Lymphocytes are inextricably linked to multiple sclerosis
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, EarlyView. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sachiko Miyake Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

B  cells in autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system
B  cells have important roles in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Antibody‐independent B‐cell functions are involved in the pathogenesis of central nervous system inflammatory diseases. A deeper understanding of B‐cell functions should provide new strategies for the treatmen t of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. AbstractB  cells are key players in humoral immune responses and have important roles in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Accumulating evidence has shown that antibody‐independent B‐cell functions, antigen presentation ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - June 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Daisuke Noto, Sachiko Miyake Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Case of an anti ‐N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor encephalitis patient responding to cyclophosphamide with significant brain volume recovery
ConclusionsCyclophosphamide should be considered for nonresponders to first ‐line immunotherapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shinji Ashida, Eijirou Tanaka, Shiori Ogura, Keiko Maezono, Yoshinari Nagakane Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

B cells in autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system
AbstractB cells are key players in humoral immune responses and have important roles in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Accumulating evidence has indicated that antibody ‐independent B cell functions, antigen presentation to T cells, and the production of cytokines, are involved in the pathogenesis of CNS inflammatory diseases. However, the precise pathomechanisms of impaired B cell tolerance and production of autoantibodies against CNS autoantigens are still unkn own. In this review, we summarize the effector functions of B cells in the pathogenesis of the CNS autoimmune diseases, multiple scl...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Daisuke Noto, Sachiko Miyake Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE (INVITED) Source Type: research

Anti ‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor encephalitis unresponsive to early and aggressive immunotherapy in a young female: A case report
ConclusionsDespite early diagnosis, and prompt therapy, anti ‐NMDAR encephalitis may progress and remain refractory to treatment. More studies are needed for further therapeutic avenues in treatment‐refractory cases of anti‐NMDAR encephalitis not responding even to cyclophosphamide as highlighted by our case. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harleen Kaur, Gaurav Kumar Mittal Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Regulatory B  cells in neuroimmunological diseases
AbstractThe idea that B  cells participate in immune regulation was initially postulated from observations in animals in the 1970s. It is now established that certain B‐cell populations, known as regulatory B cells, regulate immune reactions in various animal models of autoimmunity, chiefly through the production of in terleukin‐10. Subsequent to these findings in animals, several B‐cell subsets have been identified in human blood that are capable of producing interleukin‐10 when stimulatedex vivo. Although we still do not have direct evidence showing that these interleukin ‐10‐producing B cells ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yusei Miyazaki, Masaaki Niino Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Case of an anti ‐NMDA receptor encephalitis patient responding to cyclophosphamide with significant brain volume recovery
Conclusions] CPM should be considered for non‐responders to first‐line immunotherapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shinji Ashida, Eijirou Tanaka, Shiori Ogura, Keiko Maezono, Yoshinari Nagakane Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Recent topics in inflammatory neuropathies
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 86-87, May 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 83-85, May 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Anti ‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (anti‐NMDAR) Encephalitis unresponsive to early and aggressive immunotherapy in a young female: A Case Report
ConclusionsDespite early diagnosis, and prompt therapy, anti ‐NMDAR encephalitis may progress and remain refractory to treatment. More studies are needed for further therapeutic avenues in treatment refractory cases of anti‐NMDAR encephalitis not responding even to cyclophosphamide as highlighted by our case. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harleen Kaur, Gaurav Kumar Mittal Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

