The impact of Worms and Ladders, an innovative health educational board game on Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis control in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria
In this study, we designed a new health educational board game Worms and Ladders and evaluated its p otential to complement MDA with albendazole and reduce reinfection rates through the promotion of good hygiene practices among school-aged children. The evaluation employed a randomized control trial (RCT) design. Baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) relating to STH were obtained using a questionnaire from 372 pupils across six schools in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control group, with the former and latter receiving Worms and Ladders and the common Snake and Ladder bo...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dorcas B. Bassey Source Type: research

A first nation-wide assessment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Fijian primary schools, and factors associated with the infection, using a lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey as surveillance platform
ConclusionsAfter a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sung Hye Kim Source Type: research

A single mutation (V64G) within the RING Domain of Z attenuates Junin virus
by Steven J. Hallam, John T. Manning, Junki Maruyama, Alexey Seregin, Cheng Huang, David H. Walker, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Slobodan Paessler Junin virus (JUNV) is a New World arenavirus that is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Candid#1 (Can) is a live-attenuated vaccine strain of JUNV that since its introduction has resulted in a marked decrease in AHF incidence within the endemic regions of the Pampas in Argen tina. Originally, the viral determinants and mechanisms of Can attenuation were not well understood. Recent work has identified the glycoprotein as the major attenuating factor for Can. T...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Steven J. Hallam Source Type: research

Rapid detection of brucellosis using a quantum dot-based immunochromatographic test strip
by Guangqiang Li, Zhen Rong, Shengqi Wang, Hongyan Zhao, Dongri Piao, Xiaowen Yang, Guozhong Tian, Hai Jiang Novel diagnostic tools are a major challenge for brucellosis research, especially in developing countries. Herein, we established a handheld quantum dot (QD) immunochromatographic device for the fast detection of brucellosis antibodies in the field. Total bacterial protein extracted from Brucella 104M served as labelling and coating antigen. QD labelling and immunochromatography methods were used to optimise reaction conditions, labelling conditions, reaction temperature and storage temperature. QD test strips were...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Guangqiang Li Source Type: research

Lentinan improved the efficacy of vaccine against < i > Trichinella spiralis < /i > in an NLRP3 dependent manner
by Xuemin Jin, Xiaolei Liu, Jing Ding, Lixiao Zhang, Yaming Yang, Xuelin Wang, Yong Yang, Mingyuan Liu There is an urgent need for the development of new, improved vaccine adjuvants againstT.spiralis infection. Polysaccharides are effective, safe, and biodegradable as adjuvant. In our study, we first observed the protective efficacy of lentinan as adjuvant against helminthT.spiralis infection. RecombinantT.spiralis Serpin (rTs-Serpin) immunoscreened from a cDNA library ofT.spiralis, as a vaccine, protect host againstTrichinella infection. The reduction rate of helminth burden of rTs-Serpin+lentinan –immunized mice w...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xuemin Jin Source Type: research

Impact of annual and semi-annual mass drug administration for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis on Hookworm Infection in C ôte d’Ivoire
The objective of the current study was to determine whether five semi-annual rounds of community-wide MDA t o eliminate LF and onchocerciasis have a greater impact on STH than three annual rounds of MDA with similar compliance. The effects of MDA using ivermectin (IVM, 0.2 mg/kg) combined with albendazole (ALB, 400 mg) on the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infection were evaluated in the Abengourou (annual MDA) and Akoupé (semi-annual MDA) health Districts in eastern Côte d’Ivoire from 2014 to 2017. A cross-sectional approach was used together with mixed logistic regression, and mixed linear models...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Agodio Loukouri Source Type: research

Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics of praziquantel: A review of variable drug exposure during schistosomiasis treatment in human hosts and experimental models
by Grace Zdesenko, Francisca Mutapi Schistosomiasis control is heavily reliant on the drug praziquantel (PZQ), which is used as preventive chemotherapy as part of national helminth control strategies. Given the heavy reliance on PZQ for mass drug administration, there has been considerable research on the potential of parasites deve loping resistance to the drug, resulting in decreased drug efficacy. However, there have been comparatively fewer studies of other factors that can potentially alter PZQ efficacy. Here, we investigate whether host PZQ metabolism contributes towards variable cure rates. We evaluate factors that...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Grace Zdesenko Source Type: research

