Perceptual Postural Imbalance and Visual Vertigo
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDisorders of posture and balance cause significant patient morbidity, with reduction of quality of life as patients refrain from critical activities of daily living such as walking outside the home and driving. This review describes recent efforts to characterize visual disorders that interact with the neural integrators of positional maintenance and emerging therapies for these disorders.Recent FindingsAbnormalities of gait and body position sense may be unrecognized by patients but are correlated with focal neurological injury (stroke). Patients with traumatic brain injury can exhibit visual vert...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Update on the Genetics of Spastic Paraplegias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHereditary spastic paraplegias are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. Patients present lower limb weakness and spasticity, complicated in complex forms by additional neurological signs. We review here the major steps toward understanding the molecular basis of these diseases made over the last 10  years.Recent FindingsOur perception of the intricate connections between clinical, genetic, and molecular aspects of neurodegenerative disorders has radically changed in recent years, thanks to improvements in genetic approaches. This is particularly true for hereditary spas...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurologic Complications of Sickle Cell Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSickle cell anemia is a multiorgan disease with acute and chronic complications. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This review highlights the broad spectrum of neurological complications seen in patients with sickle cell disease.Recent FindingsIncreasing recognition of neurological complications has led to improved diagnostic and treatment options throughout the years. Neurologic complications in sickle cell disease include silent cerebral ischemia, ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, moyamoya syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intractable Generalized Epilepsy: Therapeutic Approaches
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize recent developments in therapeutic options, both medical and surgical, for patients with drug-resistant generalized epilepsy syndromes, which continue to be a multifaceted challenge for patients and physicians.Recent FindingsNewer generation pharmaceutical options are now available, such as brivaracetam, rufinamide, lacosamide, perampanel, and cannabidiol. Less restrictive dietary options appear to be nearly as effective as classic ketogenic diet for amelioration of seizures. The latest implantable devices include responsive neurostimulation and deep brain stimulation. Corpus callosoto...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Cardiac Tumors
This article reviews recent literature regarding the neurological manifestations of cardiac tumors, including diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment.Recent FindingsClinical cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to cardiac tumors who were treated with intravenous alteplase show a favorable safety profile. Mechanical thrombectomy seems to be a reasonable treatment alternative for these patients, when there is a large vessel occlusion. Histopathology analysis of mechanical thrombectomy specimens may allow the diagnosis of a cardiac tumor. Prolonged time interval between stroke and tumor excision surgery is signi...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Should We Care About Early Post-Stroke Rehabilitation? Not Yet, but Soon
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudies in humans and animal models show that most recovery from impairment occurs in the first 1 –3 months after stroke as a result of both spontaneous recovery as well as increased responsiveness to enriched environments and training. Improvement from impairment is attributable to a short-lived “sensitive period” of post-stroke plasticity defined by unique genetic, physiological, and st ructural events. Unfortunately, rehabilitative interventions in humans have not been able to exploit this sensitive period similar to that seen in animal models. Here, we review these data a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurologic Complications of Fat Embolism Syndrome
This article reviews the history, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of FES with a focus on its neurologic aspects.Recent FindingsThe neurologic complications of FES are more commonly recognized with current diagnostic testing and increase awareness of the disorder. FES may present initially with neurologic manifestations. Prompt diagnosis of FES and of its neurologic manifestations could be lifesaving. This includes respiratory support and management of neurological complications.SummaryThe classic clinical triad of pulmonary insufficiency, neurologic disturbances, and petechial skin rash typical...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protean Neurologic Manifestations of Two Rare Dermatologic Disorders: Sweet Disease and Localized Craniofacial Scleroderma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe diverse neurologic and neuroradiologic presentations of two rare, immunologically mediated skin conditions: Sweet disease and localized scleroderma (morphea).Recent FindingsCore syndromes of neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) are steroid responsiveness, recurrent meningitis, and encephalitis. Focal neurologic, neuro-vascular, and neuro-ophthalmologic syndromes have been reported recently in NSD. A variety of steroid-sparing treatments and biologics have been used for relapsing NSD. Localized craniofacial scleroderma is associated with seizures, headaches, and, less commonly, focal deficits and c...