Novel Transgenic Rice-Based Vaccines
We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines. (Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis)
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - March 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Molecular and Chemical Engineering of Bacteriophages for Potential Medical Applications
Abstract Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug discovery. Phages also offer solutions for modern cell imaging, biosensor construction or food pathogen detection. ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - March 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage Phenotype in the Ocular Surface of Experimental Murine Dry Eye Disease
Abstract To evaluate the phenotype of macrophages in the cornea and conjunctiva of C57BL/6 mice with induced experimental dry eye. C57BL/6 mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 days and C57BL/6 mice maintained in non-stressed environment were used as controls. Whole eyes and adnexa were excised for histology or used for gene expression analysis. Location and phenotype of macrophages infiltrating the cornea and conjunctiva was evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction evaluated macrophage markers and T cell-related and inflammatory cy...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - March 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

9α,11β-PGF 2 , a Prostaglandin D 2 Metabolite, as a Marker of Mast Cell Activation in Bee Venom-Allergic Patients
Abstract Mast cell (MC) mediators, among them prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and 9α,11β-PGF2, PGD2’s metabolite, play a key role in allergic reactions, including bee venom anaphylaxis (BVA). Assessment of these mediators has never been performed in BVA. The aim of the study was to assess the activation of MC during in vivo provocation with bee venom (BV) and to measure PGD2 and 9α,11β-PGF2 in the course of an allergen challenge. The second aim was to determine if assessment of these mediators could be useful for predicting adverse events during venom immunotherapy (VIT). In 16 BV-VIT patients ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - March 12, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Targeted Multiple Antigenic Peptide Vaccine Augments the Immune Response to Self TGF-β1 and Suppresses Ongoing Hepatic Fibrosis
Abstract Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression is induced upon liver injury, and plays a critical role in hepatic fibrosis. Antibodies against TGF-β1 represent a novel approach in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. However, TGF-β1 is not a suitable antigen due to immunological tolerance. In the current study, we synthesized a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccine against the dominant B-cell epitope of TGF-β1. The immunogenicity and potential therapeutic effects of this vaccine were examined using a rat model of hepatic fibrosis. Dominant B-cell epitopes of TGF-β1 were identifie...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - March 5, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

From Mysterious Supernatant Entity to miRNA-150 in Antigen-Specific Exosomes: a History of Hapten-Specific T Suppressor Factor
Abstract Soon after the discovery of T suppressor cells by Gershon in 1970, it was demonstrated that one subpopulation of these lymphocytes induced by i.v. hapten injection suppresses contact sensitivity response mediated by effector CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in mice through the release of soluble T suppressor factor (TsF) that acts antigen specifically. Our experiments showed that biologically active TsF is a complex entity consisting of two subfactors, one antigen specific and other non-specific, produced by differently induced populations of cells. In following years, we found that the antigen-specific subfactor is ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human Microbiome: When a Friend Becomes an Enemy
Abstract The microorganisms that inhabit humans are very diverse on different body sites and tracts. Each specific niche contains a unique composition of the microorganisms that are important for a balanced human physiology. Microbial cells outnumber human cells by tenfold and they function as an invisible organ that is called the microbiome. Excessive use of antibiotics and unhealthy diets pose a serious danger to the composition of the microbiome. An imbalance in the microbial community may cause pathological conditions of the digestive system such as obesity, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease; of the skin s...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - February 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD133-Positive Cells from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Show Distinct Sensitivity to Cisplatin and Afatinib
This article will address the role of the CD133/EpCAM stem cell-related markers and explore cell sensitivity to cisplatin and to the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, afatinib. Three human NSCLC cell lines, one wild-type (A549) and two harboring EGFR mutations (H1650 and H1975), as well as 20 NSCLC primary cultures, were grown in non-differentiating culture conditions for stem cell enrichment. Flow-cytometry analyses of CD133 and EpCAM and cell sensitivity to cisplatin and afatinib were performed. Moreover, the expression of activated EGFR was assessed by Western blot. The cell lines and primary cultures grown in non-differe...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - February 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mucosal Immune Development in Early Life: Setting the Stage
Abstract Our environment poses a constant threat to our health. To survive, all organisms must be able to discriminate between good (food ingredients and microbes that help digest our food) and bad (pathogenic microbes, viruses and toxins). In vertebrates, discrimination between beneficial and harmful antigens mainly occurs at the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, digestive, urinary and genital tract. Here, an extensive network of cells and organs form the basis of what we have come to know as the mucosal immune system. The mucosal immune system is composed of a single epithelial cell layer protected by a mucus...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prolonged Treatment with Inhaled Corticosteroids does not Normalize High Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Exhaled Breath Condensates of Children with Asthma
