Perceived COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, acceptance, and drivers of vaccination decision-making among the general adult population: A global survey of 20 countries
ConclusionsMost participants believed that vaccination would effectively control and prevent COVID-19, and they would take vaccinations upon availability. Determinant factors found in this study are critical and should be considered as essential elements in developing COVID-19 vaccination campaigns to boost vaccination uptake in the populations. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Roy Rillera Marzo Source Type: research

Evaluation of a structured treatment discontinuation in patients with inoperable alveolar echinococcosis on long-term benzimidazole therapy: A  retrospective cohort study
ConclusionTreatment cessation is feasible in inoperable AE patients, who demonstrate negative anti-Em18 antibody ELISA and PET on follow-up. Close monitoring including sectional imaging is strongly advised. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ansgar Deibel Source Type: research

Simulating the effect of evaluation unit size on eligibility to stop mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in Haiti
Conclusions/SignificanceOur results demonstrate the high potential for misclassification when the average prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in the combined areas differs with regards to the TAS threshold. Of particular concern is the risk of “passing” larger EUs that include focal areas where prevalence is high enough to be potentially self-sustaining. Our results reaffirm the approach that Haiti took in forming smaller EUs. Where baseline or monitoring data show a high or heterogeneous prevalence, programs should leverage alternati ve strategies like mini-TAS in smaller EUs, or consider gathering additional data thro...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Natalya Kostandova Source Type: research

Leishmania RNA virus-1 is similarly detected among metastatic and non-metastatic phenotypes in a prospective cohort of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis
This study did not find clinical, parasitological, or immunological evidence supporting the hypothesis that LRV1 is a significant determinant of the pathobiology of ATL. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Braulio Mark Valencia Source Type: research

Development of a simple, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic assay for enterotoxigenic < i > E < /i > . < i > coli < /i > and < i > Shigella spp < /i > applicable to endemic countries
by Subhra Chakraborty, Sean Connor, Mirza Velagic EnterotoxigenicE.coli (ETEC) andShigella spp (Shigella) are complex pathogens. The diagnostic assays currently used to detect these pathogens are elaborate or complicated, which make them difficult to apply in resource poor settings where these diseases are endemic. The culture methods used to detect Shigella are not sensitive, and the methods used to detect ETEC are only available in a few research labs. To address this gap, we developed a rapid and simple diagnostic assay –"Rapid LAMP based Diagnostic Test (RLDT)." The six minutes sample preparation method directly fro...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Subhra Chakraborty Source Type: research

Community trust of government and non-governmental organizations during the 2014-16 Ebola epidemic in Liberia
by Ronan F. Arthur, Lily M. Horng, Fatorma K. Bolay, Amos Tandanpolie, John R. Gilstad, Lucy K. Tantum, Stephen P. Luby The West African Ebola Virus Disease epidemic of 2014-16 cost more than 11,000 lives. Interventions targeting key behaviors to curb transmission, such as safe funeral practices and reporting and isolating the ill, were initially unsuccessful in a climate of fear, mistrust, and denial. Building tru st was eventually recognized as essential to epidemic response and prioritized, and trust was seen to improve toward the end of the epidemic as incidence fell. However, little is understood about how and why tr...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ronan F. Arthur Source Type: research

Role of interferon-induced GTPases in leishmaniasis
by Marie Lipoldov á, Yahya Sohrabi (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marie Lipoldov á Source Type: research

Defining clinical trial quality from the perspective of resource-limited settings: A qualitative study based on interviews with investigators, sponsors, and monitors conducting clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa
Conclusions/SignificanceWe found that in order to enable comprehensive clinical trial quality management, clinical trial quality should be defined by a multidimensional concept that includes not only scientific and ethical, but also quality-promoting factors. Such a concept is of general relevance and not limited to clinical trials in resource-limited settings, where it naturally carries particular weight. In addition, from the perspective of sub-Saharan Africa, we identified specific categories that appear to be critical for the conduct of clinical trials in resource-limited settings, and we propose respective changes to ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Angela De Pretto-Lazarova Source Type: research