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging in Functional Movement Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFunctional movement disorders are common and disabling causes of abnormal movement control. Here, we review the current state of the evidence on the use of neuroimaging in Functional movement disorders, particularly its role in helping to unravel the pathophysiology of this enigmatic condition.Recent FindingsIn recent years, there has been a shift in thinking about functional movement disorder, away from a focus on high-level psychological precipitants as in Freudian conversion theories, or even an implicit belief they are ‘put-on’ for secondary gain. New research has emphasised novel n...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Cardiological Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurological complications are common during cardiac procedures. The type of procedure influences the profile of neurological complications and their management. In this article, we review the different neurological complications encountered following cardiac procedures, and treatment strategies for managing those complications.Recent FindingsRecent clinical trials have expanded the time window of eligibility for mechanical thrombectomy and intravenous thrombolysis. As a result, more options are now available for the treatment of periprocedural strokes.SummaryEarly recognition of neurological compl...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unbiased Screens for Modifiers of Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe provide an overview about unbiased screens to identify modifiers of alpha-synuclein ( αSyn)-induced toxicity, present the models and the libraries that have been used for screening, and describe how hits from primary screens were selected and validated.Recent FindingsScreens can be classified as either genetic or chemical compound modifier screens, but a few screens do not fit this classification. Most screens addressing αSyn-induced toxicity, including genome-wide overexpressing and deletion, were performed in yeast. More recently, newer methods such as CRISPR-Cas9 became available ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurological Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest in the Era of Target Temperature Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this study is to provide an updated review on neurological prognostication in comatose patients after cardiac arrest in light of current targeted temperature management (TTM) strategies.Recent FindingsWith improved pre-hospital and hospital care, death due to cardiac arrest is decreasing. Yet, most survivors have poor neurological outcomes. While TTM has demonstrated to improve neurological outcomes, it may cloud our prognostic accuracy. A multimodal approach is currently used to diminish prognostic uncertainty.SummaryThe neurological examination remains the mainstay for prognosis af...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Movement Disorders in Metabolic Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe provide a review of the movement disorders that complicate selected metabolic disorders, including the abnormal movements that may appear during or after their treatment.Recent FindingsMovement disorders may be underrecognized when arising in the context of a broad range of metabolic disorders.SummaryAbnormal movements may occur as the initial manifestation of a systemic disease, at any time during its course, or as a result of the medical interventions required for its management. Ascertaining movement phenomenology in acute and subacute presentations may assist in the determination of the spec...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep Complaints, Sleep and Breathing Disorders in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo update the current knowledge concerning sleep complaints and breathing disorders in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) and to better understand if sleep and breathing symptoms may add a further clinical definition of DM2.Recent FindingsAlthough DM2 has been poorly evaluated, the most relevant sleep disorders are sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) (37.5 –66.7%) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) (50–60%). Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is not consistent with SDB, and a large percentage of patients with sleep complaints (58–69%) report pain. In addition, respiratory dysfunctions are...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Promoting Brain Repair and Regeneration After Stroke: a Plea for Cell-Based Therapies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAfter decades of hype, cell-based therapies are emerging into the clinical arena for the purposes of promoting recovery after stroke. In this review, we discuss the most recent science behind the role of cell-based therapies in ischemic stroke and the efforts to translate these therapies into human clinical trials.Recent FindingsPreclinical data support numerous beneficial effects of cell-based therapies in both small and large animal models of ischemic stroke. These benefits are driven by multifaceted mechanisms promoting brain repair through immunomodulation, trophic support, circuit reorganizati...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Research in the Acute Rehabilitation Setting: a Bridge Too Far?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to critically examine the challenges to clinical practice in acute neurorehabilitation settings to provide evidence-based recommendations for conducting research on neurologic recovery.Recent FindingsRecent changes in health care have dramatically challenged post-acute care by reducing the length of stay and increasing transitions in care with resulting loss of continuity of care and follow-up. These challenges hinder research and undermine progress in neurorehabilitation.SummaryBased on recent evidence, a hub and spoke model is proposed to bridge and facilitate continuity...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Therapeutic Hypothermia in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
