Tracing the source of infection of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, neglected parasitic infections with long latency: The shaky road of “evidence” gathering
by Adriano Casulli, Francesca Tamarozzi (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Adriano Casulli Source Type: research

Multiplex detection of antibodies to Chikungunya, O ’nyong-nyong, Zika, Dengue, West Nile and Usutu viruses in diverse non-human primate species from Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conclusions/SignificanceWe have developed a serological assay based on Luminex technology, with high specificity and sensitivity for simultaneous detection of antibodies to 10 antigens from 6 different arboviruses. This is the first study that evaluated on a large scale the presence of antibodies to arboviruses in NHPs to evaluate their role in sylvatic cycles. The overall low prevalence ( (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Raisa Raulino Source Type: research

Leprosy perceptions and knowledge in endemic districts in India and Indonesia: Differences and commonalities
ConclusionOur findings show the importance of investigating the perceptions regarding leprosy prior to educational interventions in communities: even though knowledge levels were similar, local beliefs and misconceptions differed per setting. The potential determinants we included in our study explained very little of the variability in level of knowledge and stigma and should be explored further. Detailed knowledge of local knowledge gaps, beliefs and fears can help tailor health education to local circumstances. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anna Tiny van ’t Noordende Source Type: research

Effects of larval rearing substrates on some life-table parameters of < i > Lutzomyia longipalpis < /i > sand flies
In conclusion, the larval breeding sites can exert an important role in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kelsilandia Aguiar Martins Source Type: research

Asymptomatic < i > Leishmania < /i > infection in HIV-positive outpatients on antiretroviral therapy in Pernambuco, Brazil
by Diego Lins Guedes, Alda Maria Justo, Walter Lins Barbosa J únior, Elis Dionísio da Silva, Samuel Ricarte de Aquino, Manoel Sebastiao da Costa Lima Junior, Ulisses Montarroyos, Gilberto Silva Nunes Bezerra, Amanda Virginia Batista Vieira, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Zulma Maria de Medeiros BackgroundVisceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-positive individuals is a global health problem. HIV-Leishmania coinfection worsens prognosis and mortality risk, and HIV-Leishmania coinfected individuals are more susceptible to VL relapses. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy can protect againstLeishmania...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Diego Lins Guedes Source Type: research

Impaired host resistance to < i > Salmonella < /i > during helminth co-infection is restored by anthelmintic treatment prior to bacterial challenge
by Tara P. Brosschot, Katherine M. Lawrence, Brandon E. Moeller, Mia H. E. Kennedy, Rachael D. FitzPatrick, Courtney M. Gauthier, Dongju Shin, Dominique M. Gatti, Kate M. E. Conway, Lisa A. Reynolds Intestinal helminth infection can impair host resistance to co-infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. However, it is not known whether helminth drug-clearance can restore host resistance to bacterial infection. Using a mouse helminth-Salmonella co-infection system, we show that anthelmintic treatment prior toSalmonella challenge is sufficient to restore host resistance toSalmonella. The presence of the small intestine-dwe...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tara P. Brosschot Source Type: research

Drug resistance gene mutations and treatment outcomes in MDR-TB: A prospective study in Eastern China
ConclusionsThese results suggest thatMycobacterium tuberculosis gene mutations may be related to phenotypic drug susceptibility. ThepncA gene mutation along with treatment regimen and age are associated with the treatment outcomes of MDR-TB. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Qiao Liu Source Type: research

Health professionals' overestimation of knowledge on snakebite management, a threat to the survival of snakebite victims —A cross-sectional study in Ghana
ConclusionHealth workers in rural Ghana overestimated their knowledge about snakebite management although their knowledge was low. Training schools, therefore, need to incorporate snakebite management in their curriculum and health authorities should also expose health workers to more in-service training on this neglected tropical disease. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Evans Paul Kwame Ameade Source Type: research

