Impact of Temperature, Nutrients and Heavy Metals on Bacterial Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning Studied by Freshwater Microcosms and High-Throughput DNA Sequencing.
This study aimed at investigating the influence of key environmental parameters on bacterial diversity and ecosystem functioning (i.e. organic matter breakdown) in laboratory freshwater microcosms. The effects of varying temperatures (5, 20 and 35 °C), nutrients (representing low, medium and high urbanization) and heavy metals Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) on bacterial diversity and organic matter (OM) breakdown were studied by using leaf bags and capsules filled with polycaprolactonediol-2000 (PCP-2000), respectively. The leaf-associated bacterial diversity was determined by next-generation sequencing of SSU rRNA gen...
Source: Current Microbiology - August 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuan T, McCarthy AJ, Zhang Y, Sekar R Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Structural Variability and Functional Prediction in the Epiphytic Bacteria Assemblies of Myriophyllum spicatum.
In this study, we used two contrasting artificial water environments (eutrophic and oligotrophic) for reciprocal transplant experiment of Myriophyllum spicatum to examine the colonization of epiphytic bacteria accompanied with plants growth. Comparative analysis addressed a higher species diversity in epiphytic bacteria than in bacterioplankton, and the highest microbiome richness in sediment. Our data revealed that the organization of epiphytic bacterial community was affected by both plant status (i.e. branch number, net photosynthesis rate etc.) and water bodies (i.e. total phosphate, total nitrogen, pH etc.). Moreover,...
Source: Current Microbiology - August 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xian L, Wan T, Cao Y, Sun J, Wu T, Apudo AA, Li W, Liu F Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Phenotypic Variations of Oleispira antarctica RB-8(T) in Different Growth Conditions.
llo S Abstract The peculiar biotechnological applications of Oleispira spp. in the natural cleansing of oil-polluted marine systems stimulated the study of the phenotypic characteristics of the Oleispira antarctica RB-8(T) strain and modifications of these characteristics in relation to different growth conditions. Bacterial abundance, cell size and morphology variations (by image analysis) and hydrocarbon degradation (by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, GC-FID) were analysed in different cultures of O. antarctica RB-8(T). The effects of six different hydrocarbon mixtures (diesel, engine oil, na...
Source: Current Microbiology - August 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gentile G, Maimone G, La Ferla R, Azzaro M, Catalfamo M, Genovese M, Santisi S, Maldani M, Macrì A, Cappello S Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Etest Methods for Screening Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) strains.
In conclusion, hVISA strains have a high prevalence in bloodstream MRSA infections. Awareness of the increase in hVISA strains should motivate laboratories to establish a system to detect and monitor hVISA. PMID: 32734419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Microbiology)
Source: Current Microbiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lee MY, Lee WI, Kim MH, Kang SY, Kim YJ Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Different Lactobacilli Regarding Substrate Utilization and Their Tolerance Towards Lignocellulose Degradation Products.
This study describes a new strain L. brevis IGB 1.29, that enables efficient lactic acid production with a lignocellulose-derived C5- and C6-sugar fraction. PMID: 32728792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Microbiology)
Source: Current Microbiology - July 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gubelt A, Blaschke L, Hahn T, Rupp S, Hirth T, Zibek S Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Biodegradation and Kinetic Analysis of Acetaminophen with Co-culture of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Sewage Wastewater.
In this study, the microscopy, biochemical test and 16S rRNA sequencing the characterization of APAP as the sole degrading stains viz. Staphylococcus sciuri strain DPP1 (MN744326), Bacillus subtilis strain DPP3 (MN744327), Bacillus paralicheniformis strain DKP1 (MN744324), Enterococcus faecium strain DKP2 (MN744325) and DDP2 (MT705211) were performed. Haldane's growth kinetic model was used to identify specific growth rate and observed for DPP1 (485 mg/L), DPP3 (593 mg/L), DKP1 (477 mg/L), DKP2 (702 mg/L) and DDP2 (685 mg/L). The maximum specific growth rate was reported for the stains viz. DPP1, D...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chopra S, Kumar D Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Structural Characterization of an Exopolysaccharide Isolated from Enterococcus faecalis, and Study on its Antioxidant Activity, and Cytotoxicity Against HeLa Cells.
