Fatal fulminant inflammation in the diaphragm resulting from Pembrolizumab ‐related myopathy
AbstractRecently, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been widely employed to treat various malignant neoplasms. Despite favorable therapeutic responses, the use of ICI can result in several immune ‐related adverse events (irAEs) in neuromuscular systems (1), including inflammatory myopathy, which exhibits characteristic muscular symptoms and occurs with the use of anti‐programmed cell death protein 1 (PD‐1) antibody, representing a newly emerged PD‐1 myopathy (2, 3). (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yasutaka Tajima, Fumihiro Hommura, Takahiro Tsuji, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito Tags: CLINICAL LETTER Source Type: research

IL ‐19 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalitis
AbstractInterleukin ‐19 (IL‐19) is one of IL‐10 family cytokines that are highly similar to IL‐20 and IL‐241. The receptor of IL ‐19 is the heterodimer of IL‐20 receptor α subunit (IL‐20 Rα) and β subunit (IL‐20Rβ), and its downstream signaling is mediated by STAT3 phosphorylation. Main source of IL‐19 is activated monocyte‐lineage cell including microglia and macrophages1, 2. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hideyuki Takeuchi, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Bijay Parajuli, Hiroyasu Komiya, Fumiaki Tanaka, Akio Suzumura Tags: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Accelerating clinical research in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
AbstractNeuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are rare relapsing inflammatory central nervous system diseases with a heterogenous immunological and clinical spectrum. International collaborations are required to: (i) reach a better understanding of the disease and its subtypes; (ii) develop laboratory and imaging biomarkers; and (iii) ultimately improve treatments. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Frederike C. Oertel, Friedemann Paul Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Gluten intolerance antibodies in multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome : Coexistent or coincidental?
ConclusionWe observed that celiac antibodies were not more common in MS patients than healthy controls. However, these antibodies are important to suggest gastrointestinal complaints in MS patients. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeynep Ünlütürk, Levent Sinan Bir, Melek Demir Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab ‐Induced Hypophysitis with Acute Progression of Rathke’s Cyst
AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitor –induced hypophysitis is a rare complication of pembrolizumab, but the effects of drug‐induced hypophysitis on pre‐existing pituitary lesions are unknown. The authors treated an unusual case of pembrolizumab‐induced hypophysitis that resulted in acute exacerbation of a pre‐existing pituita ry cystic lesion causing severe intractable headaches. Before initiation of pembrolizumab therapy, magnetic resonance imaging should be carefully reviewed for sellar pathology. Patients demonstrating a Rathke’s cleft cyst should consider other forms of treatment first or be carefull...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Austin S. Gamblin, Spencer Twitchell, Bornali Kundu, William T. Couldwell, Sarah T. Menacho Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Neuroimmunology in neurological and psychiatric disorders
AbstractThe central nervous system (CNS) has long been considered as an immunological privileged site where the surveillance of the immune system does not reach out. However, it is now recognized that this CNS homeostasis is collapsed by neuroinflammation such as influx of pro ‐inflammatory factors and cells, neuronal dysfunction, and glial activation. Currently, CNS neuroinflammation is considered as a main pathomechanism to mediate disease progression in not only neurotrauma and neuroinflammatory disorders but also neurodegenerative diseases including dementia. Moreov er, growing evidence indicates that chronic CNS neu...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hideyuki Takeuchi Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Insights from the differences in clinical profiles of neuroimmune disorders between patients in Japan and those in Western countries
AbstractFew studies have investigated the differences in the clinical profiles of neuroimmune disorders between patients in Japan and those in Western countries.1 ‐5 In 1981, Shibasaki et al. first reported the difference in clinical features of multiple sclerosis (MS) between Japanese patients and British patients.2 Japanese patients with MS had a higher prevalence of and more severe visual involvement and were more likely to have myelitis and brainstem syndrome compared to British patients with MS. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Masahiro Mori Tags: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitor –induced autoimmune central nervous system disorder in patients with metastatic melanoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma
ConclusionsWe demonstrate that symptoms of immune checkpoint inhibitor –induced encephalitis can be unspecific, and radiological findings are often inconspicuous. Thus, cerebrospinal fluid analysis is the most important examination to achieve a correct diagnosis, which in turn is decisive for a rapid start of therapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nora M öhn, Kurt‐Wolfram Sühs, Yenny Angela, Martin Stangel, Philipp Ivanyi, Gernot Beutel, Ralf Gutzmer, Thomas Skripuletz, Imke Grimmelmann Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Gluten intolerance antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome: coexistent or coincidental?
ConclusionWe observed that Celiac antibodies were not more common in MS than healthy controls.However these antibodies are important to suggest gastrointestinal complaints in MS. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeynep Ünlütürk, Levent Sinan Bir, Melek Demir Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Inflammation in psychiatry especially focused on depression
