Viral Hypothesis and Antiviral Treatment in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewViruses, particularly herpes simplex virus (HSV), may be a cause of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). The evidence supporting the viral hypothesis suggests that antiviral treatment trials, which have not been conducted, are warranted.Recent FindingsHSV1 (oral herpes) and HSV2 (genital herpes) can trigger amyloid aggregation, and their DNA is common in amyloid plaques. HSV1 reactivation is associated with tau hyperphosphorylation and possibly tau propagation. Anti-HSV drugs reduce A β and p-tau accumulation in infected mouse brains. Clinically, after the initial oral infection, herpes simplex vi...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensory Sensitivity in TBI: Implications for Chronic Disability
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review investigates the relationship between sensory sensitivity and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the role sensory sensitivity plays in chronic disability.Recent FindingsTBI is a significant cause of disability with a range of physical, cognitive, and mental health consequences. Sensory sensitivities (e.g., noise and light) are among the most frequently reported, yet least outwardly recognizable symptoms following TBI. Clinicians and scientists alike have yet to identify consistent nomenclature for defining noise and light sensitivity, making it difficult to accurately and reliably assess...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - July 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. As a consequence, health-related quality of life is often impaired and the upper urinary tract might be at risk for damage. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current treatment options for LUT dysfunction in patients with MS.Recent FindingsThe treatment is tailored to the type of dysfunction —storage or voiding dysfunction—beginning with conservative treatment options and ending with invasive therapies a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep Apnea Is a Risk Factor for Stroke and Vascular Dementia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the cerebrovascular complications of sleep apnea (SA). SA is the major sleep disorder associated with stroke and vascular dementia.Recent FindingsSleep apnea syndrome of moderate to severe intensity affects 17% of 50 –70-year-old men and 9% of 50–70-year-old women, making SA a notorious and prevalent disorder. SA increases the risk of hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation (AF) and is closely linked to vascular dementia. In addition, SA may worsen the neurologic outcome in acute stroke patients and interferes with rehabilitation a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visual Snow Syndrome: Proposed Criteria, Clinical Implications, and Pathophysiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review illustrative case descriptions of both primary and secondary visual snow from our clinic. We discuss recently proposed criteria for visual snow syndrome and offer a slight modification of these criteria. We also discuss the theories on the pathophysiological mechanisms of visual snow, as well as the current approach to treatment.Recent FindingsVisual snow is a condition where patients see constant, innumerable flickering dots throughout the visual field, similar to “TV static.” Though visual snow was originally described in 1995, there were still fewer than 10...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intractable Hiccups
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHiccups are a common problem that crosses multiple disciplines including neurology, gastroenterology and pulmonology, and primary care. There are no formal guidelines to the treatment of intractable hiccups and treatment is based on experience and anecdotal evidence often relying on older medications. We have reviewed the relevant literature with an emphasis on the last five years or so in management of intractable hiccups.Recent FindingsThe production of hiccups is a complex mechanism which involves multiple neurotransmitters and anatomical structure within the central and peripheral nervous syste...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cannabinoids for Treatment of MS Symptoms: State of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCannabis and cannabinoids have been used medically and recreationally for thousands of years and recently there has been a growing body of research in this area. With increased access now that medical marijuana is available in many jurisdictions, patients and providers want to know more about the evidence for benefits and risks of cannabinoid use. This paper provides an overview of the available cannabinoid-based formulations, a summary of the highest quality evidence for the use of cannabinoids for treating spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and a discussion of possible d...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using the Anterior Visual System to Assess Neuroprotection and Remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis Trials
This article provides a review of established and novel techniques to measure the anterior visual system in multiple sclerosis with a focus on the evidence to support their use as outcome measures in clinical trials focused on neuroprotection and remyelination therapies. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurologic Consequences of Preterm Birth
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPreterm birth is the leading cause of death worldwide in children
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Abnormalities in Neurological Patients with Criminal Behavior