Abstract The airway remodeling in asthma is associated with increased amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. High levels of MMP-9 were found in mucosal biopsies, sputum and in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of asthma patients. However, there are no data concerning real in vivo activity. Inhaled corticosteroids are effective in asthma control, but it is unclear, whether they only attenuate inflammation, or also protect against progressive remodeling of respiratory tract. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the amount and activity of MMP-9 in context of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tum...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - February 4, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Caspases as the Key Effectors of Inflammatory Responses Against Bacterial Infection
Abstract Caspase cysteine proteases are factors widely recognized for their role in the induction of apoptotic cell death. Caspases induce apoptosis during the inflammatory response to pathogen infection; in addition, caspases such as caspase-1 and caspase-11 are known to be involved in the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial infections. Caspase-1 is activated in the inflammasome, an intracellular protein complex that is formed by the recognition of intracellular ligands or cellular stresses by sensor molecules such as NOD-like receptors. Under certain conditions, caspase-11 is required ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - January 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Allergy and the Oral Immunotherapy Approach
Abstract Food allergy represents an increasing health problem, with children being the most affected population. The symptoms can appear within minutes or hours of ingesting the offending food, producing skin manifestations, respiratory, gastrointestinal and anaphylactic reactions in the severe forms. Food allergy is established by the loss of tolerance to food proteins, and is characterized by an altered balance of regulatory T (Treg) cells and the shift to Th2 type cytokines in the intestinal lamina propria. We have described the contribution of different factors in establishing oral tolerance, such as the anti...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - January 13, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innate Lymphoid Cells in Type 2 Immune Responses
Abstract In recent years, several distinct innate lymphoid cell populations (ILC) have been characterized in mice and humans. Group 2 ILC function as a rapid responder population in type 2 immune responses. Thus, a wealth of data has implicated an important role for ILC2 in immunity to parasitic infection and in immune pathology in inflammatory and allergic responses. In this review, we describe recent progress in our understanding of the development and ontogeny of ILC2 populations and the mechanisms by which these cells function in a variety of infection and disease settings. Finally, we emphasize recent finding...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - December 20, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Transmission-Blocking Vaccines: Focus on Anti-Vector Vaccines against Tick-Borne Diseases
Abstract Tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. Vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. With the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. In this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking vaccines) against wide range of hard and soft ticks that include Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, R...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - December 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Expression of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products, a Target for High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein, and its Role in Chronic Recalcitrant Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps
Abstract A receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been linked to several chronic diseases, and acts as a trigger for inflammation signaling. Here, we study RAGE and HMGB1 expression in chronic, recalcitrant rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) to determine its potential clinical significance, i.e., disease recurrence and severity. RAGE and HMGB1 expression in CRSwNP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells of fresh sinonasal mucosa samples obtained from the patients diagnosed with recalcitrant CRSwNP (n = 25) ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - December 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Transcription Factors and Epigenetic Modulation: Its Therapeutic Implication in Chronic Kidney Disease
Abstract Recently emerging evidence has shown that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in initiation and progression of various diseases, including kidney diseases. In the present article, we review the current data regarding the role of epigenetic modulation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney fibrosis, including DNA methylation and histone modification. Especially we focused on the role of transcription factors in epigenetic modulation and the possibility of therapeutic target of CKD. We have recently reported that transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (also known as gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor) ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - December 11, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human Antibody Production in Transgenic Animals
Abstract Fully human antibodies from transgenic animals account for an increasing number of new therapeutics. After immunization, diverse human monoclonal antibodies of high affinity can be obtained from transgenic rodents, while large animals, such as transchromosomic cattle, have produced respectable amounts of specific human immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum. Several strategies to derive animals expressing human antibody repertoires have been successful. In rodents, gene loci on bacterial artificial chromosomes or yeast artificial chromosomes were integrated by oocyte microinjection or transfection of embryonic stem...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - December 3, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Stem Cell-Based Approaches to Improve Nerve Regeneration: Potential Implications for Reconstructive Transplantation?
