Reconciling the potentially irreconcilable? Genotypic and phenotypic amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in Escherichia coli.
Abstract Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate, a widely used beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic, is rising globally, yet susceptibility testing remains challenging. To test whether whole-genome sequencing (WGS) could provide a more reliable assessment of susceptibility than traditional methods, we predicted resistance from WGS for 976 E. coli bloodstream infection isolates from Oxfordshire, UK, comparing against phenotypes from the BD Phoenix (calibrated against EUCAST guidelines). 339/976 (35%) isolates were amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant. Predictions based solely on beta-lactamase pr...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - March 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Davies TJ, Stoesser N, Sheppard AE, Abuoun M, Fowler P, Swann J, Quan TP, Griffiths D, Vaughan A, Morgan M, Phan HTT, Jeffery KJ, Andersson M, Ellington MJ, Ekelund O, Woodford N, Mathers AJ, Bonomo RA, Crook DW, Peto TEA, Anjum MF, Walker AS Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Comparison of microbiome isolated from the conjunctiva, contact lens and lens storage case of symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens users.
Authors: Raksha L, Shantala GB, Gangashettappa N, Ambica R, Sinha D Abstract Background and Objectives: Contact lenses (CLs) are increasingly being used for cosmetic or therapeutic purposes. Lack of compliance and poor hygiene towards lens care is strongly associated with microbial contamination and has been proved to result in eye infections. The present study was done to compare the microbial flora between symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens users. The study also attempts to analyze the contact lens hygiene practices of CL users. Materials and Methods: Six samples each were collected from both the eyes,...
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research

Perioperative Antibiotics in Clean-Contaminated Head and Neck Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionIn clean-contaminated head and neck surgery, cefazolin, amoxicillin –clavulanate, and ampicillin–sulbactam for 24–48 h after surgery were associated with the highest prevention rate of surgical site infection. (Source: Advances in Therapy)
Source: Advances in Therapy - March 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Europe-wide assessment of antibiotic resistance rates in Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates from intestinal microbiota of healthy subjects.
erobic Infections Abstract Here, we sought to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance among intestinal Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains collected between 2014 and 2016 in Europe and also attempted to compare resistance levels between clinical and commensal isolates. Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates were recovered from faecal samples via the novel Bacteroides Chromogenic Agar (BCA) method. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by agar dilution for ten antibiotics. The values obtained were then statistically evaluated. Altogether 202 Bacteroides/Parabacteroides isolates (of which 24, 11.9%, w...
Source: Anaerobe - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sóki J, Wybo I, Hajdú E, Toprak NU, Jeverica S, Stingu CS, Tierney D, Perry JD, Matuz M, Urbán E, Nagy E, ESCMID Study Group on Anaerobic Infections Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Successful treatment of relapsed enterococcal endocarditis with amoxicillin/clavulanate: A case report
Publication date: 2020Source: IDCases, Volume 19Author(s): Ebrahim Mahmoud, Reem Abanamy, Mohammad Bosaeed, Zeinelabdien Elsherif (Source: IDCases)
Source: IDCases - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Are antibiotics substandard in Lebanon? Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients between brand and generics of selected antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: These findings raise safety and efficacy concerns, providing solid grounds for potential correlations of antibiotic resistance/substandard antibiotics. PMID: 32087736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Successful Treatment of Relapsed Enterococcal Endocarditis with Amoxicillin/Clavulanate, A Case Report
We report a case of successful treatment of relapsed prosthetic valve Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis with oral amoxicillin/clavulanate. Enterococcal endocarditis is associated with a high relapse rate, even with the recommended treatment duration by the guidelines. Oral therapy is increasingly considered as part of the management of such serious infections.Graphical abstract (Source: IDCases)
Source: IDCases - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Advertisement of antibiotics for upper respiratory infections and equity in access to treatment: a cross-sectional study in Nepal
ConclusionsUpper respiratory tract antibiotics are widely promoted at community pharmacies. The treatment cost of antibiotics is unaffordable for unskilled workers in Nepal irrespective of the type and unit cost of antibiotics. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice - February 21, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Antimicrobial use among adult inpatients at hospital sites within the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program: 2009 to 2016
This study presents benchmark antimicrobial use (AMU) rates for inpatient adult populations in acute-care hospitals across Canada.MethodsIn this retrospective surveillance study, acute-care adult hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) submitted annual AMU data on all systemic antimicrobials from 2009 to 2016. Information specific to intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICU wards were available for 2014 –2016. Data were analyzed using defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days (DDD/1000pd).ResultsBetween 2009 and 2016, 16 –18 CNISP adult hospitals participat...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanate plus cefditoren as de-escalation combination therapy for endocarditis due to strongly biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis
. (Source: Infectious Diseases)
Source: Infectious Diseases - February 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vittorio Attanasio Mariagrazia Di Luca Antonio Carozza Sergio Severino Carlo Pallotto Nicolina Capoluongo Giulia Palmiero Mariano Bernardo Carlo Tascini Source Type: research