Abstract An exopolysaccharide (EPS-I) having the molecular weight ~ 2.6 × 105 Da, was isolated from a Zinc resistant strain of Enterococcus faecalis from costal area. The exopolysaccharide consists of D-mannose, D-glucose, and L-fucose in molar ratio of 9:4:1. The monosaccharide units in the EPS-1 were determined through chemical (total acid hydrolysis and methylation analysis) and spectroscopic (FTIR and 1H NMR experiment) analysis. The mannose-rich EPS-1 showed total antioxidant activity (1 mg mL-1 of EPS-I as functional as approximately to 500 ±&thi...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Choudhuri I, Khanra K, Pariya P, Maity GN, Mondal S, Pati BR, Bhattacharyya N Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Acinetobacter mesopotamicus sp. nov., Petroleum-degrading Bacterium, Isolated from Petroleum-Contaminated Soil in Diyarbakir, in the Southeast of Turkey.
B, Finore I Abstract A new petroleum-degrading bacterium, designated strain GC2T, was isolated from Bozkuş 1 petroleum station in Diyarbakir, located in the southeast of Turkey. Cells were Gram-negative staining, aerobic, coccoid-rods, non-motile, non-spore-forming. The bacterium was found to degrade 100% of n-alkanes ranging from C11 to C34 presented in the 1% crude oil after incubation of 7 days. The membrane phospholipids were 1,2 diacylglycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine (PEA), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol 1- phosphocholine (PC1), 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine monohydrate...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Acer Ö, Güven K, Poli A, Di Donato P, Leone L, Buono L, Güven RG, Nicolaus B, Finore I Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

An Insight on the Role of Nitric Oxide in Yeast Apoptosis of Curcumin-Treated Candida albicans.
In conclusion, NO account for an indispensable position in apoptosis of curcumin-treated C. albicans. PMID: 32719888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Microbiology)
Source: Current Microbiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kwun MS, Lee DG Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Exploring the Potential of Two Bacterial Consortia to Degrade Cellulosic Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract This paper outlines two cellulolytic bacterial consortia named SCS and SCB, isolated from soil samples of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) crop field, and a sugarcane bagasse deposit in an ethanol mill. Both consortia were able to grow on different carbon sources, such as sugarcane bagasse, corn husk, peanut hulls, and carboxymethylcellulose, releasing up to 11.90 µmol/mL and 15.23 µmol/mL of glucose for SCS and SCB, respectively. In addition, SCS and SCB have several strains capable of producing cellulase, amylase, lipase, and protease. Whole genome sequencing of the SCS consortium...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Constancio MTL, Sacco LP, Campanharo JC, Castellane TCL, de Oliveira Souza AC, Weiss B, de Mello Varani A, Alves LMC Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Plasmid-Mediated Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Analysis of Its Metabolic By-Products.
Abstract Organophosphate pesticide persistence is an emerging menace to the environment and despite this fact, its use has been enhanced due to its high efficiency. Bioremediation using microorganisms would be the only means by which these hazardous compounds could be wiped out without disturbing the environmental harmony. The current work studied the molecular mechanism of degradation of Chlorpyrifos (CP) by a bacterial consortium C5 comprising of three soil isolates Staphylococcus warneri (CPI 2), Pseudomonas putida (CPI 9) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CPI 15), which unveiled that the property is plasmid bo...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: John EM, Varghese EM, Shaike JM Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Colonization on Cotton Plants with a GFP Labeled Strain of Bacillus axarquiensis.
Abstract Verticillium dahliae was one of the most important diseases caused Verticillium wilt of cotton. In our previous study, Bacillus axarquiensis TUBP1 was screened and found to be an antagonistic strain against V. dahliae with 43% biocontrol effect in the cotton field. In order to uncover the functional mechanism of B. axarquiensis against Verticillium wilt in cotton, the colonization of B. axarquiensis labeled with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was investigated in cotton plants and the rhizosphere soil. Firstly, a plasmid (pHT-315) containing gfp gene was successfully transformed into wild...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang B, Wan CX, Zeng H Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Five Bacillus Isolates Displaying Remarkable Carboxymethyl Cellulase Activities.
Abstract Cellulases have many useful applications in industry and biotechnology. So, identification of new bacterial strains expressing cellulases with better properties is desired. Five soil bacterial strains screened for high carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activities were characterized and identified by 16S rRNA analysis as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (FAY088), B. velezensis (FAY0103), B. tequilensis (FAY0117), B. subtilis (FAY0136), and B. subtilis (FAY0182). Their CMCase activities were 1.49, 1.26, 1.21, 1.21, and 1.24 U/ml, respectively. The maximum CMCase production was attained by growth at 35 °C,...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abd Elhameed E, Sayed ARM, Radwan TEE, Hassan G Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Characteristics of Bacillus cereus Group Isolated from Raw and Pasteurised Milk.
