Unusual presentations of a severe type 2 leprosy reaction mimicking sepsis induced by helminth infection
This report demonstrated the challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of severe T2R. G iven that helminth infections may trigger severe T2R that mimics septic shock, health professionals need to be aware of this clinical presentation, especially in endemic regions of both diseases. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sri Linuwih Menaldi Source Type: research

< i > Strongyloides stercoralis < /i > and HTLV-1 coinfection in CD34 < sup > + < /sup > cord blood stem cell humanized mice: Alteration of cytokine responses and enhancement of larval growth
In this study, a model of HTLV-1 andS.stercoralis coinfection in CD34+ umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell engrafted humanized mice was established. An increased level of mortality was observed in the HTLV-1 and coinfected animals when compared to theS.stercoralis infected group. The mortality was not correlated with proviral loads or total viral RNA. Analysis of cytokine profiles showed a distinct shift towards Th1 responses in HTLV-1 infected animals, a shift towards Th2 cytokines inS.stercoralis infected animals and elevated TNF- α responses in coinfected animals. HTLV-1 infected and coinfection groups sh...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lauren E. Springer Source Type: research

α-Gal immunization positively impacts < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > colonization of heart tissue in a mouse model
by Gisele Mac êdo Rodrigues da Cunha, Maíra Araújo Azevedo, Denise Silva Nogueira, Marianna de Carvalho Clímaco, Edward Valencia Ayala, Juan Atilio Jimenez Chunga, Raul Jesus Ynocente La Valle, Lucia Maria da Cunha Galvão, Egler Chiari, Carlos Ramon Nascimento Brito, Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Paula Monalisa Nogu eira, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Ricardo Gazzinelli, Robert Hincapie, Carlos-Sanhueza Chaves, Fabricio Marcus Silva Oliveira, M. G. Finn, Alexandre Ferreira Marques Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, is considered endemic in more than 20 countries but lacks both an...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gisele Mac êdo Rodrigues da Cunha Source Type: research

The burden of scrub typhus in India: A systematic review
Conclusion/significanceScrub typhus, a common acute febrile illness in India causing severe morbidity, accounts for a large number of deaths. The burden of the disease has been underappreciated. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can significantly reduce complications and mortality. Establishing good surveillance and instituting appropriate control measures are urgently needed. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Emily Devasagayam Source Type: research

Prevalence of urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in South-west Nigeria
ConclusionsThese findings suggest the probability of interspecific interactions betweenS.haematobium andS.mansoni. Scaling up of mass administration of praziquantel and control measures in the study areas is highly desirable. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Johnson A. Ojo Source Type: research

The impact of artificial selection for < i > Wolbachia < /i > -mediated dengue virus blocking on phage WO
In conclusion, we propose that artificial selection for WMPB trait had corresponding impacts on phage WO densities, and also the transcription of CI-causing genes. Future studies may include a more detailed analysis of the regions theA.aegypti chromosome 1 ’s ability to affect WMPB and otherWolbachia-associated intrinsic factors such as phage WO. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Heverton L. C. Dutra Source Type: research

Enhanced attraction of sand fly vectors of < i > Leishmania infantum < /i > to dogs infected with zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis
ConclusionsThe results strongly suggest thatL.infantum causes physiological changes in the reservoir host which lead to the host becoming more attractive to both male and femaleP.perniciosus. These changes are likely to improve the chance of successful transmission because of increased contact with infected hosts and therefore, infected dogs should be particularly targeted in the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in North Africa. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ifhem Chelbi Source Type: research

< i > Dipeptidyl peptidase III < /i > as a DNA marker to investigate epidemiology and taxonomy of Old World < i > Leishmania < /i > species
ConclusionThe study demonstrates thatDPPIII gene is suitable to detect and identifyLeishmania species and to complement other molecular methods for leishmaniases diagnosis and epidemiology. Thus, it can contribute to evidence-based disease control and surveillance. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Insaf Bel Hadj Ali Source Type: research