Acute dacryocystitis with giant lacrimal abscess: a case report
ConclusionsPediatric acute dacryocystitis is a potentially serious condition, which must be treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy followed by surgery tailored to the clinical history. Even if probing and dacryocystorhinostomy are the most used surgery in adults and children, open dacryocystectomy is a safe and successful option, mainly in severe cases where imaging studies are not available. (Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - February 3, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Very low-quality evidence suggests that intravenous amoxicillin plus clavulanate, teicoplanin, and oral amoxicillin may be effective in preventing bacteremia after dental procedures.
Authors: Brignardello-Petersen R PMID: 31980134 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the American Dental Association)
Source: Journal of the American Dental Association - January 26, 2020 Category: Dentistry Tags: J Am Dent Assoc Source Type: research

Evaluation of the efficacy of postoperative antibiotic treatment in transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy: a prospective randomised controlled trial
This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled trial to evaluate the clinical usefulness of postoperative antibiotics given orally to patients having TOET. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate 625 mg orally three times a day for a week after operation (treated group) or no antibiotics (untreated group). Fifty patients – 25 treated and 25 untreated – were enrolled. Maximum body temperature, pulse rate, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Evaluation of the surgical site showed no significant differences betwe...
Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - January 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with the severity of adverse drug reactions by Xiyanping injection: A propensity score-matched analysis
Publication date: 25 March 2020Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 250Author(s): Rui Zheng, Liyuan Tao, Joey S.W. Kwong, Changming Zhong, Chengyu Li, Shiqi Chen, Yang Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang, Hongcai ShangAbstractEthnopharmacological relevanceXiyanping injection (XYP), extraction of Andrographis paniculate (Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, chuan xin lian), is a Chinese patent medicine approved to treat bronchitis in China. In 2017, safety incidents associated with treatment of XYP began to emerge throughout China. However, the risk factors of severity of adverse reactions by XYP remain uncertain.Aim of the study...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - January 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Urinary tract infections in children & lt;  2 years of age hospitalized in a tertiary medical center in Southern Israel: epidemiologic, imaging, and microbiologic characteristics of first episode in life
The objectives of the study were to describe the epidemiologic, microbiologic, and imaging characteristics of first 44 UTI episode in hospitalized infants and children
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - January 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Negative Predictive Value of 5-Day Drug Provocation Test in Nonimmediate Beta-Lactam Allergy in Children.
CONCLUSION: The 5-day prolonged DPT has high NPV and seems appropriate in duration for children with suspected nonimmediate-BLA allergy. PMID: 31923549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - January 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Celik IK, Guvenir H, Hurmuzlu S, Toyran M, Civelek E, Kocabas CN, Misirlioglu ED Tags: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol Source Type: research

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa oral lesions: a case report
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders characterized by fragility of skin and mucous membranes, in which blistering lesions may arise spontaneously or by minor friction. There may be marked oral involvement, creating devastating alterations in the soft and hard tissues. The following case report describes the oral lesions observed in a 41-year-old female patient diagnosed as having recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). She has been under medical assistance for the skin lesions and was under amoxicillin-clavulanate and silver sulfadiazine therapy. (Source: Oral Surgery, Or...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - December 15, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: JANAINA BARBIERI DOS SANTOS HELMS, CELSO OLIVEIRA DE SOUSA, SANDRA REGINA TORRES Source Type: research

A 10-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Prospective Study of 2 Treatments for Chronic Rhinosinusitis Without Nasal Polyps and Investigation of the Impact of Gastroeosophageal Reflux Disease in the Resistance to Treatment.
CONCLUSION: Amoxicillin/clavulanate and clarithromycin would be competitive treatments for CRSnNP. Gastroesophageal reflux disease seems to be a negative factor for treatment response and recurrence. PMID: 31838920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal)
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - December 15, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Lechien JR, Debie G, Mahillon V, Thill MP, Rodriguez A, Horoi M, Kampouridis S, Muls V, Saussez S Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