In conclusion, recent studies suggest that current protocols for therapeutic hypothermia are near-optimal, and that the key to better neurodevelopmental outcomes is earlier diagnosis and initiation of hypothermia after birth. Further research is essential to find and evaluate ways to further improve outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, including add-on therapies for therapeutic hypothermia and preventing pyrexia during labor and delivery. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CSF Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Synucleinopathies: Focus on Idiopathic RBD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is one of the most significant prodromal manifestations of synucleinopathies. Different predictive biomarkers for iRBD conversion have been investigated, but scarce data are present in literature about the predictive role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. In this review, we focus on CSF biomarkers in patients with both iRBD and RBD associated with synucleinopathies to explore their potential predictive power.Recent FindingsRecent studies revealed that CSF α-synuclein levels are higher in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with RBD comp...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Defining Cognitive Reserve and Implications for Cognitive Aging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to summarize current conceptual models of cognitive reserve (CR) and related concepts and to discuss evidence for these concepts within the context of aging and Alzheimer ’s disease.Recent FindingsEvidence to date supports the notion that higher levels of CR, as measured by proxy variables reflective of lifetime experiences, are associated with better cognitive performance, and with a reduced risk of incident mild cognitive impairment/dementia. However, the impact of CR on longitudinal cognitive trajectories is unclear and may be influenced by a number of factors. Al...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Untangling PTSD and TBI: Challenges and Strategies in Clinical Care and Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTraumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can result from similar injuries and can result in similar symptoms, such as problems with sleep, concentration, memory, and mood. Although PTSD and persistent sequelae due to a TBI (PST) have generally been viewed as pragmatically confounded but conceptually separable entities, we examine emerging evidence emphasizing the breadth of overlap in both clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology between PST and PTSD.Recent FindingsNew evidence underscores the poor specificity of symptoms to etiology and emphasizes the pote...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relation Between Stress Granules and Cytoplasmic Protein Aggregates Linked to Neurodegenerative Diseases
AbstractᅟA hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of cytoplasmic protein aggregates in neurons of affected subjects. Among recently identified elements of these aggregates are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) involved in RNA metabolism and alternative splicing and have in common the presence of low complexity domains (LCD) that are prone to self-assemble and form aggregates. The mechanism of cytoplasmic protein aggregation remains elusive. Stress granules (SGs) that are micrometric RNA-protein assemblies located in the cytoplasm of cells exposed to environmental stress are suspected to play the role of see...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Precision Medicine Approach to Cerebral Edema and Intracranial Hypertension after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Quo Vadis?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStandard clinical protocols for treating cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension after severe TBI have remained remarkably similar over decades. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are treated interchangeably when in fact intracranial pressure (ICP) is a proxy for cerebral edema but also other processes such as extent of mass lesions, hydrocephalus, or cerebral blood volume. A complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms results in cerebral edema after severe TBI, and these are not measured or targeted by current clinically available tools. Addressing these underpinnings may be ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic Factors in Pediatric Sport-Related Concussion
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSport-related concussion (SRC) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been thrust into the national spotlight, with youth athletes bearing the burden of this public health problem. The current review aims to provide a practical summary of pediatric SRC, including key terminology, return to play/school, and risk factors for post-concussion syndrome (PCS).Recent FindingsWhile the majority of youth athletes recover within 2 to 4  weeks, approximately 10% of athletes experience a protracted recovery with symptoms lasting months, impacting social, scholastic, and sporting activities.SummaryIn ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparative Sleep Disturbances in Myotonic Dystrophy Types 1 and 2
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo update current knowledge regarding sleep disturbances and myotonic dystrophies so as to better understand if sleep symptoms may help in the early recognition of the two genetic subtypes: myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2).Recent FindingsSleep-disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, hypersomnia, and REM sleep dysregulation are frequently described in DM1 patients. SDB does not always explain hypersomnia, but a central dysregulation of sleep –wake modulation is reported mainly in DM1. Sleep apnea, restless legs sy...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Management of Episodic Migraine in Children and Adolescents: a Practical Approach
