Hashimoto encephalopathy
This review highlights the current state of knowledge about Hashimoto encephalopathy, and progress in the diagnosis and treatment in Hashimoto encephalopathy. Non ‐specific neurological symptoms, laboratory findings and neuroimaging of Hashimoto encephalopathy make its diagnosis an oversight and difficult, whereas antibodies against NH2‐terminal of alpha‐enolase can be useful as a diagnostic biomarker for Hashimoto encephalopathy. AbstractHashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune encephalopathy associated with autoimmune chronic thyroiditis. The clinical entity and nosology of HE have long been debated. Recently...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - September 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Akiko Matsunaga, Masamichi Ikawa, Makoto Yoneda Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Detection of t(14;18)(q32;q21) for IgH/BCL2 in central nervous system tumor ‐like lesions with chronic perivascular inflammation
ConclusionsThe chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) forIgH/BCL2 was detected in central nervous system tumor ‐like inflammatory lesions. All patients responded well to the corticosteroid therapy and had a good prognosis. As the perivascular cells bearing t(14;18)(q32;q21) are small in number, the pathological significance remains unknown. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - September 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yukiko Shishido ‐Hara, Takuya Yazawa, Tomohiro Chiba, Kaoruko Kojima, Jun Ishii, Keiichi Kobayashi, Jeung‐Hun Lee, Ayumi Sumiishi, Kazuhiro Tsuchiya, Toshiki Uchihara, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Nobuyuki Takayama, Motoo Nagane, Hiroshi Kamma Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Probable neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with recurrent cranial neuropathy
ConclusionsThis case report will help physicians suspect probable NMOSD in patients having recurrent, multiple cranial neuropathies, and provide them appropriate management and care. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - September 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fuyuki Tateno, Ryuji Sakakibara, Yosuke Aiba, Takeshi Oki, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Tsuyoshi Ogata Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Virgin coconut oil enhances neuroprotective and anti ‐inflammatory factors in the thymus and mesenteric lymph nodes of rats
ConclusionDietary VCO might modulate immune responses by upregulating neuroprotective factors, and suppressing inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress through intracellular signaling pathways. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sunil Karrunanithi, Kishore A. Ravichandran, Lalgi Hima, Uday P. Pratap, Ramasamy Vasantharekha, Srinivasan ThyagaRajan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cerebellar lesions in a patient with anti ‐myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody‐associated encephalitis
Cerebellar lesions adjacent to the fourth ventricle that involved the bilateral dentate nucleus were observed in a patient with anti ‐myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody‐associated encephalitis. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - September 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Juichi Fujimori, Ichiro Nakashima Tags: Image in Neuroimmunology Source Type: research

Autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytopathy
Autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy was recently reported as a spectrum of autoimmune inflammatory central nervous system disorders characterized by the detection of cerebrospinal fluid GFAP immunoglobulin  G. The most common phenotypes of GFAP astrocytopathy are meningoencephalitis with or without myelitis. GFAP astrocytopathy is usually corticosteroid responsive in the acute stage. AbstractAutoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy (GFAP ‐A) was recently reported as a spectrum of autoimmune inflammatory central nervous system disorders characterized by the detecti...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Akio Kimura, Akira Takekoshi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Etsuro Nakanishi, Takayoshi Shimohata Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis factor receptor  2: A potential target for antidepressant drug development
A large body of work implicates cytokines and their related pathways in the pathophysiologies of mood disorders. Much of the data on the role of cytokines in major depression and bipolar disorder suggest pathways regulated by tumor necrosis factor ‐α make a significant contribution to their pathophysiologies. Here, we propose that the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 is a potential target for antidepressant drug design. AbstractA large body of work implicates cytokines and their related pathways in the pathophysiologies of mood disorders. Much of the data on the role of cytokines in major depression and bipola...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Natasha Seymour, Andrew Gibbons, Brian Dean Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Autoimmune encephalitis: What has changed during the past 15  years?
This article reviews the recent advances on the antibody detection, neuroimaging and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis. AbstractNon ‐infectious encephalitis has been a recognized entity for many years; however, its pathophysiology was not fully understood. Patients (usually women) presented with acute behavioral changes and were admitted to mental hospitals, without a correct diagnosis. With the new advances on antibody detect ion, the non‐infectious encephalitis panorama has been changing. Immune‐mediated diseases of the central nervous system encompass a variety of disorders, including the classic paraneoplastic...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Camila Pantoja ‐Ruiz, Catherine Santucci, Luisa Arenas, Laura Casallas, Gabriel Castellanos Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 3, Page 145-146, August 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Non ‐motor symptoms in multiple sclerosis
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 3, Page 147-148, August 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuji Nakatsuji Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Role of diet and gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis: New findings on the role of high ‐salt intake in induction of neuroinflammation
This article is a snapshot of the recent findings about the putative role of high‐salt and high‐fat intake in the pathogenesis of MS. AbstractMultiple etiological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis  (MS). The recent study by Okunoet  al. provides an insight into the interaction of gut microbiota and immune cells in  MS. However, new findings showed that a high‐salt diet is involved in the induction of severe neuroinflammation through the aggravation of T helper 17 pathways and their inflammatory cytokines. The synergistic effects of high‐salt and high‐fat intak...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amir Abdoli, Mirza Ali Mofazzal Jahromi, Abazar Roustazadeh Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Neuropathological features of “non‐motor” symptoms in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica
Neuropathological features of “non‐motor” symptoms in multiple sclerosis. AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are the two main autoimmune demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. MS is defined as autoimmune oligodendrocytopathy (unknown autoantigens), and NMOSD is defined as autoimmune astrocytopathy or aquaporin ‐4 channelopathy. Both diseases can occur throughout the central nervous system, and do often cause various “motor” and “non‐motor” symptoms. “Non‐motor” symptoms, including cognitive impairment, f...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - July 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Izumi Kawachi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Brainstem posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a case with Guillain –Barré syndrome
ConclusionsBP fluctuation and IVIg might have caused PRES in the present case. Neurologists should consider PRES as a differential diagnosis when consciousness is impaired in GBS, especially at the time of IVIg therapy or BP fluctuation. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jun Yokoyama, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Junpei Koge, Takuya Matsushita, Noriko Isobe, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun ‐ichi Kira Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Alternative to steroid therapy for myasthenia gravis and myositis occurring as immune ‐related adverse events
We experienced a case of generalized myasthenia gravis and myositis occurring as immune ‐related adverse events that was curable without steroid therapy, only through the discontinuation of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Although the patient did not receive cancer treatment afterwards, her cancer remained stable. We emphasize that not selecting steroid therapy might enhance the effect of cancer immunotherapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sachiko Kamada, Akira Hanazono, Yui Sanpei, Takamitsu Inoue, Shigeaki Suzuki, Masashiro Sugawara, Katsunori Iijima Tags: Clinical Letter Source Type: research

Expression analysis of cytokine coding genes in blood samples of clozapine ‐treated patients with schizophrenia
We showed dysregulation of expression of certain cytokines in schizophrenic patients in a sex ‐specific manner, which might be due to the sex‐specific nature of schizophrenia or clozapine treatment. Future studies are required to explore the exact mechanisms of such findings. We state the small sample size and lack of expression assay at the protein level as limitations of our study. AbstractObjectivesDysregulation of peripheral immune responses has been detected in schizophrenic patients. Cytokines as the main regulators of immunological processes are also involved in brain development, which supports their putative r...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Alireza Komaki, Mir Davood Omrani, Shahram Arsang ‐Jang, Maziar Ganji, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghaforui‐Fard Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment as one of the important non ‐motor symptoms in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
AbstractCognitive impairment is one of the most important non ‐physical symptoms of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and few studies have reported on cognitive impairments in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Adequate batteries are required to assess cognitive function in MS, and cognitive impairments in patients with MS are likely not adequately evaluated. As cognitive impairment usually affects employment status and activities of daily living in patients with MS and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, the effect of this symptom on daily activities should be closely examined. The present ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Masaaki Niino, Yusei Miyazaki Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pilot study on the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression among Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis
ConclusionsThis pilot study suggests that CBT has the potential to alleviate depressive states for Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiromi Kikuchi, Masaaki Niino, Makoto Hirotani, Yusei Miyazaki, Seiji Kikuchi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Clinical trials for multiple sclerosis: Outcome measures and impact on cognitive function
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex immune ‐mediated disease characterized by recurrent demyelinating episodes of the central nervous system, which is the most common disabling neurological disease of young people. Cognitive impairment is common and one of the disabling symptoms of MS, resulting in reduced quality of life. This often emerg es early in the disease and is independent of physical disability; however, it is more prevalent in progressive disease. With the advent of a number of disease‐modifying drugs, including agents with high efficacy at reducing inflammatory activity, patients with MS can receiv...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hirofumi Ochi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Creutzfeldt –Jakob disease‐like diffusion‐weighted imaging hyperintensity paralleled with neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with limbic encephalitis associated with anti‐voltage‐gated potassium channel complex antibodies
In this report, we describe a case of a 58 ‐year‐old man with limbic encephalitis associated with anti‐voltage‐gated potassium channel complex antibodies (anti‐VGKCC‐ab). He exhibited clinical and diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI) findings suspicious for Creutzfeldt‐Jakob disease (CJD). Unlike similar reported cases, DWI findi ngs paralleled with neuropsychiatric clinical symptoms. Our case emphasizes the importance of anti‐VGKCC‐ab‐associated encephalitis as a differential diagnosis of CJD. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Toshiki Okadome, Taira Uehara, Koji Shinoda, Ken ‐Ichiro Yamashita, Hiroyuki Murai, Noriko Isobe, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun‐Ichi Kira Tags: Images in Neuroimmunology Source Type: research

