Longitudinal Progression Markers of Parkinson ’s Disease: Current View on Structural Imaging
This article reviews recent progress in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tools to track disease progression in PD, and discusses specific criteria a neuroimaging tool needs to meet to be a progression biomarker of PD and the potential applications of these tech niques in PD based on current evidence.Recent FindingsRecent longitudinal studies showed that quantitative structural MRI markers derived from T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, neuromelanin-sensitive, and iron-sensitive imaging have the potential to track disease progression in PD. However, validation of these progression biomarkers is only beginning, and ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Septic Encephalopathy
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo discuss the diagnostic approach to patients with septic encephalopathy as well as the need for specific neuro-monitoring and the perspectives on future therapeutic approaches in this setting.Recent FindingsMost of data-concern experimental studies evaluating the pathophysiology of septic encephalopathy. A combination of neurodegenerative pathways with neurovascular injury is the cornerstone for the development of such complication and the long-term neurological sequelae among survivors.SummarySeptic encephalopathy is a common complication in septic patients. Clinical presentation may range f...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Longitudinal Progression Markers of Parkinson ’s Disease: Current View on Structural Imaging
This article reviews recent progress in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tools to track disease progression in PD, and discusses specific criteria a neuroimaging tool needs to meet to be a progression biomarker of PD and the potential applications of these tech niques in PD based on current evidence.Recent FindingsRecent longitudinal studies showed that quantitative structural MRI markers derived from T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, neuromelanin-sensitive, and iron-sensitive imaging have the potential to track disease progression in PD. However, validation of these progression biomarkers is only beginning, and ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: Intervention or Best Medical Therapy?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProvide a current overview regarding the optimal strategy for managing patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.Recent FindingsCarotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) reduce long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. However, CAS is associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural stroke. Improvements in best medical therapy (BMT) have renewed uncertainty regarding the extent to which results from older randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing outcomes following carotid intervention can be generalised to modern medical practise.Summary‘Average surgic...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a growing body of evidence indicating the gut microbiota influence neurodevelopment and behavior. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of studies analyzing the microbiota and their metabolites in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to discuss the possible mechanisms of action involved in microbial influence on the brain and behavior.Recent FindingsThe microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis has been extensively studied in animal models, and it is clear that alterations in the composition of microbiota alter neurological and behavioral outcomes. However, findings in human studies ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: Intervention or Best Medical Therapy?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProvide a current overview regarding the optimal strategy for managing patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.Recent FindingsCarotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) reduce long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. However, CAS is associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural stroke. Improvements in best medical therapy (BMT) have renewed uncertainty regarding the extent to which results from older randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing outcomes following carotid intervention can be generalised to modern medical practise.Summary‘Average surgic...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a growing body of evidence indicating the gut microbiota influence neurodevelopment and behavior. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of studies analyzing the microbiota and their metabolites in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to discuss the possible mechanisms of action involved in microbial influence on the brain and behavior.Recent FindingsThe microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis has been extensively studied in animal models, and it is clear that alterations in the composition of microbiota alter neurological and behavioral outcomes. However, findings in human studies ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Imaging the Autonomic Nervous System in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD) often display gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms years or even decades prior to diagnosis. These symptoms are thought to be caused in part by pathological α-synuclein inclusions in the peripheral autonomic and enteric nervous systems. It has been proposed that t he initial α-synuclein aggregation may in some PD patients originate in peripheral nerve terminals and then spread centripetally to the spinal cord and brainstem. In vivo imaging methods can directly quantify the degeneration of the autonomic nervous system as well...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting Concussion Recovery in Children and Adolescents in the Emergency Department