Tumor Necrosis Factor and < i > Schistosoma mansoni < /i > egg antigen omega-1 shape distinct aspects of the early egg-induced granulomatous response
by Kevin K. Takaki, Francisco J. Roca, Gabriele Schramm, Ruud H. P. Wilbers, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Paul J. Brindley, Gabriel Rinaldi, Matthew Berriman, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Antonio J. Pag án Infections by schistosomes result in granulomatous lesions around parasite eggs entrapped within the host tissues. The host and parasite determinants of theSchistosoma mansoni egg-induced granulomatous response are areas of active investigation. Some studies in mice implicate Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) produced in response to the infection whereas others fail to find a role for it. In addition, in the mouse model, theS.manson...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kevin K. Takaki Source Type: research

High endemicity of alveolar echinococcosis in Yili Prefecture, Xingjiang Autonomous Region, the People ’s Republic of China: Infection status in different ethnic communities and in small mammals
In this study 286 AE cases were reported from eight counties and one city in Yili Prefecture, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the People ’s Republic of China from 1989 to 2015 with an annual incidence (AI) of 0.41/100,000. Among the patients, 73.08% were diagnosed in the last 11 years. Four counties in the high mountainous areas showed higher AI (0.51–1.22 cases//100,000 residents) than the four counties in low level areas (0.19– 0.29/100,000 residents). The AI of AE in Mongolian (2.06/100,000 residents) and Kazak (0.93/100,000 residents) ethnic groups was higher than the incidence in other ethnic groups indi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Baoping Guo Source Type: research

The Mbam drainage system and onchocerciasis transmission post ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) campaign, Cameroon
ConclusionResults from fly dissection (Microscopy), real-time PCR and LAMP revealed the same trends pre- and post-MDA. The infection rate with animalOnchocerca sp was exceptionally low. The dense river system generate important breeding sites that govern the abundance ofSimulium during both dry and rainy seasons. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Raphael Awah Abong Source Type: research

Molecular diversity of < i > Giardia duodenalis < /i > in children under 5 years from the Manhi ça district, Southern Mozambique enrolled in a matched case-control study on the aetiology of diarrhoea
This study demonstrated that the occurrence of gastrointestinal illness (diarrhoea) was not associated to a given genotype ofG.duodenalis in Mozambican children younger than five years of age. The assemblage B of the parasite was responsible for nine out of ten infections detected in this paediatric population. The extremely high genetic diversity observed within assemblage B isolates was compatible with an hyperendemic epidemiological scenario where infections and reinfections were common. The obtained molecular data may be indicative of high coinfection rates by differentG.duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages and/or ge...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Augusto Messa Jr. Source Type: research

Another dengue fever outbreak in Eastern Ethiopia —An emerging public health threat
ConclusionThe epidemiologic, entomologic, and laboratory investigation confirmed a DF outbreak. Mosquito indices were far above safe thresholds, indicating inadequate vector control. We recommended improved vector surveillance and control programs, including best practices in preserving water and disposal of open containers to reduceAedes mosquito density. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mulugeta Asefa Gutu Source Type: research

Sociodemographic predictors of knowledge, mosquito bite patterns and protective behaviors concerning vector borne disease: The case of dengue fever in Chinese subtropical city, Hong Kong
This study examined the knowledge of dengue, mosquito bite patterns, protective behavior practices and their associated factors in Hong Kong, a non-endemic subtropical city. A population-based random telephone survey (n = 590) was conducted three weeks after the government announcement of a local dengue outbreak in August 2018. Sociodemographic status, awareness, knowledge, protective measures, bite patterns of mosquito were collected. Results indicated high level of community awareness of the local outbreak (95.2%), symptom identification (84.0%) and adoption of at least one mosquito protective measures (nearly 80%). Abou...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Emily Ying Yang Chan Source Type: research

Insecticide-treated house screening protects against Zika-infected < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > in Merida, Mexico
Conclusions/SignificanceWe show evidence of the protective efficacy of ITS against an arboviral disease of major relevance, and discuss the relevance of our findings for intervention adoption. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pablo Manrique-Saide Source Type: research

