Methods for the experimental study of 220Rn homogeneity in calibration chambers.
Abstract This work presents two experimental methods for the evaluation of 220Rn homogeneity in calibration chambers. The first method is based on LSC of the 220Rn decay products captured in silica aerogel. The second method is based on application of solid state nuclear track detectors facing the air of the calibration chambers. The performances of the two methods are evaluated by dedicated experiments. The repeatability of the LSC-based method, estimated as relative standard deviation of the LSC measurements of ten silica aerogel samplers exposed under the same conditions is found to be 1.6%. Both methods are ap...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - September 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Mitev K, Cassette P, Pressyanov D, Georgiev S, Dutsov C, Michielsen N, Sabot B Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Artificial neural network based isotopic analysis of airborne radioactivity measurement for radiological incident detection.
Abstract Responders need tools to rapidly detect and identify airborne alpha radioactivity during consequence management scenarios. Traditional continuous air monitoring systems used for this purpose compute the net counts in various energy windows to determine the presence of specified isotopes, such as 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am. These calculations rely on having a well-calibrated detector, which is challenging in low-background environments. Here, an alternative approach of using artificial neural networks to classify alpha spectra is presented. Two network architectures, fully connected and convolutional neural ne...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - September 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Woldegiorgis S, Grimes T, Simpson C, Myjak M Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Feasibility study on the use of CMOS sensors as detectors in radioguided surgery with β-- emitters.
Feasibility study on the use of CMOS sensors as detectors in radioguided surgery with β-- emitters. Appl Radiat Isot. 2020 Nov;165:109347 Authors: Alunni Solestizi L, Amoruso R, Biasini M, Bocci V, Campeggi C, Capotosti A, Collamati F, Faccini R, Kanxheri K, Mancini Terracciano C, Mantini S, Marafini M, Meddi F, Movileanu Ionica M, Morganti S, Mirabelli R, Placidi P, Scorzoni A, Camillocci ES, Servoli L Abstract Radioguided surgery (RGS) is a medical practice which thanks to a radiopharmaceutical tracer and a probe allows the surgeon to identify tumor residuals up to a millimetric resolution in r...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - September 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Alunni Solestizi L, Amoruso R, Biasini M, Bocci V, Campeggi C, Capotosti A, Collamati F, Faccini R, Kanxheri K, Mancini Terracciano C, Mantini S, Marafini M, Meddi F, Movileanu Ionica M, Morganti S, Mirabelli R, Placidi P, Scorzoni A, Camillocci ES, Servo Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Study of charged particle activation analysis (II): Determination of boron concentration in human blood samples.
Abstract Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy for the treatment of intractable cancer. In BNCT precise determination of 10B concentration in whole blood sample before neutron irradiation of the patient, as well as accurate neutron dosimetry, is crucial for control of the neutron irradiation time. For this purpose ICP-AES and neutron induced prompt γ-ray analysis are generally used. In Ibaraki Neutron Medical Research Center (iNMRC), an intense proton beam will be accelerated up to 8 MeV, which can also be used for Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA). Thus, in this study, we app...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ikebe Y, Oshima M, Bamba S, Asai M, Tsukada K, Sato TK, Toyoshima A, Bi C, Seto H, Amano H, Kumada H, Morimoto T Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of Dy incorporated MoO3 phosphor: Suppression concentration quenching.
n N Abstract A series of MoO3:Dy3+ phosphors have been synthesized via the gel-combustion method. The X-ray and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra were employed to characterize the obtained phosphors. The prepared samples were characterized through XRD measurements and exhibited that Dy3+ ions can be successfully incorporated into the host material. The PL emission bands of Dy3+ doped MoO3 were observed at 486 nm, 574 nm and 666 nm which are assigned to the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2, respectively. Concentration ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ayvacikli M, Kaynar ÜH, Karabulut Y, Canimoglu A, Bakr M, Akca S, Can N Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Comparison between codes MCNPX and Gate/Geant4 in volume fraction studies.
Abstract Knowing the volume fraction in a multiphase flow is of fundamental importance in predicting the performance of many systems and processes, it has been possible to model an experimental apparatus for volume fraction studies using Monte Carlo codes. Artificial neural networks have been applied for the recognition of the pulse height distributions in order to obtain the prediction of the volume fractions of the flow. In this sense, some researchers are unsure of which Monte Carlo code to use for volume fractions studies in two-phase flows. This work aims to model a biphasic flow (water and air) experiment in...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Affonso RRW, Barbosa CM, Dam RSF, Salgado WL, Silva AXD, Salgado CM Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

A simulation study on beam property of 124Sb-Be isotope-based neutron for BNCT.