Lipoprotein receptor ‐related protein 4 autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis: Where are we and where are we going?
Schematic representation of human lipoprotein receptor ‐related protein 4 in the neuromuscular junction. AbstractMyasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction that leads to fatigue of skeletal muscles and fluctuating weakness. The pathogenesis of MG is sufficiently diverse to include autoimmune mechanisms. In most patients with MG, autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor can be detected. In a smaller proportion of patients without anti ‐acetylcholine receptor antibodies, autoantibodies to muscle‐specific kinase and low‐density lipoprotein receptor‐related protein 4...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shunya Nakane, Osamu Higuchi, Koutaro Takamatsu, Akihiro Mukaino, Yasuhiro Maeda, Hidenori Matsuo, Yukio Ando Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Myasthenia gravis in children; Issues and challenges
AbstractAutoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) occurs in children, as well as in adults. Childhood myasthenia gravis is characterized by its distinct clinical features. Epidemiological studies have shown the high frequency of onset before the age of 5  years in Japan. Similar results have been reported from China. Clinical types are divided into pure ocular, latent generalized and generalized. In general, childhood myasthenia gravis is milder, mainly with ocular symptoms. Anti‐acetylcholine receptor antibody is often negative (seronegative). T he responsiveness to treatment is generally good, and almost 90% of patients c...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshiko Nomura Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 75-76, May 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Approach to the unraveled questions over neuromuscular junction diseases
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 77-78, May 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroyuki Murai Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Is there a role for B cells in chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids? A case report
ConclusionsDespite adequate depletion of circulating B  cells, the patient continued to have relapses associated with CLIPPERS. This supports the notion that targeted peripheral B‐cell therapy does not stop the progression of CLIPPERS. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dev Mehta, Hussam Yacoub, Mohammed El ‐Hunjul, Dmitry Khaitov Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Lipoprotein receptor ‐related protein 4 autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis: Where are we and where are we going?
Schematic representation of human lipoprotein receptor ‐related protein 4 in the neuromuscular junction. AbstractMyasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction that leads to fatigue of skeletal muscles and fluctuating weakness. The pathogenesis of MG is sufficiently diverse to include autoimmune mechanisms. In most patients with MG, autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor can be detected. In a smaller proportion of patients without anti ‐acetylcholine receptor antibodies, autoantibodies to muscle‐specific kinase and low‐density lipoprotein receptor‐related protein 4...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shunya Nakane, Osamu Higuchi, Koutaro Takamatsu, Akihiro Mukaino, Yasuhiro Maeda, Hidenori Matsuo, Yukio Ando Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Mysterious presentation of autoantibody in a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patient
ConclusionsAnti ‐AQP4 antibodies detected only by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay might be a false positive result. However, alteration in the immune balance between T‐helper cell type 1 and T‐helper cell type 2 were suspected during the treatment with interferon beta‐1a. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Masashiro Sugawara, Yui Sanpei Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Is Alzheimer's disease linked to Herpes simplex virus type  1 infection? A mini‐review of the molecular correlation and the possible disease connections
In this mini ‐review, we summarize the evidence regarding the molecular correlation between Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease. There are many studies that discuss the link between Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease; however, there is no study focused on the molecular compon ent. Furthermore, we summarize the findings of the previous related case–control studies from 1990 up to the present day. In addition, we mentioned the management approaches of Alzheimer's disease through viral vaccination and prevention of infection. AbstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most commo...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Eshak I. Bahbah, Safaa Fathy, Ahmed Negida Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Utility of experimental animal models of myasthenia gravis for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms and development of new medications
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by the association of pathogenic autoantibodies with postsynaptic membrane proteins at neuromuscular junctions. Establishment of the pathogenicity of candidate antibodies with experimental animal models of myasthenia gravis is indispensable. Here, we review the contributions of animal myasthenia gravis models to the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms of myasthenia gravis and the development of medications for the disease. AbstractMyasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by ptosis, fatigue and muscle weakness, caused by the association of pathogeni...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shuuichi Mori, Kazuhiro Shigemoto Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