Exposure to nanoceria impacts larval survival, life history traits and fecundity of < i > Aedes aegypti < /i >
by Mona Doshi, Alexander Bosak, Craig J. Neal, Nour Isis, Udit Kumar, Aadithya Jeyaranjan, Tamil Selvan Sakthivel, Sushant Singh, Alicia Willenberg, Robert B. Hines, Sudipta Seal, Bradley J. Willenberg Effectively controlling vector mosquito populations while avoiding the development of resistance remains a prevalent and increasing obstacle to integrated vector management. Although, metallic nanoparticles have previously shown promise in controlling larval populations via mechanisms which are le ss likely to spur resistance, the impacts of such particles on life history traits and fecundity of mosquitoes are understudied....
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mona Doshi Source Type: research

NTDs in the 2020s: An epic struggle of effective control tools versus the Anthropocene
by Peter J. Hotez (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Peter J. Hotez Source Type: research

Machine learning and dengue forecasting: Comparing random forests and artificial neural networks for predicting dengue burden at national and sub-national scales in Colombia
This study demonstrates the potentia l of RF in dengue forecasting with a feasible approach of using a national pooled model to forecast at finer spatial scales. Furthermore, including sociodemographic predictors is likely to be helpful in capturing longer-term dengue trends. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Naizhuo Zhao Source Type: research

The use of serology for trachoma surveillance: Current status and priorities for future investigation
by Diana L. Martin, Martha Idal í Saboyà-Díaz, Aida Abashawl, Wondu Alemayeh, Sarah Gwyn, Pamela J. Hooper, Jeremy Keenan, Khumbo Kalua, Celia Landmann Szwarcwald, Scott Nash, Catherine Oldenburg, Sheila K. West, Michael White, Anthony W. Solomon (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Diana L. Martin Source Type: research

Discovery of repurposing drug candidates for the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae
by Christopher A. Rice, Beatrice L. Colon, Emily Chen, Mitchell V. Hull, Dennis E. Kyle Diseases caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae include primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (Naegleria fowleri), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (Acanthamoeba spp.),Acanthamoeba keratitis, andBalamuthia amoebic encephalitis (Balamuthia mandrillaris). Each of these are difficult to treat and have high morbidity and mortality rates due to lack of effective therapeutics. Since repurposing drugs is an ideal strategy for orphan diseases, we conducted a high throughput phenotypic screen of 12,000 compounds from the Calibr ReFRAME librar...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Christopher A. Rice Source Type: research

The global distribution of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma
ConclusionsWith better understanding of the epidemiology of mycetoma, more can be done to direct education, preventive measures, and treatment to at-risk areas, enabling a reduction in disease burden. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Darcy Emery Source Type: research

Epidemiological models for predicting Ross River virus in Australia: A  systematic review
by Wei Qian, Elvina Viennet, Kathryn Glass, David Harley Ross River virus (RRV) is the most common and widespread arbovirus in Australia. Epidemiological models of RRV increase understanding of RRV transmission and help provide early warning of outbreaks to reduce incidence. However, RRV predictive models have not been systematically reviewed, analysed, and compared. The hypothesis of this systematic review was that summarising the epidemiological models applied to predict RRV disease and analysing model performance could elucidate drivers of RRV incidence and transmission patterns. We performed a systematic literature se...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wei Qian Source Type: research

Feasibility of community-based control of tsetse: A  pilot project using Tiny Targets in the Democratic Republic of Congo
This study aimed to evaluate if a community-led vector control programme was feasible in the context of DRC’s g-HAT elimination programme. In 2017, a community-led intervention was implemented in three villages in the Kwilu province of DRC. This interventio n was evaluated through an Action Research with qualitative data collected through 21 focus group discussions and 289 hours of observation. Also the geographical location and quality of each Tiny Targets were collected (total number deployed = 2429). This research revealed that community-based appro ach largely worked: people were motivated and proactive, showed a...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Catiane Vander Kelen Source Type: research

Activity limitation and social participation restriction among leprosy patients in Boru Meda Hospital, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
ConclusionThis study revealed that activity limitation and participation restriction are common among leprosy patients. Earlier diagnosis and improved rehabilitative services may help to decrease activity limitation, whereas community rehabilitation may improve social participation. The old and centralized leprosy rehabilitation services need to be decentralized and backed with modern equipment and trained staffs. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Seid Getahun Abdela Source Type: research

