Digital Technology in Movement Disorders: Updates, Applications, and Challenges
This article reviews recent literature on the application of digital technology in movement disorders, with a focus on Parkinson ’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease.Recent FindingsRecent research has demonstrated the ability for digital technology to discriminate between individuals with and without PD, identify those at high risk for PD, quantify specific motor features, predict clinical events in PD, inform clinical management, and generate novel insights.SummaryDigital technology has enormous potential to transform clinical research and care in movement disorders. However, more work is needed to better ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Challenges and Controversies in the Genetic Diagnosis of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of disorders characterised by progressive lower limb weakness and spasticity. We address the challenges and controversies involved in the genetic diagnosis of HSP.Recent FindingsThere is a large and rapidly expanding list of genes implicated in HSP, making it difficult to keep gene testing panels updated. There is also a high degree of phenotypic overlap between HSP and other disorders, leading to problems in choosing the right panel to analyse. We discuss genetic testing strategies for overcoming these diagnostic hurdles, including the use of t...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Telehealth in Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Care and Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe COVID-19 pandemic has provided us with a unique opportunity to experiment with telehealth and evaluate its benefits and limitations. This review discusses the impact of telehealth on multiple sclerosis (MS) care and research in adults and children.Recent FindingsTelehealth visits for MS patients have been shown to reduce missed workdays and costs for patients. Brief telephone-based counseling may be associated with better adherence to disease-modifying therapy, although results of multiple home-based tele-rehabilitation for people with MS have been equivocal. Overall, patients and providers hav...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic ataxias: update on classification and diagnostic approaches
AbstractAtaxia encompasses a large group of rare disorders characterized by irregular movements, decreased coordination, imbalance, kinetic tremor, wide-based stance, and dysarthria. Evaluating ataxia can be challenging considering the volume of disorders and their complex pathologies involving diverse genetic and clinical factors. This is a comprehensive review of the genetic ataxia literature, presenting updated guidelines for differential diagnosis. Age, time course, and family history provide initial guidance for evaluation of ataxia. As genetic testing is increasingly utilized, new genes are discovered and phenotypes ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frameworks for Parkinson ’s Disease Rehabilitation Addressing When, What, and How
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the evidence on rehabilitation for people with Parkinson ’s disease, including when to refer, what rehabilitation professionals should address, and how to deliver rehabilitation care.Recent FindingsClinical practice guidelines support physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology for Parkinson ’s disease. However, integrating guidelines into practice may be difficult. Implementation studies take into account patient and clinician perspectives. Synthesizing guidelines with implementation research can improve local delivery.SummaryThere is mo...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Huntington ’s Disease: New Frontiers in Therapeutics
This article describes and discusses new potential disease-modifying therapies for Huntington ’s disease that are currently in human clinical trials as well as promising new therapies in preclinical development.Recent FindingsMultiple potential disease-modifying therapeutics for HD are in active development, including direct DNA/gene therapies, RNA modulation, and therapies targeted at aberrant downstream pathways.SummaryThe etiology of Huntington ’s disease (HD) is well-known as an abnormally expanded trinucleotide repeat within the huntingtin gene. However, the pathogenesis downstream of the mutant huntingtin...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review discusses the peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Recent FindingsNerve pain and skeletal muscle injury, Guillain-Barr é syndrome, cranial polyneuritis, neuromuscular junction disorders, neuro-ophthalmological disorders, neurosensory hearing loss, and dysautonomia have been reported as PNS manifestations in patients with COVID-19.SummarySevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19. COVID-19 has shown syndromic complexity. Not only does SARS-CoV-2 affect the central nervous system ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Brain: a Focus on Gray and White Matter Structure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObstructive sleep apnea is extremely prevalent in the elderly and may precipitate dementia. We review recent advances on gray and white matter structure in obstructive sleep apnea, the impact of treatment, and potential pathological and neurodegenerative processes underlying brain structural changes.Recent FindingsTwo opposite patterns are observed in neuroimaging studies of obstructive sleep apnea. One may indicate cellular damage (gray matter atrophy, higher white matter hyperintensity burden, lower white matter fractional anisotropy, higher water diffusivities), while the other (gray matter hype...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic Dystonias: Update on Classification and New Genetic Discoveries