Abstract Reconstructive transplantation has become a viable option to restore form and function after devastating tissue loss. Functional recovery is a key determinant of overall success and critically depends on the quality and pace of nerve regeneration. Several molecular and cell-based therapies have been postulated and tested in pre-clinical animal models to enhance nerve regeneration. Schwann cells remain the mainstay of research focus providing neurotrophic support and signaling cues for regenerating axons. Alternative cell sources such as mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stromal cells have also be...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 27, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase: Soldier and Statesman
(Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis)
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Restoring TRAIL Mediated Signaling in Ovarian Cancer Cells
Abstract Ovarian cancer has emerged as a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Genetic/epigenetic mutations, suppression of tumor suppressors, overexpression of oncogenes, rewiring of intracellular signaling cascades and loss of apoptosis are some of the deeply studied mechanisms. In vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted different molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer. In this review, we bring to limelight, expansion in understanding systematical characterization of ovarian cancer cells has led to the ra...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity in the Differentiation and Function of CD8 + T Cells
Abstract It is well established that CD8+ T cells constitute an important branch of adaptive immunity contributing to clearance of intracellular pathogens and providing long-term protection. These functions are mostly fulfilled by the best characterized subpopulation of CD8+ T cells, the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (also called Tc1 cells), owing to their ability to kill infected cells and to secrete cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. However, there is growing evidence for alternative CD8+ T cell fates influencing CD4+ T-cell-mediated responses in the context of allergy, autoimmuni...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Economic Impact Profiling of CBRN Events: Focusing on Biological Incidents
Abstract Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Diethylcarbamazine Citrate and Setaria equina Excretory–Secretory Material on Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Abstract Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) has been known for its efficacy to eradicate bancroftian filariasis in Egypt and other countries in the world. One of the known effects was to decrease the level of circulating filarial antigen in the patient’s serum. The target of this study was to examine the effect of DEC, excretory–secretory (ES) material from the filarial parasite Setaria equina or a combination of both on the status of oxidative stress and pathogenesis of rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. This could be tested in vitro using nitrob...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Osteopontin in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic disease, caused by a variety of factors, which lead to immunological abnormalities. Osteopontin (OPN) is a pleiotropic protein, important in bone remodeling and immune system signaling. OPN, produced by various cells, including immune cells, plays a key role in regulating T-helper 1/T-helper 2 balance, stimulating B lymphocytes to produce antibodies, regulating macrophages, neutrophils and inducing dendritic cells. OPN expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms of its promoter, hormones and cytokines. Over expression of OPN has been associated ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Serum C-Reactive Protein Measured by High-Sensitive Method in Thyroid Disease
Abstract The aim of this study was the evaluation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration as a marker of the inflammatory state in many different thyroid diseases and its dependence on the stage and duration of disease. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 444 randomly selected patients with different kinds of thyroid disease (106 men and 338 women, ranging 18–72 years of age; mean 56.2 ± 5.0 years; median 52 years). Group 1 (G1) comprised 250 patients with hyperthyroidism. Group 2 (G2) consisted of 72 euthyroid patients. Group 3 (G3) consisted of 122 patients wit...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Oral Administration Involving a Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus reuteri on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Response in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis
This study aimed at evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17) in patients with chronic periodontitis administered per os with a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri. In the 38 adult patients with moderate chronic periodontitis, professional cleaning of teeth was performed. Two weeks after performing the oral hygienization procedures, clinical examination permitted to distinguish a group of 24 patients (Group 1) in whom treatment with probiotic tablets containing L. reuteri strain, producing hydrogen peroxide (Prodentis), was conducted. In the remaining 14 patients, no probiot...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Implant of Polymer Containing Pentacyclic Triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia Inhibits Inflammation and Activates Skeletal Muscle Remodeling
