Tick-borne relapsing fever Borreliosis, a major public health problem overlooked in Senegal
Conclusion/SignificanceOur study indicates that TBRF is an endemic disease in the Niakhar district, where children and young people are the most infected.Arvicanthis niloticus andO.sonrai ticks are massively present and appear to be the main epidemiological reservoirs causing its extensive spread to humans. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: El Hadji Ibrahima Ndiaye Source Type: research

The application of spectroscopy techniques for diagnosis of malaria parasites and arboviruses and surveillance of mosquito vectors: A systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence
Conclusions/SignificanceThe potential of RS as a surveillance tool for malaria and arbovirus vectors and MIRS for the diagnosis and surveillance of arboviruses is yet to be assessed. NIRS capacity as a surveillance tool for malaria and arbovirus vectors should be validated under field conditions, and its potential as a diagnostic tool for malaria and arboviruses needs to be evaluated. It is recommended that all 3 techniques evaluated simultaneously using multiple machine learning techniques in multiple epidemiological settings to determine the most accurate technique for each application. Prior to their field application, ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Brendon Goh Source Type: research

Worldwide epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in humans, ticks and other animal species, a systematic review and meta-analysis
by Jean Thierry Ebogo Belobo, Sebastien Kenmoe, Cyprien Kengne-Nde, Cynthia Paola Demeni Emoh, Arnol Bowo-Ngandji, Serges Tchatchouang, Jocelyne Noel Sowe Wobessi, Chris Andre Mbongue Mikangue, Herv é Raoul Tazokong, Sandrine Rachel Kingue Bebey, Efietngab Atembeh Noura, Aude Christelle Ka’e, Raïssa Estelle Guiamdjo Simo, Abdou Fatawou Modiyinji, Dimitri Tchami Ngongang, Emmanuel Che, Sorel Kenfack, Nathalie Diane Nzukui, Nathalie Amvongo Adjia, Isabelle Tatiana Babassagana, Gadji Mahamat, Donatien Serge Mbaga, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mbah, Richard Njouom There are uncertainties about the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jean Thierry Ebogo Belobo Source Type: research

A novel mechanism of streptomycin resistance in < i > Yersinia pestis < /i > : Mutation in the < i > rpsL < /i > gene
by Ruixia Dai, Jian He, Xi Zha, Yiting Wang, Xuefei Zhang, He Gao, Xiaoyan Yang, Juan Li, Youquan Xin, Yumeng Wang, Sheng Li, Juan Jin, Qi Zhang, Jixiang Bai, Yao Peng, Hailian Wu, Qingwen Zhang, Baiqing Wei, Jianguo Xu, Wei Li Streptomycin is considered to be one of the effective antibiotics for the treatment of plague. In order to investigate the streptomycin resistance ofY.pestis in China, we evaluated streptomycin susceptibility of 536Y.pestis strains in Chinain vitro using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and screened streptomycin resistance-associated genes (strA andstrB) by PCR method. A clinicalY.pestis ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ruixia Dai Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus and living conditions in Feira de Santana, Bahia-Brazil
Conclusions/significanceThe seroprevalence in this city was 2.6 times lower than the 57% observed in a study conducted in the epicentre of the CHIKV epidemic of this same urban centre. So, the herd immunity in this general population, after four years of circulation of this agent is relatively low. It indicates that CHIKV transmission may persist in that city, either in endemic form or in the form of a new epidemic, because the vector infestation is persistent. Besides, the significantly lower seroprevalences in SA of higher Living Condition suggest that beyond the surveillance of the disease, vector control and specific a...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Maria Gl ória Teixeira Source Type: research

Development of an integrated, holistic care package for people with lymphoedema for use at the level of the Primary Health Care Unit in Ethiopia
ConclusionsThe study developed a holistic integrated care package for lower limb disorder and co-morbid mental health problems caused by podoconiosis, LF or leprosy. The approach has the potential to significantly reduce lower limb disorder-associated morbidity, disability, and psychosocial problems. It also standardizes a scalable approach appropriate for the Ethiopian setting and, most likely, other countries where these NTDs are present. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abraham Tesfaye Source Type: research

High prevalence of intestinal parasite infestations among stunted and control children aged 2 to 5 years old in two neighborhoods of Antananarivo, Madagascar
Conclusions/SignificanceThe prevalence of IPIs is substantial in the studied areas in both stunted and control children, despite the large-scale drug administration of antiparasitic drugs in the country. This high prevalence of IPIs warrants further investigation. Improved health education, environmental sanitation and quality of water sources should be provided. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Azimdine Habib Source Type: research

