response criteria based on anatomic changes. Monitoring response to cancer therapy at molecular level using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has gained popularity in recent years. PET allows longitudinal assessment of specific biological processes rather than just changes in anatomic changes in tumor size. In this review, we provide an overview ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 25, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Malviya G, Nayak TK Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Endothelial Cell Targeted Molecular Imaging in Tumor Angiogenesis: Strategies and Current Status.
Abstract Angiogenesis plays crucial roles in tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of tumor neovasculature is a fundamental prerequisite for effective therapeutic intervention, particularly anti-angiogenic treatment regimens. Emerging molecular imaging techniques now allow recognition of cellular/molecular processes before gross pathological changes, leading to better understanding of fundamental biological processes of tumor angiogenesis. In this review, we will summarize recent progresses on molecular imaging of attractive biochemical epitopes in tumor angiogenesis, especially th...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - December 24, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xu Y, Zeng Y, Liu Y, Liu G, Ai H Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Time Recall; Future Concept of Chronomodulating Chemotherapy for Cancer.
Abstract The human metabolism is regulated by our internal clock; the circadian rhythm (24h-25h). There are several factors included in the regulatory pathway such as; genes (PER1-3), (CRY1-2),TIM hormones (cortisol, catecholamines, melatonin and insulin) drugs, enzymes, sleep disorders and diseases. Each one contributes in a different degree and in order to enhance the therapeutic result; we should include these factors into clusters instead of targeting each factor one by one. Malignances deregulate gene-protein expression/production, enzyme production, and in addition they induce fatigue, insomnia, stress and s...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - October 8, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zarogoulidis P, Darwiche K, Huang H, Spyratos D, Yarmus L, Li Q, Kakolyris S, Syrigos K, Zarogoulidis K Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Understanding Of and Possible Strategies to Avian Influenza Outbreak.
Abstract Swine flu and avian flu outbreaks have occurred in recent years in addition to seasonal flu. As mortality rate records are not available at the early stage of an outbreak, two parameters may be useful to assess the viral virulence: 1. the time required for the first domestic case in a newly involved region, and 2. the doubling time of new infected cases. Viral virulence is one of the most important factors in guiding short term and immediate responses. Although routine surveillance and repeated vaccination are useful efforts, some novel strategies that may be relevant to prevent and control the spread of ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - October 2, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shen J, Zhang A, Xu H, Sirois P, Zhang J, Li K Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Challenges and Opportunities for Bacterial Vaccine Development in the 21st Century.
Abstract With the convergence of modern technology in genomics, proteomics, carbohydrate, protein and lipid biochemistry as well as decades of experience in vaccine development and delivery of immunization programs, the Global Vaccine Action Plan has declared 2011 to 2020 as 'The Decade of Vaccines'. This review focuses on bacterial vaccines and summarises the current state of vaccinology in bacteriology and looks forward to the potential of how the newer technologies can impact our knowledge of bacterial diseases and their control through vaccine development. The major breakthroughs in the last couple of decades ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - October 2, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: R Duvvuri V, Barreto L, Wu J, S W Tsang R Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Target of Regulating the ATP-binding Cassette A1 Protein (ABCA1): Promoting ABCA1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux in Different Cells.
Abstract The ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter plays a major role in the efflux of lipids by mediating the cellular transport of phospholipids and cholesterol to lipid-poor/lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) particles and thereby exerting important anti-atherogenic effects. Although the mechanism whereby ABCA1 mediates cholesterol efflux is not completely understood, numerous studies have shown that, in addition to apoA-I, the expression level of the total or cell surface ABCA1 protein is a determining factor for the activity of ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, and defects in ABCA1-mediated cholest...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - September 5, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huang CX, Zhang YL Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Construction Technologies and Applications of Glycoarrays.