Drug induced liver injury: East versus West - a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Low EXS, Zheng Q, Chan E, Lim SG Abstract Drug induced liver injury (DILI) may be different in the East compared to the West due to differing disease prevalence, prescribing patterns and pharmacogenetic profiles. To review existing literature on causative agents of DILI in the East compared to the West, a comprehensive literature search was performed on electronic databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure without language restrictions. Studies which involve patients having DILI and reported the frequency of causative agents were included. A random effec...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - December 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Mol Hepatol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Patients with Intraabdominal Infection in Korea: a Multicenter Study.
CONCLUSION: Enterococcus spp. with susceptibility to limited antibiotics was one of the main pathogens in Korean IAIs, along with E. coli and Klebsiella spp., which were highly susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Meanwhile, the low susceptibilities of E. coli or Klebsiella spp. to amoxicillin/clavulanate, advanced-generation cephalosporins, and ciprofloxacin should be considered when determining empirical antibiotic therapy in clinical practice. PMID: 31808326 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science)
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - December 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research

Pubic Symphysis Septic Arthritis Caused by Pasteurella multocida: Report of the First Known Case and Review of the Literature
Pubic symphysis septic arthritis is rare. To our knowledge, pubic symphysis septic arthritis caused by Pasteurella multocida has not been previously reported. A 79-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of progressively severe left groin pain and swelling with unintentional 20-lb weight loss. Physical examination was negative except for the presence of a tender, fluctuant mass approximately 6 × 2-cm dimensions extending from the midpubic symphysis area to the left femoral crease. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen/pelvis confirmed a multiloculated mass in the area of the pubic ...
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - November 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

The effect of ribavirin on the severity of adverse reactions of xiyanping injection: A propensity score-matched analysis
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Journal of EthnopharmacologyAuthor(s): Rui Zheng, Liyuan Tao, Joey S.W. Kwong, Changming Zhong, Chengyu Li, Shiqi Chen, Yang Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang, Hongcai ShangAbstractEthnopharmacological relevanceXiyanping injection (XYP), a Chinese patent medicine, was approved to treat bronchitis in China and obtained the drug batch number of the National Medical Products Administration in 2002. It is the extraction of herb named Andrographis paniculate (Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, chuan xin lian). XYP is extraordinary widely used in China. In 2017, there have been a ...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - November 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The pharmacokinetic of the main oral antibiotics in children with cystic fibrosis
Conclusion: The data obtained indicate a relatively higher apparent total body clearance of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin in the age subgroup of 2-3 years. The results require further study to identify factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin in children with CF. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kondakova, Y., Kondratyeva, E., Zyryanov, S., Bondareva, I., Sherman, V., Melyanovskaya, Y. Tags: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research

Differences in hospital course in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to antibiotic treatment
Conclusions: 1. The empirical antibiotic treatment most used was levofloxacin in monotherapy. 2. Patients treated with β-lactams had more comorbidities, nursing home residence and more severity according to PSI. 3. In-hospital evolution was worse in patients treated with β-lactams. They needed more ICU admission, IMV, had more complications and longer in-hospital stay. 4. Mortality rate was low in both groups but significantly higher in patients who received β-lactams. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gonzalez Quero, B., Serrano, L., Gomez, A., Garcia, M., Ruiz, L. A., Ortiz De Urbina, B., Castro, S., Urrutia, A., Zalacain, R. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Duration of initial antibiotic course is associated with recurrent relapse in protracted bacterial bronchitis
Conclusions: Recurrent PBB and therefore the risk of bronchiectasis is significantly lower in children treated with six weeks of antibiotics. This has potentially important implications as recent international guidelines suggest using two weeks, extended to four if cough resolution is not achieved. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grose-Hodge, E., Carroll, W., Rainford, N., Gamble, C., Gilchrist, F. Tags: Paediatric respiratory infection and immun. Source Type: research