Abstract The 9Be(γ,n) neutrons with the energies at 21-24 keV generated by 1.691 MeV photons from 124Sb was investigated as a source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT, using PHITS code. A beam shaping assembly composed of 13 mm thick Be target, a gamma ray shield made of 30 cm thick Bi, and a reflector of 30 cm thick Pb satisfied the beam requirements of IAEA-TECDOC-1223. The needed 124Sb activity was estimated in the order of 1016-1017 Bq. Feasibility of BNCT using 124Sb-Be neutrons would be influenced by the capability of periodic supply of short-lived 124Sb (half-life: 60 days) with...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Tanaka K, Kajimoto T, Sakurai Y, Bengua G, Endo S Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Occupational and ambient radiation exposures from Lu-177 DOTATATE during targeted therapy.
The objectives of present study are to evaluate patient and occupational exposures, measuring ambient doses and estimating the radiation risk. The results, obtained from studies carried out in Riyadh over an 11 month period, at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, concerned a total of 33 177Lu therapy patients. Patient exposures were estimated using a calibrated Victoreen 451P survey meter (Fluke Biomedical), for separations of 30 cm, 100 cm and 300 cm, also behind a bed shield that was used during hospitalization of the therapy patients. Occupational and ambient doses were also measured thro...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sulieman A, Mayhoub FH, Salah H, Al-Mohammed HI, Alkhorayef M, Moftah B, Al Rowaily M, Bradley DA Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Validation of a L évy electron energy straggling model for an Elekta Synergy® linear accelerator.
CONCLUSIONS: The Lévy based energy straggling model for electron beams allowed for accurate electron beam characterization in water tank and phantom measurements. PMID: 32819500 [PubMed] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: van Eeden D, Sachse KN, du Plessis FCP Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

X-ray tube with artificial neural network model as a promising alternative for radioisotope source in radiation based two phase flowmeters.
Abstract In this paper, X-ray tube is introduced as a potential alternative for radioisotope sources used in radiation based liquid-gas two-phase flowmeters. X-ray tubes have lots of advantages over the radioisotope sources such as having an adjustable emitting photon's energy, being safer from point of view of radiation health physics during the transportation of the source, having ability to generate a high flux photon beam, and etc. The proposed radiation based system in this study composes an X-ray tube with a tube voltage of 150 kV and a 2.5 mm aluminum filter as the radiation source and one sodium ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Roshani M, Muhammad Ali PJ, Roshani GH, Nazemi B, Corniani E, Phan NH, Tran HN, Nazemi E Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Preliminary evaluation of the production of non-carrier added 111Ag as core of a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in the framework of ISOLPHARM_Ag experiment.
Abstract Research in the field of radiopharmaceuticals is increasingly promoted by the widespread and growing interest in applying nuclear medicine procedures in both disease diagnosis and treatment. The production of radionuclides of medical interest is however a challenging issue. Along with the conventional techniques other innovative approaches are being investigated and, among those, the ISOLPHARM project is being developed at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). Such technique foresees the employment of the SPES ISOL facility to produce isobarically pure Radioac...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ballan M, Tosato M, Verona M, Caeran M, Borgna F, Vettorato E, Corradetti S, Zangrando L, Sgaravatto M, Verlato M, Asti M, Marzaro G, Mastrotto F, Di Marco V, Maniglio D, Bisio A, Motta A, Quaranta A, Zenoni A, Pastore P, Realdon N, Andrighetto A Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Construction of a thorium/actinium generator at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories.
Abstract Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) has demonstrated considerable promise in the treatment of a range of cancers in both preclinical and, more recently clinical research. In particular, work with the alpha-emitting radionuclide 225Ac has been effectively employed due to the relatively rapid decay cascade that leads to 4 alpha and 2 beta emissions. One limitation for TAT has been caused by access to the vital radionuclide. Traditionally, 225Ac has been sourced from thorium/actinium generators based on the alpha decay of stockpiles of 229Th. 229Th is itself the alpha-decay product from 233U. Due to proliferation i...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Perron R, Gendron D, Causey PW Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Solid phase extraction-based separation of the nuclear isomers 177mLu and 177Lu.