AbstractPurpose of ReviewConcussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), represents the majority of pediatric Emergency Department (ED) presentations of TBI. While most children and adolescents will recover within 4  weeks of injury, approximately one third will continue to experience persisting symptoms. This review aimed to provide an overview of literature from the past 5 years examining predictors of recovery in the ED.Recent FindingsPredictors could be characterized into three categories; (i) cognition, (ii) proteomics, and (iii) pre-injury/injury-related factors. There is preliminary support for the use ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Imaging the Autonomic Nervous System in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD) often display gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms years or even decades prior to diagnosis. These symptoms are thought to be caused in part by pathological α-synuclein inclusions in the peripheral autonomic and enteric nervous systems. It has been proposed that t he initial α-synuclein aggregation may in some PD patients originate in peripheral nerve terminals and then spread centripetally to the spinal cord and brainstem. In vivo imaging methods can directly quantify the degeneration of the autonomic nervous system as well...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting Concussion Recovery in Children and Adolescents in the Emergency Department
AbstractPurpose of ReviewConcussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), represents the majority of pediatric Emergency Department (ED) presentations of TBI. While most children and adolescents will recover within 4  weeks of injury, approximately one third will continue to experience persisting symptoms. This review aimed to provide an overview of literature from the past 5 years examining predictors of recovery in the ED.Recent FindingsPredictors could be characterized into three categories; (i) cognition, (ii) proteomics, and (iii) pre-injury/injury-related factors. There is preliminary support for the use ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute Treatment of Stroke (Except Thrombectomy)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe management of patients with acute stroke has been revolutionized in recent years with the advent of new effective treatments. In this rapidly evolving field, we provide an update on the management of acute stroke excluding thrombectomy, looking to recent, ongoing, and future trials.Recent FindingsLarge definitive trials have provided insight into acute stroke care including broadening the therapeutic window for thrombolysis, alternatives to standard dose alteplase, the use of dual antiplatelet therapy early after minor ischemic stroke, and treating elevated blood pressure in intracerebral hemor...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiagnostic criteria for pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) and related demyelinating disorders have been updated, neuroimaging studies have revealed new insights, biological assays identify patients with specific antibodies that influence both diagnosis and treatment, clinical trials are informing on treatment efficacy and safety, and longitudinal studies of neurological, cognitive and quality of life outcomes are informing on the impact of these diseases. We provide updates to assist providers caring for these children.Recent FindingsThe recent 2017 McDonald Criteria for MS provide a simpli...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute Treatment of Stroke (Except Thrombectomy)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe management of patients with acute stroke has been revolutionized in recent years with the advent of new effective treatments. In this rapidly evolving field, we provide an update on the management of acute stroke excluding thrombectomy, looking to recent, ongoing, and future trials.Recent FindingsLarge definitive trials have provided insight into acute stroke care including broadening the therapeutic window for thrombolysis, alternatives to standard dose alteplase, the use of dual antiplatelet therapy early after minor ischemic stroke, and treating elevated blood pressure in intracerebral hemor...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiagnostic criteria for pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) and related demyelinating disorders have been updated, neuroimaging studies have revealed new insights, biological assays identify patients with specific antibodies that influence both diagnosis and treatment, clinical trials are informing on treatment efficacy and safety, and longitudinal studies of neurological, cognitive and quality of life outcomes are informing on the impact of these diseases. We provide updates to assist providers caring for these children.Recent FindingsThe recent 2017 McDonald Criteria for MS provide a simpli...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Graded Combined Aerobic Resistance Exercise (CARE) to Prevent or Treat the Persistent Post-concussion Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the growing body of indirect and direct evidence that suggests that exercise can be helpful for children, adolescents, and adults with persistent symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).Recent FindingsThe direct evidence shows that graded exercise assessments are safe, and that aerobic exercise interventions are associated with improvement of multiple symptoms and other benefits, including earlier return-to-sport. The indirect evidence supports this approach via studies that reveal the potential mechanisms, and show benefits for related presentations and individual symptom...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fluid Management in Acute Brain Injury