Abstract The elimination of spore-forming bacteria is not guaranteed by current pasteurisation processes and is a challenging problem for the dairy industry. Given that Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus group) is an important foodborne pathogen and spoiler in the dairy industry, this study aimed at evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus group in raw and pasteurised milk samples collected in Victoria, Australia. Isolated B. cereus group were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm formation and virulence properties. Genetic diversity was assessed using ERIC-PCR. Proteomic profiling ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Radmehr B, Zaferanloo B, Tran T, Beale DJ, Palombo EA Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection and Determination of Fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 Contaminating Japanese Domestic Wine by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Abstract Nine domestic wine samples collected from a Japanese winery were examined for the presence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), and fumonisin B3 (FB3), as well as ochratoxin A (OTA) and ochratoxin B (OTB). Wine samples spiked with 13C-labeled internal standards (13C34-FB1 and 13C20-OTA) were diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer, loaded on immunoaffinity cartridges to purify of fumonisins and ochratoxins, and subjected to liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The data revealed that the domestic wine samples were possibly contaminated with FB1 ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakagawa H, Hashimoto R, Matsuo Y, Sago Y, Yokoyama K, Takahashi H Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacillus thermoamylovorans-Related Strain Isolated from High Temperature Sites as Potential Producers of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA).
Abstract Thermotolerant bacteria producing medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) were isolated from various thermal sites, including palm oil mill effluent, textile wastewater, and hot spring water, in Thailand. Fifteen strains were isolated at 45 °C using nutrient-rich (NR) medium. However, only six isolates produced mcl-PHA at 0.41 ± 0.01 g/L to 0.80 ± 0.01 g/L, representing a mcl-PHA content of 29.44% to 50.77% of the dry cell weight (DCW). The six strains of bacterial isolates could utilise a variety of substrates; all were identified as...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Choonut A, Prasertsan P, Klomklao S, Sangkharak K Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Efficiency of Candida tropicalis for Potential Degradation of Metalaxyl in the Aqueous Media.
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Candida tropicalis for potential degradation of metalaxyl in the aqueous media. The yeast fungus from soil with a historical application of metalaxyl has been isolated. The identification of isolated fungus was carried out using 28S rRNA. The effect of pH, temperature, and metalaxyl concentration on the growth of C. tropicalis and its ability for metalaxyl degradation was also investigated. The isolated fungus was identified as C. tropicalis based on the sequencing of D1D2 region of the 28S rRNA and BLAST search of the nucleotide sequences. The growth of C. tropicalis ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Derbalah ASH, El-Banna A, Saad Allah M Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Safety Assessment and Preliminary In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Lactococcus lactis Strains Naturally Present in Raw and Fermented Milk.
Abstract The present study was conducted to find the potential of Lactococcus lactis strains naturally present in raw and fermented milk as probiotics and to evaluate their safety and some technological characteristics. There are numerous studies that evaluated probiotic properties of lactococci, nevertheless, limited studies on the probiotic potential of lactococci isolated from raw milk or dairy products were performed. Strains isolation from raw milk or dairy products and their characterization is important when selection of starter strains for the production of functional dairy foods is performed. Depending on...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kondrotiene K, Lauciene L, Andruleviciute V, Kasetiene N, Serniene L, Sekmokiene D, Malakauskas M Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Growth Performance and Intestinal Microbiota Diversity in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed with a Probiotic Bacterium, Honey Prebiotic, and Synbiotic.
This study aimed to evaluate the growth performance and intestinal microbiota composition in Pacific white shrimp after probiotic, honey prebiotic, or synbiotic treatment. Pacific white shrimp were treated for 45 days with probiotic (1% (v/w) of Bacillus sp. NP5 RfR probiotic), prebiotic (0.5% (v/w) of honey prebiotic), synbiotic (1% (v/w) of probiotic and 0.5% (v/w) prebiotic), or control (without addition of probiotic and prebiotic). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to assess the effects of these treatments on growth performance and intestinal microbial diversity. The administration of a probiotic, prebioti...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hasyimi W, Widanarni W, Yuhana M Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Pineapple Peel Extract as an Effective Substrate for Esterase Production from Bacillus subtilis E9.