Vector competence and feeding-excretion behavior of < i > Triatoma rubrovaria < /i > (Blanchard, 1843) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) infected with < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > TcVI
Conclusions/significanceLaboratory infections revealed similar rate ofT.cruzi VI trypomatigotes in excreta ofT.rubrovaria andT.infestans, one of the most epidemiological important vectors ofT.cruzi. Therefore, TcVI DTU was able to complete its life cycle inT.rubrovaria under laboratory conditions, and this infection changed the feeding behavior ofT.rubrovaria. Considering these results,T.rubrovaria must be kept under constant entomological surveillance in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Thaiane Verly Source Type: research

Long term follow-up of < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > infection and Chagas disease manifestations in mice treated with benznidazole or posaconazole
by Claudia Magalh ães Calvet, Tatiana Araújo Silva, Diane Thomas, Brian Suzuki, Ken Hirata, Jair Lage Siqueira-Neto, James H. McKerrow Chagas Disease, caused by the protozoan parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, is responsible for up to 41% of the heart failures in endemic areas in South America and is an emerging infection in regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Treatment is suboptimal due to two factors. First, the lack of an adequate biomarker to predict disease severity and response to therapy; and second, up to 120-days treatment course coupled with a significant incidence of adverse effects from the drug ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Claudia Magalh ães Calvet Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of praziquantel and dihydroartemisinin piperaquine combination for treatment and control of intestinal schistosomiasis: A randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial
by Rajabu Hussein Mnkugwe, Omary Minzi, Safari Kinung ’hi, Appolinary Kamuhabwa, Eleni Aklillu BackgroundDespite the reported success in reducing morbidity, praziquantel alone is insufficient for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, partly due to its poor efficacy against the juvenile worms. Artemisinin derivatives are effective against juvenile worms but are less effective against adult worms. We compared the safety and efficacy of praziquantel and Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine combination against the standard praziquantel alone for treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis. MethodsIn this randomized, open...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rajabu Hussein Mnkugwe Source Type: research

The COVID-19 pandemic should not jeopardize dengue control
by Marie-Marie Olive, Thierry Baldet, James Devillers, Johanna Fite, Marie-Claire Paty, Christophe Paupy, Philippe Qu énel, Elsa Quillery, Jocelyn Raude, Jean-Paul Stahl, Marie Thiann-Bo-Morel, David Roiz Author summary: The concurrent circulation of dengue and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may produce many unfavourable outcomes —such as co-infections; delays in diagnosis, treatment, and mitigation measures; overwhelming of the healthcare system; underreporting of cases; deterioration in surveillance and control interventions; and exacerbation of social inequalities. Indeed, lockdown is greatly compromis...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marie-Marie Olive Source Type: research

Bayesian estimation of Lassa virus epidemiological parameters: Implications for spillover prevention using wildlife vaccination
by Scott L. Nuismer, Christopher H. Remien, Andrew J. Basinski, Tanner Varrelman, Nathan Layman, Kyle Rosenke, Brian Bird, Michael Jarvis, Peter Barry, Patrick W. Hanley, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet Lassa virus is a significant burden on human health throughout its endemic region in West Africa, with most human infections the result of spillover from the primary rodent reservoir of the virus, the natal multimammate mouse,M.natalensis. Here we develop a Bayesian methodology for estimating epidemiological parameters of Lassa virus within its rodent reservoir and for generating probabilistic predictions for the efficacy of roden...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Scott L. Nuismer Source Type: research

Strengthening the Bolivian pharmacovigilance system: New surveillance strategies to improve care for Chagas disease and tuberculosis
This study aims to strengthen the Bolivian pharmacovigilance system, focusing on CD and TB. A si tuation analysis of pharmacovigilance in the Department of Cochabamba was performed. The use of a new local case report form (CRF) was implemented, together with the CRF established by the Unidad de Medicamentos y Tecnología en Salud (UNIMED), in several healthcare centers. Training and follow-up o n drug safety monitoring and ADR reporting was provided to all health professionals involved in CD and TB treatment. A comparative analysis of the reported ADRs using the CRF provided by UNIMED, the new CRF proposal, and medic...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nuria Cortes-Serra Source Type: research