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe aims of fluid management in acute brain injury are to preserve or restore physiology and guarantee appropriate tissue perfusion, avoiding potential iatrogenic effects. We reviewed the literature, focusing on the clinical implications of the selected papers. Our purposes were to summarize the principles regulating the distribution of water between the intracellular, interstitial, and plasma compartments in the normal and the injured brain, and to clarify how these principles could guide fluid administration, with special reference to intracranial pressure control.Recent FindingsAlthough a co...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cannabis for the Treatment of Epilepsy: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFor millennia, there has been interest in the use ofcannabis for the treatment of epilepsy. However, it is only recently that appropriately powered controlled studies have been completed. In this review, we present an update on the research investigating the use of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component ofcannabis, in the treatment of epilepsy.Recent FindingsWhile the anticonvulsant mechanism of action of CBD has not been entirely elucidated, we discuss the most recent data available including its low affinity for the endocannabinoid receptors and possible indirect modulation of these rece...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep-Wake Disorders in Stroke —Increased Stroke Risk and Deteriorated Recovery? An Evaluation on the Necessity for Prevention and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSleep-wake disorders (SWD) are common not only in the general population but also in stroke patients, in whom SWD may be pre-existent or appear “de novo” as a consequence of brain damage. Despite increasing evidence of a negative impact of SWD on cardiocerebrovascular risk, cognitive functions, and quality of life, SWD are insufficiently considered in the prevention and management of patients with stroke. This narrative review aims at s ummarizing the current data on the bidirectional link between SWD and stroke.Recent FindingsSeveral studies have demonstrated that sleep-disordered brea...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impact of Recent Studies for the Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review will cover most recent and important studies on acute treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).Recent FindingsOverly pessimistic prognostication in ICH may deny meaningful recovery achieved by specialized neurocritical care. Hematoma enlargement represents the most important target of acute ICH care, which is reduced by aggressive blood pressure management (targeting a systolic blood pressure of 140  mmHg) and appropriate hemostatic treatment especially in anticoagulation-associated ICH (INR reversal using prothrombin complex concentrates, eventually idarucizumab, andexan...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Management of Brain Metastases in the New Era of Checkpoint Inhibition
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewBrain metastasis is a common complication of advanced malignancies, especially, lung cancer, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Traditionally surgery, when indicated, and radiation therapy, either as whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, constituted the major treatment options for brain metastases. Until recently, most of the systemic chemotherapy agents had limited activity for brain metastases. However, with the advent of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy agents, there has been renewed interest in using these agents in the manage...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neuralgias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeuralgias are characterized by pain in the distribution of a cranial or cervical nerve. Typically, they are brief, paroxysmal, painful attacks, although continuous neuropathic pain may occur. The most commonly encountered conditions are trigeminal, postherpetic, and occipital neuralgia. Less common neuralgias include glossopharyngeal, superior laryngeal, auriculotemporal, and nervus intermedius neuralgia, among others. The approach to diagnosis and treatment of this group of disorders is reviewed.Recent FindingsRecent guidelines of medication administration, the use of botulinum toxin, and more ta...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep in Parkinson ’s Disease with Impulse Control Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to explore the relationship between impulse-control disorders (ICDs) and sleep problems in patients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD) among scientific literature.Recent FindingsPreviously published results are controversial and sometimes inconclusive. ICDs and sleep disruption represent important non-motor features of Parkinson ’s disease, responsible for reducing quality of life and increasing burden of disease. The relationship between sleep problems and ICDs is complex and bidirectional. Indeed, sleep disturbances and fragmentation may play a crucial role in increasing s...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Genetics of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: Current Understanding and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disease that can be clinically and pathologically similar to Parkinson ’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Current understanding of DLB genetics is insufficient and has been limited by sample size and difficulty in diagnosis. The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) in DLB was performed in 2017; a time at which the post-GWAS era has been reached in many diseases.Recent FindingsDLB shares risk loci with AD, in theAPOE E4 allele, and with PD, in variation atGBA andSNCA. Interestingly, the GWAS suggested that DLB may al...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Detection of Atrial Fibrillation in Cryptogenic Stroke