Field evaluation of the gut microbiome composition of pre-school and school-aged children in Tha Song Yang, Thailand, following oral MDA for STH infections
by Katharina Stracke, Poom Adisakwattana, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Akkarin Poodeepiyasawat, Paron Dekumyoy, Kittipong Chaisiri, Alexandra Roth Schulze, Stephen Wilcox, Harin Karunajeewa, Rebecca J. Traub, Aaron R. Jex Soil-transmitted helminths, such as roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus andAncylostoma spp.), are gastrointestinal parasites that occur predominantly in low- to middle-income countries worldwide and disproportionally impact children. Depending on the STH species, health status of the host and infection intensity, direct impact...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katharina Stracke Source Type: research

The burden of skin disease and eye disease due to onchocerciasis in countries formerly under the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control mandate for 1990, 2020, and 2030
ConclusionsMDA has had a remarkable impact on the onchocerciasis burden in countries previously under the APOC mandate. In the few countries where we predict continued transmission between now and 2030, intensified MDA could be combined with local vector control efforts, or the introduction of new drugs for mopping up residual cases of infection and morbidity. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Natalie V. S. Vinkeles Melchers Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination in Puerto Rico
by Guido Espa ña, Andrew J. Leidner, Stephen H. Waterman, T. Alex Perkins An effective and widely used vaccine could reduce the burden of dengue virus (DENV) around the world. DENV is endemic in Puerto Rico, where the dengue vaccine CYD-TDV is currently under consideration as a control measure. CYD-TDV has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials in vaccinees who had pr ior dengue virus infection. However, in vaccinees who had no prior dengue virus infection, the vaccine had a modestly elevated risk of hospitalization and severe disease. The WHO therefore recommended a strategy of pre-vaccination screening and vacc...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Guido Espa ña Source Type: research

Linked surveillance and genetic data uncovers programmatically relevant geographic scale of Guinea worm transmission in Chad
Conclusions/significanceIn the largest study linking genetic and surveillance data to date of Guinea worm cases in Chad, we show genetic identity and modeling can facilitate the understanding of local transmission. The co-occurrence of genetically non-identical worms in quantitatively identified transmission ranges highlights the necessity for genomic tools to link cases. The improved discrimination between pairs of worms from variants identified across the complete mitochondrial genome suggests that expanding the number of genomic markers could link cases at a finer scale. These results suggest that scaling up genomic sur...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jessica V. Ribado Source Type: research

< i > In vitro < /i > activity of SPR719 against < i > Mycobacterium ulcerans < /i > , < i > Mycobacterium marinum < /i > and < i > Mycobacterium chimaera < /i >
by Sacha J. Pidot, Jessica L. Porter, Troy Lister, Timothy P. Stinear Nontuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infections are increasing in prevalence across the world. In many cases, treatment options for these infections are limited. However, there has been progress in recent years in the development of new antimycobacterial drugs. Here, we investigate thein vitro activity of SPR719, a novel aminobenzimidazole antibiotic and the active form of the clinical-stage compound, SPR720, against several isolates ofMycobacterium ulcerans,Mycobacterium marinum andMycobacterium chimaera. We show that SPR719 is active against these NTM ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sacha J. Pidot Source Type: research

Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus- < i > Leishmania major < /i > co-infection modulates innate inflammatory response favoring myeloid cell infections and skin hyperinflammation
Conclusion/SignificanceOverall our work represents novel findings that contribute towards understanding the causal mechanisms governing cutaneous leishmaniasis pathology. Better comprehension of the potential role of viral co-infection could lead to treatment regimens with enhanced effectiveness. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ellen Heirwegh Source Type: research

Active case detection methods for crusted scabies and leprosy: A systematic review
ConclusionThis review demonstrates the importance of ACD campaigns in communities facing the highest barriers to healthcare access and within neighbourhoods of index cases. The potential benefit of ACD for crusted scabies is not quantified, however, lessons from leprosy suggest value in follow-up with previously identified cases and their close contacts to support for scabies control and to reduce the likelihood of reinfection in the crusted scabies case. Skilled screening personnel and appropriate community engagement strategies are needed to maximise screening uptake. More research is needed to assess ACD cost effectiven...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Miriam Glennie Source Type: research

Burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in India based on data from cross-sectional serosurveys, 2017 and 2019 –20
by Devika Shanmugasundaram, Shally Awasthi, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, S. Geetha, Manish Jain, Shikha Malik, Bhupeshwari Patel, Himabindu Singh, Shalini Tripathi, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Anjoo Agarwal, Rajeswari Bonu, Shuchi Jain, Saubhagya Kumar Jena, J. Priyasree, K Pushpalatha, Syed Ali, Debasis Biswas, Amita Jain, Rahul Narang, Sudha Madhuri, Suji George, Ojas Kaduskar, G. Kiruthika, R. Sabarinathan, Gajanan Sapakal, Nivedita Gupta, Manoj V. Murhekar BackgroundIndia has set a goal to eliminate measles and rubella/Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) by 2023. Towards this goal, India conducted nationwide supplementary immunizatio...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Devika Shanmugasundaram Source Type: research

Mapping survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases towards mass drug administration in The Gambia
ConclusionsWe identified that 24/42(57%) districts mapped in The Gambia are endemic for schistosomiasis expressing the need for preventive chemotherapy. Twenty (47%) of the districts mapped are endemic for STH. However, only two STH endemic districts namely Banjul (55%) and Kombo South (22%) were within rates eligible for mass drug administration. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yaya Camara Source Type: research

Addressing antimicrobial resistance by improving access and quality of care —A review of the literature from East Africa
by Kathrin Loosli, Alicia Davis, Adrian Muwonge, Tiziana Lembo Universal access to healthcare, including quality medicines, is a fundamental human right but is still out of reach for many in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An existing framework capturing variability of access to healthcare in low-resource settings includes the 5 dimensions: availabi lity, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability. This framework encompasses key components, including health infrastructure and means to access it as well as service organisation, costs, and factors that influence users’ satisfaction. However, i...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kathrin Loosli Source Type: research

A review of the leishmanin skin test: A neglected test for a neglected disease
by Jessica Carstens-Kass, Kayla Paulini, Patrick Lypaczewski, Greg MatlashewskiThe leishmanin skin test (LST) has been used for decades to detect exposure and immunity to the parasiteLeishmania, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. In the LST,Leishmania antigen (leishmanin) is intradermally injected into the forearm. In an individual who has been previously infected, a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction results in a measurable induration at the site of the injection, indicating that previous exposure toLeishmania has resulted in the development of cell-mediated immunity. LST positi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jessica Carstens-Kass Source Type: research

Microbes increase thermal sensitivity in the mosquito < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > , with the potential to change disease distributions
by Fhallon Ware-Gilmore, Carla M. Sgr ò, Zhiyong Xi, Heverton L. C. Dutra, Matthew J. Jones, Katriona Shea, Matthew D. Hall, Matthew B. Thomas, Elizabeth A. McGraw The mosquitoAedes aegypti is the primary vector of many disease-causing viruses, including dengue (DENV), Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As consequences of climate change, we expect an increase in both global mean temperatures and extreme climatic events. When temperatures fluctuate, mosquito vectors will be increasingly exposed to temperatures beyond their upper thermal limits. Here, we examine how DENV infection altersAe.aegypti thermotolerance b...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fhallon Ware-Gilmore Source Type: research

Miltefosine enhances infectivity of a miltefosine-resistant < i > Leishmania infantum < /i > strain by attenuating its innate immune recognition
Conclusions/SignificanceDifferential induction of innate immune responses in the liver was found to underlie the attenuated phenotype of a MIL-R parasite and its peculiar feature of drug-dependency. The impact of MIL on hepatic NK and NKT activation and IFN- γ production following recognition of a MIL-R strain indicates that this mechanism may sustain infections with resistant parasites and contribute to treatment failure. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 22, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dimitri Bult é Source Type: research

“Chagas Express XXI”: A new ArtScience social technology for health and science education—A case study in Brazilian endemic areas of Chagas disease with an active search of chronic cases
ConclusionsCE21 is a social technology potentially useful for health and science education and active search of asymptomatic CD chronic cases. Moreover, this technology may be adapted to understand and to cooperate in other potentially epidemic situations, especially NTDs related. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tania C. Araujo-Jorge Source Type: research