Abstract Esterase, belonging to hydrolase class of enzymes catalyzes the cleavage and formation of ester bonds. Esterase producing isolates E9 and E46, isolated from pineapple waste enriched soil were identified as Bacillus subtilis E9 and Bacillus sp. E46 respectively. Bacillus subtilis E9 with 10 U/mg esterase activity in basal media was further chosen for media optimization studies. Several factors including the effect of organic solvents and fruit peel extracts were studied by one factor at a time optimization method and statistical models. An enhanced enzyme production of 250.50 U/mg could be obtained un...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soumya P, Kochupurackal J Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Leptospira interrogans Retains Direct Virulence After Long Starvation in Water.
In this study, water microcosms were designed to evaluate the survival and virulence of Leptospira spp. for 2 years. Four commercial bottled drinking waters and a non-ionized water, all previously filter-sterilized, were studied. Either one of two Leptospira interrogans strains, one Leptospira borgpetersenii strain, or a saprophytic Leptospira biflexa was inoculated in these waters under nutrient-deprived conditions. Molecular, microscopic and cultural approaches were used to study Leptospira survival. Direct virulence of the pathogens was assessed using animal challenge without re-culturing. Our results confirmed the...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bierque E, Soupé-Gilbert ME, Thibeaux R, Girault D, Guentas L, Goarant C Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro Detoxification Studies of p-Cresol by Intestinal Bacteria Isolated from Human Feces.
Abstract p-Cresol is a neurotoxic and nephrotoxic carcinogenic aromatic substance produced as a result of microbial fermentation in the intestine. The derivatives of p-cresol (p-cresyl sulphate or p-cresyl glucuronide) have a deleterious effect on renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis. Human gut seems to be inhabited with a diverse microbial population capable of detoxifying many aromatic compounds. However, the knowledge on the role of gut microbes in metabolizing p-cresol is limited. Hence, the present study aims to investigate p-cresol detoxification by intestinal bacteria isolated from human feces. Th...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vijayasarathy M, Kiran GK, Balaji S, Jabastin J, Bruntha Devi P, Brindha Priyadarisini V Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Putative Drug Target Identification in Tinea Causing Pathogen Trichophyton rubrum Using Subtractive Proteomics Approach.
Abstract Trichophyton, important among the three keratinophylic fungi grouped as dermatophytes, is known to cause superficial infections in skin, nail and hair of all the living organisms. The side effects produced by the drugs currently administered to counter these infections have necessitated the search for novel targets. The present study focused on finding putative drug targets in Trichophyton rubrum using the subtractive proteomics approach where its whole proteome was analyzed to find proteins non-homologous to humans inclusive of their gut flora and human protein domain but essential to T. rubrum, to ident...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abuthakir MHS, Jebastin T, Sharmila V, Jeyam M Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative Genomic Study of Polar Lichen-Associated Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 and Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26628 Reveals the Presence of Polysaccharide-Degrading Ability Based on Habitat.
Abstract The genus Hymenobacter is classified in the family Hymenobacteraceae under the phylum Bacteroidetes. They have been isolated from diverse environments, such as air, soil, and lichen, along with extreme polar environments, including the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The polar regions have attracted intense research interest for the discovery of novel microorganisms and their functions. Analysis of the polysaccharide utilization-related carbohydrate-active enzyme among the two lichen-associated polar organisms Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 and Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26628 was performed, along with its comparis...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghimire N, Han SR, Kim B, Park H, Lee JH, Oh TJ Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from Cardamom Rhizosphere.
Abstract The present study was conducted to explore the native plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria from cardamom rhizosphere in few districts of Kerala and Tamilnadu under cardamom cultivation. The isolates obtained were screened for their PGP characteristics and their beneficial effect on cardamom was evaluated. Of the total 88 isolates, ten were screened as promising based on their performance in growth promoting attributes such as production of indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, heavy metal tolerance and antibiotic resistance. Diazotrophy of the screened isolates were tested ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Panchami PS, Geetha Thanuja K, Karthikeyan S Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Lincomycin-Induced Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces lividans 66 with a Mutation in the Gene Encoding the RNA Polymerase Beta Subunit.