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the literature on the detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with “cryptogenic” stroke, a cohort including about 25% of all ischemic stroke patients and patients withembolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS).Recent FindingsA first episode of AF is detected in up to one third of cryptogenic stroke and in up to one fourth of ESUS patients during long-term monitoring. AF prevalence correlates to patient selection, duration, and quality of ECG monitoring. Higher rates of AF were reported in stroke patients with left atrial pathology, specific ECG alterations, or i...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Does Dexmedetomidine Ameliorate Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction? A Brief Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPostoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in 20 –50% of postsurgical patients with a higher prevalence in elderly patients and patients with vascular disease and heart failure. In addition, POCD has been associated with many negative outcomes, such as increased hospital length of stay, increased rates of institutionalization, and higher patient mortality. This brief review discusses select evidence suggesting an association between neuroinflammation and POCD and whether the use of dexmedetomidine, a short-acting alpha 2 agonist, may ameliorate the incidence of POCD. We review the rece...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in the Blind
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSleep timing, quantity, and quality are controlled by homeostatic and circadian systems. Circadian clock systems are present in all cells and organs and their timing is determined by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop of circadian genes. Individual cellular clocks are synchronized by the central body clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which communicates with them through humoral and neural signals including melatonin. The circadian system controls both the circadian period: (i.e., the length of the intrinsic clock), but also the circadian phase (i.e., the clock timing). An i...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Does Dexmedetomidine Ameliorate Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction? A Brief Review of the Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPostoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in 20 –50% of postsurgical patients with a higher prevalence in elderly patients and patients with vascular disease and heart failure. In addition, POCD has been associated with many negative outcomes, such as increased hospital length of stay, increased rates of institutionalization, and higher patient mortality. This brief review discusses select evidence suggesting an association between neuroinflammation and POCD and whether the use of dexmedetomidine, a short-acting alpha 2 agonist, may ameliorate the incidence of POCD. We review the rece...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Complications of Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD-1) Inhibitors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been increasingly used in patients with metastatic cancers with favorable oncological outcomes; however, there have also been increasing number of cancer survivors who have developed immune-related adverse events. Little is known about PD-1 inhibitor-associated neuromuscular complications.Recent FindingsNeuromuscular disorders are the most common neurological complication reported in PD-1 inhibitor-treated patients. Myasthenia gravis, immune-mediated myopathies, and Guillain-Barre syndrome are among commonly reported immune-related neuromuscular co...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - August 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Photophobia: When Light Hurts, a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an updated overview of Photophobia with a particular focus on photophobia related to migraine.Recent FindingsMelanopsin-containing photoreceptors called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have been identified in the retina and explain the rational for photophobia in individuals who are blind.SummaryPhotophobia, a sensory disturbance provoked by light, is a common neurological and ophthalmological symptom. Migraine, a common neurological condition, is pathognomonic of photophobia; however, other primary headache conditions, traumatic brain injury, and impairment ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Secondary Headaches in Children and Adolescents: What Not to Miss
This article aims to provide information regarding “red flags” that should indicate a need for concern for disorders that require more urgent evaluation.Recent FindingsLong-held beliefs about specific “red flags” that have been analyzed in recent years as to their validity and new criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension have been elaborated based on study. These publications are reviewed in this article.SummaryKnowledge of past and current literature on secondary headache in children, combined with thorough history taking and examination, should help determine when there i...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Regulation of Ion Channels by MicroRNAs and the Implication for Epilepsy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this focused review is to describe recent studies supporting a critical role of microRNAs in the regulation of ion channels and discuss the resulting implications for the modulation of neuronal excitability in epilepsy.Recent FindingsMicroRNA-induced silencing of ion channels has been shown in several different studies in recent years, and some of these reports suggest a prominent role in epilepsy. The ion channels regulated by microRNAs include ligand- and voltage-gated channels and are not only limited to the central nervous system but have also been found in the peripheral nervous sy...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Recent Insights and Future Directions