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEpisodic migraine is very common in children and adolescents, seen by primary care and specialists. In kids, this can greatly affect quality of life, including significant disability, specifically in terms of missed school and other activities. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the most up-to-date thoughts on episodic migraine in the pediatric population.Recent FindingsCurrent options for both abortive and preventative treatments in kids, as well as specific non-pharmacological and lifestyle management recommendations for children, will be reviewed, as well as options for status migr...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Stroke
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe interest in SSRIs after stroke has increased in the past few years, with better knowledge of post-stroke depression and with the demonstrated capacity of some SSRIs to act on the functional recovery of non-depressed subjects.Recent FindingsArguments for the action of SSRIs in favour of post-stroke neurological function recovery have improved through new elements: basic science and preclinical data, positive clinical trials and repeated series of stroke patient meta-analysis, and confirmation of favourable safety conditions in post-stroke patients.SummaryGlobal coherence is appearing, showing th...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Management of Blunt Cerebrovascular Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an updated summary of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) to guide clinicians in its early diagnosis and prevention and treatment of stroke associated with such injury.Recent FindingsUntreated BCVI causes stroke in 10 –40% of patients, but more than half will not present with stroke symptoms initially. Risk of stroke is highest in the first 7 days, with a peak in the first 24 h. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently the screening modality of choice, although digital subtraction angiography may sti ll be required in some cases. Antithrombotic therapy ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebral Microdialysis in Neurocritical Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA major goal in neurocritical care is to monitor for and prevent secondary brain injuries. However, injuries occurring at the cellular and molecular levels evade detection by conventional hemodynamic monitoring and the neurological exam. Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) is an invasive means of providing nearly continuous measurements of cerebral metabolism and is a promising tool that can detect signs of cellular distress before systemic manifestations of intracranial catastrophe.Recent FindingsIn this review, we describe the technique of CMD and the common biomarkers used to monitor cerebral energy me...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Upper Extremity Motor Recovery: Does It Help?
This article provides an overview of basic mechanisms of rTMS, consideration of its interaction with various forms of neuroplasticity, and a summary of the highest quality clinical evidence for rTMS given early after stroke.Recent FindingsStudies of repetitive magnetic stimulation in vitro and in vivo have found modulation of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and induction of cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity. A handful of clinical studies have shown sustained improvements in grip strength and UE motor impairment when rTMS is delivered in the first weeks after stroke.SummaryThough in its infancy, recent r...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overview of Neurovascular Physiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurophysiology is a complex network of cellular, electrical, and vascular systems which function to maximize neuronal functioning and brain performance. The brain exists in a closed system made up of parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood with any increase in volume leading to a corresponding decrease in one of the components. Once these compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, there is a precipitous increase in the intracranial pressure leading to decreases in cerebral perfusion and resulting ischemia. The cerebral vasculature has significant control over the total volume of blood and regional ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Principles of OCTA and Applications in Clinical Neurology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe article reviews the recent findings on the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in neurology.Recent FindingsOCTA is a new addition to the powerful and complementary technology of the OCT. Due to its noninvasiveness, and reproducibility, it is possible to obtain high-resolution 3D images of the vessels of the human eye. As the vessels of the retina with the presence of endothelial cell ’s tight junctions resemble the brain vessels, it was hypothesized that the imaging of the retinal vessels might bring insight into brain vessels. OCTA has been effectively used to predict ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Disorders Affecting Sociability: Recent Research Advances and Future Directions in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarize current knowledge and hypotheses on the nature of social abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS).Recent FindingsSocial phenotypes in ASD and WS appear to reflect analogous disruptions insocial cognition, and distinct patterns ofsocial motivation, which appears to be reduced in ASD and enhanced in WS. These abnormalities likely originate from heterogeneous vulnerabilities that disrupt the interplay between domain-general and social domain-specific cognitive and motivational processes during early development. Causal pathways remain uncl...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hereditary Motor Neuropathies and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a Molecular and Clinical Update