Space-time risk cluster of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian endemic region with high social vulnerability: An ecological time series study
ConclusionsVL is a persistent health issue in Brazilian Northeast and associated with social vulnerability. Space-time clustering of VL cases in socially vulnerable municipalities demands intersectoral public policies of surveillance and control, with focus on reducing inequalities and improving living conditions for regional inhabitants. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Caique J. N. Ribeiro Source Type: research

< i > S < /i > . < i > mansoni Sm < /i > KI-1 Kunitz-domain: Leucine point mutation at P1 site generates enhanced neutrophil elastase inhibitory activity
by F ábio Mambelli, Bruno P. O. Santos, Suellen B. Morais, Enrico G. T. Gimenez, Duana C. dos S. Astoni, Amanda D. Braga, Rafaela S. Ferreira, Flávio A. Amaral, Mariana T. Q. de Magalhães, Sergio C. Oliveira TheSchistosoma mansoni SmKI-1 protein is composed of two domains: a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor motif (KD) and a C-terminus domain with no similarity outside the genera. Our previous work has demonstrated that KD plays an essential role in neutrophil elastase (NE) binding blockage, in neutrophil influx and as a potential anti-inflammatory molecule. In order to enhance NE blocking capacit...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: F ábio Mambelli Source Type: research

Factors affecting the uptake of preventive chemotherapy treatment for schistosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review
Conclusions/SignificanceMultiple determinants of treatment uptake were found in each level of analysis examined. Some of them interact with each other, thus affecting outcomes directly and indirectly. The promotion of context-based transdisciplinary research on the complex dynamics of treatment uptake is not only desirable, but essential, to design effective strategies to attain high levels of treatment coverage. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carlos A. Torres-Vitolas Source Type: research

The cholera risk assessment in Kano State, Nigeria: A historical review, mapping of hotspots and evaluation of contextual factors
This study identified c holera hotspots LGAs in Kano State from 2010–2019. Hotspots appeared in both urban and rural settings. Focusing control strategies on these hotspots will facilitate control and eliminate cholera from the State. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Moise Chi Ngwa Source Type: research

Correction: Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans
by Catherine L. Moyes, John Vontas, Ademir J. Martins, Lee Ching Ng, Sin Ying Koou, Isabelle Dusfour, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Jo ão Pinto, Vincent Corbel, Jean-Philippe David, David Weetman (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Catherine L. Moyes Source Type: research

Effectiveness of school-based preventive chemotherapy strategies for sustaining the control of schistosomiasis in C ôte d’Ivoire: Results of a 5-year cluster randomized trial
Conclusions/significanceThe three treatment schedules investigated led to a reduction in the prevalence and intensity ofS.mansoni infection among children aged 9 –12 years. Comparing intervention arms at the end of the study, no statistically significant differences were observed between annual treatement and the other two treatment schedules, neither in reduction of prevalence nor intensity of infection. It is important to combine our results with those o f three sister trials conducted simultaneously in other African countries, before final recommendations can be drawn. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mamadou Ouattara Source Type: research

Skin maculae, chronic diarrhea, cachexia, and splenomegaly —Late presentation of the first autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis in Tanzania
by Oliver Henke, Priscus John Mapendo, Alex Mremi, Lilian Gasper Mmbaga, Angela Elisha Pallangyo, Thomas Harbaum, Elifuraha Mkwizu A 20-year-old man from Simanjiro district in northern Tanzania presented with a 3-year history of splenomegaly, fatigue, cachexia, skin maculae, and recent onset of watery diarrhea at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Northern Tanzania. Due to laboratory findings of pancytopenia, diag nostic workup included bone marrow aspiration cytology and biopsy. Although the rapid test (IT LEISH, rK39 RDT) was negative, blood smear showed amastigote forms of leishmaniasis in macrophages. Repe...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliver Henke Source Type: research

The temporospatial epidemiology of rheumatic heart disease in Far North Queensland, tropical Australia 1997 –2017; impact of socioeconomic status on disease burden, severity and access to care
by Katherine Kang, Ken W. T. Chau, Erin Howell, Mellise Anderson, Simon Smith, Tania J. Davis, Greg Starmer, Josh Hanson BackgroundThe incidence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among Indigenous Australians remains one of the highest in the world. Many studies have highlighted the relationship between the social determinants of health and RHD, but few have used registry data to link socioeconomic disadvantage to the delivery of patient care and long-term outcomes. MethodsA retrospective study of individuals living with RHD in Far North Queensland (FNQ), Australia between 1997 and 2017. Patients were identified using the Qu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katherine Kang Source Type: research