This article reviews recent research relating to thrombectomy.Recent FindingsThrombectomy for anterior circulation stroke with proximal LVO was first shown to be highly efficacious within 6  h of stroke onset, but “late-window” trials have further demonstrated efficacy until 24-h postonset in select patients with salvageable tissue. However, the concept of “time is brain” remains critical. Thrombectomy trials have further stimulated worldwide efforts to develop systems of care for rapid treatment of eligible patients. Thrombectomy is cost-effective and likely to have long-term efficacy for both...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging in the Kleine-Levin Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose was to review the most recent literature on neuroimaging in the Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). We aimed to investigate if frontotemporal and thalamic dysfunction are key KLS signatures, and if recent research indicates other brain networks of interest that elucidate KLS symptomatology and aetiology.Recent FindingsIn a comprehensive literature search, we found 12 original articles published 2013 –2018. Most studies report deviations related to cerebral perfusion, glucose metabolism, or blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses in frontotemporal areas and/or the thalamus. Studies also re...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebral Metabolic Changes During Sleep
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of the present paper is to review current literature supporting the occurrence of fundamental changes in brain energy metabolism during the transition from wakefulness to sleep.Recent FindingsLatest research in the field indicates that glucose utilization and the concentrations of several brain metabolites consistently change across the sleep-wake cycle. Lactate, a product of glycolysis that is involved in synaptic plasticity, has emerged as a good biomarker of brain state. Sleep-induced changes in cerebral metabolite levels result from a shift in oxidative metabolism, which alters the rel...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Viral Hypothesis and Antiviral Treatment in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewViruses, particularly herpes simplex virus (HSV), may be a cause of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). The evidence supporting the viral hypothesis suggests that antiviral treatment trials, which have not been conducted, are warranted.Recent FindingsHSV1 (oral herpes) and HSV2 (genital herpes) can trigger amyloid aggregation, and their DNA is common in amyloid plaques. HSV1 reactivation is associated with tau hyperphosphorylation and possibly tau propagation. Anti-HSV drugs reduce A β and p-tau accumulation in infected mouse brains. Clinically, after the initial oral infection, herpes simplex vi...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensory Sensitivity in TBI: Implications for Chronic Disability
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review investigates the relationship between sensory sensitivity and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the role sensory sensitivity plays in chronic disability.Recent FindingsTBI is a significant cause of disability with a range of physical, cognitive, and mental health consequences. Sensory sensitivities (e.g., noise and light) are among the most frequently reported, yet least outwardly recognizable symptoms following TBI. Clinicians and scientists alike have yet to identify consistent nomenclature for defining noise and light sensitivity, making it difficult to accurately and reliably assess...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. As a consequence, health-related quality of life is often impaired and the upper urinary tract might be at risk for damage. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current treatment options for LUT dysfunction in patients with MS.Recent FindingsThe treatment is tailored to the type of dysfunction —storage or voiding dysfunction—beginning with conservative treatment options and ending with invasive therapies a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep Apnea Is a Risk Factor for Stroke and Vascular Dementia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the cerebrovascular complications of sleep apnea (SA). SA is the major sleep disorder associated with stroke and vascular dementia.Recent FindingsSleep apnea syndrome of moderate to severe intensity affects 17% of 50 –70-year-old men and 9% of 50–70-year-old women, making SA a notorious and prevalent disorder. SA increases the risk of hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation (AF) and is closely linked to vascular dementia. In addition, SA may worsen the neurologic outcome in acute stroke patients and interferes with rehabilitation a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visual Snow Syndrome: Proposed Criteria, Clinical Implications, and Pathophysiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review illustrative case descriptions of both primary and secondary visual snow from our clinic. We discuss recently proposed criteria for visual snow syndrome and offer a slight modification of these criteria. We also discuss the theories on the pathophysiological mechanisms of visual snow, as well as the current approach to treatment.Recent FindingsVisual snow is a condition where patients see constant, innumerable flickering dots throughout the visual field, similar to “TV static.” Though visual snow was originally described in 1995, there were still fewer than 10...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research