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCriminal behavior occurs in previously law-abiding neurological patients, including patients with traumatic brain injury, focal brain lesions, and dementia. Neuroimaging abnormalities in these patients allow one to explore the potential neuroanatomical correlates of criminal behavior. However, this process has been challenging because (1) It is difficult to determine the temporal relationship between criminal behavior and neurological disease onset; (2) Abnormalities in several different brain regions have been associated with criminal behavior; and (3) It is difficult to quantify neuroimaging abno...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes in 2018
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSummarize features of the currently recognized congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) with emphasis on novel findings identified in the past 6  years.Recent FindingsSince the last review of the CMS in this journal in 2012, several novel CMS were identified. The identified disease proteins are SNAP25B, synaptotagmin 2, Munc13-1, synaptobrevin-1, GFPT1, DPAGT1, ALG2, ALG14, Agrin, GMPPB, LRP4, myosin 9A, collagen 13A1, the mitochondrial citrate carrier, PREPL, LAMA5, the vesicular ACh transporter, and the high-affinity presynaptic choline transporter.SummaryExome sequencing has provided a powerfu...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insomnia Disorder and Brain ’s Default-Mode Network
This article reviews novel approaches in the study of brain networks and impaired function in ID through the application of modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Recent FindingsThe default-mode network (DMN) is presumed to be correlated with self-referential information processing, and it appears to be altered or unbalanced in insomnia.SummaryA growing body of evidence suggests the lack of deactivation of brain regions comprising the DMN when insomnia patients are at rest. Moreover, core areas of the DMN demonstrate greater activation in insomnia patients when compared to healt...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GBA-Associated Parkinson ’s Disease and Other Synucleinopathies
This article describes the structure and function ofGBA, reviews recent literature on the clinical phenotype ofGBA PD, and suggests future directions for research, counseling, and treatment.Recent FindingsSeveral longitudinal studies have shown thatGBA PD has faster motor and cognitive progression than idiopathic PD and that this effect is dose dependent. New evidence suggests thatGBA mutations may be important in multiple system atrophy. Further, new interventional studies focusing onGBA PD are described. These studies may increase the interest of PD patients and caregivers in genetic counseling.SummaryGBA mutation status...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Narcolepsy Associated with Pandemrix Vaccine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAfter the connection between AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix and narcolepsy was recognized in 2010, research on narcolepsy has been more intensive than ever before. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with current concepts and recent findings on the Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy.Recent FindingsAfter the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in 2009 –2010, the risk of narcolepsy was increased 5- to 14-fold in children and adolescents and 2- to 7-fold in adults. According to observational studies, the risk of narcolepsy was elevated for 2 years after the Pandemri...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Women and Migraine: the Role of Hormones
This article seeks to provide an overview of a woman ’s migraine throughout her lifetime, the impact of hormones and an approach to management. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Beh çet’s Syndrome and Nervous System Involvement
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough Beh çet’s syndrome (BS) is classified as a rare disease in European countries and the USA, its neurologic involvement “neuro-Behçet’s syndrome (NBS)” is commonly included in the differential diagnosis of many inflammatory and vascular central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Clinical and neuroi maging findings support two major forms of NBS: parenchymal NBS (p-NBS) and an extra-parenchymal form that presents with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). The present review summarizes recent findings on the etiopathogenesis and clinico-radiological featur...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Sleep Disorder in Anti-lgLON5 Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the clinical and polysomnographic features of the sleep disorder occurring in the recently described anti-IgLON5 disease. The hallmark of the disease is the presence of antibodies against IgLON5, a neural cell adhesion molecule of unknown function. The disease presents a robust HLA association, and the neuropathological examination shows a novel neuronal tauopathy with predominant hypothalamic and brainstem involvement.Recent FindingsMost patients (>  80%) present sleep-related vocalizations with movements and behaviors and sleep-disordered breathing. Polysomnographic studies sh...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetics of Movement Disorders and the Practicing Clinician; Who and What to Test for?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to provide the basic knowledge on the genetics of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders to guide clinicians in the decision of “who and what to test for?”Recent FindingsIn recent years, the identification of various genetic causes of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders has had a great impact on a better definition of different clinical syndromes. Indeed, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques has provided an impressive step forward in the easy identification of genetic forms. However, this increased availability of genetic testin...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Seizure detection: do current devices work? And when can they be useful?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe unpredictability and apparent randomness of epileptic seizures is one of the most vexing aspects of epilepsy. Methods or devices capable of detecting seizures may help prevent injury or even death and significantly improve quality of life. Here, we summarize and evaluate currently available, unimodal, or polymodal detection systems for epileptic seizures, mainly in the ambulatory setting.Recent FindingsThere are two broad categories of detection devices: EEG-based and non-EEG-based systems. Wireless wearable EEG devices are now available both in research and commercial arenas. Neuro-stimulation...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Caring for Women with Multiple Sclerosis Across the Lifespan