Evaluation of conventional and four real-time PCR methods for the detection of < i > Leishmania < /i > on field-collected samples in Ethiopia
This study compared five PCR methods with microscopy on two sample types c ollected from patients with a suspected lesion to advise on optimal diagnosis ofLeishmania aethiopica. Between May and July 2018, skin scrapings (SS) and blood exudate from the lesion spotted on filter paper (dry blood spot, DBS) were collected for PCR from 111 patients of four zones in Southern Ethiopia. DNA and RNA were simultaneously extracted from both sample types. DNA was evaluated by a conventional PCR targeting ITS-1 and three probe-based real-time PCRs: one targeting the SSU 18S rRNA and two targeting the kDNA minicircle sequence (the &lsqu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Behailu Merdekios Source Type: research

Total Phenolic Fraction (TPF) from Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Induction of apoptotic-like cell death in < i > Leishmania < /i > spp. promastigotes and < i > in vivo < /i > potential of therapeutic immunomodulation
Conclusions/SignificanceTPF exhibits chemotherapeutic anti-leishmanial activity by inducing programmed cell death on cell-free promastigotes and immunomodulatory properties that inducein vivo T cell-mediated responses towards the protective Th1 response in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. These findings enable deeper understanding of TPF ’s dual mode of action that encourages further studies. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kalliopi Karampetsou Source Type: research

Seasonal and inter-annual drivers of yellow fever transmission in South America
We examined the extent to which vegetation, land-cover, climate and host population predicted the numbers of months a location reported YF per year and by each month over the time-period. Two sets of models were assessed, one looking at interannual differences over the study period (2003–2016), and a seasonal model looking at intra-annual differences by month, averaging over the years of the study period. Each was fit using hierarchical negative-binomial regression in an exhaustive model fitting proc ess. Within each set, the best performing models, as measured by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), were combined...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Arran Hamlet Source Type: research

The epidemiological status of urogenital schistosomiasis among reproductive aged individuals in the Tiko Health Area- a semi-urban setting in the Mount Cameroon area
Conclusion/SignificanceThe prevalence obtained shows that Tiko is a moderate-risk area for UGS with underlying morbidity-inducing infection intensity. The severity of the infection is more in males. Awareness of the disease is not enough to protect these communities from infection, but provision of public infrastructures and health education will limit contact with infested water and thus curtail the infection. There is an urgent need to involve all age groups in control programs. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vicky Daonyle Ndassi Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles released from the filarial parasite < i > Brugia malayi < /i > downregulate the host mTOR pathway
by Alessandra Ricciardi, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Sameha Tariq, Sukhbir Kaur, Weiwei Wu, Abdel G. Elkahloun, Anush Arakelyan, Jahangheer Shaik, David W. Dorward, Thomas B. Nutman, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani We have previously shown that the microfilarial (mf) stage ofBrugia malayi can inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; a conserved serine/threonine kinase critical for immune regulation and cellular growth) in human dendritic cells (DC) and we have proposed that this mTOR inhibition is associated with the DC dysfunction seen in filarial infections. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain many proteins and nucleic acids ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alessandra Ricciardi Source Type: research

Prospective, historically controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new paediatric formulation of nifurtimox in children aged 0 to 17 years with Chagas disease one year after treatment (CHICO)
by Jaime Altcheh, Luis Castro, Juan C. Dib, Ulrike Grossmann, Erya Huang, Guillermo Moscatelli, Jimy Jos é Pinto Rocha, Teresa Estela Ramírez, on behalf of the CHICO Study Group Nifurtimox is a recommended treatment for Chagas disease, but data from treated children are limited. We investigated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of nifurtimox administered as divisible, dispersible 30 mg and 120 mg tablets in children with Chagas disease. In this blinded, controlled stu dy conducted January 2016–July 2018, 330 patients aged (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jaime Altcheh Source Type: research