Abstract Carbohydrate arrays are powerful tools to analyze the carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in highthroughput mode. Many methods were used to immobilize carbohydrates on the support surface in the array format. The array-based technology was widely employed to analyze the properties of carbohydrates binding lectins and antibodies, quantitatively measure carbohydrate-protein interactions, detect cells and pathogens, identify disease-related anticarbohydrate antibodies for diagnosis, and fast assess substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review mainly summarized the construction methods of...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - September 5, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Huang G Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Molecular Delivery of Plasmids for Genetic Vaccination.
Abstract Plasmid vaccination is a smart gene delivery application mostly achieved through the utilisation of viral or copolymeric systems as surrogated carriers in micro or nano formulations. A common polymeric protocol for plasmid vaccine formulation, which as somewhat been successful, is via the complexation of the DNA molecules with a cationic polymer, and encapsulating in a vehicular carrier polymer. Even though plasmid vaccination research has not witnessed the much anticipated success, due a number of cellular and physicochemical reasons, application of copolymeric carriers with tight functionalities is a pr...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - September 5, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mazid R, X Tan M, K Danquah M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Edible Transgenic Plant Vaccines for Different Diseases.
Abstract Edible plant vaccines are immunogenic preparations containing antigenic proteins rather than pathogens, therefore, they sanctify situation where there is a possibility of resurgence of disease when the antigenic preparation contains the organism in any form whatsoever. Expression of antigens as vaccines and of antibodies against antigens of pathogens in transgenic plants is a convenient and inexpensive source for various bacterial, viral, helminths, protozoan and autoimmune diseases with lower capital costs. This review describes various diseases along with the production of edible transgenic plant vaccin...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - September 5, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jain A, Saini V, Veer Kohli D Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Pharmacological Activation of LXRs Decreases Amyloid-β Levels in Niemann-Pick Type C Model Cells.
Pharmacological Activation of LXRs Decreases Amyloid-β Levels in Niemann-Pick Type C Model Cells. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2013 Sep 5; Authors: Stefulja J, Perica M, Malnar M, Kosicek M, Schweinzer C, Zivkovic J, Scholler M, Panzenboeck U, Hecimovic S Abstract Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is an inherited disorder mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene, that lead to intracellular cholesterol accumulation and disturbed cholesterol homeostasis. Similarly to Alzheimer's disease (AD), NPC is associated with progressive neurodegeneration and altered metabolism of amyloid precursor p...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - September 5, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stefulja J, Perica M, Malnar M, Kosicek M, Schweinzer C, Zivkovic J, Scholler M, Panzenboeck U, Hecimovic S Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

A Neutralization scFv Antibody against IL-1β Isolated from a NIPA-based Bacterial Display Library.
Conclusions: In this study, it is the first time to use the NIPA-based bacteria display system to construct and screen the combinatorial scFv library. Three scFvs against hIL-1β were obtained from the scFv library of the immunized mice. Prokaryotically expressed and purified scFvs demonstrate binding ability with hIL-1β. Among the three clones, The MTT test suggests that scFv-20 is a neutralization antibody against hIL-1β. The study provides a lead candidate for further development of small molecule therapeutic antibodies for treatment of RA. PMID: 24016270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: C...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - September 5, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li T, Xu L, Ren G, Yin C, Zhou B, Ye X, Li Q, Li N, Li D Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metallothionein as a Therapeutic Molecular Target Against Human Diseases.
Abstract PMID: 23590146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 12, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Inoue KI, Satoh M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Surfactant and Varespladib Co-Administration in Stimulated Rat Alveolar Macrophages Culture.
Abstract Acute lung injury is a life-threating condition characterized by surfactant dysfunction and raised secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity. Varespladib is a sPLA2 inhibitor shown to be effective in animal models of acute lung injury. We aimed at investigating the effect of co-administration of surfactant and varespladib on sPLA2 activity. Alveolar macrophages were cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and then treated with either varespladib, surfactant, varespladib followed by surfactant or nothing. sPLA2 activity, free fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor-(TNF- ) and protein concentrations ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 12, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: De Luca D, Vendittelli F, Trias J, Fraser H, Minucci A, Gentile L, Perez-Gil J, Conti G, Antonelli M, Capoluongo ED Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Protective Role of Metallothionein in Chemical and Radiation Carcinogenesis.