The pathology of depression is closely associated with inflammatory processes. These processes might account for the underlying mechanism between depression and other disorders, including metabolic disorders and dementia. AbstractThe etiology of depression remains unclear, while, in many aspects, the pathology of depression has recently been reported to be closely associated with inflammation. The inflammatory processes often found in the acute stage of depression might have a profound influence of the prognosis of depression. These processes might account for the underlying mechanism between depression and other disorders...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Akira Monji Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Multiple sclerosis limited to spinal cord lesions
ConclusionsThe identified phenotype of MS seems to be female dominant and presents a relatively mild clinical course without pathological brain atrophy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wataru Takeuchi, Juichi Fujimori, Ichiro Nakashima Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy ‐related inflammation and dementia
AbstractCerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder characterized by deposition of amyloid on the leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels. Sporadic amyloid β (Aβ)‐type CAA is the most common type of CAA. Although CAA has been well known as a cause of recurrent cerebral lobar hemorrhage, inflammation and vasculitis (CAA‐related inflammation: CAA‐ri) induced by deposited Aβ on the vessel walls is emerging as a treatable condition. Furthermore, d ementia could be developed regardless of presence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Estimated total number and prevalence of CAA‐ri in Japan was re...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenji Sakai, Masahito Yamada Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pediatric demyelinating disease and anti ‐MOG antibody
The wide spectrum of MOG ‐associated CNS demyelination, including monophasic and relapsing forms, seems to be now better understood. Although most children have a good clinical outcome, MOGAD may be a severe relapsing and devastating disorder for a subgroup of patients. Considering the moderate response to current standar d relapse prevention therapies additional safe and long‐term efficacious treatment options are still much needed for children with relapsing MOG demyelination. AbstractSignificant progress has been made in the field of pediatric neuroimmunology over the past few years. With the detection of conformati...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Silvia N. Tenembaum Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Practical recognition tools of immunoglobulin  G serum antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein‐positive optic neuritis and its clinical implications
In this review, we discuss the clinical and paraclinical features of immunoglobulin  G serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein‐positive optic neuritis in adults, and focus on the distinctive features that can enable its early diagnosis. Therapeutical considerations at the acute stage and for relapse prevention are further deliberated. AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) ‐associated disease is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G serum antibodies against MOG. Recent data have allowed characterization of the clin...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Itay Lotan, Frederike C. Oertel, Claudia Chien, Susanna Asseyer, Friedemann Paul, Hadas Stiebel ‐Kalish Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Treatment of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin  G–associated disease
This review summarizes the current understanding of acute and chronic treatments for MOGAD. Timing and duration of treatment, pregnancy, and emerging therapies are also discussed. AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunoglobulin  G (IgG)–associated disease (MOGAD) is increasingly recognized as a distinct nosological entity from aquaporin‐4 antibody IgG–positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4‐IgG NMOSD). The advent of highly specific MOG‐IgG cell‐based diagnostic assays have helped to refine our un derstanding of the clinical spectrum of MOGAD. To date, treatment approa...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Healy, Kariem Tarik Elhadd, Emily Gibbons, Dan Whittam, Michael Griffiths, Anu Jacob, Saif Huda Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Recent advances in the understanding of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody –associated disorders
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ichiro Nakashima Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Lenalidomide ‐associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
ConclusionsAlthough rare, lenalidomide ‐induced PML should be considered in myeloma patients treated with lenalidomide. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kazutaka Nishimura, Yuta Iwai, Mariko Yabuki, Hiroe Fuse, Kazuo Nakamichi, Kenta Takahashi, Tadaki Suzuki, Masayuki Saijo, Takeshi Fukushima, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Circulating inflammatory cytokine levels correlates with cognitive impairment
ConclusionThe TNF ‐α and IL‐6 levels are significantly higher in patients with moderate‐severe stage of AD. Inflammatory cytokine levels might predict the cognitive impairment severity in AD patients. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Leila Rasi Marzabadi, Saeed Sadigh ‐Eteghad, Mahnaz Talebi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of Bal ó’s concentric sclerosis: Literature review and presentation of two focused cases
This review aims to describe two cases of Bal ò’s Concentric Sclerosis (BCS) and to review the state‐of‐the‐art literature. Through the analysis of current imaging practice, our purpose is to help clinicians reach early diagnosis, thus enhancing the chances of a more successful outcome for the patients. AbstractThe aim of this study was to describe two cases of Bal ó’s concentric sclerosis, and to review the state‐of‐the‐art literature. This dissertation is the result of a critical analysis matching the literature and our professional experience. Data were synthesized into a narrative ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Chiara Ballini, Francesco Destro, Paolo Garofalo, Jasjit S. Suri, Tommaso Ercoli, Antonella Muroni, Giancarlo Caddeo, Yang Qi, Giovanni Defazio, Luca Saba Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Congress report of 16th International Child Neurology Congress/49th annual Child Neurology Society meeting: Virtual 2020
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ayuko Igarashi Tags: CONGRESS REPORT Source Type: research