Scabies-infested pregnant women: A critical therapeutic challenge
by Amandine Weill, Charlotte Bernigaud, Mourad Mokni, Sophie Gil, Elisabeth Elefant, Olivier Chosidow (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Amandine Weill Source Type: research

Temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of leprosy: A new challenge for leprosy prevention and control in Zhejiang, China
ConclusionA few scattered cases still can be seen in post-elimination era, and there was a spatial clustering of the newly detected leprosy cases in Zhejiang Province. Most of the cases in Zhejiang Province were from other high epidemic provinces in China, which brought a new challenge for leprosy control and prevention in post- elimination era in Zhejiang, and it is also necessary to strengthen the early detection and standard management of the leprosy cases in floating population in Zhejiang. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Limei Wu Source Type: research

< i > Onchocerca volvulus < /i > and epilepsy: A comprehensive review using the Bradford Hill criteria for causation
ConclusionApplying the Bradford Hill criteria suggests consistent epidemiological evidence thatO.volvulus infection is a trigger of epilepsy. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for seizure induction still need to be elucidated. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Robert Colebunders Source Type: research

Seroprevalence and asymptomatic carrier status of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan City and other places of China
by Shuhui Duan, Meiying Zhou, Wen Zhang, Jianwei Shen, Rui Qi, Xiangrong Qin, Hao Yu, Chuanmin Zhou, Qing Hu, Xue-Jie Yu Wuhan City (WH) in China was the first place to report COVID-19 in the world and the outbreak of COVID-19 was controlled in March of 2020 in WH. It is unclear what percentage of people were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and what percentage of population is carriers of SARS-CoV-2 in WH. We retrospective ly analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibody positive rates in 63,107 healthy individuals from WH and other places of China using commercial colloidal gold detection kits from March 6 to May 3, 2020. Statis...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shuhui Duan Source Type: research

Hospital-based evidence on cost-effectiveness of brucellosis diagnostic tests and treatment in Kenyan hospitals
This study generated hospital-based evidence on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the FBAT, compared to the Rose Bengal Test (RBT).Twelve hospitals in western Kenya stored patient serum samples that were tested for brucellosis using the FBAT, and these were later re-tested using the RBT. Data on the running time and cost of the FBAT, and the treatment prescribed for brucellosis, were collected. The cost-effectiveness of the two tests, defined as the cost in US Dollars ($) per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted, was determined, and a basic sensitivity analysis was run to identify the most influential param...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lorren Alumasa Source Type: research

COVID-19, leprosy, and neutrophils
by Veronica Schmitz, J éssica Brandão dos Santos Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the betacoronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has only recently emerged, whileMycobacterium leprae, the etiological agent of leprosy, has endured for more than 2,000 years. As soon as the initial reports of COVID-19 became public, several entities, including the Brazilian Leprosy Society, warned about the possible impact of COVID-19 on leprosy patients. It has been verified that COVID-19 carriers can be either asymptomatic or present varying degrees of severe respirato...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Veronica Schmitz Source Type: research

Predicting the spatio-temporal spread of West Nile virus in Europe
by Jos é-María García-Carrasco, Antonio-Román Muñoz, Jesús Olivero, Marina Segura, Raimundo Real West Nile virus is a widely spread arthropod-born virus, which has mosquitoes as vectors and birds as reservoirs. Humans, as dead-end hosts of the virus, may suffer West Nile Fever (WNF), which sometimes leads to death. In Europe, the first large-scale epidemic of WNF occurred in 1996 in Romania. Since then, human cases have increased in the continent, where the highest number of cases occurred in 2018. Using the location of WNF cases in 2017 and favorability models, we developed two r...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jos é-María García-Carrasco Source Type: research