Abstract Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight metal-binding protein induced by endogenous and exogenous stimuli such as cytokines and heavy metals. In 1993 and 1994, two research groups (Choo et al. and Palmiter et al., respectively) produced MT-I/II double-knockout mice (MT-I/II null mice) with null mutations of the MT-I and MT-II genes. Subsequently, MT-I/II null mice have been used to clarify the biological function, physiological role, and pathophysiological relevance of MT by many research groups. Recent studies using MT-I/II null mice to investigate the role of MT in metal toxicity and distribution...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fujiwara Y, Satoh M Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Potential Roles of Metallothionein as a Therapeutic Target for Cerebral Ischemia and Retinal Diseases.
Abstract Methallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight cysteine rich metalloprotein. In mammals, there are four isoforms (MT-1, -2, -3, and -4) and they have multiple roles, such as the detoxification of heavy metals, regulating essential metal homeostasis, and protecting against oxidative stress. Recently, accumulating studies have suggested that MTs (especially MT-1, -2, and -3) are an important neuroprotective substance for cerebral ischemia and retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), that are characterized by a progressive retinal degeneration. Oxidativ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ito Y, Tanaka H, Hara H Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Roles and Therapeutic Potential of Metallothioneinsin Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Metallothionein (MT) is a small molecular and multi-functional protein containing four atoms of copper (Cu) and three atoms of zinc (Zn) per molecule. It was isolated from the horse kidney in 1957 and half a century has passed since then. Although MT was found to work as a modulator of Zn and induce anti-oxidant reaction, the precise functions and its functional mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Over the years, a new isoform of MT, MT-III (also called growth inhibitory factor (GIF)), has been found in the brain, which was markedly diminished in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many new findings on...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hozumi I Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metallothionein as a Negative Regulator of Pulmonary Inflammation.
Abstract The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of metallothionein (MT) with research on its proposedfunctions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissuesby a number of physiological mediators through several response elements in the MT gene promoter. The cellular accumulationof MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates: 1) the binding and exchange/transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotectionfrom their toxicities, and 2) the re...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Inoue KI, Takano H Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Significance of Metallothionein Expression in Liver Disease.
Abstract Hepatic metallothionein (MT) expression, with various isoforms, and varying cellular localizations is a useful marker for clinico-pathogenesis of liver diseases. In acute liver toxicity caused by cadmium, carbon tetrachloride, or acetaminophen, MT plays a protective role, via the scavenging of radical species. In chronic hepatitis C patients, hepatic MT levels appear to be a biological factor associated with the severity of HCV infection, and are associated with a better response to IFN therapy. Transgenic mice that express HBsAg in the liver show hepatocellular damage, inflammation, regeneration, hyperpl...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nagamine T, Nakajima K Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Development of a High Sensitivity ELISA for the Assay of Metallothionein.
Abstract We have developed a competitive ELISA using a polyclonal antibody that showed specificity to both metallothionin (MT)-1 and MT-2 isoforms in human and animal specimens. The advantage of this ELISA depends on the characteristics of the polyclonal antibody. The NH2 terminal peptide of MT with acetylated methionine was shown to be the epitope of this antibody. The reactivity of this ELISA system with liver, kidney, and brain extracts worked very well for MT1,2 in wild type mice. Extracts of MT-3 knock-out mice also react well this ELISA, as expected, very low in MT 1,2 but in MT1/2 knock-out mice. Detection ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nagamine T, Nakajima K Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Obesity and Metallothionein.