CD4+CD25 −LAG3+ regulatory T cells in humoral immunity
AbstractRegulatory T cells (Tregs) are necessary for the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. These Tregs are divided into two main subsets: thymus ‐derived Tregs and peripherally‐derived Tregs. As a thymus‐derived Treg subset, CD4+CD25+ Tregs (CD25+ Tregs) that express the transcription factor, Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), have been extensively studied. Type 1 regulatory T cells are representative Foxp3 ‐independent peripherally‐derived Tregs that produce a large amount of the inhibitory cytokine, interleukin (IL)‐10, and suppress immune responses through IL‐10 production. Accumulating evidence has shown ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mariko Inoue, Tomohisa Okamura, Toshihiko Komai, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Role of diet, gut microbiota, and metabolism in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica
AbstractThe prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been increasing over the past two decades, especially in certain areas, such as the Mediterranean regions and Japan. This increase might be attributed to an altered microbiota and metabolic status in accordance with a change in food habits. Studies on an animal model of MS have led to the hypotheses suggesting the pathogenic role of altered gut microbiota and cellular metabolism of immune cells in MS. Recent studies showed that patients with MS have a distinct gut microbiota composition compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, accumulating evidence highlights the cr...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatsusada Okuno, Makoto Kinoshita, Teruyuki Ishikura, Hideki Mochizuki Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Case of central nervous system inflammatory disease in late pregnancy
ConclusionsWe present a case of a pregnant woman who developed brain inflammatory lesions with unknown etiology. Longitudinal follow up is mandatory for diagnosis with careful tapering of oral prednisolone. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Noriko Isobe, Toshikazu Baba, Yuri Nakamura, Koji Shinoda, Mitsuru Watanabe, Takuya Matsushita, Jun ‐ichi Kira Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

The 5th MS Summer College in Tokyo (4 –5 August 2018) Tolerance and Neuroimmunology
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue S1, Page 69-74, March 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuji Nakatsuji Tags: Congress Report Source Type: research

Disease ‐modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis in Japan: A focus on the 2017 Japanese guidelines and the 2018 supplement
AbstractCurrently, six disease ‐modifying drugs (DMD) for multiple sclerosis are available in Japan: subcutaneous interferon‐β‐1b, intramuscular interferon‐β‐1a, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate. These drugs have different clinical and adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to sele ct the appropriate DMD, and switching from one DMD to another in clinical practice requires careful monitoring. The Japanese guidelines for multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica were revised in 2017, and a supplement to the guidelines for dimethyl fumarate was published in 2018. Here...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Masaaki Niino, Yusei Miyazaki Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of demyelinating diseases: An update
AbstractMajor demyelinating diseases include multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) encephalomyelitis. As treatment strategies differ among these diseases, precise diagnosis of demyelinating diseases is crucial, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis. In the present review, MRI appearances of characteristic lesions of these demyelinating diseases, and differentiation between MS and other demyelinating diseases based on MRI findings are discussed. (Source: Clinical a...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yukio Miki Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Mucosal tolerance therapy in humans: Past and future
AbstractMucosal tolerance refers to the physiological process by which exposure of proteins to the mucosal surface preferentially induces tolerance. The route of mucosal administration can determine the type of regulatory T (Treg) cells induced, with the oral route inducing transforming growth factor ‐β‐producing Treg cells and the nasal route inducing interleukin‐10‐secreting Treg cells. Previous studies of oral tolerance to autoantigens in humans, including patients with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, led to mixed results and negative phase III trials, althoug h oral immunotherap...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rafael M. Rezende, Laura M. Cox, Howard L. Weiner Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue S1, Page 1-2, March 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Tolerance and Neuroimmunology
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue S1, Page 3-3, March 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Makoto Matsui Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Announcement from the 5th MS Summer College in Tokyo
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue S1, Page 83-83, March 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Award Announcement Source Type: research