Voltage ‐gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antibody encephalitis in a Filipino adult: A reversible cause of early‐onset neurocognitive disorder
ConclusionThis case highlights VGKC antibody encephalitis as an important diagnostic consideration in patients presenting with subacute onset of memory loss, behavioral changes, and seizures. With prompt initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, neurocognitive changes can be potentially reversed. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ferron F. Ocampo, Edmundo G. Saniel, Ma. Socorro C. Martinez Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Pathology of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody –associated disease
The difference of pathological mechanisms in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin ‐4 (AQP4) antibody. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatsuro Misu Tags: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Announcement of 2018 Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology Best Article award
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroyuki Murai Tags: AWARD ANNOUNCEMENT Source Type: research

A thank you note to our reviewers
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Source Type: research

Treatment of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin  G–associated disease
This review summarizes the current understanding of acute and chronic treatments for MOGAD. Timing and duration of treatment, pregnancy, and emerging therapies are also discussed. AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunoglobulin  G (IgG)–associated disease (MOGAD) is increasingly recognized as a distinct nosological entity from aquaporin‐4 antibody IgG–positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4‐IgG NMOSD). The advent of highly specific MOG‐IgG cell‐based diagnostic assays have helped to refine our un derstanding of the clinical spectrum of MOGAD. To date, treatment approa...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Healy, Kariem Tarik Elhadd, Emily Gibbons, Dan Whittam, Michael Griffiths, Anu Jacob, Saif Huda Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