Serious adverse reactions associated with ivermectin: A systematic pharmacovigilance study in sub-Saharan Africa and in the rest of the World
ConclusionWe described for the first time suspected sADRs associated with ivermectin exposure according to geographical origin. While our results do not put in question ivermectin ’s excellent safety profile, they show that as for all drugs, appropriate pharmacovigilance for adverse reactions is indicated. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: J érémy T. Campillo Source Type: research

Correction: < i > Campylobacter < /i > infection and household factors are associated with childhood growth in urban Bangladesh: An analysis of the MAL-ED study
by The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff Source Type: research

Trends and spatial distribution of animal bites and vaccination status among victims and the animal population, Uganda: A veterinary surveillance system analysis, 2013 –2017
by Fred Monje, Daniel Kadobera, Deo Birungi Ndumu, Lilian Bulage, Alex Riolexus Ario Rabies is a vaccine-preventable fatal zoonotic disease. Uganda, through the veterinary surveillance system at National Animal Disease Diagnostics and Epidemiology Centre (NADDEC), captures animal bites (a proxy for rabies) on a monthly basis from districts. We established trends of incidence of an imal bites and corresponding post-exposure prophylactic anti-rabies vaccination in humans (PEP), associated mortality rates in humans, spatial distribution of animal bites, and pets vaccinated during 2013–2017. We reviewed rabies surveilla...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fred Monje Source Type: research

Microsatellite based molecular epidemiology of < i > Leishmania infantum < /i > from re-emerging foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Armenia and pilot risk assessment by ecological niche modeling
ConclusionsGenetic diversity and population structure of the causative agent of VL in Armenia were addressed for the first time. Further genotyping studies should be performed with samples from infected humans, animals and sand flies from all active foci including the neighboring countries to understand transmission cycles, re-emergence, spread, and epidemiology of VL in Armenia and the entire Transcaucasus enabling epidemiological monitoring. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katrin Kuhls Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of anti-Zika virus IgM, IgAM and IgG ELISAs during co-circulation of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses in Brazil and Venezuela
Conclusions/SignificanceOur findings exemplify the challenges of the assessment of test performance for ZIKV serological tests in the real-world setting, during co-circulation of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV. However, we can also demonstrate that the IgAM immunoassay exhibits superior sensitivity to detect ZIKV RT-PCR confirmed infections compared to IgG and IgM immunoassays. The IgAM assay also proves to be promising for detection of anti-ZIKV seroconversions in sequential samples, both in ZIKV PCR-positive as well as PCR-negative patients, making this a candidate assay for serological monitoring of pregnant women in future ZIKV...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ivonne Morales Source Type: research

Neglected human < i > Rickettsia felis < /i > infection in Taiwan: A retrospective seroepidemiological survey of patients with suspected rickettsioses
ConclusionsRickettsia felis is a neglected flea-borne pathogen in Taiwan, and its infection can be life-threatening. Further prospective studies of the prevalence ofR.felis among patients with FUO and compatible clinical manifestations are warranted. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wan-Hsiu Yang Source Type: research

Correction: Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis Treated by an MSF Clinic in Bakool Region, Somalia, 2004 –2006
by Marie-Eve Raguenaud, Anna Jansson, Veerle Vanlerberghe, Gert Van der Auwera, Stijn Deborggraeve, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Ioannis Orfanos, Tony Reid, Marleen Boelaert (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marie-Eve Raguenaud Source Type: research

New traps for the capture of < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > (Linnaeus) and < i > Aedes albopictus < /i > (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs and adults
by Karina Rossi da Silva, William Ribeiro da Silva, Bianca Piraccini Silva, Adriano Nobre Arcos, Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira, Joelma Soares-da-Silva, Grafe Oliveira Pontes, Rosemary Aparecida Roque, Wanderli Pedro Tadei, M ário Antonio Navarro-Silva, João Antonio Cyrino Zequi The control of arboviruses carried byAedes aegypti (Linnaeus) andAedes albopictus (Skuse) can be performed with tools that monitor and reduce the circulation of these vectors. Therefore, the efficiency of four types of traps in capturingA.aegypti andA.albopictus eggs and adults, with the biological product Vectobac WG, was evalu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Karina Rossi da Silva Source Type: research