Epidemiologic and spatiotemporal trends of Zika Virus disease during the 2016 epidemic in Puerto Rico
by Tyler M. Sharp, Talia M. Quandelacy, Laura E. Adams, Jomil Torres Aponte, Matthew J. Lozier, Kyle Ryff, Mitchelle Flores, Aidsa Rivera, Gilberto A. Santiago, Jorge L. Mu ñoz-Jordán, Luisa I. Alvarado, Vanessa Rivera-Amill, Myriam Garcia-Negrón, Stephen H. Waterman, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Michael A. Johansson, Brenda Rivera-Garcia BackgroundAfter Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas, laboratory-based surveillance for arboviral diseases in Puerto Rico was adapted to include ZIKV disease. Methods and findingsSuspected cases of arboviral disease reported to Puerto Rico Department of Health were teste...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tyler M. Sharp Source Type: research

Distribution of household disinfection kits during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia: The MSF experience
by Engy Ali, Guido Benedetti, Rafael Van den Bergh, Anna Halford, Luke Bawo, Moses Massaquoi, Saverio Bellizzi, Peter Maes During the initial phase of the 2014–2016 Ebola virus disease (EBV) outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia, all hospitals’ isolation capacities were overwhelmed by the sheer caseload. As a stop-gap measure to halt transmission, Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) distributed household disinfection kits to t hose who were at high risk of EBV contamination. The kit contained chlorine and personal protective materials to be used for the care of a sick person or the handling of a dead body. This interventio...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Engy Ali Source Type: research

Evaluation of ocular involvement in patients with Hansen ’s disease
The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of o cular involvement in patients with HD at two specialist referral centers for treatment of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ophthalmological evaluations of patients with HD from June 2017 to June 2018. Diagnostic ocular findings, corrected visual acuity, and refractive error we re described. Findings were correlated with patients’ clinical and epidemiological variables. A total of 86 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 50.1 years, predominantly males (59.3%), and with multibacillary HD (92%). The prevalence of ophthalmologic...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Priscila Daiane Pavezzi Source Type: research

Land cover affects microclimate and temperature suitability for arbovirus transmission in an urban landscape
by Michael C. Wimberly, Justin K. Davis, Michelle V. Evans, Andrea Hess, Philip M. Newberry, Nicole Solano-Asamoah, Courtney C. Murdock The emergence of mosquito-transmitted viruses poses a global threat to human health. Combining mechanistic epidemiological models based on temperature-trait relationships with climatological data is a powerful technique for environmental risk assessment. However, a limitation of this approach is t hat the local microclimates experienced by mosquitoes can differ substantially from macroclimate measurements, particularly in heterogeneous urban environments. To address this scaling mismatch,...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Michael C. Wimberly Source Type: research

An in-depth report of quality control on Kato-Katz and data entry in four clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of albendazole against soil-transmitted helminth infections
Conclusion/significanceIn these trials, where staff was informed that QC would take place, minimal changes in study outcomes were reported following QC on FECs or data entry. Nevertheless, imposing QC did reduce the number of errors. Therefore, application of QC together with proper training of the personnel and the availability of clear standard operating procedures is expected to support higher data quality. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Johnny Vlaminck Source Type: research

Cross-serotypically conserved epitope recommendations for a universal T cell-based dengue vaccine
by Syed Faraz Ahmed, Ahmed A. Quadeer, John P. Barton, Matthew R. McKay Dengue virus (DENV)-associated disease is a growing threat to public health across the globe. Co-circulating as four different serotypes, DENV poses a unique challenge for vaccine design as immunity to one serotype predisposes a person to severe and potentially lethal disease upon infection from o ther serotypes. Recent experimental studies suggest that an effective vaccine against DENV should elicit a strong T cell response against all serotypes, which could be achieved by directing T cell responses toward cross-serotypically conserved epitopes while...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Syed Faraz Ahmed Source Type: research

The SARS-CoV-2 crisis and its impact on neglected tropical diseases: Threat or opportunity?
by Claire Chaumont, Kimberly Kamara, Elisa Baring, Karen Palacio, Ana Power, Warren Lancaster (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Claire Chaumont Source Type: research

Collocation of avian and mammal antibodies to develop a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for Russell's Vipers Snakebite
by Jing-Hua Lin, Che-Min Lo, Ssu-Han Chuang, Chao-Hung Chiang, Sheng-Der Wang, Tsung-Yi Lin, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Dong-Zong Hung Russell’s vipers (RVs) envenoming is an important public health issue in South-East Asia. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, hemolysis, and acute renal injury are obvious problems that develop in most cases, and neuromuscular junction blocks are an additional problem cau sed by western RV snakebite. The complex presentations usually are an obstacle to early diagnosis and antivenom administration. Here, we tried to produce highly specific antibodies in goose yolks for u...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jing-Hua Lin Source Type: research