Oral antibiotics vs placebo for exacerbations of paediatric bronchiectasis
Background: Bronchiectasis guidelines recommend antibiotics for treating acute respiratory exacerbations, but no RCTs of antibiotics vs placebo exist.Aim: We hypothesized that oral amoxicillin-clavulanate (amox-clav) and azithromycin (azitho) are both superior to placebo for achieving resolution by day-14 when treating non-severe exacerbations in children.Methods: Our multicentre (n=4), double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized children aged 1-19 years at exacerbation start to amox-clav (45mg/kg/day) + azithro-placebo; azithro (5mg/kg/day) + amox-clav-placebo; or placebo + placebo for 14-days. The pri...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Goyal, V., Grimwood, K., Ware, R., Brynes, C., Morris, P., Masters, I., Mccallum, G., Binks, M., Smith-Vaughan, H., OGrady, K.-A., Champion, A., Buntain, H., Schultz, A., Chatfield, M., Torzillo, P., Chang, A. Tags: Acute critical care Source Type: research

Inhibition activity of Nocardia farcinica β-lactamase FAR IFM10152 by avibactam.
Inhibition activity of Nocardia farcinica β-lactamase FAR IFM10152 by avibactam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Nov 11;: Authors: Lebeaux D, Ourghanlian C, Dorchène D, Soroka D, Edoo Z, Compain F, Arthur M Abstract Nocardia farcinica, one of the most frequent pathogenic species responsible for nocardiosis is characterized by frequent brain involvement and resistance to β-lactams mediated by a class A β-lactamase. Kinetic parameters for hydrolysis of various β-lactams by FARIFM10152 from strain IFM10152 were determined by spectrophotometry revealing a high catalytic activi...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - November 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lebeaux D, Ourghanlian C, Dorchène D, Soroka D, Edoo Z, Compain F, Arthur M Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Risk factors for recurrent Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
ConclusionAmong women with PID, special awareness should be given to women with previous pelvic surgery, who required an additional interventional treatment and have an IUD inserted. Efforts should be made to achieve treatment success and optimal prevention to prevent recurrent PID. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - November 7, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Comparison of sensitivity of bacteria isolated in odontogenic infections to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin-clavulanate
Background: Odontogenic infections is a cause of mortality and morbidity in maxillofacial patients. This is largely due to resistance of organisms to antibiotics prescribed.Objectives: To isolate organisms involved in odontogenic infections and compare the sensitivity of the organisms to Ceftriaxone and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate.Methods: The causative organisms and antibiotic sensitivity were determined by the following steps: Aspiration of pus done with needle, sample of pus or exudate collected using sterile swab if aspiration was unsuccessful and specimen were placed in transport media (thioglycolatebroth) and sent immedi...
Source: African Health Sciences - November 4, 2019 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Coexistence of Clostridioides difficile and Staphylococcus aureus in gut of Iranian outpatients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Clostridioides difficile and Staphylococcus aureus are two well-known pathogens both causing hospital- and community-acquired infections. However, their intestinal coexistence was not well investigated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we explored the prevalence of C. difficile, S. aureus and their coexistence in the gut of Iranian patients with IBD. Fecal and colon specimens were obtained from 70 outpatients with underlying IBD, and investigated for the presence of C. difficile and S. aureus. C. difficile isolates were characterised by CE-ribotyping. PCR was used for detection of toxin-encodin...
Source: Anaerobe - November 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Azimirad M, Krutova M, Balaii H, Kodori M, Shahrokh S, Azizi O, Yadegar A, Aghdaei HA, Zali MR Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antibiotics prescription pattern and determinants of utilization in the national health insurance scheme at a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria
Background: Subsidizing the cost of medicines through insurance schemes increases consumption of medicines and may contribute to irrational use of antibiotics.Objectives: To describe the systemic antibiotics prescriptions patterns and analyze the determinants of their utilization in the National Health insurance Scheme (NHIS).Methods: Established WHO guideline was followed to conduct this cross-sectional retrospective study at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled prescription sheets of one year duration. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predi...
Source: African Health Sciences - November 3, 2019 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Concomitant Use of Quinolones and Stimulants and the Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Symptoms: A Retrospective Cohort Study
ConclusionConcomitant use of stimulants and quinolone was associated with an increased hazard of cardiac symptoms in comparison to concomitant use of stimulants and amoxicillin or azithromycin, but there was no apparent difference in cardiac arrhythmias. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Adel A. Alrwisan, Yu ‐Jung J. Wei, Babette A. Brumback, Patrick J. Antonelli, Almut G. Winterstein Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