Modelling the influence of naturally acquired immunity from subclinical infection on outbreak dynamics and persistence of rabies in domestic dogs
by Susannah Gold, Christl A. Donnelly, Rosie Woodroffe, Pierre Nouvellet A number of mathematical models have been developed for canine rabies to explore dynamics and inform control strategies. A common assumption of these models is that naturally acquired immunity plays no role in rabies dynamics. However, empirical studies have detected rabies-specific antibodies in healthy, unvaccinated domestic dogs, potentially due to immunizing, non-lethal exposure. We developed a stochastic model for canine rabies, parameterised for Laikipia County, Kenya, to explore the implications of different scenarios for naturally acquired im...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Susannah Gold Source Type: research

Staging liver fibrosis after severe yellow fever with ultrasound elastography in Brazil: A six-month follow-up study
Conclusions/SignificanceWe found a low frequency of liver fibrosis in severe YF survivors. US with SWE may have a role in the follow up of patients of age and / or with comorbidities after hospital discharge in severe YF, a rare but reemergent disease. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 20, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yuri Costa Sarno Neves Source Type: research

Evolution, systematics and historical biogeography of sand flies of the subgenus < i > Paraphlebotomus < /i > (Diptera, Psychodidae, < i > Phlebotomus < /i > ) inferred using restriction-site associated DNA markers
by Astrid Cruaud, V éronique Lehrter, Guenaëlle Genson, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Jérôme Depaquit Phlebotomine sand flies are the main natural vectors ofLeishmania, which cause visceral and tegumentary tropical diseases worldwide. However, their taxonomy and evolutionary history remain poorly studied. Indeed, as for many human disease vectors, their small size is a challenge for morphological and molecular works. Here, we successfully amplified unbiased copies of whole genome to sequence thousands of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) markers from single specimens of phlebotomines. RAD markers were us...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Astrid Cruaud Source Type: research

The discovery of a novel series of compounds with single-dose efficacy against juvenile and adult < i > Schistosoma species < /i >
by J. Mark F. Gardner, Nuha R. Mansour, Andrew S. Bell, Helena Helmby, Quentin Bickle Treatment and control of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug, praziquantel, but this is not ideal for several reasons including lack of potency against the juvenile stage of the parasite, dose size, and risk of resistance. We have optimised the properties of a series of compounds we discovere d through high throughput screening and have designed candidates for clinical development. The best compounds demonstrate clearance of both juvenile and adultS.mansoni worms in a mouse model of infection from a single oral dose of (Source: PLoS...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: J. Mark F. Gardner Source Type: research

Emergent canine visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina: Comparative diagnostics and relevance to proliferation of human disease
Conclusions/SignificanceSeroprevalence confirmed rapid increase in CVL in Puerto Iguaz ú. The rK28 RDT test potentially has great value for improved point-of-care diagnosis. Given cost reduction and accessibility, commercial LAMP may be applicable to buffy coat. RDT biomarkers of CVL clinical status are required to combat spread of CVL and HVL. The presence ofViannia, perhaps as an agent of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), highlights the need for vigilance and surveillance. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kyoko Fujisawa Source Type: research

Distribution and natural infection status of synantrophic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > , reveals new epidemiological scenarios for chagas disease in the Highlands of Colombia
ConclusionsAfter some municipalities were certified free of natural transmission within houses (intradomiciliary transmission) ofT.cruzi byR.prolixus,T.dimidiata has become the most prevalent vector present, and represents a significant risk of resurgent CD transmission. However,T.venosa,P.geniculatus, andP.rufotuberculatus also contribute to the increased risk of transmission. The presence of residualR.prolixus may undo the successes achieved through vector elimination programs. The molecular and spatial analysis used here allows us to identify areas with an ongoing threat of parasite transmission and improve entomologica...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Omar Cantillo-Barraza Source Type: research