A case of multiple sclerosis with negatively converted anti ‐natalizumab antibodies
ConclusionsEven if the neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab are positive, treatment continuation may be considered if the therapeutic effect is certain and the side effects are within the allowable range. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Katsuichi Miyamoto, Susumu Kusunoki Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Role of effector T  cells in multiple sclerosis
This figure entitled "Multiple factors affect the role of effector T  cells in MS" describes an image that effector T cells orchestrate the inflammation disrupting the myelin sheaths further leading to neurologic symptoms and multiple factors are associated with the role of effector T cells in MS. AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, and the imbalance between autoimmunity and immune tolerance is considered to be the key factor for its pathogenesis. Effector T  cells are shown to be involved not only in the early relapsing–remitt...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Norio Chihara Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Amphiphysin expression in a case of occult cancer with paraneoplastic stiff ‐person syndrome
The evaluation of the amphiphysin expression in the metastatic lesion was helpful for the diagnosis of paraneoplastic Stiff ‐Person syndrome associated with occult breast cancer. Our image may support to realize that the expression of amphiphysin in the metastatic lesion caused this rare symptom. Occult cancer is not rare in paraneoplastic syndromes, so we believe that the assessment of auto‐antigen expression in the metastatic lesion may help our diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshimitsu Doi, Shimon Ishida Tags: IMAGE IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Aims of the Childhood Myasthenia Gravis Study Group in Japan
The Childhood Myasthenia Gravis Study Group in Japan held an annual workshop for 12  years (from 2006 to 2017), where the participants debated and obtained information about the clinical problems and related basic sciences of childhood myasthenia gravis. We would like to summarize and introduce the content discussed on this workshop. AbstractA Japanese epidemiological study about the age of onset of myasthenia gravis (MG) showed the highest peak at ages
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Masatoshi Hayashi, Yoshiko Nomura Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Central nervous system lupus presenting as rhombencephalitis responding to aggressive immunotherapy: A unique case
ConclusionsCentral nervous system lupus should be included in the provisional diagnosis of any young female patient presenting with complicated neurologic manifestations over the background of joint pain or fever or headache or confusion or psychosis, to avoid misdiagnosis and aid in timely institution of aggressive immunotherapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harleen Kaur, Gaurav K. Mittal, Jennifer Singhdev Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy patients with antibodies against paranodal proteins
AbstractChronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune ‐mediated polyneuropathy characterized by relapsing or steadily progressive clinical course. A major feature of the syndrome is that it encompasses several pathogeneses, and it is actually assumed that both cellular and humoral immunity can be involved with superiority depending on the particular subtype. Although cellular immunity typified by macrophage‐derived demyelination can play an essential role in classical CIDP, other pathogeneses that involve humoral immunity, such as autoantibodies targeting node of Ranvier protein...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Masahiro Iijima Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Role of effector T cells in multiple sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and the imbalance between autoimmunity and immune tolerance is considered to be the key factor for its pathogenesis. Effector T cells are shown to be involved not only in the early relapse ‐remitting phase of this disease but also in the later progressive phase, which is thought to further promote the disease pathogenesis. Given the clinical benefits of the immune modulating reagents, which are designated as disease‐modifying treatments, growing evidences have demonstrated their a ssociation with the amelioration of pathogen...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Norio Chihara Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE (INVITED) Source Type: research

Serum anti ‐thyroid antibodies in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: a never‐ending story
ABSTRACTHashimoto ’s encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological disorder characterized by high serum concentration of anti‐thyroid antibodies (ATA), a wide array of neurological disorders (i.e. seizures, cerebellar syndrome, psychiatric symptoms, etc), and responsiveness to steroid therapy1. Although the detection of serum ATA [namely anti ‐thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies and anti‐thyroglobulin (TG) antibodies] is a hallmark of HE, comparable increased serum ATA levels can also be detected in normal subjects2. The precise role of these antibodies in the aetiopathogenesis of HE is therefore not clear. An open que...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - May 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tommaso Ercoli, Federica Genitori, Giovanni Defazio, Antonella Muroni Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

CNS Lupus presenting as rhombencephalitis responding to aggressive immunotherapy: A unique case
ConclusionsCNS lupus should be included in the provisional diagnosis of any young female patient presenting with complicated neurological manifestations over the background of joint pain or fever or headache or confusion or psychosis, in order to avoid misdiagnosis and aid in timely institution of aggressive immunotherapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harleen Kaur, Gaurav Kumar Mittal, Jennifer Singhdev Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis
AbstractRegulatory T (Treg) cells are known to suppress excessive inflammation in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Accumulating evidence suggests that the frequency and suppressive function of Treg cells are altered in patients with MS, which might be involved in development and exacerbation of the disease. Besides, there are several Treg cell populations with distinct functions, which are differently affected by MS. The importance of these observations is supported by studies using an animal disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The environmental factors are also discussed ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kimitoshi Kimura Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Long ‐term prognosis of Japanese Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome patients with or without small‐cell lung carcinoma
ConclusionsIn Japanese LEMS patients, the long ‐term neurological outcome is generally favorable. Our results also suggest that even in LEMS with SCLC patients, successful treatment for their cancer could result in sustained improvement in neurological symptoms. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuta Kojima, Akiyuki Uzawa, Kazumoto Shibuya, Manato Yasuda, Yukiko Ozawa, Fumiko Oda, Hirokazu Shiraishi, Masakatsu Motomura, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Treatment of CIDP patients with antibodies against paranodal proteins
AbstractChronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune ‐mediated polyneuropathy characterized by relapsing or steadily progressive clinical course. A major feature of the syndrome is that it encompasses several pathogeneses, and it is actually assumed that both cellular and humoral immunity can be involved with superiority depending on the particular subtype. While cellular immunity typified by macrophage‐derived demyelination can play an essential role in classical CIDP, other pathogeneses that involve humoral immunity, such as autoantibodies targeting Node of Ranvier proteins (...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Masahiro Iijima Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE (INVITED) Source Type: research