Abstract A solid phase extraction based 177mLu-177Lu separation method has been investigated for its feasibility to be used in the radionuclide generator. The use of 2,2',2"-(10-(2,6-dioxotetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic acid, (DOTAGA-anhydride) allowed grafting of DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid) complex on the surface of commercially available amino propyl silica. The grafting of DOTA has been confirmed by several characterization techniques. The thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the 0.33 mmol DOTA groups have ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Bhardwaj R, Wolterbeek HT, Denkova AG, Serra-Crespo P Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

The application of atomic layer deposition in the production of sorbents for 99Mo/99mTc generator.
Abstract New production routes for 99Mo are steadily gaining importance. However, the obtained specific activity is much lower than currently produced by the fission of U-235. To be able to supply hospitals with 99Mo/99mTc generators with the desired activity, the adsorption capacity of the column material should be increased. In this paper we have investigated whether the gas phase coating technique Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which can deposit ultra-thin layers on high surface area materials, can be used to attain materials with high adsorption capacity for 99Mo. For this purpose, ALD was applied on a silica-...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Moret JLTM, Alkemade J, Upcraft TM, Oehlke E, Wolterbeek HT, van Ommen JR, Denkova AG Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

A novel approach to classify urinary stones using dual-energy kidney, ureter and bladder (DEKUB) X-ray imaging.
CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable results achieved by the low-cost, low-dose DEKUB system in detection of kidney stone composition not only obviates a need for complicated imaging systems such as dual-energy computed tomography, but also provides an available and useful aid for physicians to choose between treatment approaches. PMID: 32819506 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kahani M, Hariri Tabrizi S, Kamali-Asl A, Hashemi S Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

99mTc-gallic-gold nanoparticles as a new imaging platform for tumor targeting.
Abstract Early and accurate detection of tumor assists in identifying more effective therapies. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized by green synthesis method using gallic acid (GA) then characterized and labeled with technetium-99m. This new platform was biologically evaluated in both normal and solid tumor bearing mice. The in-vivo study of [99mTc]Tc-gallic-GNPs via both I.V. and I.T injecton showed a high accumulation in tumor site. As a result, [99mTc]Tc-gallic-GNPs can be afforded as a potential nano-platform for tumor imaging. PMID: 32819507 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sakr TM, El-Hashash MA, El-Mohty AA, Essa BM Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Influence of the particle size of gadolinium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on their tumor-killing effect in neutron capture therapy in vitro.
Abstract Neutron capture therapy using 157Gd (Gd-NCT) is currently under development as a cancer radiotherapy. Melanoma cells were treated with gadolinium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) for Gd-NCT. Smaller Gd-nanoCPs had higher Gd content and better cellular association of Gd and thereby made the tumor-killing effect more efficient in comparison to larger Gd-nanoCPs. This indicates that Gd-nanoCP size reduction is an efficient method for improving the cellular affinity of Gd-nanoCPs and for enhancing the tumor-killing effect of Gd-NCT. PMID: 32819508 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Andoh T, Nakatani Y, Suzuki M, Sakurai Y, Fujimoto T, Ichikawa H Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Exploration of the parameters affecting the radioactive europium removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon-epoxy composite.
Abstract Adsorption of radioactive europium from aqueous solution was achieved using activated carbon - epoxy composite. The preparation of activated carbon - epoxy composite was reported using gamma radiation. The ratio of the activated carbon: epoxy was 50:50 Wt %. Irradiation of the mixture by the dose 20 KGy in gamma cell was performed. The physicochemical properties of the prepared composite were investigated by using different analytical techniques. The obtained results were analyzed using different kinetic models. The sorption kinetic process fitted with the pseudo-second-order model preferably th...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Hassan HS, Attia L, Dakroury GA Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Alpha spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting for the measurement of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and age.
d A Abstract A method for the measurement of the isotopic composition and time since last chemical separation (age) of plutonium is presented. The method includes alpha spectrometric measurement of 238Pu, 239Pu and 240Pu where the ratio of 239Pu and 240Pu was determined using spectral deconvolution, and liquid scintillation counting of 241Pu, after chemical separation of plutonium and americium. For the age determination, the 241Pu determined using liquid scintillation counting was combined with alpha spectrometric measurement of 241Am. The results of the isotopic composition were compared with certified reference...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ramebäck H, Tovedal A, Lagerkvist P, Jonsson S, Vesterlund A Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Accurate quantification of high-purity uranium in coatings by small solid angle method.