Short Report: Early genomic detection of SARS-CoV-2 P.1 variant in Northeast Brazil
by Stephane Tosta, Marta Giovanetti, Vanessa Brand ão Nardy, Luciana Reboredo de Oliveira da Silva, Marcela Kelly Astete Gómez, Jaqueline Gomes Lima, Cristiane Wanderley Cardoso, Tarcisio Oliveira Silva, Marcia São Pedro Leal de Souza, Pedro Henrique Presta Dia, Vagner Fonseca, Tulio de Oliveira, José Lourenço, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara, Fel icidade Pereira, Arabela Leal Tracking the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern is crucial to inform public health efforts and control the ongoing pandemic. Here, we report genetic evidence for circulation of the P.1 variant in Northeast Brazi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stephane Tosta Source Type: research

The impact of dengue illness on social distancing and caregiving behavior
Conclusions/SignificanceOur study demonstrates that social contacts of individuals with dengue modify their patterns of visitation and caregiving. The observed mobility changes could impact a susceptible individual ’s exposure to virus or a presymptomatic/clinically inapparent individual’s contribution to onward transmission. Accounting for changes in social contact mobility is imperative in order to get a more accurate understanding of DENV transmission. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kathryn L. Schaber Source Type: research

Correction: Plasma and memory B cell responses targeting O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) are associated with protection against < i > Vibrio cholerae < /i > O1 infection among household contacts of cholera patients in Bangladesh
by Amena Aktar, M. Arifur Rahman, Sadia Afrin, Aklima Akter, Taher Uddin, Tahirah Yasmin, Md. Israk Nur Sami, Pinki Dash, Sultana Rownok Jahan, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I. Khan, Regina C. LaRocque, Richelle C. Charles, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Anjali Mandlik, Meagan Kelly, Pavol Kov áč, Peng Xu, Stephen B. Calderwood, Jason B. Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T. Ryan (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Amena Aktar Source Type: research

A novel vehicle-mounted sticky trap; an effective sampling tool for savannah tsetse flies Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and Glossina morsitans centralis Machado
In this study, we aimed to evaluate a vehicle-mounted sticky panel trap (VST) that is independent of the operator ’s ability to capture flies against BFR, for effective and rapid sampling ofG.m.morsitans Westwood andG.m.centralis Machado. We also determined the influence of the VST colour (all-blue, all-black or 1:1 blue-black), orientation and presence of odour attractants on tsetse catch. Methodology/Principal findingsUsing randomised block design experiments conducted in Zambia, we compared and modelled the number of tsetse flies caught in the treatment arms using negative binomial regression. There were no signif...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jackson Muyobela Source Type: research

Transcriptomic analysis and molecular docking reveal genes involved in the response of < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > larvae to an essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus
Conclusions and significanceOur work contributes to the understanding of the physiological response ofAe.aegypti larvae to an intoxication with a natural toxic distilled from Eucalyptus leafs. The results suggest an involvement of most of the gene families associated to detoxification of xenobiotics in insects. Noteworthy, this work provides important information regarding the implication of chemosensory proteins in the detoxification of a natural larvicide. Understanding the mode of detoxification of Eucalyptus distilled compounds could contribute to their implementation as a tool in mosquito control. (Source: PLoS Neglec...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ivana Sierra Source Type: research

Rate-of-Kill (RoK) assays to triage large compound sets for Chagas disease drug discovery: Application to GSK Chagas Box
by Juan Cantizani, Pablo Gamallo, Ignacio Cotillo, Raquel Alvarez-Velilla, Julio Martin Chagas disease (CD) is a human disease caused byTrypanosoma cruzi. Whilst endemic in Latin America, the disease is spread around the world due to migration flows, being estimated that 8 million people are infected worldwide and over 10,000 people die yearly of complications linked to CD. Current chemotherapeutics is restricted to only two drugs, i.e. benznidazole (BNZ) and nifurtimox (NIF), both being nitroaromatic compounds sharing mechanism of action and exerting suboptimal efficacy and serious adverse effects. Recent clinical trials...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Juan Cantizani Source Type: research