In this study, we found that Streptomyces lividans carrying the R440H mutation in rpoB, encoding the RNA polymerase beta subunit, grown in the presence of lincomycin at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) produced abundant amounts of actinorhodin and certain cryptic secondary metabolites despite culture conditions that restrict their production by the wild-type strain. The results indicate that lincomycin at concentrations below the MIC may strongly potentiate secondary metabolite production by Streptomyces strains carrying a specific rpoB mutation. In this study, we report an interesting phenom...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mukai K, Kobayashi M, Hoshino K, Maruyama T, Hayashi D, Hamauzu R, Hosaka T Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Phytochemical Characterization, Bioactivities Evaluation and Synergistic Effect of Arbutus unedo and Crataegus monogyna Extracts with Amphotericin B.
Duarte APC Abstract The increased resistance to drugs by pathogens is a serious problem, with plants showing to be promising sources for the development of new drugs or the improvement of the effect of existing antimicrobial agents. Considering this, we aimed to evaluate the bioactivities of Arbutus unedo and Crataegus monogyna. Thus, the leaves were first extracted with methanol and then fractionated with different solvents. Phenolic compound profiles were assessed by HPLC-PDA-MSn and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH method and β-carotene bleaching assay. The antimicrobial activity of extrac...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Coimbra AT, Luís ÂFS, Batista MT, Ferreira SMP, Duarte APC Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

First Report of Environmental Isolation of Exophiala spp. in Malaysia.
This study aims to conduct a survey of natural distribution of Exophiala spp. in Malaysia. Forty-seven strains of Exophiala-like was isolated by using selective media. These isolates from the fields were molecularly identified based on the ITS region. The biochemical activity of these microbes was tested by conducting various tests, i.e. DNase test, proteinase activity, and urea hydrolysis. Overall, 22 strains of E. dermatitidis were successfully obtained and identified from burnt tree bark, oil dripped soil sample, hot spring biofilm, railway track stones, tar road contaminated with petrol hydrocarbon, drain and deep mud ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jayaram M, Nagao H Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Flavobacterium ajazii sp. nov., Isolated from Seaweed of Gouqi Island, China.
Abstract A novel bacterium designated SSM4.2T was isolated from seaweed of Gouqi Island, which is the center of the Zhoushan fishing ground in the East China Sea. Strain SSM4.2T was Gram-stain-negative, bright yellow-pigmented, short rod-shaped, non-flagellated, non-spore forming, aerobic and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 4-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-2.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0%) concentration. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was found as the sole respiratory quinone and zeaxanthin as the main carotenoid pigment. The ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khan I, Debnath SC, Yan C, Chen C, Xu Y, Wang WJ, Yu YC, Zheng DQ, Xu JZ, Wang PM Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Growth Inhibition of Common Enteric Pathogens in the Intestine of Broilers by Microbially Produced Dextran and Levan Exopolysaccharides.
In this study, the effects of prebiotics on the augmentation of broiler's indigenous gut microbiology were studied. Day old 180 broilers chicks were divided into four treatment groups: G, L, C1, and C2. The groups G and L were fed with basal diet containing 3% dextran and 3% levan, respectively. Control groups were fed with basal diets without antibiotic (C1) and with antibiotics (C2). The experimental groups showed decreased mortality as compared to control groups. After 35 days, the chickens were euthanized and intestinal fluid was analyzed for enteric pathogens on chromogenic agar plates and by 16S rRNA gene sequen...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashfaq I, Amjad H, Ahmad W, Nasir A, Ali A, Ali WR, Khaliq S, Hayat A, Ali H, Sattar F, Ghauri MA, Anwar MA Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Supernatant Cultures and Spore-Crystal Mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Algeria.
ré J Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most used technology for biological control of insect pathogens worldwide. In order to select new Bt candidates challenging the emergence of insect's resistance, a mass bioassay and molecular screening was performed on an autochthonous collection. Toxicity assays against neonate larvae of three lepidopteran species (Mamestra brassicae, Grapholita molesta, and Spodoptera exigua) were conducted using spore-crystal mixtures and supernatant cultures of 49 Bt isolates harboring at least one gene coding for a lepidopteran-specific insecticidal protein. A threshold ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Djenane Z, Lázaro-Berenguer M, Nateche F, Ferré J Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Draft Genome Sequence of a Potential Organic Phosphorus-Degrading Bacterium Brevibacterium frigoritolerans GD44, Isolated from Radioactive Soil in Xinjiang, China.