M012 amoxicillin-clavulanate-induced kounis syndrome
Recognition of a rare condition as Kounis syndrome, that involves simultaneous assessment and treatment of allergic and cardiac symptoms. (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - November 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: J. Matias Lopes, S. Agarwal Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Predisposing Factors, and Outcomes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an underreported and underestimated adverse drug reaction. A recent population-based study found a crude incidence of approximately 19 cases per 100,000 a year. Amoxicillin-clavulanate continues to be the most commonly implicated agent in most Western countries, reported to occur in approximately 1 of 2300 users. In patients with drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis, liver tests often do not normalize with cessation of the drugs and require corticosteroids. DILI associated with jaundice can lead to death from liver failure or require liver transplantation in at least 10% of ca...
Source: Clinics in Liver Disease - October 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Einar S. Bj örnsson Source Type: research

Treatment of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance and new antimicrobial agents.
Authors: Bader MS, Loeb M, Leto D, Brooks AA Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic- resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited treatment options. Knowledge of the common uropathogens in addition to local susceptibility patterns is essential in determining appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy of UTIs. The recommended first-line empiric antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated bacterial cystitis in otherwise healthy adult nonpregnant females is a 5-day course of nitrofurantion, a 3-g single dose of fosfomycin tromethamine, or a 5-day course of pevmecillinam. High...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - October 16, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research

Emergence of Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 and mcr-3 gene in North West Algerian farmlands
ConclusionIn summary, our results show that farms are an important reservoir of colistin-resistant E.coli, added to other additional genes, such as blaESBL. The transfer of manure from animals to soil and irrigation water might be spreading a mix of multiple resistances, posing a worrying threat to human health.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - October 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Applying Pharmacodynamics and Antimicrobial Stewardship to Pediatric Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis
AbstractOrbital and preseptal cellulitis are most commonly caused by organisms that originate in the upper respiratory tract or from the skin. There is significant variation in antibiotics used, but ampicillin –sulbactam, ceftriaxone, metronidazole, clindamycin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanate, cefuroxime, and vancomycin are often used in the treatment of these infections. The choice of antibiotic, however, is only one consideration. It is also important that antibiotics are dosed to optimize the ir pharmacodynamic target attainment. Like other serious infections, therapy can be transitioned from initial i...
Source: Pediatric Drugs - October 14, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Applying Pharmacodynamics and Antimicrobial Stewardship to Pediatric Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis.
Abstract Orbital and preseptal cellulitis are most commonly caused by organisms that originate in the upper respiratory tract or from the skin. There is significant variation in antibiotics used, but ampicillin-sulbactam, ceftriaxone, metronidazole, clindamycin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, and vancomycin are often used in the treatment of these infections. The choice of antibiotic, however, is only one consideration. It is also important that antibiotics are dosed to optimize their pharmacodynamic target attainment. Like other serious infections, therapy can be transitioned from initial intra...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - October 14, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Stimes GT, Girotto JE Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Infectious Complications Following Snakebite by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique: A Case Series.
Gutiérrez JM, Kallel H Abstract Infections secondary to snakebite occur in a number of patients and are potentially life-threatening. Bothrops lanceolatus bites in Martinique average 30 cases per year and may result in severe thrombotic and infectious complications. We aimed to investigate the infectious complications related to B. lanceolatus bite. A retrospective single-center observational study over 7 years (2011-2018) was carried out, including all patients admitted to the hospital because of B. lanceolatus bite. One hundred seventy snake-bitten patients (121 males and 49 females) were included. Thirty...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - October 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Resiere D, Mehdaoui H, Névière R, Olive C, Severyns M, Beaudoin A, Florentin J, Brouste Y, Banydeen R, Cabié A, Mégarbane B, Gutiérrez JM, Kallel H Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 3557: Practical Issues in Early Switching from Intravenous to Oral Antibiotic Therapy in Children with Uncomplicated Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis: Results from an Italian Survey
Conclusion: Adherence to guidelines was poor, and early transition to oral therapy in the clinical practice was rarely adopted. Given the large use of potentially effective, but poorly studied, oral antibiotics such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and rifampicin, our data may stimulate further studies of this regard. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - September 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Elena Chiappini Elena Serrano Luisa Galli Alberto Villani Andrzej Krzysztofiak Italian Paediatric Collaborative Osteomyelitis Study Group Tags: Article Source Type: research