This article summarizes what is known about the disease course in women with MS, how it differs from men, and the current state of knowledge regarding effects of reproductive exposures (menarche, childbearing, menopause) on MS-related inflammation and neurodegeneration. Recent findings regarding pregnancy-associated relapses in the treatment era, protective effects of breastfeeding, and care for women during the menopausal transition are reviewed. Then, updated recommendations to guiding women during childbearing —including pre-conception counseling, discontinuation of MS therapies, and management of postpartum relap...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sleep in Children with Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCongenital malformations of the central nervous system may be seen in isolation or in association with syndromes that have multiorgan involvement. Among the potential health challenges these children may face, sleep concerns are frequent and may include chronic insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, and circadian rhythm disorders.Recent FindingsIn this review, we describe recent research into sleep disorders affecting children with congenital malformations of the CNS including visual impairment, septo-optic dysplasia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Aicardi syndrome, Chiari malformation, spi...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thalamic Lesions and Aphasia or Neglect
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhen the thalamus is damaged, not only are there neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment, hemianopia, or motor control disorders, but there are also various neuropsychological symptoms. We discuss the basic anatomy and function of the thalamus followed by a discussion of thalamic aphasia and hemineglect.Recent FindingsSubcortical lesions in patients with hemineglect involved the anatomical network directly linked to the superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, the pulvinar, part of the thalamus, may be associated with hemineglect. General linguistic tasks activated the thalami, depending on t...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Surgery for Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent success in preliminary clinical studies evaluating various forms of minimally invasive surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has renewed interest in the surgical treatment of this disease process.Recent FindingsIn December of 2016, phase 2 of the Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Rt-PA for ICH Evacuation (MISTIE) study demonstrated that this form of stereotactic thrombolysis safely reduces clot burden and may improve functional outcome 6  months after injury. A smaller arm of this study, the Intraoperative Stereotactic Computer Tomography-Guided Endoscopic Surgery (ICES) ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Up to Date Review of Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), and benign intracranial hypertension are all terms that have been used for a neurologic syndrome consisting of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), headache and vision loss without mass lesion or underlying infection or malignancy. In this review article, categorization, diagnostic criteria, symptom management strategies, and disease treatment options for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome will be discussed.Recent FindingsThe Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial has now proven that acetazolamide should be th...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Present and Future of Ultra-High Field MRI in Neurodegenerative Disorders
This article reviews recent studies at ultra-high field about Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Park inson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).Recent FindingsThe research on AD has mainly focused on detecting the thinning of hippocampal layers and the susceptibility effect supposed to be related to beta-amyloid deposition. In patients with PD, atypical parkinsonisms and subjects at risk of developing motor symptoms of Parkinson ’s disease, the main aim was to detect changes in the substantia nigra, probably related to increased iron deposition. In patients with ALS, both brain and spinal cord ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Circulating Troponin I Level in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
The objective of this study and systematic review is to determine how high the circulating troponin I level can rise due to ischemic stroke.Recent FindingsAnonymized medical records from Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed identifying 151,972 unique acute ischemic stroke events, of which 1226 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Included patients had at least one measurement of troponin I level documented during the hospital visit when an acute ischemic stroke was diagnosed and were free of known cardiac/coronary disease, renal impairment, sepsis, or other confounders. In this group, 20.6% had a circula...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Disturbances of Sleep and Alertness in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Sleep dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor manifestations of PD that has gained significant interest over the past two decades due to its impact on the daily lives of PD patients, poorly understood mechanisms, and lim ited treatment options. In this review, we discuss the most common sleep disorders in PD and present recent investigations that have broadened our understanding of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of disturbed sleep and alertness in PD.Resent FindingsThe ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurostimulation for Memory Enhancement in Epilepsy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMemory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation.Recent FindingsExisting literature suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exercise Headache: a Review