Abstract Sustained chronic inflammation induces activation of genes involved in cellular proliferation and apoptosis, thereby causing skeletal muscle degeneration. To investigate in vitro effects of isolated pentacyclic triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia (Ep-CM) upon signaling pathways involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle cell line proliferation, and in vivo muscular tissue remodeling. C2C12 cells were seeded on eight-well plates and [3H]-thymidine incorporation, TUNEL assays, mitochondria viability, zymography for matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), Western blot analysis for MAPKinase signaling pathway, N...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Implant of Polymer Containing Pentacyclic Triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia Inhibits Inflammation and Activates Skeletal Muscle Remodeling
(Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis)
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Efficacy and Toxicity
Abstract In rare cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), radioiodine treatment is no longer effective due to cell dedifferentiation. Targeting somatostatin receptors in DTC cells by radiolabelled somatostatin analogues could provide an alternative therapy option. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in patients with advanced, non-iodine avid DTC. Eleven patients aged 47–81 years (median: 65 years) with a history of several courses of radioiodine therapy, increasing thyroglobulin (Tg) and negative whole body scan, were qua...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL - 17A , IL - 17F and IL - 23R Gene Polymorphisms in Polish Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abstract Among the complex network of inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Th17 cells have recently been identified as key cells in the promotion of autoimmune processes, and joint destruction. The IL-23/Th17 signalling pathway, consisting of IL-23/IL-23R, IL-17A and IL-17F encoding genes, represents a candidate way for RA development with possible involvement in disease susceptibility and effect on disease progression. The present study aimed to determine the association between the polymorphic variants of the IL-17A (rs2275913), IL-17F (rs763780) and IL-23R (rs11209026) g...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Incidence of Adenoviral DNAemia in Polish Adults Undergoing Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Abstract Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are important viral pathogens recognized increasingly in immunocompromised hosts, especially in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (alloHSCT). The clinical spectrum of HAdV disease ranges from asymptomatic viraemia and mild self-limiting disease to lower respiratory tract infection, multi-organ involvement and even death. Early detection and quantification of HAdV in peripheral blood using real-time PCR (qPCR) assay has been suggested as a useful monitoring tool, but is seldom used for regular surveillance of HAdV in haematology centers. A group of 112 allo...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 7, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Differential Inflammatory MicroRNA and Cytokine Expression in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The disease has an important inflammatory and immune component; however, its immunopathogenesis is not completely understood. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), the small non-coding RNAs, has attracted attention as both being involved in pathogenesis and serving as disease markers. Accordingly, changes in the expression of some miRNAs have been also associated with different autoimmune pathologies. However, not much is known about the role of miRNAs in sarcoidosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the level of expression of ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - November 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immune Modulation in Xenotransplantation
Abstract The use of animals as donors of tissues and organs for xenotransplantations may help in meeting the increasing demand for organs for human transplantations. Clinical studies indicate that the domestic pig best satisfies the criteria of organ suitability for xenotransplantation. However, the considerable phylogenetic distance between humans and the pig causes tremendous immunological problems after transplantation, thus genetic modifications need to be introduced to the porcine genome, with the aim of reducing xenotransplant immunogenicity. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated the incorporation...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - October 30, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Natural Foci Diseases as a Stable Biological Threat
Abstract The key aspects of the natural foci of especially dangerous diseases as a type of biological threats are presented. Approaches to epidemiological surveillance and control to the spread of the agents of especially dangerous diseases on endemic areas are described for zoonosis that has a medical value. The knowledge of specific design of tools for the implementation of epidemiological surveillance, monitoring and evaluation of natural foci diseases in developing countries is low; accordingly, little is known on the ecology and transmission dynamics for the agents of especially dangerous diseases. Important ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - October 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Colonization of Bordetella pertussis Clinical Isolates that Differ by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis Types in the Lungs of Naïve Mice or Mice Immunized with the Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine Used in Poland