The amphiphysin expression in a case of occult cancer with paraneoplastic Stiff ‐Person syndrome
AbstractA 35 ‐year‐old woman with massive painful rigidity and superimposed spasms in extremities was admitted to our hospital. Her right axial lymph nodes were as much swollen as a head of thumb. The biopsy assay from a right axial lymph node indicated a ductal metastatic carcinoma. Further the immunohistoc hemistry (IH) clearly showed the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the cancer cells (Figure 1). Curiously, no origin was detected in her breast by imaging analysis, including mammography, ultrasonography, CT and PET‐CT. Therefore we considered that she suffered from occult bre...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshimitsu Doi, Shimon Ishida Tags: IMAGE IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Regulatory B cells in neuroimmunological diseases
AbstractThe idea that B cells participate in immune regulation was initially postulated from observations in animals in the 1970s. It is now established that certain B ‐cell populations known as regulatory B cells regulate immune reactions in various animal models of autoimmunity, chiefly through the production of interleukin‐10. Subsequent to these findings in animals, several B cell subsets have been identified in human blood that are capable of producing in terleukin‐10 when stimulatedex vivo. Although we still do not have direct evidence showing that these interlukin ‐10 producing B cells regulate autoimmunity ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yusei Miyazaki, Masaaki Niino Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE (INVITED) Source Type: research

Guillain ‐Barré syndrome: novel treatment by complement inhibition
AbstractGuillain ‐Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune‐mediated polyneuropathy which can cause acute flaccid tetraparesis and respiratory failure. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis were established as a standard of care, but 20%–30% of patients require mechanical ventilation during acute phase and up to 20% of patients cannot walk independently even one year after the onset.As the pathophysiology of GBS has been elucidated, complement activation draws attention as a key treatment point. In acute motor axonal neuropathy, anti ‐ganglioside antibody deposition and resulting complement activation le...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sonoko Misawa, Tomoki Suichi Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE (INVITED) Source Type: research

Diagnostic revisions in Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractObjectivesThe diagnostic criteria for inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs) of the central nervous system (CNS) have evolved over the last years. Close follow ‐up and accurate multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis are key to optimal treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who had a diagnostic revision.MethodsThe medical records of patients referred to our MS Clinic (n=635), between 2009 and 2016 were reviewed. Sixty ‐two patients were identified, 44 were misdiagnosed with MS; 18 had another diagnosis, later redefined as MS. Forty‐four controls (with MS diagnosis), were matched to the 44 misdiagno...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mafalda Maria Laracho de Seabra, Pedro Miguel Paredes Abreu, Maria Teresa Soares Mendon ça, Joaquim Jorge Correia Silva Reis, Maria José Pontes Marques Sá, Joana Cruz Guimarães Ferreira Almeida Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