This article reviews the revised diagnostic criteria for primary exercise headache (PEH) and discusses recent research into the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, suggested workup, and treatment of this condition.Recent FindingsRecent studies estimate that PEH affects from 1 to 26% of the adult population. A secondary cause is thought to be present infrequently, but should be explored in all patients with a first or atypical presentation of exercise headache. Red flags for potential secondary causes may include older age at onset and more prolonged headache duration. There is inadequate evidence to inclu...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infantile Spasms —Have We Made Progress?
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe care of children with infantile spasms is full of areas of ambiguity, despite practice parameters and randomized trials. This review is to update the current care of children with infantile spasms.Recent FindingsSeveral recent studies have generated new data to guide management including a randomized trial supporting combination therapy of hormone treatment and vigabatrin as an initial treatment for infantile spasms. Studies have suggested that we are not consistent in our recognition of hypsarrhythmia, while additional studies suggest that the presence or absence of this pattern may not ha...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Promise of Telemedicine for Movement Disorders: an Interdisciplinary Approach
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvances in technology have expanded telemedicine opportunities covering medical practice, research, and education. This is of particular importance in movement disorders (MDs), where the combination of disease progression, mobility limitations, and the sparse distribution of MD specialists increase the difficulty to access. In this review, we discuss the prospects, challenges, and strategies for telemedicine in MDs.Recent FindingsTelemedicine for MDs has been mainly evaluated in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) and compared to in-office care is cost-effective with similar clinical care, despite the...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure at the Lamina Cribrosa: Gradient Effects
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA pressure difference between the intraocular and intracranial compartments at the site of the lamina cribrosa has been hypothesized to have a pathophysiological role in several optic nerve head diseases. This paper reviews the current literature on the translamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD), the associated pressure gradient, and its potential pathophysiological role, as well as the methodology to assess TLCPD.Recent FindingsFor normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), initial studies indicated low intracranial pressure (ICP) while recent findings indicate that a reduced ICP is not mandatory.Summar...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lewy Body Disease: Clinical and Pathological “Overlap Syndrome” Between Synucleinopathies (Parkinson Disease) and Tauopathies (Alzheimer Disease)
AbstractLewy body disease (LBD) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. It shares clinical and pathological features with Parkinson disease (PD), the most frequent synucleinopathy, Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), and Alzheimer disease (AD), a tauopathy. Even though the diagnostic criteria for these neurodegenerative diseases are clearly established, and recently revised for LBD, their precise clinical diagnosis is often difficult because LBD, PD, PDD, and AD share epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics. This manuscript discusses current understanding of overlapping symptoms and the part...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Managing Gait, Balance, and Posture in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPostural instability and gait difficulties inexorably worsen with Parkinson ’s disease (PD) progression and become treatment resistant, with a severe impact on autonomy and quality of life. We review the main characteristics of balance instability, gait disabilities, and static postural alterations in advanced PD, and the available treatment strategies.Recent FindingsIt remains very difficult to satisfactorily alleviate gait and postural disturbances in advanced PD. Medical and surgical interventions often fail to provide satisfactory or durable alleviation of these axial symptoms, that may a...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson ’s Disease: New Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, the aetiology of which is still largely unknown. Overwhelming evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a central factor in PD pathophysiology. Here we review recent developments around mitochondrial dysfunction in familial and sp oradic PD, with a brief overview of emerging therapies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction.Recent FindingsIncreasing evidence supports the critical role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of sporadic PD, while the involvement of familial PD-related genes in the regulation of ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New Imaging Markers for Movement Disorders