Abstract Aiming at quantifying high-purity uranium (235U/236U/238U) in coatings, a series of experiments were carried out by a dedicated small solid angle device. The physical design of the device and the small solid angle method were here in described, focus in particular on the analysis of detection efficiency, the effect of the isotope impurity in the coatings and the correction for the non-uniform distribution of the uranium samples. The results show that the weight of 235U in the coatings is 5.2-5.6 mg, while 4.7-5.0 mg for 238U and 2.2 mg for 236U in the corresponding coatings, with relative e...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Wen J, Yang Y, Han Z, Wen Z, Liu R, Chen Q, Liu X, Wang M Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Thin source spraying method for gross alpha/beta measurements with emphasis on alpha/beta particle self-absorption.
ro FJ Abstract Gross alpha/beta analysis is an initial rapid screening technique used to discriminate alpha- and beta-particle emitters in the nuclear industry. Self-absorption in the sample affects the detection; therefore, self-absorption curves must be constructed. Beta and alpha self-absorption curves were constructed under different conditions. Results reproducibility depends on uniformity of the dry residue on planchets. To determine and compare activities correctly, the preparation method of the sample must be identical to the ones measured the construction of the self-absorption curves. PMID: 32819512...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Monroy-Guzmán F, Lopez Sibaja Y, Galicia Caballero FJ Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Influence of radiation damage on the structure and chemical durability of titanites.
Abstract Previous studies on chemical durability of radioactive waste forms mainly focused on samples containing no radionuclides. We performed a hydrothermal experiment with several variably self-irradiated natural titanites and the leaching results indicate that radiation damage has some influence over chemical durability through its ability to change the microstructures of materials, including cracks, holes, interconnected amorphous clusters, and nano-sized defects. However, chemical durability is not influenced if the variation in local microstructures induced by radiation damage is insignificant. PMID: 3...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sun Y, Fu T, Qin Z, Zhang M, Wu X, Wang H, Zhuang Q, Fan T, Zhao W Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Testing of 222Rn application for recognizing tectonic events observed on water-tube tiltmeters in underground Geodynamic Laboratory of Space Research Centre at Ksi ąż (the Sudetes, SW Poland).
Testing of 222Rn application for recognizing tectonic events observed on water-tube tiltmeters in underground Geodynamic Laboratory of Space Research Centre at Książ (the Sudetes, SW Poland). Appl Radiat Isot. 2020 Sep;163:108967 Authors: Przylibski TA, Kaczorowski M, Fijałkowska-Lichwa L, Kasza D, Zdunek R, Wronowski R Abstract Research on relationships between variation in 222Rn activity concentration and tectonic events recorded using the instruments of the Geodynamic Laboratory of SRC PAS at Książ (the Sudetes, SW Poland) had been conducted since 2014. The performed analyses of variation have...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Przylibski TA, Kaczorowski M, Fijałkowska-Lichwa L, Kasza D, Zdunek R, Wronowski R Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Sparsity-based pulse-processor for digital α-particle spectroscopy with Si-PIN-Diode detector.
Sparsity-based pulse-processor for digital α-particle spectroscopy with Si-PIN-Diode detector. Appl Radiat Isot. 2020 Sep;163:109245 Authors: Ashrafi S, Kasani H, Ghal-Eh N, Vega-Carrillo HR Abstract Nowadays, digital methods are used in nuclear detection instruments which are more popular than conventional signal processing. In this work, a digital α-particle spectrometer, compatible with the low-cost digitizers, was designed and constructed. Similar to the analog pulse-height analyses, the digital signals must also be carefully shaped. Here, the charge pulses induced by alpha particles w...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ashrafi S, Kasani H, Ghal-Eh N, Vega-Carrillo HR Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Shielding implications on secondary radiation doses in prostate cancer treatment.
Abstract Medical linear accelerators (linacs) require a physical structure designed to provide adequate structural support which ensures the safety of patients, operators and the general public. During a radiotherapy session, healthy tissues are exposed to radiation, even with these safety guarantees. This unwanted exposure may increase the likelihood of developing secondary cancer. This work uses the MCNP-5 code to computationally simulate a conformational 3D radiotherapy protocol for prostate cancer. Also, it investigates the potential effects of radiotherapy room shielding composition on equivalent and effectiv...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Medeiros MPC, Silva AX, Rebello WF, Santos RFG, Stenders RM, Braz D, Braga KL, Thalhofer JL, Berdeguez MBT, Andrade ER Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

The 89Y(n, γ) reaction: Radiative cross sections and the decay of 90Ym.