What “Childhood Myasthenia Gravis Study Group in Japan” aimed
AbstractA Japanese epidemiological study about the age of onset of myasthenia gravis (MG) shows the highest peak at ages younger than 5 years old besides the peak observed in the adult, which was confirmed in east Asian people such as Korea, China, Hongkong, and is different from that observed in Caucasians.The Childhood MG Study Group in Japan has held an annual workshop for 12 years (from 2006 to 2017), in which the participants debate and obtain information about the clinical problems and related basic sciences of childhood MG.This workshop features two kinds of presentations: research and clinical experiences. For the ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - April 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Masatoshi Hayashi, Yoshiko Nomura Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Anti ‐nodal/paranodal antibodies in human demyelinating disorders
AbstractAnti ‐nodal/paranodal antibodies have been reported in human demyelinating disorders. Anti‐nodal protein antibodies, namely, anti‐neurofascin (NF) 186 antibodies and antibodies against paranodal proteins, such as NF155, contactin 1 (CNTN1), and contactin‐associated protein 1 (CASPR1), are found i n subsets of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In particular, CIDP patients with IgG4 anti‐NF155 antibodies and those with IgG4 anti‐CNTN1 antibodies commonly show sensory ataxia, severe demyelination on nerve conduction studies, very high cerebrospinal (CSF) protein leve ls and poor res...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hidenori Ogata Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Novel animal model of multiple sclerosis: The glial connexin gap junction as an environmental tuner for neuroinflammation
AbstractConnexins, which comprise gap junctions (GJs) via homotypic/heterotypic oligomerization, act as channels to connect opposing cells, mainly in solid organs such as the skin, liver, heart, and central/peripheral nervous system. Connexins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, assembled in the Golgi apparatus as hexamers, and inserted into the cell membrane as hemichannels. These hemichannels are closed under normal conditions until they combine to form clusters and connect to neighboring cells via GJs in a head ‐to‐head configuration. Opening of hemichannels, which depends on the intra‐ or extracellular ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryo Yamasaki Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Anti ‐plexin D1 antibody–mediated neuropathic pain
AbstractNeuropathic pain (NeP) is an intractable pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. NeP is often challenging to manage because most of the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent investigations in the field of autoimmune neurology have demonstrated that specific autoantibodies against antigens in the somatosensory pathway can cause NeP. Detection of pathogenic autoantibodies in NeP adds to the understanding of the mechanism of pain, which might aid in the development of novel immunotherapies. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel NeP ‐related autoantibodies to improve the man...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Takayuki Fujii, Ryo Yamasaki, Yukino Miyachi, Kyoko Iinuma, Jun ‐ichi Kira Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin  G‐associated disease
AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a minor myelin protein localized at the outermost layer of the myelin sheath. Cell ‐based assays to detect conformation‐sensitive MOG‐immunoglobulin G (IgG) have identified a unique group of patients with optic neuritis, acute/multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis, encephalitides (brainstem and cerebral cortical), myelitis and aquaporin‐4 IgG‐negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. MOG‐IgG‐associated disease affects both children and adults, and the female : male ratio is almost 1:1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination shows ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Tatsuro Misu, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Recent advances in understanding connexin gap junction pathology in demyelinating diseases
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and Bal ó’s disease (BD) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We previously reported that aquaporin‐4 antibody‐independent astrocytopathy can occur in heterogeneous demyelinating conditions. We focused on connexins (Cxs), which form gap junctions between astrocytes a nd oligodendrocytes to form the glial syncytium of the central nervous system. We investigated the pathological expression pattern of Cx43/Cx30 in astrocytes, and Cx47/Cx32 in oligodendrocytes in autopsied samples from MS, NMOSD a...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Katsuhisa Masaki Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Mechanism of demyelination and remyelination in multiple sclerosis
We examined the oligodendrocyte‐mediated demyelination and axonal injury. To address this issue, we established a new scanning electron microscopy analysis to observe ultrastructural myelin morphology. In addition, we focused on kallik rein 6, a serine protease, secreted by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and proposed a new molecular mechanism of kallikrein 6‐mediated demyelination. In this article, we discuss the pathological roles of oligodendrocytes in mouse models of EAE. We also highlight recent findings of abnormal myelin formation and axonal injury in EAE. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshio Bando Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

The 6th MS Summer College in Fukuoka (3 ‐4 August 2019)
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue S1, Page 57-66, March 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: ABSTRACTS Source Type: research

Double positivity for anti ‐N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor and anti‐aquaporin‐4 antibodies in a patient presenting with hypersomnolence, personality change, and reduced spontaneity
ConclusionsAlthough her main symptoms were compatible with NMDARE, MRI findings were more compatible with NMOSD. Therefore, we interpreted her clinical and imaging features as a mixed phenotype of NMOSD and NMDARE. This case report provides additional evidence that double positivity for AQP4 ‐ab and NMDAR‐ab is associated with a mixed phenotype of NMOSD and NMDARE. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Motoi Yoshimura, Taira Uehara, Eizo Tanaka, Toshiki Okadome, Takahiro Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Maeda, Noriko Isobe, Takuya Matsushita, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun ‐ichi Kira Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue S1, Page 1-2, March 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Award Announcement from the 6th MS Summer College in Fukuoka
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue S1, Page 67-67, March 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jun ‐ichi Kira Tags: AWARD ANNOUNCEMENT Source Type: research