One hundred years of zoonoses research in the Horn of Africa: A scoping review
Conclusions/significanceThere is a growing interest in zoonoses research in the Horn of Africa. Recommendations arising from this scoping review include: (i) ensuring zoonoses research aligns with national and global research agendas; (ii) encouraging researchers to adopt a holistic, transdisciplinary One Health approach following high quality reporting standards (COHERE, PRISMA, etc.); and (iii) empowering local researchers supported by regional and international partnerships to engage in zoonoses research. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lisa Cavalerie Source Type: research

Genotypes and phenotypes of G6PD deficiency among Indonesian females across diagnostic thresholds of G6PD activity guiding safe primaquine therapy of latent malaria
This study examined G6PD phenotypes in 1928 female subjects living in malarious Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia to ascertain the prevalence of females vulnerable to diagnostic misclassification as G6PD-normal. All 367 (19%) females having (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 16, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ari Winasti Satyagraha Source Type: research

Rabies postexposure prophylaxis in the United States: Opportunities to improve access, coordination, and delivery
by Gavin T. Howington, Huy-Binh Nguyen, P. Brandon Bookstaver, Peter Akpunonu, Joshua T. Swan (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gavin T. Howington Source Type: research

The epidemic of Q fever in 2018 to 2019 in Zhuhai city of China determined by metagenomic next-generation sequencing
by Mingxing Huang, Jinmin Ma, Jun Jiao, Chunna Li, Luan Chen, Zhongyi Zhu, Feng Ruan, Li Xing, Xinchun Zheng, Mengjiao Fu, Binyin Ma, Chongjie Gan, Yuanchen Mao, Chongnan Zhang, Ping Sun, Xi Liu, Ziliang Lin, Lu Chen, Zhiyu Lu, Dongsheng Zhou, Bohai Wen, Weijun Chen, Xiaolu Xiong, Jinyu Xia Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused byCoxiella burnetii (Cb). From January 2018 to November 2019, plasma samples from 2,382 patients with acute fever of unknown cause at a hospital in Zhuhai city of China were tested using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). Of those tested, 138 patients (5.8%) were diagnosed with Q fever...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mingxing Huang Source Type: research

The Myanmar military coup: Propelling the 2030 milestones for neglected tropical diseases further out of reach
by Bethany Moos, Russell Roberts, Mo Aye (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bethany Moos Source Type: research

Determination of freedom-from-rabies for small Indian mongoose populations in the United States Virgin Islands, 2019 –2020
by A. Springer Browne, Hannah M. Cranford, Clint N. Morgan, James A. Ellison, Are Berentsen, Nicholas Wiese, Alexandra Medley, John Rossow, Leanne Jankelunas, Alan S. McKinley, Claudia D. Lombard, Nicole F. Angeli, Thomas Kelley, Jennifer Valiulus, Bethany Bradford, Valicia J. Burke-France, Cosme J. Harrison, Irene Guendel, Marissa Taylor, Gerard L. Blanchard, Jeffrey B. Doty, David J. Worthington, David Horner, Keith R. Garcia, Joseph Roth, Brett R. Ellis, Kristine M. Bisgard, Ryan Wallace, Esther M. Ellis Mongooses, a nonnative species, are a known reservoir of rabies virus in the Caribbean region. A cross-sectional stu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A. Springer Browne Source Type: research

Low-level < i > Plasmodium vivax < /i > exposure, maternal antibodies, and anemia in early childhood: Population-based birth cohort study in Amazonian Brazil
Conclusions/SignificanceAntenatal infection increases the risk of vivax malaria in the offspring and repeated childhoodP.vivax infections are associated with anemia at the age of 2 years. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anaclara Pincelli Source Type: research

Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of acute Q fever in a cohort of hospitalized patients in a regional hospital, Israel, 2012-2018
ConclusionAcute Q fever in the Sharon district could be better diagnosed by using a syndromic approach in combination with improved rapid diagnostic testing. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Talya Finn Source Type: research

Gut integrity and duodenal enteropathogen burden in undernourished children with environmental enteric dysfunction
This study explores association of altered duodenal permeability (lactulose, rhamnose and their ratio ) with higher burden of enteropathogen in the duodenal aspirate, altered histopathological findings and higher morbidity (diarrhea) that is collectively associated with linear growth faltering in children living in EED endemic setting. In a longitudinal birth cohort, 51 controls (WHZ > 0, HAZ>−1.0) and 63 cases (WHZ (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zehra Jamil Source Type: research