The 89Y(n,γ) reaction: Radiative cross sections and the decay of 90Ym. Appl Radiat Isot. 2020 Sep;163:109191 Authors: Krane KS Abstract The activity 90Ym was produced by radiative neutron capture on targets of mono-isotopic 89Y at several different reactor sites. By observing the γ rays emitted in the decay of 90Ym, the thermal neutron cross section was deduced to be 1.02(1) mb, and the resonance integral was deduced to be 7.82(19) mb or 7.35(15) mb at 2 different reactor sites. The energies of the 3 γ rays emitted in the 90Ym decay were measured to be 202.539(10), 479.532(10), and 6...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Krane KS Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Tetrabutylammonium tosylate as inert phase-transfer catalyst: The key to high efficiency SN2 radiofluorinations.
Abstract Here we describe use of the tetrabutylammonium p-toluenesulfonate (TBAOTs) as an inert phase transfer catalyst allowing high efficient aliphatic radiofluorination of labeling precursors for the preparation of common radiotracers using only 0.2-1.2 mg of the substrates. With operational convenience (no need for azeotropic drying) and compatibility with the common types of strong anion-exchange cartridges (QMA), this method has a high potential for routine application in various automated synthesizers and offers significant costs reductions due to less precursors used. PMID: 32561038 [PubMed - as ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Orlovskaya V, Antuganov D, Fedorova O, Timofeev V, Krasikova R Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Analysis by Monte Carlo methods of the response of an extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer.
ino LE, Gallego E Abstract High-energy neutrons up to 230 MeV are generated as a consequence of (p,n) nuclear reactions in proton therapy facilities. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential extension of the UPM Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) through the use of spallation materials, for its future application to determine neutron fluence spectra in such facilities. Monte Carlo methods have been used to model the response of the actual and modified spheres with the introduction of a spallation material layer, lead or copper, analyzing their response functions. An analysis is also made of the neutron...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: García-Baonza R, García-Fernández GF, Cevallos-Robalino LE, Gallego E Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

One-pot synthesis of sodium lauryl sulfate-loaded polyacrylonitrile solid-phase extractor for investigating the adsorption behavior of radioactive strontium(II) from aqueous solutions.
Abstract Sodium lauryl sulfate-loaded polyacrylonitrile (SLSLPAN) was synthesized in the present investigation using an in-situ one step process through gamma radiation-induced polymerization. The structure, composition, surface area and pore size and volume of the employed adsorbent were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. Adsorption of radioactive strontium(II) onto SLSLPAN was studied in the pH range 3-13. Batch kinetic data showed that the equilibrium was attained at 840 min and the pseudo-first-order was the ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Mahmoud MR, Hassan RS, Rashad GM Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Validation of a Monte Carlo modelled gamma camera for Lutetium-177 imaging.
This study validated a model of the Siemens Symbia T16 dual-head SPECT/CT gamma camera created using the Monte Carlo program SIMIND for 177Lu. The validation was done by comparing experimental and simulated gamma camera performance criteria tests for the 177Lu 208 keV photopeak with a medium-energy collimator. Results showed good agreement between the experimental and simulated values. These results illustrated that SIMIND could emulate the Symbia T16 successfully and therefore, can be used with confidence to model 177Lu images. PMID: 32561041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ramonaheng K, van Staden JA, du Raan H Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Folate-appended cyclodextrin improves the intratumoral accumulation of existing boron compounds.
In this study, the tumor accumulation and antitumor effect of folate-modified cyclodextrin (ND201) purified with folate receptor (FR) connotated with BSH were examined. ND201 and BSH were stably bound in blood, and the mixing ratio 1:1 was most efficient. ND-BSH showed higher boron concentration (38.5 ppm) than BSH alone (11.25 ppm). The maximum ND-BSH tumor/blood ratio was also markedly higher (6.58) than that of BSH alone (1.04). ND-BSH showed a significant antitumor effect compared with BSH after neutron irradiation. PMID: 32561042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Matsumoto Y, Hattori K, Arima H, Motoyama K, Higashi T, Ishikawa H, Fukumitsu N, Aihara T, Nakai K, Kumada H, Sakurai H Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Single-dose toxicity study by intra-arterial injection of 10BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion for boron neutron capture therapy to hepatocellular carcinoma.