This article reviews well-established and recent developments in imaging markers for movement disorders.Recent FindingsWhereas several imaging approaches seem to be promising, many modalities are still under development and may not provide decisive answers. Thus, the use of combined imaging modalities as well as the acquisition of methodological consensus in the scientific community may provide more conclusive findings in the future of biomarkers.SummaryAlthough a single biomarker has yet not been identified, multiple markers derived from different imaging modalities may represent the right approach. (Source: Current Neuro...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - April 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Takotsubo Syndrome: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Relationship with Cerebrovascular Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review paper aims to provide a complete and updated overview on the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), including prognosis, therapy, and the association with cerebrovascular conditions.Recent FindingsTTS is an increasingly recognized non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by sudden, temporary weakening of the myocardium, of which the pathogenesis is unknown.SummaryAlthough pathogenesis of TTS remains unclear, a complex interaction between catecholamine-mediated stimulation, myocardial stunning, and subsequent stress-related myocardial dysfunction seems to b...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Coccidioidal Meningitis: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Complications
This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parameters is provided. A consensus has not been reached regarding universally accepted therapeutic serum levels for azoles because of insufficient evidence. We describe the preferred therapeutic drug level ranges that our institution uses to monitor azole therapy.Recent findingsHo et al. described the preparation and administration of intrathecally delivered amphotericin B deoxycholate. Thompson et al. described possible benefits of...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of EEG in Patients after Cardiac Arrest —An Updated Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review and summarize the key contributions of EEG to prognostication after cardiac arrest (CA).Recent FindingsWhile there are more EEG patterns predicting poor than good outcome, even EEG patterns previously considered to be “very malignant” may result in survival with a meaningful neurological outcome depending on their underlying etiology as well as the continuity and reactivity of the EEG background. Regardless of the potentially confounding factors, EEG patterns are highly specific with a relatively low false-po sitive rate. The development of more complex and com...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson ’s Disease—What Is It?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMild cognitive impairment is a common feature of Parkinson ’s disease, even at the earliest disease stages, but there is variation in the nature and severity of cognitive involvement and in the risk of conversion to Parkinson’s disease dementia. This review aims to summarise current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. We consider the presentation, rate of conversion to dementia, underlying pathophysiology and potential biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Finally, we discuss challenges and controversies of mild cognit...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

When the Ends Are Really the Beginnings: Targeting Telomerase for Treatment of GBM
This article reviews recent research on (1) the mechanism of TERT activation in glioma, (2) downstream consequences of TERT overexpression on glioma pathogenesis, and (3) targeting TPMs as a therapeutic strategy.Recent FindingsNew molecular classifications for gliomas include using TPMs, where the mutant group demonstrates the worst prognosis. Though a canonical function of TERT is established in regard to telomere maintenance, recent studies on non-canonical functions of TERT explore varied roles of telomerase in tumor progression and maintenance.SummarySomatic alterations of the TERT promoter present a promising target f...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insights into the Mechanisms That May Clarify Obesity as a Risk Factor for Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe proportion to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still incompletely understood. An interesting association between MS etiology and obesity has recently been shown although the mechanisms underlying this association are still unknown. We propose deregulated gut microbiota and increased leptin levels as possible mechanisms underlying MS etiology in obese individuals.Recent FindingsAlterations in the human gut microbiota and leptin levels have recently been established as immune modulators in both MS patients and obese individuals. A re...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transition of Children with Neurological Disorders
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe goal of the article is to describe a systematic approach through core principles and steps for the transition of the patient with a neurological disorder to the adult model of care, to provide steps and principles to help receiving providers successfully integrate the patient into their practice, and to discuss cultural, systemic, and discipline-based barriers to transition.Recent FindingThe literature has expanded rapidly. The recent publications help define the barriers to the process and are currently exploring the best methods to evaluate readiness, needs, barriers, and develop solution...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Liquid Biopsy in Primary Brain Tumors: Looking for Stardust!