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSince the advent of next-generation sequencing, the number of genes associated with dystonia has been growing exponentially. We provide here a comprehensive review of the latest genetic discoveries in the field of dystonia and discuss how the growing knowledge of biology underlying monogenic dystonias may influence and challenge current classification systems.Recent FindingsPathogenic variants in genes without previously confirmed roles in human disease have been identified in subjects affected by isolated or combined dystonia (KMT2B,VPS16,HPCA,KCTD17,DNAJC12,SLC18A2) and complex dystonia (SQSTM1,I...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Primary Progressive Aphasia: Toward a Pathophysiological Synthesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe term primary progressive aphasia (PPA) refers to a diverse group of dementias that present with prominent and early problems with speech and language. They present considerable challenges to clinicians and researchers.Recent FindingsHere, we review critical issues around diagnosis of the three major PPA variants (semantic variant PPA, nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA, logopenic variant PPA), as well as considering ‘fragmentary’ syndromes. We next consider issues around assessing disease stage, before discussing physiological phenotyping of proteinopathies across the PPA spectrum. We...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Challenges and Opportunities in Multimodal Monitoring and Data Analytics in Traumatic Brain Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIncreasingly sophisticated systems for monitoring the brain have led to an increase in the use of multimodality monitoring (MMM) to detect secondary brain injuries before irreversible damage occurs after brain trauma. This review examines the challenges and opportunities associated with MMM in this population.Recent FindingsLocally and internationally, the use of MMM varies. Practical challenges include difficulties with data acquisition, curation, and harmonization with other data sources limiting collaboration. However, efforts toward integration of MMM data, advancements in data science, and the...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Palliative Care in Movement Disorders: an Evolving Field
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the current state of evidence for palliative care (PC) in movement disorders, describes the application of PC to clinical practice, and suggests future research directions.Recent FindingsPC needs are common in persons living with movement disorders and their families from the time of diagnosis through end-of-life and contribute to quality of life. Early advance care planning is preferred by patients, impacts outcomes and is promoted by PC frameworks. Systematic assessment of non-motor symptoms, psychosocial needs and spiritual/existential distress may address gaps in current ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early-Onset Alzheimer ’s Disease: What Is Missing in Research?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEarly-onset Alzheimer ’s disease (EOAD), defined as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) occurring before age 65, is significantly less well studied than the late-onset form (LOAD) despite EOAD often presenting with a more aggressive disease progression. The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the eti ology of EOAD, their translation into clinical practice, and to suggest steps to be taken to move our understanding forward.Recent FindingsEOAD cases make up 5 –10% of AD cases but only 10–15% of these cases show known mutations in theAPP,PSEN1, andPSEN2, which ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immune-Mediated Disorders Affecting the Spinal Cord and the Spine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the most recent advances and provide a description of the most common autoimmune diseases causing myelitis and selective spine disorders. The ultimate goal of this article is to facilitate the prompt recognition of these diseases.Recent FindingsThe recent discovery of biomarkers such as aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies has changed our understanding of autoimmune diseases affecting the spinal cord as well as their treatment and outcomes.SummaryAutoimmune neurology is an increasingly evolving field that encompasses a broad spectrum of autoimmune-in...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Locus Coeruleus Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neurological Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLocus coeruleus (LC) is the main noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, and its degeneration is considered to be key in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In the last 15 years,MRI has been used to assess LC in vivo, both in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the main findings of LC-MRI studies, interpreting them in light of preclinical and histopathological data, and discussing its potential role as diagnostic and experimental tool.Recent findingsLC-MRI findings were largely in agreement with neuropathological evidences; LC...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - December 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Porphyric Neuropathy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Updated Management
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-020-01089-5 (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - December 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Central Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19