Antibiotic-resistance of Fecal Coliforms at the Bottom of the Tama River, Tokyo.
Authors: Okai M, Aoki H, Ishida M, Urano N Abstract We investigated the midstream bottom of the Tama River, which flows through Tokyo, to evaluate the occurrence and degree of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms including multidrug-resistant fecal coliforms. The genera Klebsiella and Escherichia were the major isolates among the fecal coliforms. For the genus Klebsiella, the highest antibiotic resistance was observed for ampicillin (100%) , followed by kanamycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin. The highest resistance to E. coli was found for kanamycin (44.4%) , followed by ampicillin, tetracycline, chlora...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review.
Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, otorrhea, anorexia, and sometimes vomiting or lethargy. AOM is diagnosed in symptomatic children with moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane or new-onset otorrhea not caused by acute otitis externa, and in children with mild bulging and either recent-onset ear pain (less than 48 hours) or intense erythema of the t...
Source: American Family Physician - September 15, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Gaddey HL, Wright MT, Nelson TN Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Clinical effectiveness of oral antimicrobial therapy for acute pyelonephritis caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase - producing Enterobacteriales
This study investigated whether oral antimicrobial therapy (OAT) is as effective as intravenous antimicrobial therapy (IVT) for acute pyelonephritis (APN) caused by ESBL-PE. A retrospective cohort of patients with APN caused by ESBL-PE was studied at a tertiary-care hospital from January 2014 through December 2016. The OAT group comprised patients treated with an appropriate oral antimicrobial agent following 7  days or less of IVT. The primary endpoint was treatment failure defined as clinical and/or microbiological failure. The secondary endpoint was length of hospital stay and recurrences of APN within 2 month...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Flucloxacillin Hypersensitivity: Patient Outcomes in a Multicenter Retrospective Study
ConclusionsImmediate hypersensitivity reactions to flucloxacillin are more common than delayed. Cross-sensitization to other penicillins appears higher in delayed reactions than in immediate. The negative predictive value of intradermal testing is higher in the immediate group than in the nonimmediate group. Drug provocation testing remains the diagnostic criterion standard. (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interaction between Antibiotic Resistance, Resistance Genes, and Treatment Response for Urinary Tract Infections in Primary Care [Bacteriology]
Given increasing antimicrobial resistance, we aimed to determine antibiotic susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in uropathogens in primary care, factors associated with resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics, and effect of treatment on early symptom resolution. We conducted a prospective study of primary care patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms and culture-confirmed UTI in Singapore from 2015 to 2016. Cohort characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultured isolates were analyzed. Among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, early symptom resolution (within 3 days) according to antibiot...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ho, H. J., Tan, M. X., Chen, M. I., Tan, T. Y., Koo, S. H., Koong, A. Y. L., Ng, L. P., Hu, P. L., Tan, K. T., Moey, P. K. S., Koh, E. Y. L., Wong, C. S., Lye, D. C., Tan, N. C. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Infection mimicker: Neutrophilic dermatoses versus cutaneous anthrax
A 64-year-old man with history of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) presented for evaluation of bilateral hand lesions. The lesions first appeared four days after the patient skinned a sheep with his bare hands on a hunting trip in New Mexico. The lesions began as painful, dark papules, each with a small pustule on top, which then coalesced and ulcerated. His primary care physician started him on oral Augmentin twice daily for one week. Despite antibiotics, the lesions continued to worsen. He was admitted to the hospital and started on IV vancomycin and ceftriaxone for one week. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - August 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescriptions in acute otitis media and pharyngitis in Italian pediatric outpatients
ConclusionsDespite guidance to use the ‘wait and see’ approach in the age group analyzed, this strategy is not often used for AOM, as previously noted in other studies in hospital settings. Broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription was more frequent when pharyngitis was not confirmed by rapid test, in keeping with evidence from other st udies that diagnostic uncertainty leads to overuse of antibiotics. (Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - August 17, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Time trend of prevalence and susceptibility to nitrofurantoin of urinary MDR Escherichia coli from outpatients
ConclusionsDespite a high prevalence of MDRE. coli in urinary samples from Belgian outpatients, nitrofurantoin could still be recommended as first-line empirical treatment in uncomplicated UTIs. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Synergistic in vitro activity between aztreonam and amoxicillin-clavulanate against Enterobacteriaceae-producing class B and/or class D carbapenemases with or without extended-spectrum β-lactamases.
CONCLUSION: The combination of ATM and AMC could be an attractive unconventional treatment for infections due to carbapenemase- and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID: 31361213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ract P, Compain F, Robin F, Decre D, Gallah S, Podglajen I Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research