ashi H Abstract We developed a mixing medical device by attaching Shirasu porous glass Millipore membrane to prepare water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion in a shorter time to be applied as 10B-entrapped WOW emulsion for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Single-dose toxicity studies by intra-arterial injection of 10BSH-entrapped WOW were performed in rabbits and pig, and no side effects were observed. We hope to proceed to the preclinical and clinical studies for further evaluation of 10B compound as multidisciplinary treatments for HCC. PMID: 32561043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Appli...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yanagie H, Yanagawa M, Higuchi T, Mizumachi R, Fujihara M, Morishita Y, Sakurai Y, Mouri K, Dewi N, Nonaka Y, Shinohara A, Matsukawa T, Kubota A, Yokoyama K, Suzuki M, Masunaga SI, Sakurai Y, Tanaka H, Ono K, Yamauchi H, Ono M, Nakajima J, Higashi S, Taka Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

The combined effect of neutron irradiation and temozolomide on glioblastoma cell lines with different MGMT and P53 status.
We examined sensitivity to neutron irradiation and TMZ in two glioblastoma cell lines: T98G, which is p53-mutant with high levels of MGMT activity; and A172, which is p53-wild-type and has low MGMT activity. T98G cells were more resistant to TMZ treatment than A172 cells, with a 10-fold higher LC50. In A172 cells, TMZ treatment did not change the cell-killing effect of neutron irradiation in the presence of borono-phenylalanine (BPA). By contrast, T98G cells were more resistant to neutron irradiation when BPA was present. These results indicate that DNA repair activity in T98G cells might be higher due to upregul...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kinashi Y, Ikawa T, Takahashi S Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Radioactivity induced in new-generation cardiac implantable electronic devices during high-energy X-ray irradiation.
This study provides the first insight into the problem of the induced radioactivity of the construction materials of the new-generation cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Its aim was to identify nuclear reactions and the resulting radioisotopes induced in the CIEDs by high-energy X-ray therapeutic beams generated by medical linear accelerators. The presented results allow to verify the rightness of choice of materials for investigated CIEDs. Such analysis is currently available only for the older types of the CIEDs, but not for those of the new generation. Gamma spectrometry measurements have been performed us...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Konefał A, Blamek S, Wrońska A, Orlef A, Sokół M, Tajstra M, Gąsior M Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Monitoring patient movement with boron neutron capture therapy and motion capture technology.
In this study, a system was devised that can guide a patient to the correct position and the patient can be monitored during the irradiation process. This is achieved by using motion capture technology that consists of many cameras. The discrepancy of the measured coordinates for each marker on a phantom by the system was less than 5 mm. For practical applications, further research and verification are required. PMID: 32561046 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kumada H, Takada K, Terunuma T, Aihara T, Matsumura A, Sakurai H, Sakae T Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Monte Carlo characterization of the cosmic ray muon flux in shallow subsurface geological repositories intended for disposal of radioactive materials.
Abstract Recent challenges in monitoring subsurface geological repositories intended for disposal of radioactive materials such as spent nuclear fuel call for new, innovative concepts that are facility independent, cost-effective, passive, and reliable. Once nuclear material is in place at these facilities, reverifying the inventory may no longer be feasible if continuity of knowledge is lost or unavailable to the inspectors. Using cosmic ray muons may present several potential advantages over conventional photon/neutron signatures, and their use in safeguards applications have only received attention in the past ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Gadey H, Chatzidakis S, Farsoni AT Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Boron neutron capture therapy for head and neck cancer: Relevance of nuclear-cytoplasmic volume ratio and anti-tumor effect. -A preliminary report.
In this report, the relevance of N/C ratio of tumor cell and anti-tumor effect for BNCT clinical cases of head and neck cancer were verified. Examination of pre-irradiated tumor histopathological specimens of 9 BNCT treated head and neck cancer patients (4 CR patients, 5 non-CR patients) was performed. The statistically significant difference between the CR group and the non-CR group was examined for the physical dose was multiplied by the absolute biological effectiveness (ABE) value determined from the patient's tumor specific N/C ratio. Analysis showed the mean tumor dose could not distinguish between CR and non-CR grou...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Aihara T, Hiratsuka J, Kamitani N, Nishimura H, Ono K Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Review of recent radon research in Ireland, OPTI-SDS project and its impact on the National Radon Control Strategy.