The original version contained incorrect formatting of Dr. Napolis. His first name should be Mario and his last name should be Di Napoli. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Olfactory Testing in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlfactory testing is a potentially safe, cost-effective, bedside evaluation tool for diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment for surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, but testing methods and relevant olfactory domains are not standardized. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate olfactory tests in TLE and summarize the results of the literature.Recent FindingsOlfactory tests varied significantly in odorant administration tools and devices, target odorants, evaluation timing, and grading scales. The Smell Threshold Test and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test wer...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Relation of Diabetes to Memory Function
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch has consistently shown that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of all-cause dementia. Because one of the most common clinical presentations of early stage dementia is memory impairment, we examined the relationship of T2D with memory function, using the recently published scientific literature.Recent FindingsWe conducted a structured review to identify studies of “T2D and memory” published since 2015. After review of the 129 articles retrieved, we identified 14 studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among the eight studies with a single asses...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Surgical Management of Trauma-Related Intracranial Hemorrhage —a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe surgical management of trauma-related intracranial hemorrhage is characterized by marked heterogeneity. Large prospective randomized trials have generally been prohibited by the ubiquity of concordant pathology, diversity of trauma systems, and paucity of clinical equipoise among providers.Recent FindingsTo date, the results of retrospective studies and surgeon preference have driven the indications, modality, extent, and timing of surgical intervention in the global neurosurgical community.SummaryWith advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic TBI and the advent of nov...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Practical Overview on the Molecular Biology of Meningioma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMeningioma is a common intracranial neoplasm currently classified in 15 histologic subtypes across 3 grades of malignancy. First-choice therapy for meningioma is maximum safe resection for grade I tumors, and surgery plus optional and mandatory adjuvant radiotherapy for grade II and III, respectively, given the increased rate of recurrence even in the event of complete resection. The WHO 2016 histopathologic grading of meningioma has been questioned due to subjectivity and its controversial predictive power for recurrence.Recent FindingsNovel DNA methylation profiling has simplified classification ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Post-stroke Dysphagia: Recent Insights and Unanswered Questions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe explored themes in recent post-stroke dysphagia literature, focusing on the following questions: (1) What does post-stroke dysphagia look like?; (2) Who gets post-stroke dysphagia?; (3) What are the consequences of post-stroke dysphagia?; and (4) How can we improve treatment of post-stroke dysphagia?Recent FindingsThere have been several improvements in quantitative descriptions of swallowing physiology using standard and new evaluation techniques. These descriptions have been correlated with lesion locations, and several factors can predict development of post-stroke dysphagia and its sequelae....
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - November 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Central Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health crisis of our time. The disease arises from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on host cells for its internalization. COVID-19 has a wide range of respiratory symptoms from mild to severe and affects several other organs, increasing the complexity of the treatment. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can target the nervous system. In this review, we provide an account of the COVID-19 central nervous system (CNS) manifestations....
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Treatment of Epilepsy Associated with Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia
This article reviews recent studies that help understanding the epileptogenicity and potential therapeutic options in PNH.Recent FindingsNew noninvasive diagnostic and intracerebral EEG analytic tools demonstrated that cortical hyperexcitability and aberrant connectivity (between nodules and cortices and among nodules) are likely mechanisms causing epilepsy in most patients. The deeply seated PNH, if epileptogenic, are ideal target for stereotactic ablative techniques, which offer concomitant ablation of multiple regions with relatively satisfactory seizure outcome.SummaryAdvance in diagnostic and analytic tools have enhan...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Regulation of Cerebral Spinal Fluid Flow and Its Relevance to the Glymphatic System