This article provides an overview of recent advancements in the fields of hereditary motor neuropathies and ALS.Recent FindingsThere has been a robust growth in our knowledge and understanding of hereditary and degenerative motor neuronopathies/neuropathies over the last decade. Many breakthroughs in the field of hereditary motor neuropathies (HMN) have been associated with identification and characterization of the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders. Similar recent breakthroughs on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of the degenerative motor neuronopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ha...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hemicrania Continua: a Clinical Perspective on Diagnosis and Management
This article aims to review the recent research on the diagnosis and clinical management of this potentially underdiagnosed primary headache disorder. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke: Unresolved Issues
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarises the results of randomised trials comparing closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with antithrombotic therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke.Recent FindingsInitially, three randomised trials failed to show superiority of PFO closure over antithrombotic therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Three recently performed trials and the prolongation of an earlier trial provided evidence that PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke and an age range of 18 –60 years is superior to stroke prevention with antiplatelet therapy. PFO closure was not superior to ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interaction Between Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Cognitive Performance in Parkinson ’s Disease: What Do Clinical and Neuroimaging Studies Tell Us?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParkinson ’s disease was studied for a long time from the prism of a motor impairment. Recent advances have outlined the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in the PD equation. This review concentrates on the present possibilities of using neuroimaging techniques in order to quantify the cognitive performance and NPS in PD patients.Recent FindingsMild cognitive impairment as well as many NPS have been acknowledged as important criteria for assessing the quality of life in patients with Parkinson ’s disease and have been shown as potential factors in predicting fu...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aphasia Recovery: When, How and Who to Treat?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe now know that speech and language therapy (SALT) is effective in the rehabilitation of aphasia; however, there remains much individual variability in the response to interventions. So, what works for whom, when and how?Recent FindingsThis review evaluates the current evidence for the efficacy of predominantly impairment-focused aphasia interventions with respect to optimal dose, intensity, timing and distribution or spacing of treatment. We conclude that sufficient dose of treatment is required to enable clinical gains and that e-therapies are a promising and practical way to achieve this goal. ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic Considerations with the Use of Antiepileptic Drugs in Patients with HIV and Organ Transplants
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAntiepileptic drugs are frequently administered to patients with HIV infection or in recipients of organ transplants. The potentially serious drug-drug interactions between the “classic” antiepileptic drugs, antiretrovirals, and immunosuppressants have been extensively studied. Evidence-based information on the second and third generation of antiepileptic drugs is almost non-existent. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pharmacokinetic profile of these newer a gents to assess their potential for drug interactions with antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants.Recent FindingsAs a g...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Impact of Interictal Discharges on Performance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOur purpose is to review evidence relating to the concept that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) impair brain performance.Recent FindingsSophisticated measures of motor and cognitive performance have clarified older observations, confirming that in both animals and humans, IEDs affect aspects of performance, IED morphology, frequency, anatomical distribution, and duration matter. However, we now know that it is difficult to draw a line between IEDs and seizures, not only by electrical criteria but even by metabolic and molecular measures.SummaryIEDs impair performance acutely and probably c...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Tau Imaging in Parkinsonian Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDifferential diagnosis of atypical Parkinson syndromes (APS) is difficult as clinical presentations may vary and as there is a strong overlap between disease entities. Aggregations of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are the common denominator of many of these diseases.Recent FindingsSeveral tau targeting positron emission tomography (PET) tracers have been evaluated as possible biomarkers in APS in the recent years. For Parkinson ’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration, promising results have been reported with regard...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Wearable Sensors to Monitor, Enable Feedback, and Measure Outcomes of Activity and Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMeasurements obtained during real-world activity by wearable motion sensors may contribute more naturalistic accounts of clinically meaningful changes in impairment, activity, and participation during neurologic rehabilitation, but obstacles persist. Here we review the basics of wearable sensors, the use of existing systems for neurological and rehabilitation applications and their limitations, and strategies for future use.Recent FindingsCommercial activity-recognition software and wearable motion sensors for community monitoring primarily calculate steps and sedentary time. Accuracy declines as w...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel Imaging Biomarkers for Huntington ’s Disease and Other Hereditary Choreas