Help from the sky: Can vultures contribute to Cystic Echinococcosis control in endemic areas?
by Fiammetta Berlinguer, Fahad Ahmed, Claudia Tamponi, Silvia Carta, Antonio Scala, Maria Grazia Cappai, Antonio Varcasia Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in Sardinia and constitutes a serious public health concern due to high prevalence in livestock and humans. Despite sustained efforts, control of the disease had been unsuccessful in the region. Problematic carcass disposal due to soaring incineration costs an d free access of dogs to infected carrion are dominant factors, fueling endemicity among other. As sole obligate scavenger, griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are uniquely specialized to eliminate carcasses swift...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fiammetta Berlinguer Source Type: research

A randomised controlled feasibility trial of a BabyWASH household playspace: The CAMPI study
This study was a two-armed, parallel-group, randomised, controlled feasibility trial of a HPS in rural Ethiopia. It aimed to recommend proceeding to a definitive trial. Secondary outcomes included effects on infant health, injury prevention and women ’s time. MethodsNovember 2019 −January 2020 106 households were identified and assessed for eligibility. Recruited households (N = 100) were randomised (blinded prior to the trial start) to intervention or control (both n = 50). Outcomes included recruitment, attrition, adherence, and acceptability. Data were collected at base line, two and four weeks. FindingsRecr...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sophie Budge Source Type: research

Comparison of sand fly trapping approaches for vector surveillance of < i > Leishmania < /i > and < i > Bartonella < /i > species in ecologically distinct, endemic regions of Peru
Conclusions/SignificanceUV, Blue LED, Mosquito Magnet and Shannon traps were more efficient than the BG-Sentinel, Green, and Red LED traps. This is the first report ofL.naiffi and of two genotypes ofBartonella spp. related toB.bacilliformis andCandidatus B. rondoniensis infecting sand fly species from the Amazon region in Peru. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Victor O. Zorrilla Source Type: research

Epidemiological and numerical simulation of rabies spreading from canines to various human populations in mainland China
ConclusionsAlthough the annual cases of human deaths from rabies have decreased steadily since 2007, the proportion of human deaths from rabies varies with region, age, gender, and occupation. Further enhancement of public awareness and immunization status in high-risk population groups and blocking the transmission routes of rabies from canines to humans are necessary. The concept of One Health should be abided and human, animal, and environmental health should be considered simultaneously to achieve the goal of eradicating human rabies before 2030. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wen-gao Lu Source Type: research

Field assessment in Cameroon of a reader of POC-CCA lateral flow strips for the quantification of < i > Schistosoma mansoni < /i > circulating cathodic antigen in urine
This study was designed to compare the prevalence and intensity ofS.mansoni by KK and POC-CCA and quantify, on fresh and frozen ( (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Estelle Mezajou Mewamba Source Type: research

Health seeking behavior after the 2013 –16 Ebola epidemic: Lassa fever as a metric of persistent changes in Kenema District, Sierra Leone
Conclusions/SignificanceAnalysis of patient demographic data suggests that fewer individuals sought care for Lassa fever and other febrile illnesses in Kenema District after the West African Ebola epidemic. Re-establishing trust in health care services will require efforts beyond rebuilding infrastructure and require concerted efforts to rebuild the trust of local residents who may be wary of seeking healthcare post epidemic. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mikaela R. Koch Source Type: research

Effect of habitat fragmentation on rural house invasion by sylvatic triatomines: A multiple landscape-scale approach
We report the occurrence of seven species of triatomines invading rural houses in the study area-T.infestans,T.guasayana,T.garciabesi,T.platensis,T.delpontei,T.breyeri andP.guentheri-. Study data suggest that invasion by triatomines occurs with higher frequency in disturbed landscapes, with houses spatially isolated and in proximity to subdivided fragments of forest. The availability of domestic refuges in the peridomestic structures as well as the presence of a higher number of domestic animals increase the chances of invasion by triatomines. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Miriam Cardozo Source Type: research