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe glymphatic system is a relatively new concept that has been associated with regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as brain waste clearance. Novel techniques to study glymphatic dysfunction have in turn prompted a reassessment of brain physiology and underlying elements of neurological disease. This review incorporates a contemporary imaging perspective focused on understanding the regulation of CSF flow, thus expanding the putative clinical relevance of this system and the relationships between CSF flow and glymphatic function.Recent FindingsMR imaging studies, especially those that ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Psychosis in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the incidence, treatment and genetics of psychosis in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD).Recent FindingsPsychosis in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) has an incidence of ~ 10% per year. There is limited evidence regarding psychological interventions. Pharmacological management has focused on atypical antipsychotics, balancing modest benefits with evidence of long-term harms. The 5HT2A inverse agonist pimavanserin appears to co nfer benefit in PD psychosis with initial evidence of benefit in AD. Cholinesterase inhibitors give modest benefi...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Porphyric Neuropathy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Updated Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the peripheral neurological complications of the acute hepatic porphyrias, as well as the latest advances in their pathophysiology and management.Recent FindingsThe diagnosis of porphyric neuropathy remains challenging as varying neuropathic patterns are encountered depending on disease stage, including a non-length-dependent distribution pattern. The major pathophysiologic mechanism is δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)–induced neurotoxicity. The less restrictive blood-nerve barrier in the autonomic ganglia and myenteric plexus may explain the frequency of dysautonomic manifestation...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep-Wake Control by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) Neurons: a Review of Recent Findings
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewMelanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) –expressing neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus are considered as an integral component of sleep-wake circuitry. However, the precise role of MCH neurons in sleep-wake regulation has remained unclear, despite several years of research employing a wide range of techniques. We review recent data on this aspect, which are mostly inconsistent, and propose a novel role for MCH neurons in sleep regulation.Recent FindingsWhile almost all studies using “gain-of-function” approaches show an increase in rapid eye movement sleep (or paradoxical...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Blood-Based Biomarkers of Remote Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent among service members and Veterans (SMVs) and associated with changes in blood-based biomarkers. This manuscript reviews candidate biomarkers months/years following military-associated TBI.Recent FindingsSeveral blood-based biomarkers have been investigated for diagnostic or prognostic use to inform care years after military-associated TBI. The most promising include increased levels of plasma/serum and exosomal proteins reflecting neuronal, axonal and/or vascular injury, and inflammation, as well as altered microRNA expression and auto-antibodies of...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Post-Traumatic Headache in Children and Adolescents: a Narrative Review with a Focus on Management
This article aims to review pediatric PTH, its epidemiology and pathophysiology with a focus on management and future directions.Recent FindingsUsing MEDLINE, EMBASE, 52 articles on PTH in children and adolescents from 2016 to 2020 were identified. Over the last 4  years, our understanding of traumatic brain injury pathophysiology has grown, expanding the potential for more therapeutic targets. Despite this achievement, and recently published consensus guidelines, the review demonstrated a lack of published controlled trials to help guide management of pedia tric PTH.SummaryThe last 4  years have provided new ins...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Advocacy in Headache Medicine: Tips at the Bedside, the Institutional Level, and Beyond
We describe the pervasiveness of headache diseases across the globe and the need for healthcare advocacy, define healthcare advocacy, and identify how providers can incorporate healthcare advocacy into clinical practice and beyond.Recent FindingsNearly 3 billion people across the globe experience migraine or tension-type headache, yet headache diseases receive a fraction of the funding that is allocated to other diseases. Despite its prevalence, those with headache diseases, especially migraine, experience external and internal stigma. As physicians, our job extends past the direct needs of the patient and must also focus ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Retinal Diseases that Can Masquerade as Neurological Causes of Vision Loss
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to discuss retinal diseases that may masquerade as neurological causes of vision loss and highlights modern ophthalmic ancillary testing that can help to establish these diagnoses.Recent FindingsRetinal diseases with signs and symptoms overlapping with neurological causes of vision loss include central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal ischemia, acute macular neuroretinopathy, Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) complex diseases, paraneoplastic retinopathy, retinal dystrophy, and toxic retinopathy. Diagnosis is facilitated by electrophysiologic studies and multimodal ophth...