Abstract Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a strain quite potential use in environmental pollution, is also able to degrade the pesticide phorate. Here, we report a strain isolated from radioactive soil in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The genome of strain GD44 encompasses 5,471,331 base pairs with a GC content of 40.42%. The sequence was assembled into 1985 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 5053 proteins. Sequence analysis identified the genes encoding enzymes related to the degradation of organophosphorus compounds such as esterase, phosphotransferase, C-P lyase, and alkaline phosphatase. The ni...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jin M, Zhao Q, Zhou Z, Zhu L, Zhang Z, Jiang L Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of a Fungal Ketide Synthase Gene Among Swainsonine-Producing Alternaria Species in the USA.
Abstract Locoweeds are toxic leguminous plants in Astragalus and Oxytropis genera that contain fungal endophytes of Alternaria section Undifilum species. These fungi produce swainsonine, an alkaloid α-mannosidase inhibitor that causes a neurological syndrome, locoism in grazing animals. A SWN gene cluster has been identified in many swainsonine-producing fungi. The swnK gene, which is an essential component of the swainsonine biosynthetic pathway, encodes a polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthase (PKS-NRPS). To determine if swnK was conserved among Alternaria section Undifilum endophytes of locowee...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Noor AI, Neyaz M, Cook D, Creamer R Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of New Delhi Metallo- β-lactamase 1 and Cephalosporin Resistance Genes Among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Water Bodies Adjacent to Hospitals in India.
Detection of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase 1 and Cephalosporin Resistance Genes Among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Water Bodies Adjacent to Hospitals in India. Curr Microbiol. 2020 Jul 08;: Authors: Kalasseril SG, Krishnan R, Vattiringal RK, Paul R, Mathew P, Pillai D Abstract The prevalence of carbapenem resistance among bacterial isolates from selected water bodies receiving hospital effluents and adjoining aquaculture farms in Kerala, India, was studied. Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes and Acinetobacter baumannii were...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kalasseril SG, Krishnan R, Vattiringal RK, Paul R, Mathew P, Pillai D Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects of Herbal Extracts in Combination with Amikacin and Imipenem Against Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Acinetobacter.
This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Salvia chorassanica and Artemisia khorassanica on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter isolates and also examining the interaction of the methanol extract of the plants with the combination of amikacin and imipenem. First, the presence of adeI and adeB genes in bacterial isolates was investigated. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plants were prepared by ‏Maceration method. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) values were determined to evaluate the antibacterial activities of plant extracts and antibiotics. C...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fatemi N, Sharifmoghadam MR, Bahreini M, Khameneh B, Shadifar H Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Complete Genome Sequence and Carbohydrates-Active EnZymes (CAZymes) Analysis of Lactobacillus paracasei DTA72, a Potential Probiotic Strain with Strong Capability to Use Inulin.
Abstract The whole genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DTA72, isolated from healthy infant feces, is reported, along with the Carbohydrates-Active enZymes (CAZymes) analysis and an in silico safety assessment. Strain DTA72 had previously demonstrated some interesting potential probiotic features, such as a good resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and an anti-Listeria activity. The 3.1 Mb sequenced genome consists of 3116 protein-coding sequences distributed on 340 SEED subsystems. In the present study, we analyzed the fermentation capability of strain DTA72 on six different carbohydrate sources, ...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tarrah A, Pakroo S, Lemos Junior WJF, Guerra AF, Corich V, Giacomini A Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Functional Characterization and Transcriptional Analysis of clpP of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.
In this study, the Xcc clpP gene which is annotated to encode the proteolytic core of Clp was characterized. Mutation of clpP resulted in susceptibility to high temperature and puromycin stresses. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that S105, H130, and D179 are critical amino acid residues for ClpP function in puromycin tolerance. Inactivation of clpP also revealed an attenuation of virulence on the host plant and a reduction in the production of extracellular cellulase, mannanase, pectinase, and protease. The affected phenotypes of the clpP mutant could be complemented to wild-type levels by the intact clpP gene. Transcri...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li CE, Liao CT, Lo HH, Hsiao YM Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of Cyt2Ba from a New Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Toxicity in Bradysia difformis.