Correction: Predictive markers for the early prognosis of dengue severity: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Tran Quang Thach, Heba Gamal Eisa, AlMotsim Ben Hmeda, Hazem Faraj, Tieu Minh Thuan, Manal Mahmoud Abdelrahman, Mario Gerges Awadallah, Nam Xuan Ha, Michael Noeske, Jeza Muhamad Abdul Aziz, Nguyen Hai Nam, Mohamed El Nile, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tran Quang Thach Source Type: research

Entomological outcomes of cluster-randomised, community-driven dengue vector-suppression interventions in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia
by Jacob Bigio, Leo Braack, Thy Chea, Srun Set, Sokha Suon, Pierre Echaubard, John Hustedt, Mark Debackere, Bernadette Ramirez, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Sam Bunleng, Alexandra Wharton-Smith, Jeffrey Hii Cambodia has one of the highest dengue infection rates in Southeast Asia. Here we report quantitative entomological results of a large-scale cluster-randomised trial assessing the impact on vector populations of a package of vector control interventions including larvivorous guppy fish in househol d water containers, mosquito trapping with gravid-ovitraps, solid waste management, breeding-container coverage through community e...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 25, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jacob Bigio Source Type: research

Strongy Detect: Preliminary Validation of a Prototype Recombinant Ss-NIE/Ss-IR Based ELISA to Detect < i > Strongyloides stercoralis < /i >  Infection
ConclusionStrongy Detect is the most sensitive and specific commercialized immunoassay for detection of strongyloidiasis. The assay remains positive for greater than a year post-treatment. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 25, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: William J. Sears Source Type: research

Paving the way for human vaccination against Rift Valley fever virus: A systematic literature review of RVFV epidemiology from 1999 to 2021
Conclusions/SignificanceWith broad variability in surveillance, case finding, survey design, and RVFV case confirmation, combined with uncertainty about populations-at-risk, there were inconsistent results from location to location. However, it was evident that RVFV transmission is expanding its range and frequency. Gaps assessment indicated the need to harmonize human and animal surveillance and improve diagnostics and genotyping. Given the frequency of RVFV outbreaks, human vaccination has strong potential to mitigate the impact of this now widely endemic disease. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Keli N. Gerken Source Type: research

AT-752, a double prodrug of a guanosine nucleotide analog, inhibits yellow fever virus in a hamster model
by Kai Lin, Steven S. Good, Justin G. Julander, Abbie E. Weight, Adel Moussa, Jean-Pierre Sommadossi Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a zoonotic pathogen re-emerging in parts of the world, causing a viral hemorrhagic fever associated with high mortality rates. While an effective vaccine is available, having an effective antiviral against YFV is critical against unexpected outbreaks, or when vaccinatio n is not recommended. We have previously identified AT-281, the free base of AT-752, an orally available double prodrug of a guanosine nucleotide analog, as a potent inhibitor of YFVin vitro, with a 50% effective concentration (E...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kai Lin Source Type: research

Predicting dengue incidence leveraging internet-based data sources. A case study in 20 cities in Brazil
by Gal Koplewitz, Fred Lu, Leonardo Clemente, Caroline Buckee, Mauricio Santillana The dengue virus affects millions of people every year worldwide, causing large epidemic outbreaks that disrupt people’s lives and severely strain healthcare systems. In the absence of a reliable vaccine against dengue or an effective treatment to manage the illness in humans, most efforts to co mbat dengue infections have focused on preventing its vectors, mainly the Aedes aegypti mosquito, from flourishing across the world. These mosquito-control strategies need reliable disease activity surveillance systems to be deployed. Despite sign...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gal Koplewitz Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the aetiological agents of non-malarial febrile illnesses in Africa
ConclusionThe small number of epidemiological studies and the variety of NMFI agents on the African continent emphasizes the need for harmonized studies with larger sample sizes. In particular, diagnostic procedures for NMFIs should be standardized to facilitate comparability of study results and to improve future meta-analyses. Reliable NMFI burden estimates will inform regional public health strategies. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Martin Wainaina Source Type: research