Autoantibody ‐mediated neuroinflammation and molecular neuropathology in demyelinating disorders
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue S1, Page 3-3, March 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jun ‐ichi Kira Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Perivenous demyelination: Association with anti ‐myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody
AbstractBy the discovery of an antibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the clinical and radiological findings of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) such as diffuse cerebral or longitudinally extended spinal cord lesions had been clarified as distinct features from multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological studies in NMO demonstrated loss of immunoreactivity to AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein but a relative preservation of myelin basic protein, especially at the lesions with perivascular deposition of immunoglobulins and complements, suggesting autoimmune disease against astrocytes. In recent years, the antibody against myelin oligode...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tatsuro Misu, Yoshiki Takai, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Long ‐term prognosis of Japanese Lambert‐Eaton myasthenic syndrome patients with or without small cell lung carcinoma
ConclusionsIn Japanese LEMS patients, the long ‐term neurological outcome is generally favorable. Our results also suggest that even in LEMS with SCLC patients, successful treatment for their cancer could result in sustained improvement of neurological symptoms. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuta Kojima, Akiyuki Uzawa, Kazumoto Shibuya, Manato Yasuda, Yukiko Ozawa, Fumiko Oda, Hirokazu Shiraishi, Masakatsu Motomura, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Marked neurological and immunological improvement in refractory eosinophilic granulomatous polyangiitis after treatment with mepolizumab, an anti ‐interleukin‐5 antibody: A case report
ConclusionsMepolizumab can be considered as an important induction therapy option for active relapsing or refractory EGPA. It has the potential to effectively improve neurological disturbances associated with severe neuropathy in EGPA. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Manato Yasuda, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoki Suichi, Sonoko Misawa, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

GRP78 antibodies are associated with blood –brain barrier breakdown in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in Lambert‐Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, EarlyView. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fumitaka Shimizu, Takashi Kanda Tags: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROIMMUNOLOGY Source Type: research

Palatal tremor and intact Guillain ‐Mollaret triangle secondary to Hashimoto’s encephalopathy
ConclusionsGiven the reversibility of clinical manifestations, Hashimoto ’s encephalopathy should be in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained seizures or encephalopathy who present with these symptoms or other involuntary movements. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - March 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Indhira Zabala ‐Angeles, Adriana Casallas‐Vanegas, Christian Garcia‐Estrada, Enrique Gomez‐Figueroa, Miguel Simon‐Arcos, Mariana Marcin, de María Ugalde‐Mejía, Teresita Corona‐Vázquez, José Flores‐Rivera, Verónica Rivas‐Alo Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Charcot –Marie–Tooth disease and neuroinflammation
Charcot –Marie–Tooth disease possibly presents neurophysiological or pathological demyelinating features resembling acquired immune‐mediated polyneuropathies. The involvement of the immune system in the development of demyelination in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease was established by experimental ani mal studies. AbstractPatients with the misdiagnosis or co ‐occurrence of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) and inflammatory neuropathies have been reported previously. Both CMT and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have similar clinical features, including fla...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Norito Kokubun Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes syndrome: Diagnosis, treatment and the current status in Japan
Patients with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes syndrome are currently treated with therapeutic options for multiple myeloma, and this disease is a treatable disease. Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment in the early stage of the disease are essential to further improve prognosis. This review focuses on diagnosis, treatment and the current status of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes syndrome in Japan. AbstractPolyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomoki Suichi, Sonoko Misawa Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue 1, Page 1-2, February 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Physiological and pathological brain ‐immune system interactions
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue 1, Page 3-4, February 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Atsuyoshi Shimada, Takanori Yokota Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

A thank you note to our reviewers
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue 1, Page 82-82, February 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Acknowledgement Source Type: research

Announcement of 2016 Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology Best Article Award
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology, Volume 11, Issue 1, Page 78-78, February 2020. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroyuki Murai Tags: AWARD ANNOUNCEMENT Source Type: research

Refractory case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody ‐associated encephalomyelitis with lumbosacral radiculitis
ConclusionsThe mechanisms of peripheral nerve system involvement in MOG ‐EM are unknown, but the present case suggests that MOG‐EM might occasionally combine with peripheral nerve system disturbance. Lumbosacral radiculitis combined with MOG‐IgG can be refractory, and serious sequela might be observed. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - February 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Masashi Nakamura, Juichi Fujimori, Michiko Kobayashi, Aya Ishigaki, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Koichi Miyazawa, Kazuhiko Sato, Emiko Kawasaski, Yasushi Suzuki, Ichiro Nakashima Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research