In this study, eight Bacillus thuringiensis strains were analyzed for insecticidal activity in B. difformis. The strain JW-1 showed the highest insecticidal activity against B. difformis larvae, but did not inhibit the mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. geesteranus. The 16S rRNA gene (1397 bp) and cyt2 gene (792 bp) were obtained from strain JW-1. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene and Cyt2 toxin showed that strain JW-1 was a member of B. thuringiensis and Cyt2 toxin belonged to Cyt2Ba toxin cluster. The Cyt2Ba toxin from strain JW-1 was overexpressed in E. coli as a fusion protein and the fu...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang FF, Qu SX, Lin JS, Li HP, Hou LJ, Jiang N, Luo X, Ma L Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Impact of Initial Feeding and Molting on Tachypleus tridentatus Gut Microbiota.
Abstract Tri-spine horseshoe crabs (HSCs) Tachypleus tridentatus have been facing the threat of population depletion for decades, and the physiology and microbiology of their early life stages are lacking. To explore what directs the change of juvenile T. tridentatus gut microbiota and how gut microbiota change, by using 16S rRNA sequencing of gut samples we detected the intestinal microbiome of juvenile HSCs and compared the impact of initial molting and initial feeding, as well as the effect of environment. Results showed that the predominant phyla in the gut microbial community of juvenile HSCs are Proteobacter...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miao F, Zhao Z, Li Q, Song J, Wang Y, Hu M Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Clostridium massiliamazoniense sp. nov., New Bacterial Species Isolated from Stool Sample of a Volunteer Brazilian.
Abstract The study of the gut microbiota by the "culturomics concept" permitted us to isolate, from human stool sample, an unknown anaerobic bacterium within the genus Clostridium for which we propose the name Clostridium massiliamazoniense sp. nov. It was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy 49-year-old Brazilian male. Here, we describe the characteristics of this organism and its complete genome sequencing and annotation. Clostridium massiliamazoniense sp. nov., ND2T (= CSURP1360 = DSMZ 27309) is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic member of Firmicutes with a 3,732,600 b...
Source: Current Microbiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dione N, Lo CI, Raoult D, Fenollar F, Fournier PE Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

The Faecal Microbiome of Building-Dwelling Insectivorous Bats (Myotis myotis and Rhinolophus hipposideros) also Contains Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Representatives.
In this study, the faecal microbiome composition of two building-dwelling insectivorous bat species (Myotis myotis and Rhinolophus hipposideros) was analysed using cultivation-based and non-cultivation-based approaches. The cultivation analyses indicate the dominance of Gram-positive bacteria, represented by the genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus. Non-cultivation analysis based on 16S rRNA DGGE assays provided a different pattern, with the genus Rahnella found to predominate in the faecal microbiome. The analyses showed bat species to be the most important factor influencing the structure of the guano-assoc...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gerbáčová K, Maliničová L, Kisková J, Maslišová V, Uhrin M, Pristaš P Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Cell Culture with Three Conventional Polymerase Chain Reactions for Detecting Chlamydophila pneumoniae in Adult's Pharyngotonsillitis.
Abstract Chlamydophila pneumoniae is an intracellular pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. The isolation of the microorganism from clinical specimens is essential for a diagnosis. However, the identification of C. pneumoniae by cell cultures is very difficult besides strongly depending on the sample conditions. The study aimed to investigate, in adult patients with pharyngotonsillitis, the frequency of Chlamydophila pneumoniae detection by cell cultures and three conventional PCRs (a conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and two nested PCRs, targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the ompA gene, r...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stivala A, Genovese C, Bonaccorso C, Di Salvatore V, Petronio Petronio G, Garozzo A, Salmeri M Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Massilia aquatica sp. nov., Isolated from a Subtropical Stream in China.
Abstract A Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped and motile strain FT127WT was isolated from a subtropical stream in China. Comparison based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FT127WT belongs to genus Massilia and shares 98.5% similarity with Massilia buxea A9T as its closest neighbor. The genome size of strain FT127WT was 6.65 Mbp with G + C content of 65.3%. The calculated pairwise OrthoANIu values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain FT127WT and each of strains M. buxea KCTC 52429T, Massilia armeniaca ZMN-3T, Massilia plicata DSM 17505T and M...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu HB, Deng TC, Xu MY Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Exploring the Genome of Fructobacillus tropaeoli CRL 2034, a Fig-Origin Strain that Produces High Levels of Mannitol from Fructose.