The 5th MS Summer College in Tokyo (4 –5 August 2018)
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue S1, Page 75-82, March 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Debate on the treatment of multiple sclerosis: Experience from an intractable multiple sclerosis case with rebound syndrome after fingolimod cessation
ConclusionsRebound syndrome is an intractable complication of exit strategy for fingolimod ‐treated RRMS patients. To lower the risk for rebound syndrome, specific mechanisms of rebound syndrome are to be clarified. Furthermore, concise risk stratification for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in fingolimod treatment is imperative. Taken together, the risk–benefit analysis fo r fingolimod treatment, including rebound syndrome as well as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, is required to initiate the drug. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroshi Kuroda, Shuhei Nishiyama, Yuki Matsumoto, Tatsuro Misu, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Brain volume decrease in patients with multiple sclerosis investigated by 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner: A 4 ‐year observation study
ConclusionsWe could not determine the effect of fingolimod on brain volume decrease, because all patients treated with fingolimod were initially treated with interferon during the study period. The early administration of disease ‐modifying drugs is recommended from the perspective of minimizing decreases in brain volume. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Takahiro Nakayama, Takuya Sasaki, Mizuki Kitamura, Ichiro Imafuku Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Is there a role for B  cells in chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids? A case report
ConclusionsDespite adequate depletion of circulating B  cells, the patient continued to have relapses associated with CLIPPERS. This supports the notion that targeted peripheral B‐cell therapy does not stop the progression of CLIPPERS. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dev Mehta, Hussam Yacoub, Mohammed El ‐Hunjul, Dmitry Khaitov Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Induction of C ‐C motif chemokine ligand 2 through Toll‐like receptor 3 signaling in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell/D3 cells: possible regulation by nuclear factor‐κB
ConclusionsCCL2 expression was induced by poly IC through TLR3 signaling, and NF ‐κB is involved in this reaction. CCL2 produced by human brain endothelial cells might induce the infiltration of monocytes followed by immune and inflammatory reactions in the brain, and could be involved in the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Naoko Sassa, Koji Hirono, Toshihiro Shiratori, Shogo Kawaguchi, Tomoh Matsumiya, Hidemi Yoshida, Kazuhiko Seya, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Long non ‐coding RNA AFAP1‐AS1 is upregulated in a subset of multiple sclerosis patients
ConclusionsThe current study implies the role ofAFAP1 ‐AS1 dysregulation in the pathogenesis of a certain group of MS patients. Future studies are required to elaborate the underlying mechanism of such dysregulation. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mohammad M. Eftekharian, Alireza Komaki, Shahram Arsang ‐Jang, Soudeh Ghafouri‐Fard, Mohammad Taheri Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Semaphorin 4A as a biomarker of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Various kinds of disease ‐modifying drugs have been approved for multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis patients with high serum semaphorin 4A levels do not respond effectively to interferon‐β therapy and show a favorable response to fingolimod. Regarding patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, we found that a certain proportion of patients show a high level of serum semaphorin 4A. AbstractSelecting appropriate treatment from the early stage of the disease is important for a better prognosis for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although various disease ‐modifying drugs have been app...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatsusada Okuno, Teruyuki Ishikura, Makoto Kinoshita, Yuji Nakatsuji, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Hideki Mochizuki Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 1-2, February 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

A thank you note to our reviewers
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 74-74, February 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Acknowledgment Source Type: research

Biomarkers of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 3-4, February 2019. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hideyuki Takeuchi Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Difference in cytokines, chemokines and growth factors produced by blood –brain barrier‐ and blood–nerve barrier‐composing cells
ConclusionsSimilar to brain pericytes and astrocytes, peripheral nerve pericytes produce several cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. This suggests that these cells contribute to the barrier functions in the BNB, in the same manners as brain pericytes and astrocytes do in the BBB. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mariko Oishi, Fumitaka Shimizu, Yasuteru Sano, Yukio Takeshita, Toshihiko Maeda, Susumu Fujikawa, Masaya Honda, Ryota Sato, Takashi Kanda Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Association between peripheral plasmablasts and postoperative exacerbation in patients with thymoma ‐associated myasthenia gravis
ConclusionsIn patients with exacerbation of neurological symptoms after thymectomy for TAMG, the plasmablast levels were originally high and/or became high postoperatively. Thus, elevated plasmablast levels could potentially be predictive of postoperative exacerbation of MG. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shoko Izaki, Satoru Tanaka, Satoru Oji, Akihiro Kubota, Hikoaki Fukaura, Mitsuo Nakayama, Kyoichi Nomura Tags: Original Article Source Type: research