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Practical Approach to Imaging of the Supplementary Motor Area and Its Subcortical Connections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFirst, an anatomical and functional review of these cortical areas and subcortical connections with T-fMRI and tractography techniques; second, to demonstrate the value of this approach in neurosurgical planning in a series of patients with tumors close to the SMA.Recent FindingsImplications in language and cognitive networks with a clear hemispheric lateralization of these SMA/pre-SMA. The recommendation of the use of the advanced neuroimaging studies for surgical planning and preservation of these areas.SummaryThe SMA/pre-SMA and their subcortical connections are functional areas to be taken into...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Congenital Zika Virus Infection: a Review with Emphasis on the Spectrum of Brain Abnormalities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern following a cluster of associated neurological disorders and neonatal malformations. Our aim is to review the clinical and neuroimaging findings seen in congenital Zika syndrome.Recent FindingsZIKV injures neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus, a brain region important for learning, memory, cognition, and emotion/stress response. Positron emission tomography has revealed global neuroinflammation in ZIKV infection in animal models.SummaryCongenital Zika syndrome is a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gerstmann Syndrome
This article reviews recent research on the clinical aspects of this syndrome.Recent FindingsDuring the last years, just some few new reports of Gerstmann syndrome are found in neurological and neuropsychological literature. Most of the reports are single-case reports. An association between Gerstmann syndrome and the so-called semantic aphasia has been pointed out. Two different explanations to this unusual syndrome have been recently proposed: (1) the pathological process is located in the left parietal white matter disconnecting separate cortical networks and (2) it represents a disturbance in the ability to verbally me...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Complications of Statin Therapy
This article identifies the risk factors and provides a review of neuromuscular side effects associated with statin use, their diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetics of Epileptic Networks: from Focal to Generalized Genetic Epilepsies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSeizures can arise in neocortical, thalamocortical, limbic or brainstem networks. Here, we review recent genetic mechanisms implicated in focal and genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs).Recent FindingsPathogenic variation in GAP activity toward RAGs 1 (GATOR1) complex genes (i.e.,DEPDC5,NPRL2 andNPRL3) mainly result in focal epilepsies. They are associated with high rates of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCD), where “two-hits” in GATOR1-related pathways are also found in MCDs. Large-scale sequencing studies continue to reveal new genetic ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Management of Menstrual Migraine
This article will review the current literature regarding the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment of menstrual migraine. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infusion Therapies for Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvanced Parkinson ’s disease (APD) is marked by significant motor and non-motor complications affecting the patient’s quality of life. Optimization of standard oral therapies (SOT) at some point fails to provide adequate relief. Among the available device-aided therapies, infusion therapies (IT) work on the ratio nale that continuous striatal dopaminergic stimulation can significantly reduce the motor fluctuations and smoothen the treatment response. This review serves to familiarize readers with available IT for APD with a focus on motor and non-motor effects, and safety.Recent Findin...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Approach to an Intracranial Mass in Patients With HIV
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSpace-occupying lesions represent a diagnostic challenge among people with the human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To determine the best diagnostic approach to the wide array of possible etiologies and provide a thorough interpretation of neuroimaging in order to narrow a hierarchical differential diagnosis among these patients. Given that there is no pathognomonic neuroimaging pattern in this clinical setting, we searched results from brain biopsies to best determine the etiology of commonly found lesions.Recent FindingsMultimodal brain MRI and MRI spectros...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Detecting Seizures and Epileptiform Abnormalities in Acute Brain Injury
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute brain injury (ABI) is a broad category of pathologies, including traumatic brain injury, and is commonly complicated by seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies are used to detect seizures or other epileptiform patterns. This review seeks to clarify EEG findings relevant to ABI, explore practical barriers limiting EEG implementation, discuss strategies to leverage EEG monitoring in various clinical settings, and suggest an approach to utilize EEG for triage.Recent FindingsCurrent literature suggests there is an increased morbidity and mortality risk associated with seizures or patterns on...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Primary Age-Related Tauopathy (PART): Addressing the Spectrum of Neuronal Tauopathic Changes in the Aging Brain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrimary age-related tauopathy (PART) was recently proposed as a pathologic diagnosis for brains that harbor neurofibrillary tangles (Braak stage ≤ 4) with little, if any, amyloid burden. We sought to review the clinicopathologic findings related to PART.Recent FindingsMost adult human brains show at least focal tauopathic changes, and the majority of individuals with PART do not progress to dementia. Older age and cognitive impairment correlate with increased Braak stage, and multivariate analyses suggest that the rate of cognitive decline is less than matched patients with Alzheimer dise...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Depression and Anxiety in the Epilepsies: from Bench to Bedside