Short report: Introduction of chikungunya virus ECSA genotype into the Brazilian Midwest and its dispersion through the Americas
by Elaine Cristina de Oliveira, Vagner Fonseca, Joilson Xavier, Talita Adelino, Ingra Morales Claro, Allison Fabri, Eduardo Marques Macario, Ana Elisa Viniski, Claudio Luis Campos Souza, Evanil Sebastiana Gomes da Costa, Claudia Soares de Sousa, Fl ávia Guimarães Dias Duarte, Arnaldo Correia de Medeiros, Carlos F. Campelo de Albuquerque, Rivaldo Venancio Cunha, Noely Fabiana Oliveira De Moura, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Tulio de Oliveira, José Lourenço, André Luiz de Abreu, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara, Marta Giovanetti Since introduction into Brazil in 2014, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elaine Cristina de Oliveira Source Type: research

‘The medicine is not for sale’: Practices of traditional healers in snakebite envenoming in Ghana
ConclusionsThe fact that traditional healers did sometimes refer victims to hospitals indicates that improvement of antivenom stocks, pain management and wound care can potentially improve health seeking at hospitals. Our results emphasize the need to explore future avenues for communication and collaboration with traditional healers to improve health seeking behaviour and the delivery of much-needed healthcare to snakebite victims. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jonathan Steinhorst Source Type: research

Enhanced passive surveillance dengue infection among febrile children: Prevalence, co-infections and associated factors in Cameroon
by Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Nadine Fainguem, F élicitée Dongmo-Nguefack, Laeticia Grace Yatchou, Joel Josephine Kadji Kameni, Elise Lobe Elong, Amidou Samie, William Estrin, Paul Ndombo Koki, Alexis Ndjolo Dengue virus (DENV) causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic, mild febrile to a life-threatening illness: dengue hemorrhagic fever. The main clinical symptom of dengue is fever, similar to that of malaria. The prevalence of dengue virus infection, alone or in association with other endemic infectious diseases in children in Cameroon is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the preva...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou Source Type: research

< i > Trichomonas vaginalis < /i > infection impairs anion secretion in vaginal epithelium
In this study, we investigated the effect ofT.vaginalis on vaginal epithelial ion transport elicited by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major prostaglandin in the semen. Luminal administration of PGE2 triggered a remarkable and sustained increase of short-circuit current (ISC) in rat vaginal epithelium, which was mainly due to Cl− and HCO3− secretion mediated by the cAMP-activated CFTR. However,T.vaginalis infection significantly abrogated theISC response evoked by PGE2, indicating impaired transepithelial anion transport via CFTR. Using a primary cell culture system of rat vaginal epithelium and a human vaginal epi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jian-Bang Xu Source Type: research

Effect of maternal praziquantel treatment for < i > Schistosoma japonicum < /i > infection on the offspring susceptibility and immunologic response to infection at age six, a cohort study
We report that maternal PZQ treatment forS.japonicum shifted the PBMC immune response to a more inflammatory signature but had no impact on their offspring ’s likelihood of infection or serum cytokines at age six, further supporting the safe use of PZQ in pregnant women. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00486863. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Susannah Colt Source Type: research

Control of scabies in a tribal community using mass screening and treatment with oral ivermectin -A cluster randomized controlled trial in Gadchiroli, India
ConclusionsMass screening and treatment in the community with oral ivermectin delivered by the CHWs is superior to mass screening followed by usual care involving referral to clinic for topical treatment in controlling scabies in this tribal community in Gadchiroli. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Priyamadhaba Behera Source Type: research

Serology, infection, and clinical trachoma as tools in prevalence surveys for re-emergence of trachoma in a formerly hyperendemic district
by Michelle Odonkor, Fahd Naufal, Beatriz Munoz, Harran Mkocha, Mabula Kasubi, Meraf Wolle, Sheila West BackgroundTo eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, countries must achieve a district-level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation —follicular (TF) (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Michelle Odonkor Source Type: research

Comparative dissection of the peripheral olfactory system of the Chagas disease vectors < i > Rhodnius prolixus < /i > and < i > Rhodnius brethesi < /i >
by Florencia Campetella, Rickard Ignell, Rolf Beutel, Bill S. Hansson, Silke Sachse American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is transmitted by both domestic and sylvatic species of Triatominae which use sensory cues to locate their vertebrate hosts. Among them, odorants have been shown to play a key role. Previous work revealed morphological differences in the sensory apparat us of different species of Triatomines, but to date a comparative functional study of the olfactory system is lacking. After examining the antennal sensilla with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), we compared olfactory responses ofRhodnius pro...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Florencia Campetella Source Type: research