Tsetse blood-meal sources, endosymbionts and trypanosome-associations in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, a wildlife-human-livestock interface
by Edward Edmond Makhulu, Jandouwe Villinger, Vincent Owino Adunga, Maamun M. Jeneby, Edwin Murungi Kimathi, Enock Mararo, Joseph Wang ’ang’a Oundo, Ali Abdulahi Musa, Lillian Wambua African trypanosomiasis (AT) is a neglected disease of both humans and animals caused byTrypanosoma parasites, which are transmitted by obligate hematophagous tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Knowledge on tsetse fly vertebrate hosts and the influence of tsetse endosymbionts on trypanosome presence, especially in wildlife-human-livestock interfaces, is limited. We identified tsetse species, their blood-meal sources, and correlations b...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Edward Edmond Makhulu Source Type: research

A descriptive study of zoonotic disease risk at the human-wildlife interface in a biodiversity hot spot in South Western Uganda
This study offers opportunities for a comprehensive risk communication and health education strategy for comm unities living at the interface of wildlife and human interactions. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shamilah Namusisi Source Type: research

< i > Aedes aegypti < /i > post-emergence transcriptome: Unveiling the molecular basis for the hematophagic and gonotrophic capacitation
by Stephanie S. de Carvalho, Cynara M. Rodovalho, Alessandro Gaviraghi, Maria Beatriz S. Mota, Willy Jablonka, Carl úcio Rocha-Santos, Rodrigo D. Nunes, Thayane da Encarnação Sá-Guimarães, Daniele S. Oliveira, Ana C. A. Melo, Monica F. Moreira, Patrícia Fampa, Marcus F. Oliveira, Mario Alberto C. da Silva-Neto, Georgia C. Atella, Rafael D. Mesquita The adult females ofAedes aegypti mosquitoes are facultative hematophagous insects but they are unable to feed on blood right after pupae emergence. The maturation process that takes place during the first post-emergence days, hereafter...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stephanie S. de Carvalho Source Type: research

Dual RNAseq analyses at soma and germline levels reveal evolutionary innovations in the elephantiasis-agent < i > Brugia malayi < /i > , and adaptation of its < i > Wolbachia < /i > endosymbionts
by Germain Chevignon, Vincent Foray, Mercedes Maria P érez-Jiménez, Silvia Libro, Matthew Chung, Jeremy M. Foster, Frédéric LandmannBrugia malayi is a human filarial nematode responsible for elephantiasis, a debilitating condition that is part of a broader spectrum of diseases called filariasis, including lymphatic filariasis and river blindness. Almost all filarial nematode species infecting humans live in mutualism withWolbachia endosymbionts, present in somatic hypodermal tissues but also in the female germline which ensures their vertical transmission to the nematode progeny. These α-p...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Germain Chevignon Source Type: research

Dynamic evolution of schistosomiasis distribution under different control strategies: Results from surveillance covering 1991 –2014 in Guichi, China
ConclusionsProximity to river is still an important determinant for schistosomiasis infection regardless of different types of implemented prevention and control strategies. Between the transition from the chemotherapy-based strategy to the integrated one, we noticed a decreased prevalence. However, schistosomiasis would remain an endemic challenge in these study areas. Further prevention and control countermeasures are warranted. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yi Hu Source Type: research

A unique group of scabies mite pseudoproteases promotes cutaneous blood coagulation and delays plasmin-induced fibrinolysis
Conclusions/SignificanceThe SMIPP-Cs are the first scabies mite proteins found in sub-epidermal skin layers and their pro-coagulant properties promote superficial microthrombi formation in scabetic skin. Further research is needed to evaluate their potential as diagnostic or therapeutic target. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Deepani D. Fernando Source Type: research

Vector competence of the African argasid tick < i > Ornithodoros moubata < /i > for the Q fever agent < i > Coxiella burnetii < /i >
In this study, we re-evaluated the vector competence of the African soft tickOrnithodoros moubata for an avirulent strain ofC.burnetii. To this end, we used an artificial feeding system to initiate infection of ticks, specific molecular tools to monitor further infections, and culture assays in axenic and cell media to check for the viability ofC.burnetii excreted by ticks. We observed typical traits associated with vector competence: The exposure to an infected blood meal resulted in viable and persistent infections in ticks, trans-stadial transmissions of infection from nymphs to adults and the ability of adult ticks to ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marie Buysse Source Type: research