A thank you note to our reviewers
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitor induced autoimmune central nervous system disorder in patients with metastatic melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma
ConclusionsWe demonstrate that symptoms of immune checkpoint inhibitor induced encephalitis can be unspecific and radiological findings are often inconspicuous. Thus, cerebrospinal fluid analysis is the most important examination to achieve a correct diagnosis which in turn is decisive for a rapid start of therapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nora M öhn, Kurt‐Wolfram Sühs, Yenny Angela, Martin Stangel, Philipp Ivanyi, Gernot Beutel, Ralf Gutzmer, Thomas Skripuletz, Imke Grimmelmann Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Congress report of 16th International Child Neurology Congress/49th annual Child Neurology Society meeting: Virtual 2020
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ayuko Igarashi Tags: CONGRESS REPORT Source Type: research

Inflammation in psychiatry especially focused on depression
AbstractThe etiology of depression remains unclear while, in many aspects, the pathology of depression has recently been reported to be closely associated with inflammation. The inflammatory processes often found in the acute stage of depression may have a profound influence of the prognosis of depression. These processes may account for underlying mechanism between depression and other disorders including metabolic disorders and dementia. The relationship between depression and inflammation may shed new light on the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for depression. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Akira Monji Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Practical recognition tools of immunoglobulin  G serum antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein‐positive optic neuritis and its clinical implications
In this review, we discuss the clinical and paraclinical features of immunoglobulin  G serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein‐positive optic neuritis in adults, and focus on the distinctive features that can enable its early diagnosis. Therapeutical considerations at the acute stage and for relapse prevention are further deliberated. AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) ‐associated disease is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G serum antibodies against MOG. Recent data have allowed characterization of the clin...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Itay Lotan, Frederike C. Oertel, Claudia Chien, Susanna Asseyer, Friedemann Paul, Hadas Stiebel ‐Kalish Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pure red cell aplasia and re ‐aggravation of myasthenia gravis as a result of early reduction of steroid and immunosuppressant after starting eculizumab: A case report
ConclusionsEculizumab might improve the acute phase of MG symptoms, but early reduction of PSL and TAC can aggravate MG pathology and lead to pure red cell aplasia. Autoimmune mechanisms other than the complement ‐mediated mechanism might be involved in the development of pure red cell aplasia. We suggest that physicians should not reduce PSL and immunosuppressants quickly after eculizumab administration. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jun Yamazaki, Yuki Ueta, Yuki Akiba, Takeshi Taguchi, Masayuki Masuda, Hitoshi Aizawa Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Recent advances in the understanding of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody –associated disorders
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ichiro Nakashima Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Announcement of 2018 Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology Best Article award
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, EarlyView. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroyuki Murai Tags: AWARD ANNOUNCEMENT Source Type: research

Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis Shapes Disease Course in the Different Stages of Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which is the major neurological disease with onset in young adulthood. Most patients experience signs of relapse with intervals of remission lasting for months to years during their early clinical stage.  Patients who are staying in this stage are referred to as relapsing‐remitting MS (RRMS). (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Daiki Takewaki, Takashi Yamamura Tags: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Treatment of mog ‐igg associated disease
AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) IgG associated disease (MOGAD) is increasingly recognised as a distinct nosological entity from aquaporin ‐4 antibody IgG positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4‐IgG NMOSD). The advent of highly specific MOG‐IgG cell‐based diagnostic assays have helped to refine our understanding of the clinical spectrum of MOGAD. To date, treatment approaches have been largely extrapolated from AQ P4‐IgG NMOSD experience, but there is growing evidence of distinct differences in treatment response between these conditions. This review summarises the current status an...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarah Healy, Kariem Tarik Elhadd, Emily Gibbons, Dan Whittam, Michael Griffiths, Anu Jacob, Saif Huda Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pure red cell aplasia and re ‐aggravation of myasthenia gravis due to early reduction of steroid and immunosuppressant after starting eculizumab: A case report
ConclusionsEculizumab may improve the acute phase of MG symptoms, but early reduction of PSL and TAC can aggravate MG pathology and lead to PRCA. Autoimmune mechanisms other than the complement ‐mediated mechanism may be involved in the development of PRCA. We suggest that physicians should not reduce PSL and immunosuppressants quickly after eculizumab administration. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jun Yamazaki, Yuki Ueta, Yuki Akiba, Takeshi Taguchi, Masayuki Masuda, Hitoshi Aizawa Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Pediatric Demyelinating Disease and Anti ‐MOG Antibody
AbstractSignificant progress has been made in the field of pediatric neuroimmunology over the past few years. With the detection of conformationally correct myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies using cell ‐based assays, children with different monophasic and relapsing phenotypes have been increasingly described. However, there is still controversy regarding the severity of the disease course and outcome of this emerging and rapidly expanding spectrum of MOG‐associated demyelination. Accumulating evidence seems to identify MOG‐IgG‐associated disorder as a disease entity different from multiple sclero...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Silvia N. Tenembaum Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE (INVITED) Source Type: research