Drug reformulation for a neglected disease. The NANOHAT project to develop a safer more effective sleeping sickness drug
The objective of our research programme was to develop an intravenous formulation of pentamidine which increases CNS exposure by some 10 –100 fold, leading to efficacy against a model of stage 2 HAT. This target candidate profile is in line with drugs for neglected diseases inititative recommendations. MethodologyTo do this, we evaluated the physicochemical and structural characteristics of formulations of pentamidine with Pluronic micelles (triblock-copolymers of polyethylene-oxide and polypropylene oxide), selected candidates for efficacy and toxicity evaluationin vitro, quantified pentamidine CNS delivery of a sub...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lisa Sanderson Source Type: research

Preventive chemotherapy for the control of strongyloidiasis in school-age children: Estimating the ivermectin need
Conclusions/SignificanceOur analysis may support endemic countries to evaluate the ivermectin quantity needed for integrating strongyloidiasis in the existing STH programs. These estimates might also show to generic drug manufacturers the size of the potential market for ivermectin and encourage its production. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Donal Bisanzio Source Type: research

Deciphering the introduction and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Colombian Amazon Basin
Conclusions/SignificanceThis study represents the first genomic epidemiology investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in one of the territories with the highest report of indigenous community of the country. Such findings are essential to decipher viral transmission, inform on global spread and to direct implementation of infection prevention and control measures for this vulnerable population, especially, due to the recent circulation of one of the variants of concern (P.1) associated with major transmissibility and possible reinfections. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nathalia Ballesteros Source Type: research

An investigation of conventional microbial culture for the < i > Naja atra < /i > bite wound, and the comparison between culture-based 16S Sanger sequencing and 16S metagenomics of the snake oropharyngeal bacterial microbiota
by Yan-Chiao Mao, Han-Ni Chuang, Chien-Hung Shih, Han-Hsueh Hsieh, Yu-Han Jiang, Liao-Chun Chiang, Wen-Loung Lin, Tzu-Hung Hsiao, Po-Yu LiuNaja atra is a major venomous snake found in Taiwan. The bite of this snake causes extensive wound necrosis or necrotizing soft tissue infection. Conventional microbial culture-based techniques may fail to identify potential human pathogens and render antibiotics ineffective in the management of wound infection. Therefore, we evaluated 16S Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify bacterial species in the oropharynx ofN.atra. Using conventional microbial culture...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yan-Chiao Mao Source Type: research

< i > Orientia tsutsugamushi < /i > modulates cellular levels of NF- κB inhibitor p105
ConclusionsO.tsutsugamushi specifically stabilizes p105 to inhibit the canonical NF- κB pathway, which advances understanding of how it counters host immunity to establish infection. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tanaporn Wangsanut Source Type: research

Natural infections of < i > Pintomyia verrucarum < /i > and < i > Pintomyia maranonensis < /i > by < i > Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana < /i > in the Eastern Andes of northern Peru
by Hirotomo Kato, Chisato Seki, Makoto Kubo, Lizandro Gonzales-Cornejo, Abraham G. Caceres The natural infection of sand flies byLeishmania was investigated in Andean areas located between the Central and Eastern Cordilleras of northern Peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byLeishmania (Viannia) peruviana is endemic. Sand flies were captured at five locations along the Utcubamba River in the Department of Amazonas, and morphologically identified under a microscope. Among 422 female sand flies dissected, the most dominant species wasPintomyia verrucarum (320 flies), followed byPi.maranonensis (83 flies),Pi.robusta (13...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hirotomo Kato Source Type: research

Correction: < i > S < /i > . < i > mansoni Sm < /i > KI-1 Kunitz-domain: Leucine point mutation at P1 site generates enhanced neutrophil elastase inhibitory activity
by The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff Source Type: research

Correction: Role of microglia in the dissemination of Zika virus from mother to fetal brain
by Pei Xu, Chao Shan, Tiffany J. Dunn, Xuping Xie, Hongjie Xia, Junling Gao, Javier Allende Labastida, Zou Jing, Paula P. Villarreal, Caitlin R. Schlagal, Yongjia Yu, Gracie Vargas, Shannan L. Rossi, Nikos Vasilakis, Pei-Yong Shi, Scott C. Weaver, Ping Wu (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pei Xu Source Type: research