We report the draft genome sequence of Fructobacillus tropaeoli CRL 2034, a strain isolated from ripe fig in Tucumán province, Argentina. The interest in studying the genome of this fructophilic lactic acid bacterium strain was motivated by its ability to produce high levels of mannitol from fructose. This polyol has multiple industrial applications; however, it is mainly used as low calorie sugar in the food industry. The assembled genome of this strain consists of a 1.66-Mbp circular chromosome with 1465 coding sequences and a G+C content of 44.6%. The analysis of this genome supports the one step reaction of fruc...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruiz Rodríguez LG, Mohamed F, Bleckwedel J, Terán LC, Hébert EM, Mozzi F, Raya RR Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Flavihumibacter soli sp. nov., Isolated from Soil.
Abstract A novel Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain R14T was isolated from steep grove soil and taxonomically characterized using a polyphasic approach. Cells showed oxidase-negative and catalase-positive activities and grew at 25-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 6.5), and in the presence of 0-0.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0%). Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain R14T formed a phylogenetic lineage with Flavihumibacter genus members within the family Chitinophagaceae. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seo YL, Jung J, Khan SA, Kim KH, Jeon CO Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Actinobacteria Associated with Vineyard Soils of Algeria: Classification, Antifungal Potential Against Grapevine Trunk Pathogens and Plant Growth-Promoting Features.
Abstract Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are among the most destructive diseases of vineyards worldwide, including Algeria. In the fungal complex involved in GTD symptoms, referred as grapevine trunk-pathogens, Paeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium minimum have a determining infecting role as pioneer fungi. Due to the lack of efficiency of conventional disease management practices, a search for alternative strategies, such as biocontrol, is needed. Taking the approach of looking for biocontrol candidates in the environment surrounding the plant, the present study explored actinobacteria diversity wit...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Laassami A, Yekkour A, Meklat A, Djemouai N, Zitouni A, Mokrane S, Lecomte P, Rey P, Berraf-Tebbal A Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Methylobacterium symbioticum sp. nov., a new species isolated from spores of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum.
ernández F Abstract Strain SB0023/3 T, isolated from spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum, was analysed to determine whether it represents a new species. It was studied for its applicability in the field of agriculture to reduce the input of nitrogen fertilizers. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows the strain to be affiliated to the genus Methylobacterium, the closest similarities (98.7%) being shared with Methylobacterium dankookense. Further phylogenomic analysis through Up-to-date Bacterial Core Gene (UBCG) confirmed Methylobacterium dan...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pascual JA, Ros M, Martínez J, Carmona F, Bernabé A, Torres R, Lucena T, Aznar R, Arahal DR, Fernández F Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro Studies on Therapeutic Potential of Probiotic Yeasts Isolated from Various Sources.
Abstract The present study investigates the therapeutic properties of probiotic yeasts viz. Yarrowia lipolytica VIT-MN01, Kluyveromyces lactis VIT-MN02, Lipomyces starkeyi VIT-MN03, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera VIT-MN04 and Brettanomyces custersianus VIT-MN05. The antimutagenic activity of probiotic yeasts against the mutagens viz. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and Sodium azide (SA) was tested. S. fibuligera VIT-MN04 showed highest antimutagenicity (75%). Binding ability on the mutagen acridine orange (AO) was tested and L. starkeyi VIT-MN03 was able to bind AO effectively (88%). The probiotic yeasts were treated with th...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ragavan ML, Das N Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity of Uncultured Magnetospirillum sp. from the Sediments of South Kerala Sedimentary Basin, India.
Abstract Studies on the geographic distribution of Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) revealed their ubiquitous presence in diverse habitats on all continents. However, little is known about MTB inhabitation in the Indian coastal ecosystem. Here, we investigate the diversity of Magnetospirillum sp. from the iron mineral sediments deposit of the South Kerala sedimentary basin, India using culture-independent methods. The collected sediment samples were analysed for the presence of nitrate (zinc reduction), sulphide (cline method), Fe2+, total iron (ferrozine assay) and iron minerals (XRD analysis). Based on the geochemic...
Source: Current Microbiology - June 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jacob JJ, Suthindhiran K Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization and Genome Analysis of a Novel Marine Alteromonas Phage P24.
This study contributes to the understanding of the genomic characteristics and the virus-host interactions of Alteromonas phages. PMID: 32588135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Microbiology)
Source: Current Microbiology - June 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang X, Liu Y, Wang M, Wang M, Jiang T, Sun J, Gao C, Jiang Y, Guo C, Shao H, Liang Y, McMinn A Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research