Impact of a 3-year mass drug administration pilot project for taeniasis control in Madagascar
by Noromanana Sylvia Ramiandrasoa, Pascaline Ravoniarimbinina, Armand Rafalimanantsoa Solofoniaina, Iharilanto Patricia Andrianjafy Rakotomanga, Samuel Hermas Andrianarisoa, Sophie Molia, Anne-Marie Labouche, Anna Sophie Fahrion, Meritxell Donadeu, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Davidra RajaonatahinaTaenia solium is endemic in Madagascar and presents a significant burden on the population and the health system. The parasite cycles through humans who host the adult tapeworm, and pigs that host the larval stages. Accidental infection of humans may occur with the larval stages which encyst in the nervous central system causing neur...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Noromanana Sylvia Ramiandrasoa Source Type: research

Expanded genome-wide comparisons give novel insights into population structure and genetic heterogeneity of < i > Leishmania tropica < /i > complex
This study further highlights the complex links betweenL.tropica important genomic heterogeneity and the parasite broad geographic distribution. Unique sequence features in protein coding genes identified in distinct populations reveal potential novel markers that could be exploited for the development of more accurate typing schemes to further improve our knowledge of the evolution and epidemiology of the parasite as well as highlighting protein variants of potential functional importance underlyingL.tropica specific biology. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tamara Salloum Source Type: research

Transcriptomic profiling of the digestive tract of the rat flea, < i > Xenopsylla cheopis < /i > , following blood feeding and infection with < i > Yersinia pestis < /i >
by David M. Bland, Craig A. Martens, Kimmo Virtaneva, Kishore Kanakabandi, Dan Long, Rebecca Rosenke, Greg A. Saturday, Forrest H. Hoyt, Daniel P. Bruno, Jos é M. Ribeiro, B. Joseph HinnebuschYersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly lethal pathogen transmitted by the bite of infected fleas. Once ingested by a flea,Y.pestis establish a replicative niche in the gut and produce a biofilm that promotes foregut colonization and transmission. The rat fleaXenopsylla cheopis is an important vector to several zoonotic bacterial pathogens includingY.pestis. Some fleas naturally clear themselves of infection...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: David M. Bland Source Type: research

A case for adoption of continuous albendazole treatment regimen for human echinococcal infections
by Francesca Tamarozzi, John Horton, Marin Muhtarov, Michael Ramharter, Mar Siles-Lucas, Beate Gruener, Dominique A. Vuitton, Solange Bresson-Hadni, Tommaso Manciulli, Enrico Brunetti Cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis are chronic, neglected parasitic diseases burdened by high morbidity and, for AE, by high mortality, if left untreated. CE and AE have a widespread distribution, including Europe. Albendazole (ABZ), a broad-spectrum benzimidazole drug widely used to tre at parasitic infections, is the drug of choice for the management of CE and AE, and is parasitostatic on echinococcal metacestodes. In Europe, ABZ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Francesca Tamarozzi Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Coronavirus disease 2019 during the outbreak among workers in China: A large cross-sectional study
This study aimed to assess KAP regarding COVID-19 during the outbreak a mong workers in China. The present study was part of a cross-sectional online survey study conducted based on a large labor-intensive factory, which has 180,000 workers from various Chinese provinces, from 2 February 2020 to 7 February 2020. KAP related to COVID-19 were measured by 32 items, each it em was measured with an agree/disagree/unclear format, and only correct responses were given 1 point. KAP regarding COVID-19 were measured with 20 items, 6 items and 6 items, respectively. A total of 123,768 valid responses (68.8%) were included in the anal...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zhi-Hao Li Source Type: research

Long-Term Mosquito culture with SkitoSnack, an artificial blood meal replacement
by Yashoda Kandel, Soumi Mitra, Xavier Jimenez, Stacy D. Rodriguez, Alvaro Romero, Brittny N. Blakely, Sang Yeon Cho, Charles Pelzman, Immo A. Hansen The reliance on blood is a limiting factor for mass rearing of mosquitoes for Sterile-Insect-Technique (SIT) and other mosquito-based control strategies. To solve this problem, we have developed SkitoSnack, a formulated diet forAedes aegypti (L) mosquitoes, as an alternative for vertebrate blood. Here we addressed the question if long-term yellow fever mosquito culture with SkitoSnack resulted in changed life history traits and fitness of the offspring compared to blood-rais...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yashoda Kandel Source Type: research