Correction: < i > Anopheles sundaicus < /i > complex and the presence of < i > Anopheles epiroticus < /i > in Indonesia
by Din Syafruddin, Yulia E. Lestari, Dendi H. Permana, Puji B. S. Asih, Brandyce St. Laurent, Siti Zubaidah, Ismail E. Rozi, Sully Kosasih, Shinta, Supratman Sukowati †, Lukman Hakim, Edhi Haryanto, Wibowo Mangunwardoyo, Michael J. Bangs, Neil F. Lobo (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Din Syafruddin Source Type: research

Correction: Changes in historical typhoid transmission across 16 U.S. cities, 1889 –1931: Quantifying the impact of investments in water and sewer infrastructures
by Maile T. Phillips, Katharine A. Owers, Bryan T. Grenfell, Virginia E. Pitzer (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Maile T. Phillips Source Type: research

Correction: A next generation vaccine against human rabies based on a single dose of a chimpanzee adenovirus vector serotype C
by Federico Napolitano, Rossella Merone, Adele Abbate, Virginia Ammendola, Emma Horncastle, Francesca Lanzaro, Marialuisa Esposito, Alessandra Maria Contino, Roberta Sbrocchi, Andrea Sommella, Joshua D. Duncan, Joseph Hinds, Richard A. Urbanowicz, Armin Lahm, Stefano Colloca, Antonella Folgori, Jonathan K. Ball, Alfredo Nicosia, Benjamin Wizel, Stefania Capone, Alessandra Vitelli (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Federico Napolitano Source Type: research

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibody prevalence in Mauritanian livestock (cattle, goats, sheep and camels) is stratified by the animal ’s age
This study was carried out to assess risk factors that affect seroprevalence rates in different species. In total, 928 livestock animal samples (cattle = 201; sheep = 247; goats = 233; camels = 247) from 11 out of 13 regions in Mauritania were assayed for CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) (including a novel indirect camel-IgG-specific CCHFV ELISA). Inconclusive results were resolved by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A generalized linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) was used to draw conclusions about the impact of certain factors (age, species, sex and region...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ansgar Schulz Source Type: research

Correction: Exploring factors affecting quality implementation of lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration in Bole and Central Gonja Districts in Northern Ghana
by Alfred Kwesi Manyeh, Latifat Ibisomi, Rohit Ramaswamy, Frank Baiden, Tobias Chirwa (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alfred Kwesi Manyeh Source Type: research

Correction: Severe < i > Strongyloides stercoralis < /i > infection in kidney transplant recipients: A multicenter case-control study
by The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus infection among HIV-infected adults in French Caribbean Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe in 2015: A cross-sectional study
Conclusions/SignificanceThis study showed that the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection was 61% after the 2014 outbreak, with one third of asymptomatic infections. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02553369. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 9, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elodie Curlier Source Type: research

Leprosy postexposure prophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin: Nepalese dermatologist ’s dilemma
by Niraj Parajuli, Yogesh Poudyal (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 8, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Niraj Parajuli Source Type: research

Characterization and functional analysis of the proteins Prohibitin 1 and 2 in < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i >
Conclusion/significanceThis research expands our understanding of the functions of PHBs in the life cycle of the parasite. It also highlights the protective role of prohibitins against ROS and reveals that the absence of PHB2 has a lethal effect on the parasite, a fact that could support the consideration of this protein as a possible target for therapeutic action. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 8, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ana K. Ibarrola-Vannucci Source Type: research

Combining natural language processing and metabarcoding to reveal pathogen-environment associations
by David C. Molik, DeAndre Tomlinson, Shane Davitt, Eric L. Morgan, Matthew Sisk, Benjamin Roche, Natalie Meyers, Michael E. PfrenderCryptococcus neoformans is responsible for life-threatening infections that primarily affect immunocompromised individuals and has an estimated worldwide burden of 220,000 new cases each year —with 180,000 resulting deaths—mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Surprisingly, little is known about the ecological niches occupied byC.neoformans in nature. To expand our understanding of the distribution and ecological associations of this pathogen we implement a Natural Language Processing app...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: David C. Molik Source Type: research

Fat tissue regulates the pathogenesis and severity of cardiomyopathy in murine chagas disease
by Kezia Lizardo, Janeesh P. Ayyappan, Neelam Oswal, Louis M. Weiss, Philipp E. Scherer, Jyothi F. Nagajyothi Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) caused by a parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi is a life-threatening disease in Latin America, for which there is no effective drug or vaccine. The pathogenesis of CCC is complex and multifactorial. Previously, we demonstratedT.cruzi infected mice lose a significant amount of fat tissue which correlates with progression of CCC. Based on this an investigation was undertaken during both acute and chronicT.cruzi infection utilizing the FAT-ATTAC murine model (that allows modulation of fat m...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kezia Lizardo Source Type: research