Abstract The development of obesity consists of 3 distinct processes: differentiation of new adipocytes from precursor preadipocytic cells, formation of mature adipocytes, and excess accumulation of lipids in the adipocytes resulting in cell enlargement. This review aims to discuss the possible role of metallothionein (MT) in adipose tissue in the development of obesity. MT is induced in adipose tissue during the development of obesity. In addition, MT plays a preventive role against obesity in female mice. Although the detailed mechanism is presently unknown, one of the factors involved is the mesoderm-specific t...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sato M, Kawakami T, Kadota Y, Mori M, Suzuki S Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Polymeric Nanoparticles Enhance the Bioavailability of the Chemopreventive Agent SR13668 in Beagle Dogs.
In this study, we encapsulated SR13668 into polymeric nanoparticles to increase compound aqueous solubility and therefore bioavailability. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (100-200nm) encapsulating SR13668 with narrow size distribution and high drug loading were generated by a continuous and scalable process of flash nanoprecipitation integrated with spray dry. A single gavage dose of SR13668-PLGA nanoparticles at 2.8 mg/kg was administered in eight beagle dogs. Drug levels in animal whole blood and plasma were measured over 24 hours. Enhanced bioavailability of SR13668 using nanoparticles compared with f...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - April 11, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Banerjee AA, Shen H, Hautman M, Anwer J, Hong S, Kapetanovic IM, Lyubimov AV, Liu Y Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Potential of 11C-acetate PET for Monitoring the Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Tumors.
Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging modality that provides the opportunity to rapidly and non-invasively visualize tumors derived from multiple organs. In order to do so, PET utilizes radiotracers, such as 18F-FDG and 11C-acetate, whose uptake coincides with altered metabolic pathways within tumors. Increased expression and activity of enzymes in the fatty acid synthesis pathway is a frequent hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, this pathway has become a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Although multiple drugs have been developed that both directly and indirectly interfer...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - March 1, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Deford-Watts LM, Mintz A, Kridel SJ Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Measurements of Single Molecules in Solution and Live Cells Over Longer Observation Times Than Those Currently Possible: The Meaningful Time.
p Z Abstract Monitoring translational diffusion of single molecules in solution or in a living cell, particularly DNA and proteins brings valuable information unperturbed by interaction with an artificial surface. The article derives theoretical relationships for time intervals during which just one molecule in the effective probe region can be studied, the time we call meaningful time. This time is greater than the transit time of the molecule through the detection volume, as a single molecule will likely reenter the detection volume several times during measurement. From the infinitely stretched molecular Poisso...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - January 29, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Földes-Papp Z Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

FRET based Ratio-metric Sensing of Hyaluronidase in Synthetic Urine as a Biomarker for Bladder and Prostate Cancer.
In this report, we use a FRET based ratiometric sensing approach to detect the level of HA-ase in synthetic urine. For this, we have used a HA-FRET probe (hyaluronan) labeled with fluorescein as a donor and rhodamine as an acceptor. We monitor the digestion of our HA-FRET probe with different concentrations of HA-ase in synthetic urine via fluorescence emission. The extent to which FRET is released depends on the concentration of HA-ase.  Our fluorescence intensity results are also supported with time resolved fluorescence decay data. This assay can be used to develop a non-invasive technique for the detection of blad...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - January 9, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chib R, Raut S, Fudala R, Chang A, Mummert M, Rich R, Gryczynski Z, Gryczynski I Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Advancement in Infection Control of opportunistic Pathogen (Aspergillus spp.): Adjunctive agents.
Abstract There is continuous emergence of resistant strains which leads to urgent need to discover new antifungal agents. The investigation of adjunctive agents for antifungal activity might help to optimize the therapy for Invasive Aspergillosis (IA). The chelating agents Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) & Disodium salt of EDTA (DiEDTA) as adjunct to antifungal drugs have been investigated against 8 pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp. The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) found by DDA (Disc Diffusion Assay) is 7.50-15.0 µg/disc; by MDA (Microbroth Dilution Assay) is 30.0-49.13 µg/m...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - January 9, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ruhil S, Balhara M, Dhankhar S, Kumar M, Kumar V, Chhillar AK Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research