Abstract Radon is a radioactive gas originating from uranium, present in all rocks and soils in the Earth's Crust; emanating from the ground, radon can be released into the atmosphere. It is the greatest source of natural radioactivity exposure for the population and, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO), the leading cause of lung cancer only after smoking. Although radon is a natural gas, its accumulation provoking elevated indoor radon levels is a result from building practices and thus, not natural. In Ireland, exposure to radon is estimated to be responsible for approximately 14% of all lung canc...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Fuente M, Long S, Fenton D, Hung LC, Goggins J, Foley M Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Preparation and characterization of poly nano-cerium chloride for 99Mo production based on neutron activation reactions.
Abstract Different molar ratios of the cerium trichloride heptahydrate to isopropyl alcohol (1:2, 1:3 and 1:5) were studied to choose the optimum ratio, and studied the reaction temperature effect (80, 90 and 100 °C) to determine the optimum temperature for the preparation of poly nano cerium chloride (PNCC). The PNCC-1 was selected among the prepared PNCC batches based on the 99Mo sorption properties that confirms the feasibility of using it as a novel effective sorbent material. The structural properties and chemical composition were studied using different techniques and devices such as EDX, XRD, FESEM...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Aydia MI, Hiekal AS, El-Azony KM, Mohamed TY, Shahin IM Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

A study on remotely-changeable moderators in Bonner sphere spectrometer for irradiation-field characterization in boron neutron capture therapy.
Abstract As part of the advancements in the characterization of the irradiation field for boron neutron capture therapy, we are developing a Bonner-sphere neutron energy spectrometer for which the liquid moderator is changed remotely. Simulations were performed to find the best combination of liquid moderators and composition of the Bonner spheres. The combination finally adopted was five-layered concentric acrylic spheres with two different liquid moderators and six optimal patterns for moderator injection. PMID: 32561051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes)
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Shiraishi S, Takata T, Tanaka H, Sakurai Y Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Evaluation of the energy resolution of a prompt gamma-ray imaging detector using LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and 8 × 8 array MPPC for an animal study of BNCT.
In this study, we evaluated the energy resolution and performed a two-dimensional distribution measurement using a thermal neutron beam and prompt gamma rays from a boron sample. This system was able to obtain energy resolution as full width at half maximum at 511 keV of 5.0 ± 0.2% in all MPPC pixels, better than the 6.5% energy resolution required to discriminate between 478 and 511 keV gamma rays. When the region of interest (ROI) was set up from -3σ to - σ (first ROI) and -3σ to the median (second ROI) for the Gaussian distribution of a 478 keV gamma-ray peak using a 6.2...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Okazaki K, Tanaka H, Takata T, Kawabata S, Akabori K, Sakurai Y Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Biodistribution studies of boronophenylalanine in different types of skin melanoma.
Abstract A study of the 10B-enriched Boronophenylalanine-fructose complex(10BPA-F) infusion procedure in potential BNCT patients, including three skin melanomas of extremities, was performed. 10B concentration in tumor(T), blood(B), skin(S) were measured to determine tumor/blood(T/B) and skin/blood(S/B) ratios. T/B ratio for three melanoma patients was in the range 1.48-3.82(average 2.56 ± 0.69). S/B ratio was in the range 0.81-1.99(average 1.29 ± 0.35). Results showed that T/B ratio of nodular metastasis melanoma was higher than superficial spreading melanoma. 10B concentration i...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang Z, Yong Z, Jin C, Song Z, Zhu S, Liu T, Chen Y, Chong Y, Chen X, Zhou Y Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

The next generation of current measurement for ionization chambers.
Abstract Re-entrant ionization chambers (ICs) are essential to radionuclide metrology and nuclear medicine for maintaining standards and measuring half-lives. The requirements of top-level metrology demand that systems must be precise and stable to 0.1 % over many years, and linear from 10-14 A to 10-8 A. Thus, laboratories depend on bespoke current measurement systems and often rely on sealed sources to generate reference currents. To maintain and improve present capabilities, metrologists need to overcome two looming challenges: ageing electronics and decreasing availability of sealed sources. Possible solutions...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Fitzgerald R, Bergeron DE, Giblin SP, Jarrett DG, Judge SM, Michotte C, Scherer H, Zimmerman NM Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Image reconstruction using multi-energy system matrices with a scintillator-based gamma camera for nuclear security applications.