An update on the occurrence of < i > Paracoccidioides < /i > species in the Midwest region, Brazil: Molecular epidemiology, clinical aspects and serological profile of patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State
ConclusionsThis study suggestsP.brasiliensis sensu stricto (S1) as the predominant species, showing its wide geographic distribution in Brazil. Furthermore, our findings revealed, for the first time, the occurrence ofP.restrepiensis (PS3) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Despite our setbacks, it would be interesting to provide the complete sequencing of these clinical isolates to complement the molecular information presented. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Karine Mattos Source Type: research

Distinct transcriptional profiles of < i > Leptospira borgpetersenii < /i > serovar Hardjo strains JB197 and HB203 cultured at different temperatures
Conclusions/SignificanceInvestigation of theL.borgpetersenii JB197 and HB203 transcriptome provides unique insight into the mechanistic differences between acute and chronic disease. Characterizing the nuances of strain to strain differences and investigating the environmental sensitivity ofLeptospira to temperature is critical to the development and progress of leptospirosis prevention and treatment technologies, and is an important consideration when serovars are selected and propagated for use as bacterin vaccines as well as for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ellie J. Putz Source Type: research

Correction: Helminth Colonization Is Associated with Increased Diversity of the Gut Microbiota
by Soo Ching Lee, Mei San Tang, Yvonne A. L. Lim, Seow Huey Choy, Zachary D. Kurtz, Laura M. Cox, Uma Mahesh Gundra, Ilseung Cho, Richard Bonneau, Martin J. Blaser, Kek Heng Chua, P ’ng Loke (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Soo Ching Lee Source Type: research

Correction: CXCR3 chemokine receptor contributes to specific CD8 < sup > + < /sup > T cell activation by pDC during infection with intracellular pathogens
by Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro Cariste, Isa ú Henrique Noronha, Danielle Fernandes Durso, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Karina Ramalho Bortoluci, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Douglas Golenbock, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, José Ronnie Carvalho de Vasconcelos (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Camila Pontes Ferreira Source Type: research

< i > Aedes aegypti dyspepsia < /i > encodes a novel member of the SLC16 family of transporters and is critical for reproductive fitness
In this study, we performed an RNAseq-based screen in anAe.aegypti cell line cultured under iron-deficient and iron-excess conditions. A subset of differentially expressed genes were analyzed via a cytosolic iron-sensitive dual-luciferase reporter assay with several gene candidates potentially involved in iron transport.In vivo gene silencing resulted in significant reduction of fecundity (egg number) and fertility (hatch rate) for one gene, termeddyspepsia. Silencing ofdyspepsia reduced the induction of ferritin expression in the midgut and also resulted in delayed/impaired excretion and digestion. Further characterizatio...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hitoshi Tsujimoto Source Type: research

High prevalence and mortality due to < i > Histoplasma capsulatum < /i > in the Brazilian Amazon: An autopsy study
ConclusionsThe high incidence of histoplasmosis, the low index of clinical suspicion, and the severity of the disseminated disease highlight the need of proactively implementing sensitive routine screening methods for this pathogen in endemic areas. Antifungal prophylaxis againstHistoplasma should be encouraged in the severely immunocompromised HIV patients in these areas. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Natalia Rakislova Source Type: research

Estimating true prevalence of < i > Schistosoma mansoni < /i > from population summary measures based on the Kato-Katz diagnostic technique
Conclusions/SignificanceEstimation of ‘true’S. mansoni prevalence is improved when taking into account geometric or arithmetic mean infection intensity in a population. We supply parametric functions and corresponding estimates of their parameters to calculate the ‘true’ prevalence for sampling schemes up to 3 days with triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears per day that allow estimation of the ‘true’ prevalence. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliver B ärenbold Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of the prevalence of < i > Echinococcus < /i > in dogs in China from 2010 to 2019
Conclusions/SignificanceOur research indicated thatEchinococcus spp. were still prevalent in some areas in China. More localized prevention and control policies should be formulated, including improving drinking water hygiene and strengthening hygiene promotion. We recommend the rational use of anti-Echinococcus drugs. In addition, treatment of livestock offal and feces and improving the welfare of stray dogs may play an important role in reducing canineEchinococcus infections. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Qing-Long Gong Source Type: research