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDepression and anxiety substantially contribute to interictal disability in patients with epilepsy (PWE). This review summarizes current studies that shed light on mechanisms of comorbidity.Recent FindingsMounting epidemiological data implicate shared risk factors for anxiety/depression and seizure propensity, but these remain largely elusive and probably vary by epilepsy type. Within PWE, these symptoms appear to be associated with unique genetic, neuropathological, and connectivity profiles. Temporal lobe epilepsy has received enormous emphasis particularly in preclinical studies of comorbidity, ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Neurological and Medical Complications in Brain Tumor Patients
The order of the authors was inadvertently inverted; Dr. Alyahya is the intended first author. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Cataplectic Attacks in Type 1 Narcolepsy
This article reviews recent research on the clinical characteristics of cataplexy.Recent FindingsLongitudinal research in adults suggests that there may be a remission of cataplectic severity after symptom stabilization. First-line treatment options for cataplexy include sodium oxybate and pitolisant, with many drugs such as AXS-12, FT218, and JZP258 under investigation. Patients with cataplexy reported greater limitations of daily activities such as driving and exercise compared to patients without cataplexy.SummaryCataplexy remains a challenge for children and adults with narcolepsy and can interfere with daily activitie...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

When Drugs Do Not Work: Alternatives to Antiseizure Medications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite the increase in the number of novel antiseizure medications over the past 20  years, approximately one-third of patients will not have adequate seizure control on medications. For these patients, additional options need to be considered, including dietary, device, and surgical treatments. In addition, many complementary therapies can be considered as adjunctive treatment, w ith the intent of improving quality of life for persons with epilepsy and potentially allowing for improvement in seizure control.Recent FindingsThis review outlines established and developing treatments for drug-re...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thrombolysis beyond 4.5  h in Acute Ischemic Stroke
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to review the current approaches using neuroimaging techniques to expand eligibility for intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients with stroke of unknown symptom onset.Recent FindingsIn recent years, several randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown neuroimaging-guided approaches to be feasible in determining eligibility for alteplase beyond 4.5  h from last known well, and efficacious for reducing disability. DWI-FLAIR mismatch on MRI is an effective tool to identify stroke lesions less than 4.5 h in onset in patients with st...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cardiac Imaging After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
This article summarizes the latest research on this topic and provides an approach to clinical practice to use cardiac imaging after stroke.Recent FindingsEchocardiography remains the primary imaging method for cardiac work-up after stroke. Recent echocardiography studies further demonstrated promising results regarding the prediction of non-permanent atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography have been tested for their diagnostic value, in particular in patients with cryptogenic stroke, and can be considered as second line methods, providing complementary informat...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurological and Medical Complications in Brain Tumor Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with brain tumors are susceptible to multiple complications that can affect their survival or quality of life. The scope of these complications is widening due to prolonged overall survival and improved therapies. In this review, we discuss the most common complications in this patient population focusing on the recent literature. We specifically concentrated on tumor-related epilepsy, vasogenic edema, infectious, vascular, chemotherapeutic, radiation, endocrine, and cognitive complications.Recent FindingsMolecular biomarkers play a role in epileptogenicity in brain tumor patients, and ant...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurologic Complications of Cranial Radiation Therapy and Strategies to Prevent or Reduce Radiation Toxicity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRadiation therapy is an important treatment for patients with brain tumors but can have significant neurologic complications. This review highlights the broad spectrum of short-term and long-term neurologic complications that can occur in patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and strategies to prevent and treat such complications.Recent FindingsDespite significant improvements in radiotherapy delivery, there are neurologic complications that can result from treatment. With increased recognition and understanding of these neurologic complications, novel strategies to prevent and mitigate the...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research