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPersonalized medicine is a challenge to improve survival and quality of life of patients suffering from primary malignant brain tumor. Molecular biology is integrated in initial diagnosis and relapse, and, in the nearest future, over treatment schedule and monitoring. Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive way to obtain tumor material.Recent FindingsOver the past years, three fluids have been explored to provide tumor information in primary malignant brain tumor: blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and vitreous liquid. Different tumor components were identified: (1) circulating tumor cells, (2) circulating ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - March 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: an Update
This article reviews the new PSP diagnostic criteria, diagnostic approaches, and treatment strategies.Recent findingsThe 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PSP criteria outline 14 core clinical features and 4 clinical clues that combine to diagnose one of eight PSP phenotypes with probable, possible, or suggestive certainty. Evidence supports the use of select imaging approaches in the classic PSP-Richardson syndrome phenotype. Recent trials of putative disease-modifying agents showed no benefit.SummaryThe new PSP diagnostic criteria incorporating the range of presenting phenotypes have important im...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Treating Immune-Related Epilepsy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review explores different treatment modalities for immune-mediated epilepsy, including epilepsy caused by autoantibodies as well as epilepsy in the context of systemic autoimmune disease.Recent FindingsAutoimmune epilepsy is an increasingly recognized entity. Conventional treatments for epilepsy, such as antiseizure medications and epilepsy surgery, are less successful in treating epilepsy caused by autoimmune disease. Immunomodulatory therapies such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange are generally more successful in treating immune-mediated epilepsy than conve...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Acute and Chronic Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study is to discuss the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of the neurologic complications of acute and chronic otitis media.Recent FindingsAntibiotic therapy has greatly reduced the frequency of complications of otitis media. However, it is of vital importance to remain aware of the possible development of neurologic complications. There is a trend toward less severe presenting symptoms including otorrhea, headache, nausea, and fever, with altered mental status and focal neurologic deficits presenting later. In order to reduce morbidity, early deployment of a multidisciplinary app...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neuropsychological Consequences of Armed Conflicts and Torture
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAt any point in time, there are hundreds of armed conflicts throughout the world. Neuropsychological disorders are a major cause of morbidity during and after armed conflicts. Conditions such as closed and open head injuries, acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis are prevalent among survivors. Herein, we summarize information on the various forms of torture, the resultant neuropsychological pathology, and treatment strategies to help survivors.Recent FindingsStrategies to address the needs of individuals who experienced neuropsychological trauma d...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Treating Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review of Reviews
We examined the outcomes of disability and disability progression, pain, spasticity, bladder function, tremor/ataxia, quality of life and adverse effects.Recent FindingsWe identified 11 eligible systematic reviews providing data from 32 studies, including 10 moderate to high quality RCTs. Five reviews concluded that there was sufficient evidence that cannabinoids may be effective for symptoms of pain and/or spasticity in MS. Few reviews reported conclusions for other symptoms.SummaryRecent high quality reviews find cannabinoids may have modest effects in MS for pain or spasticity. Future research should include studies wit...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Systemic Complications Following Status Epilepticus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStatus epilepticus (SE) is a multisystem disorder. Initially, complications of a massive catecholamine release followed by the side effects of medical therapies, impact patients ’ outcomes. The aim of this article is to provide an updated summary of the systemic complications following SE.Recent FindingsIn recent years, the importance of the multifaceted nature of SE and its relationship with clinical outcomes has been increasingly recognized. The cumulative systemic effects of prolonged seizures and their treatment contribute to morbidity and mortality in this condition.SummaryMost systemic ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research