In this study, two reconstruction strategies using the maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm with the multi-energy system matrices calculated by Monte Carlo simulations are proposed. The difference between the two is in data acquisition; one uses the sum of all events into a single projection image while the other sorts them into separate energy windows. Various radiation images of gamma-ray sources were simulated with a Monte Carlo code, and an actual image was acquired with a gamma camera. Both simulation and experiment results demonstrated the feasibility of the presented multi-energy reconstructi...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu Q, Cheng Y, Yang Y, Peng Y, Li H, Xiong Y, Zhu T Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

A new formulae study for the (n,2p) reaction cross-section systematics at 14-15  MeV.
In this study, for 14-15 MeV of incident neutron energy, it has been suggested new empirical formulae to describe the (n, 2p) reactions cross sections. The new empirical formulae have been obtained for 29≤A≤159, 29≤A≤103 and 133≤A≤159 mass ranges which are dependent on s=(N-Z)/A asymmetry parameter. The asymmetry parameters have been obtained by modifying the original Levkovski formula. Then, EXFOR data has been studied by applying the least square fitting method and (n, 2p) reactions systematics has been revealed. The statistical dependence (R2) of these data was examined in the 29≤A≤159 total...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kavun Y, Aydın A, Tel E Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Exploring neutron capture therapy with 33S and 10B.
M, Porras I Abstract The 33S(n,α)30Si reaction was proposed as cooperative neutron capturer to 10B(n,α)7Li in Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). At that moment, the available 33S(n,α)30Si cross-section data were scarce and discrepant in key energy ranges for its use in NCT. Since then, three experiments have been carried out at n_TOF facility at CERN and at Institut Laue-Langevin. These new data are used for the calculation of the dose rate on ICRU-4 tissue by using kerma factors, a simplified model of tissue and a 13.45 keV neutron beam, energy of the most important 33S(n,α)30Si resonance...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: López-Casas I, Praena J, Arias de Saavedra F, Sabaté-Gilarte M, Porras I Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

The importance of optimal ROIs delineation for FBPA-PET before BNCT.
Abstract One of the eligible criteria for patients to receive boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the tumour-to-normal ratio (T/N) measured by FBPA-PET. However, there is no standard protocol for normal region-of-interested delineation. With comparison of contralateral cerebrum, our study revealed the consistency (p 
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lo YW, Lee JC, Hu YS, Li CY, Chen YL, Lin CS, Huang WS, Lin KH, Chen YW Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

On the photomultiplier-tube asymmetry in TDCR systems.
Abstract The responses of the three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in a triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) liquid scintillation (LS) system are often not identical. Such asymmetries can have a significant influence on activity determinations. The problem is often solved by means of a minimization algorithm which can easily be applied when analytical methods are used for the efficiency calculation, as is usually done for pure beta emitters. However, for radionuclides with more complex decay schemes, the counting efficiencies are often calculated with stochastic methods and the computation of the required corre...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kossert K, Sabot B, Cassette P, Coulon R, Liu H Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Influence of γ-irradiation and oxygen conditions on the diffusion of I-125 in crushed Beishan granite.
In this study, Da values of 125I as a tracer in the form of iodide were determined to investigate and assess the influence of irradiation and oxygen conditions, which must be considered in-situ environment of the geologic repository. The results indicate that capillary method is a simple and efficient method to study the diffusion behavior of radionuclides, which is a relatively feasible to quickly obtain the diffusion coefficient, especially for some special conditions, e.g., oxygen and irradiation conditions. The diffusion results showed that Da values of 125I- range from 1.4 × 10-10 to 1.5 ×&n...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: He J, Li Y, Su Y, Yang J, Hou X, Wu W, Shi K Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Characterization of 244Cm neutron sources.
Abstract There is a need to find a replacement for the 252Cf sources currently used in Standards-based performance testing of neutron instrumentation. This is a result of its relatively short half-life, concerns about future availability and recent increases in cost. A potential replacement source, 244Cm is evaluated in this study where two commercially available sources have been acquired and their neutron emission spectra measured using a pair of spectrometers. Both instruments showed the 244Cm spontaneous neutron spectrum to be fully consistent with a MCNP6®-calculated spectrum using published Watt fission ...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - June 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Radev R, McLean TD Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research