Addressing barriers of community participation and access to mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Coastal Kenya using a participatory approach
This study sought to identify barriers of community participation and access to MDA, develop and test strategies to be recom mended for improved uptake. Two wards in Kaloleni sub-county, Kilifi county with an average treatment coverage of 56% in 2015, 50.5% in 2016 were purposively sampled and a quasi-experimental study conducted. Through systematic random sampling, 350 (pre-intervention) and 338 (post-intervention) house hold heads were selected and interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected community groups were conducted. Participatory meetings we...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Doris W. Njomo Source Type: research

A comparison of three approaches for the discovery of novel tripartite attachment complex proteins in < i > Trypanosoma brucei < /i >
by H élène Clémentine Margareta Baudouin, Laura Pfeiffer, Torsten OchsenreiterTrypanosoma brucei is a single celled eukaryotic parasite and the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis and nagana in cattle. Aside from its medical relevance,T.brucei has also been key to the discovery of several general biological principles including GPI-anchoring, RNA-editing and trans-splicing. The parasite contains a single mitochondrion with a singular genome. Recent studies have identified several molecular components of the mitochondrial genome segregation machinery (tripartite attachment complex, TAC), wh...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: H élène Clémentine Margareta Baudouin Source Type: research

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) efficacy of rifampin, rifapentine, moxifloxacin, minocycline, and clarithromycin in a susceptible-subclinical model of leprosy
Conclusions/SignificanceThe delay in discernableM.leprae growth post-treatment was an excellent indicator of drug efficacy for both early (3 –4 months) and late (8–9 months) drug efficacy. Our data indicates that multi-dose PEP may be required to control infection in highly susceptible individuals with subclinical leprosy to prevent disease and decrease transmission. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shannon M. Lenz Source Type: research

Autochthonous leprosy in Spain: Has the transmission of < i > Mycobacterium  leprae < /i > stopped?
ConclusionsAutochthonous and imported cases have different epidemiologic patterns in Spain. There was a clear decline in incidence rates of autochthonous disease, and patterns consistent with those reported from other regions where transmission has ceased. Autochthonous transmission ofM.leprae is likely to have now effectively stopped in Spain. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: In és Suárez-García Source Type: research

ISG15 overexpression compensates the defect of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus polymerase bearing a protease-inactive ovarian tumor domain
by Stephanie Devignot, Thilo Kromer, Ali Mirazimi, Friedemann Weber Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV; familyNairoviridae) is an extremely pathogenic member of theBunyavirales order. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal domain of the CCHFV polymerase (L) contains an ovarian tumor-type protease (OTU) domain with the capability to remove both ubiquitin and ISG15 molecules from proteins. The approximately 200 amino acids-long OTU domain, if ectopically expressed, can interfere with both the induction of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) as well as the IFN-stimulated signaling. A OTU protease mutant (C4...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stephanie Devignot Source Type: research

Heterogeneity of dengue transmission in an endemic area of Colombia
by Mar ía Isabel Estupiñán Cárdenas, Víctor Mauricio Herrera, María Consuelo Miranda Montoya, Anyela Lozano Parra, Zuly Milena Zaraza Moncayo, Janeth Patricia Flórez García, Isabel Rodríguez Barraquer, Luis Ángel Villar Centeno Population based serological surveys are the gold-standard to quantify dengue (DENV) transmission. The purpose of this study was to estimate the age-specific seroprevalence and the force of infection of DENV in an endemic area of Colombia. Between July and October 2014, we conducted a household ba sed cross-sectional survey among...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mar ía Isabel Estupiñán Cárdenas Source Type: research

Population genomics of louping ill virus provide new insights into the evolution of tick-borne flaviviruses
by Jordan J. Clark, Janice Gilray, Richard J. Orton, Margaret Baird, Gavin Wilkie, Ana da Silva Filipe, Nicholas Johnson, Colin J. McInnes, Alain Kohl, Roman Biek The emergence and spread of tick-borne arboviruses pose an increased challenge to human and animal health. In Europe this is demonstrated by the increasingly wide distribution of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV,Flavivirus,Flaviviridae), which has recently been found in the United Kingdom (UK). However, much less is known about other tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV), such as the closely related louping ill virus (LIV), an animal pathogen which is endemic to the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jordan J. Clark Source Type: research