Congress report of 16th International Child Neurology Congress/ 49th Annual Child Neurology Society Meeting: virtual 2020
Abstract16th International Child Neurology Congress (ICNC) was held October 12 ‐23, 2020 in collaboration with the Child Neurology Society (figure1). Due to the COVID‐19 pandemic, this was the first virtual ICNC. Congress theme is “Sharing Knowledge, Sowing Friendships, Spreading Hope”. The additional theme Together • Apart Virtual 2020 is the perfect concept for thi s congress. The ICNCs have truly set the stage as the key forum which provides the very latest and most relevant updates on child neurologic disorders from a global perspective. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ayuko Igarashi Tags: CONGRESS REPORT Source Type: research

Pregnancy in multiple sclerosis: A reflection on the importance of individualizing management
We present two cases of active relapse ‐remitting multiple sclerosis in pregnant women with different clinical courses, mirroring the disease heterogeneity and unpredictability. The decision of maintaining disease‐modifying therapy throughout gestation could be a strategy to reduce postpartum relapses. AbstractIntroductionThe management of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy has changed in recent years; it is no longer viewed as hindering the evolution of the disease. Lower relapse rates are expected during gestation, while the early puerperium may be more critical.Case reportWe present two cases of active relapse ‐r...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - December 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Jo ão Pinto, Mafalda Seabra, Maria José Sá, Joana Guimarães Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Pathology of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody –associated disease
The difference of pathological mechanisms in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin ‐4 (AQP4) antibody. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - December 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatsuro Misu Tags: New Developments in Neuroimmunology Source Type: research

Practical recognition tools of MOG ‐IgG positive optic neuritis and its clinical implications
AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein associated disease (MOGAD) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G serum antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG ‐IgG). Recent data has allowed to characterize the clinical spectrum of MOGAD, which is now considered a new disease entity, distinct from multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Optic neuritis (ON) is the most common clinical presentation of MOGAD in adults, both at diseas e onset and during the disease course, and has several clinical and paraclinical di...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - December 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Itay Lotan, Frederike Cosima Oertel, Claudia Chien, Susanna Asseyer, Friedemann Paul, Hadas Stiebel ‐Kalish Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pregnancy in multiple sclerosis: a reflection on the importance of individualizing management
ConclusionsThe decision of maintaining disease ‐modifying therapy throughout gestation could be a strategy to reduce postpartum relapses. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - December 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Pinto, Mafalda Seabra, Maria S á, Joana Guimarães Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Asymmetrical manifestation of faciobrachial dystonic seizures in leucine ‐rich, glioma‐inactivated 1 antibody encephalitis: A case report
ConclusionsA case of LGI1 antibody encephalitis with asymmetrical manifestation of FBDS after resolution of the first unilateral symptoms was described. This case suggests that LGI1 antibody encephalitis can affect each side of the brain asymmetrically and asynchronously. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - December 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shizuka Harada, Yuichiro Inatomi, Makoto Nakajima, Shunya Nakane, Soichiro Matsubara, Kotaro Takamatsu, Toshiro Yonehara Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research