Abstract The goal of our study was to compare the elimination of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates that differ according to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotypes and genes encoding virulence factors from the lungs of naïve mice or mice immunized with commercial diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine used in Poland. When a mixture of four isolates, given in equal proportions and harboring different PFGE profiles, serotypes, and alleles encoding virulence factors, was used to infect non-immunized mice, a single isolate, characterized by PFGE type IVγ, Fim2 phenotype and ptxA1&nd...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - October 9, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Endothelin-1 and Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Inflammatory Response and Sepsis
Abstract Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, mainly secreted by endothelial cells. It acts through two types of receptors: ETA and ETB. Apart from a vasoconstrictive action, ET-1 causes fibrosis of the vascular cells and stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. It is claimed that ET-1 induces proinflammatory mechanisms, increasing superoxide anion production and cytokine secretion. A recent study has shown that ET-1 is involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. It has bee...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - October 6, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ghrelin Gene Products in Acute and Chronic Inflammation
Abstract Ghrelin gene products—the peptides ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, and obestatin—have several actions on the immune system, opening new perspectives within neuroendocrinology, metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the less known role of these peptides in the machinery of inflammation and autoimmunity, outlining some of their most promising therapeutic applications. (Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis)
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hemophagocytic Syndrome in Children and Adults
Abstract Hemophagocytic syndrome, also known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a heterogenic syndrome, which leads to an acute, life-threatening inflammatory reaction. HLH occurs both in children and adults, and can be triggered by various inherited as well as acquired factors. Depending on the etiology, HLH can be divided into genetic (i.e., primary) and acquired (i.e., secondary) forms. Among genetic HLH forms, one can distinguish between familial HLH and other genetically conditioned forms of HLH. Acquired HLH can be typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. The mo...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Double Transgenic Pigs with Combined Expression of Human α1,2-Fucosyltransferase and α-Galactosidase Designed to Avoid Hyperacute Xenograft Rejection
Abstract Hyperacute rejection (HAR) depends on the response of xenoreactive antibodies principally against porcine α-Gal epitope. Methods eliminating HAR include GGTA1 inactivation, regulation of the complement system and modification of the oligosaccharide structure of surface proteins in donor’s cells. Transgenic animals designed for the purpose of xenotransplantation with single modification do not display full reduction of the α-Gal epitope level, which means that a accumulation of several modifications in one transgenic individual is needed. The aim of the study was to create a molecular an...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Two New Cases of KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4-Negative Genotypes, One of which is also Lacking KIR3DL2
Abstract The killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, and KIR3DP1 are present in virtually all humans. KIR2DL4 encodes a receptor present on uterine and decidual natural killer (NK) cells and some peripheral blood NK cells. Its only known ligand is the human leukocyte antigen-G molecule expressed on extravillous trophoblasts, and on tissues in some diseases. KIR3DL2 binds HLA-A*03 and HLA-A*11 as well as HLA-B*27 dimers, and microbial CpG DNA. KIR3DP1 is a pseudogene. During our immunogenetic studies we found two individuals, one from Lower Silesia district in Poland, and another from Wes...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

In vitro Correction of a Novel Splicing Alteration in the BTK Gene by Using Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides
Abstract A novel sequence variant, c.240+109C>A, in the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene was identified in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. This alteration resulted in an incorporation of 106 nucleotides of BTK intron 3 into its mRNA. Administration of the 25-mer antisense morpholino oligonucleotide analog in the patient’s cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was able to restore correctly spliced BTK mRNA, a potential treatment for X-linked agammaglobulinemia. (Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis)
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Distinct VEGF Functions During Bone Development and Homeostasis
Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiological hemangiogenesis during development, postnatal growth, and homeostasis. It is well known that VEGF is required for effective coupling of angiogenesis to endochondral and membranous bone formation during skeletal development. However, less well known are the roles of VEGF in regulating the differentiation and/or functions of skeletal cells such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. In this review, we discuss some of these functions. During early skeletal development, VEGF is important for the survival of chondrocyt...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Response of Specific Immunoglobulin E to Foods in Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Abstract Food allergy is a common condition that plays an important role in the pathogenicity and maintenance of atopic dermatitis (AD), however, must be carefully investigated before imposing a restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity to foods in patients with AD, correlating it with the severity of the disease and other possible associated factors. One hundred and eleven children (6–180 months of age) with AD were evaluated and later followed up at the Allergy and Clinical Immunology Division, Department of Pediatrics at FMABC. The serum concentrations of specific IgE t...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biological Agents Database in the Armed Forces