Congenital syphilis in Argentina: Experience in a pediatric hospital
by Luciana Noem í Garcia, Alejandra Destito Solján, Samanta Moroni, Nicolas Falk, Nicolás Gonzalez, Guillermo Moscatelli, Griselda Ballering, Facundo García Bournissen, Jaime M. Altcheh In spite of being preventable, Congenital syphilis (CS) is still an important, and growing health problem worldwide. Fetal infection can be particularly aggressive, but newborns can be asymptomatic at birth and, if left untreated, develop systemic compromise afterwards with poor prognosis. We anal yzed 61 CS diagnosis cases between 1987–2019 presenting at the Buenos Aires Children’ Hospital. The dist...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Luciana Noem í Garcia Source Type: research

Patterns of relatedness and genetic diversity inferred from whole genome sequencing of archival blood fluke miracidia ( < i > Schistosoma japonicum < /i > )
by Zachary L. Nikolakis, Nicole R. Hales, Blair W. Perry, Drew R. Schield, Laura E. Timm, Yang Liu, Bo Zhong, Katerina J. Kechris, Elizabeth J. Carlton, David D. Pollock, Todd A. Castoe Genomic approaches hold great promise for resolving unanswered questions about transmission patterns and responses to control efforts for schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. However, the cost of generating genomic data and the challenges associated with obtaining sufficient DNA from individual schistosome larvae (miracidia) from mammalian hosts have limited the application of genomic data for studying schistosomes and ot...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zachary L. Nikolakis Source Type: research

Effect of early oxygen therapy and antiviral treatment on disease progression in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective study of medical charts in China
ConclusionsEarly initiation of oxygen therapy was associated with lower mortality among critical patients. This study highlighted the importance of early oxygen therapy after the onset of hypoxia symptoms. Our results also lend support to potentially beneficial effects of IFN α on critical illness. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lu Long Source Type: research

Status and forecast of leprosy in the still endemic province of Formosa in northern Argentina
by Mar ía R. Arnaiz, Mónica S. Iglesias, José I. Franco, Lucila Arzamendia, María S. Santini, Hugo C. Recalde BackgroundThe province of Formosa, Argentina, is endemic for leprosy. In the present paper, we assessed the trend (T, 2002 –2016 time series) and the forecast for 2022 of new case detection rate (NCDR) and determined the spatial distribution of new cases detected (NCD) of leprosy. Methodology/Principal findingsThis is a descriptive observational study of 713 NCD of leprosy from provincial medical records between January 2002 and December 2016. The whole dataset from the provincial ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mar ía R. Arnaiz Source Type: research

Adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with confirmed Zika Virus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: A cohort study
ConclusionThis study showed that the earlier the symptoms appear during gestation, the more severe the endpoints. We found a higher percentage of small for gestational age newborns exposed to Zika virus early in gestation. We also found a group of apparently asymptomatic newborns with proven Zika infection, which highlights the importance of follow up studies in this population. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Juliana P. Souza Source Type: research

Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups
by Marcin P. Joachimiak A wide variety of symptoms is associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and these symptoms can overlap with other conditions and diseases. Knowing the distribution of symptoms across diseases and individuals can support clinical actions on timelines sh orter than those for drug and vaccine development. Here, we focus on zinc deficiency symptoms, symptom overlap with other conditions, as well as zinc effects on immune health and mechanistic zinc deficiency risk groups. There are well-studied beneficial effects of zinc on the immune system including a dec...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marcin P. Joachimiak Source Type: research

Epidemiological, socio-demographic and clinical features of the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Ecuador
We present an analysis of the burden of COVID-19 in Ecuador. Our findings show that men are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19 than women, and risk increases with age a nd the presence of comorbidities. We also found that blue-collar workers and the unemployed are at greater risk of dying. These early observations offer clinical insights for the medical community to help improve patient care and for public health officials to strengthen Ecuador’s response to the outbreak. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Esteban Ortiz-Prado Source Type: research