This article will review the most recent concepts and findings in the field of neuroimaging applied to Huntington ’s disease and Huntington-like syndromes. Emphasis will be given to the discussion of potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for clinical trials in Huntington’s disease (HD) and of neuroimaging tools that can be used as diagnostic biomarkers in HD-like syndromes.Recent FindingsSeveral magnetic resonance (MR) and positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging tools have been identified as potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers and others are in the pipeline after preclinical validation. MRI and18F-...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Identify Parkinson ’s Disease-Relevant Phenotypes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting older individuals. The specific cause underlying dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss in the substantia nigra, a pathological hallmark of PD, remains elusive. Here, we highlight peer-reviewed reports using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to model PD in vitro and discuss the potential disease-relevant phenotypes that may lead to a better understanding of PD etiology. Benefits of iPSCs are that they retain the genetic background of the donor individual and can be differentiated into specialized neurons to f...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Septic Encephalopathy
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo discuss the diagnostic approach to patients with septic encephalopathy as well as the need for specific neuro-monitoring and the perspectives on future therapeutic approaches in this setting.Recent FindingsMost of data-concern experimental studies evaluating the pathophysiology of septic encephalopathy. A combination of neurodegenerative pathways with neurovascular injury is the cornerstone for the development of such complication and the long-term neurological sequelae among survivors.SummarySeptic encephalopathy is a common complication in septic patients. Clinical presentation may range f...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Longitudinal Progression Markers of Parkinson ’s Disease: Current View on Structural Imaging
This article reviews recent progress in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tools to track disease progression in PD, and discusses specific criteria a neuroimaging tool needs to meet to be a progression biomarker of PD and the potential applications of these tech niques in PD based on current evidence.Recent FindingsRecent longitudinal studies showed that quantitative structural MRI markers derived from T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, neuromelanin-sensitive, and iron-sensitive imaging have the potential to track disease progression in PD. However, validation of these progression biomarkers is only beginning, and ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Septic Encephalopathy
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo discuss the diagnostic approach to patients with septic encephalopathy as well as the need for specific neuro-monitoring and the perspectives on future therapeutic approaches in this setting.Recent FindingsMost of data-concern experimental studies evaluating the pathophysiology of septic encephalopathy. A combination of neurodegenerative pathways with neurovascular injury is the cornerstone for the development of such complication and the long-term neurological sequelae among survivors.SummarySeptic encephalopathy is a common complication in septic patients. Clinical presentation may range f...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Longitudinal Progression Markers of Parkinson ’s Disease: Current View on Structural Imaging
This article reviews recent progress in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tools to track disease progression in PD, and discusses specific criteria a neuroimaging tool needs to meet to be a progression biomarker of PD and the potential applications of these tech niques in PD based on current evidence.Recent FindingsRecent longitudinal studies showed that quantitative structural MRI markers derived from T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, neuromelanin-sensitive, and iron-sensitive imaging have the potential to track disease progression in PD. However, validation of these progression biomarkers is only beginning, and ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: Intervention or Best Medical Therapy?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProvide a current overview regarding the optimal strategy for managing patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.Recent FindingsCarotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) reduce long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. However, CAS is associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural stroke. Improvements in best medical therapy (BMT) have renewed uncertainty regarding the extent to which results from older randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing outcomes following carotid intervention can be generalised to modern medical practise.Summary‘Average surgic...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a growing body of evidence indicating the gut microbiota influence neurodevelopment and behavior. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of studies analyzing the microbiota and their metabolites in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to discuss the possible mechanisms of action involved in microbial influence on the brain and behavior.Recent FindingsThe microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis has been extensively studied in animal models, and it is clear that alterations in the composition of microbiota alter neurological and behavioral outcomes. However, findings in human studies ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research