Abstract Rapid detection and identification of the biological agent during both, natural or deliberate outbreak is crucial for implementation of appropriate control measures and procedures in order to mitigate the spread of disease. Determination of pathogen etiology may not only support epidemiological investigation and safety of human beings, but also enhance forensic efforts in pathogen tracing, collection of evidences and correct inference. The article presents objectives of the Biological Agents Database, which was developed for the purpose of the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Poland under ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Chemokine CX3CL1 (Fractalkine) and its Receptor CX3CR1: Occurrence and Potential Role in Osteoarthritis
Abstract Chemokines are molecules able to induce chemotaxis of monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. The complex chemokine acts in many physiological and pathological phenomena, including those occurring in the articular cartilage. To date, chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) is the only member of the CX3C class of chemokines with well-documented roles in endothelial cells. CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine that combines properties of chemoattractant and adhesion molecule. The main roles of CX3CL1 include promotion of leukocyte binding and adhesion as well as activation of the target cells. The ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 25, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Plasma Kynurenic Acid Concentration in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Effect of Anaesthesia
Abstract Increases in plasma kynurenic acid (KYNA) concentration relate to the severity of inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in plasma KYNA concentration and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cardiac surgery patients. Additionally, the effect of anaesthesia was analysed. Adult cardiac surgery patients under intravenous general anaesthesia were studied. Additionally, some patients received sevoflurane (SEV) prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. Plasma KYNA concentration and NLR were measured before anaesthesia, just after surgery and on postoperative days 1, 2 and 3. Patients were assigned to...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 10, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impact of Imiglucerase Supply Shortage on Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Norrbottnian Patients with Gaucher Disease Type 3
Abstract A viral contamination of the production plant producing imiglucerase (Cerezyme™) resulted in an unpredicted worldwide shortage of global supplies during 2009–2010. The aim of the study was to describe the effects of dose reduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in adults with Norrbottnian form of Gaucher disease type 3 (N-GD3). There were ten adults with N-GD3 treated with imiglucerase in the county of Norrbotten in June 2009. Analyzed variables included plasma chitotriosidase activity and concentration of CCL18/PARC, whole blood hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and platelet count (PLT), as ...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 10, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Opioids, Neutral Endopeptidase, its Inhibitors and Cancer: Is There a Relationship among them?
Abstract The role of endogenous animal opioids in the biology of cancer is widely recognized but poorly understood. This is, among others, because of the short half-life of these peptides, which are quickly inactivated by endopeptidases, e.g., neutral endopeptidase (NEP, CD10). It has been established that NEP is engaged in the modulation of the tumor microenvironment, among others that of colon cancer, by exerting influence on cell growth factors, the extracellular matrix and other biologically active substances. Although there are some discrepancies among the findings on the role of both opioids and NEP in cance...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 6, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gene Polymorphisms of Novel Immunotolerant Molecule BTLA: Distribution of Alleles, Genotypes and Haplotypes in Polish Caucasian Population
Abstract B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is one of the members of immunoglobulin superfamily which, like CTLA-4 and PD-1, is involved in down regulation of immune response. Despite the important role of BTLA in maintaining immune homeostasis, relatively little studies were devoted to the relationship of polymorphisms in the gene encoding BTLA with susceptibility to autoimmune disease and cancer. Moreover, all published works were done in Asian populations. BTLA gene is located on chromosome 3 in q13.2 and consists of five exons. The aim of this study was to investigate the alleles, genotypes and haplotypes fr...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 3, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chemokines and Skin Diseases
Abstract Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lym...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - September 3, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research