The impact of semen testing for Ebola virus RNA on sexual behavior of male Ebola survivors in Liberia
by Kathleen Tompkins, Jerry Brown, Sam Tozay, Edwina Reeves, Korto Pewu, Harrietta Johnson, Gerald Williams, Tonia Conneh, Joseph Diggs, Jean DeMarco, Katherine King, Darrius McMillian, Carson Merenbloom, William Fischer, David Alain Wohl Sexual transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) is well established and has been implicated in multiple resurgences during the West African Ebola epidemic. Given the persistence of viral RNA in semen, guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend abstinence or condom use for at least 1 y ear or until two semen PCR tests are negative. To better understand the impact of semen tes...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kathleen Tompkins Source Type: research

The complex health seeking pathway of a human African trypanosomiasis patient in C ôte d’Ivoire underlines the need of setting up passive surveillance systems
ConclusionThis description illustrates the complexity of detecting the last HAT cases due to complex diagnosis and the progressive disinterest and unawareness by both health professionals and the population. It confirms the need of implementing passive surveillance in combination with continued sensitization and health staff training. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Minay égninrin Koné Source Type: research

Comparison of dengue case classification schemes and evaluation of biological changes in different dengue clinical patterns in a longitudinal follow-up of hospitalized children in Cambodia
Conclusions/SignificanceOur results show discrepancies between the two classifications, including misclassification of severe dengue cases as mild cases by the WHO 1997 classification. Using an adapted WHO 2009 classification, SD more precisely defines the group of patients requiring careful clinical care at a given time during hospitalization. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Philippe Dussart Source Type: research

Interaction of Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family 1 (SLAMF1) receptor with < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > is strain-dependent and affects NADPH oxidase expression and activity
by Cristina Poveda, Alfonso Herreros-Cabello, Francisco Callejas-Hern ández, Jesús Osuna-Pérez, María C. Maza, Carlos Chillón-Marinas, Jossela Calderón, Konstantinos Stamatakis, Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès The receptor Signaling Lymphocyte-Activation Molecule Family 1 (SLAMF1) controls susceptibility to Infection by the lethalTrypanosoma cruzi Y strain. To elucidate whether genetic diversity of the parasite was related with disease susceptibility, we further analyzed the role of SLAMF1 using 6 differentTrypanosoma cruzi strains including Y. The interaction of SLAMF1...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cristina Poveda Source Type: research

Identifying correlates of Guinea worm ( < i > Dracunculus medinensis < /i > ) infection in domestic dog populations
This study provides new insight into the landscape-scale epidemiology of a debilitating parasite and can be used to more effectively target ongoing research and possibly eradication and control efforts. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Robert L. Richards Source Type: research

A systematic review of the untreated mortality of murine typhus
This study aimed to describe the outcomes and estimate the mortality of untreated murine typhus through a comprehensive systematic literature review. We systematically searched the literature for articles describing untreated murine typhus patients, excluding cases with no laboratory assay confirmed diagnosis, those who received efficacious treatment, had incomplete information on primary outcome and articles describing less than 10 patients and performed a narrative synthesis of the study findings. The study protocol followed the PRISMA guidelines and was part of a more extensive protocol registered at PROSPERO (CRD420181...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Johannes F. Doppler Source Type: research

Practical and effective diagnosis of animal anthrax in endemic low-resource settings
by Olubunmi R. Aminu, Tiziana Lembo, Ruth N. Zadoks, Roman Biek, Suzanna Lewis, Ireen Kiwelu, Blandina T. Mmbaga, Deogratius Mshanga, Gabriel Shirima, Matt Denwood, Taya L. Forde Anthrax threatens human and animal health, and people’s livelihoods in many rural communities in Africa and Asia. In these areas, anthrax surveillance is challenged by a lack of tools for on-site detection. Furthermore, cultural practices and infrastructure may affect sample availability and qua lity. Practical yet accurate diagnostic solutions are greatly needed to quantify anthrax impacts. We validated microscopic and molecular methods fo...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Olubunmi R. Aminu Source Type: research