Prediction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy by using an radiomics nomogram in chronic hepatic schistosomiasis patients
by Ying Li, Shuai Ju, Xin Li, Yan Li Zhou, Jin Wei Qiang ObjectiveTo construct an MR-radiomics nomogram to predict minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with chronic hepatic schistosomiasis (CHS). MethodsFrom July 2017 to July 2020, 236 CHS patients with non-HE (n = 140) and MHE (n = 96) were retrospective collected and randomly divided into training group and testing group. Radiomics features were extracted from substantia nigra-striatum system of a brain diffusion weighted images (DWI) and combined with clinical predictors to build a radiomics nomogram for predicting MHE in CHS patients. The ROC curve was used...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 15, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ying Li Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of < i > Salmonella < /i > Paratyphi A isolated from enteric fever patients in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2018
This study demonstrates the utility of WGS to monitor the ongoing evolution of this emerging enteric pathogen. Novel insights into the genetic structure ofS. Paratyphi A will aid the understanding of both regional and global circulation patterns of this emerging pathogen and provide a framework for future genomic surveillance studies. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sadia Isfat Ara Rahman Source Type: research

Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with arboviral infection: Report of 3 cases
by Jos é Luiz Coelho Júnior, Karla Cristina Petruccelli Israel, Carlos Eduardo Everton Machado, Monique Pereira Rêgo Muniz, Giuseppe Cesare Gatto, Flávio Henrique Soares Barros, Kaile de Araújo Cunha, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Precil Diego Miranda de Menezes Neves, Gyl Eanes Barros Silva Dengue fever and chikungunya are viral diseases that have spread rapidly throughout the world in recent decades. The occurrence of complications is well known, including prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI), which is usually thought to be caused by dehydration and fluid loss. Throm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jos é Luiz Coelho Júnior Source Type: research

Indirect transfer of pyriproxyfen to European honeybees via an autodissemination approach
by Sri Jyosthsna Kancharlapalli, Cameron J. Crabtree, Kaz Surowiec, Scott D. Longing, Corey L. Brelsfoard The frequency of arboviral disease epidemics is increasing and vector control remains the primary mechanism to limit arboviral transmission. Container inhabiting mosquitoes such asAedes albopictus andAedes aegypti are the primary vectors of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Current vector control methods for these species are often ineffective, suggesting the need for novel control approaches. A proposed novel approach is autodissemination of insect growth regulators (IGRs). The advantage of autodissemination app...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sri Jyosthsna Kancharlapalli Source Type: research

Systematic review of the scrub typhus treatment landscape: Assessing the feasibility of an individual participant-level data (IPD) platform
Conclusions/significanceThere were a limited number of interventional trials, highlighting that scrub typhus remains a neglected disease. The heterogeneous nature of the available data reflects the absence of consensus in treatment and research methodologies and poses a significant barrier to aggregating information across available published data without access to the underlying IPD. There is likely to be a substantial amount of data available to address knowledge gaps. Therefore, there is value for an IPD platform that will facilitate pooling and harmonisation of currently scattered data and enable in-depth investigation...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kartika Saraswati Source Type: research

The current burden of Japanese encephalitis and the estimated impacts of vaccination: Combining estimates of the spatial distribution and transmission intensity of a zoonotic pathogen
by Sean M. Moore Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of neurological disability in Asia and causes thousands of severe encephalitis cases and deaths each year. Although Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a WHO reportable disease, cases and deaths are significantly underreported and the true burden of the disease is not well understood in most endemic countries. Here, we first conducted a spatial analysis of the risk factors associated with JE to identify the areas suitable for sustained JEV transmission and the size of the population living in at-risk areas. We then estimated the force of infection (FOI) for JE-...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sean M. Moore Source Type: research

Rationalizing the design of a broad coverage < i > Shigella < /i > vaccine based on evaluation of immunological cross-reactivity among < i > S < /i > . < i > flexneri < /i > serotypes
This study provides the framework for a broadly-protectiveShigella vaccine which needs to be verified in human trials. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Francesco Citiulo Source Type: research

Community-based prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in rural Ethiopia: Five-year follow-up
ConclusionsWe show the persistence of echocardiographically demonstrable RHD in a rural sub-Saharan population. Both progression and regression of the disease were found; however, the majority of the individuals who had definite features of RHD had evidence of continuing RHD lesions five years later. There was an increased risk of RHD in the family relatives of borderline and definite cases, notably among siblings. The findings highlight the problems faced in addressing the problem of RHD in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. They add to the evidence that community-based interventions for RHD will be required, together...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tadesse Gemechu Source Type: research

Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 tracks early interstate transmission of P.1 lineage and diversification within P.2 clade in Brazil
In this study, we performed the whole-genome sequencing of 185 samples isolated from three out of the five Brazilian regions, including Amazonas (North region), Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba and Bahia (Northeast region), and Rio de J aneiro (Southeast region) in order to monitor the spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Brazil in the first months of 2021. Here, we showed a widespread dispersal of P.1 and P.2 across Brazilian regions and, except for Amazonas, P.2 was the predominant lineage identified in the sampled states. We estimat ed the origin of P.2 lineage to have happened in February, 2020 and identified that it ha...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alessandra P. Lamarca Source Type: research

Chronic wounds in Sierra Leone: Searching for Buruli ulcer, a NTD caused by < i > Mycobacterium ulcerans < /i > , at Masanga Hospital
ConclusionsBU was not confirmed as a cause of chronic ulceration in our cohort of suspected cases, as judged by laboratory analysis according to WHO standards. This does not exclude the presence of BU in the region, and the definitive cause of these treatment-resistance chronic wounds is uncertain. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Helen R. Please Source Type: research

Clinical diversity and treatment results in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: A European clinical report in 459 patients
Conclusion/SignificanceCL acquired inL.infantum-endemic European and Mediterranean areas displays unexpected high rates of mucosal involvement comparable to those of CL acquired in Latin America, especially in immunocompromised patients. When used as per recommendations, local therapy is associated with high cure rates. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Romain Guery Source Type: research

< i > Schistosoma mansoni < /i > egg-derived extracellular vesicles: A promising vaccine candidate against murine schistosomiasis
In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role ofS.mansoni-egg derived EVs as a potential vaccine candidate against murine schistosomiasis mansoni. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shereen F. Mossallam Source Type: research

Evaluating the diagnostic test accuracy of molecular xenomonitoring methods for characterising the community burden of Onchocerciasis
by Joseph Pryce, Thomas R. Unnasch, Lisa J. Reimer BackgroundMolecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of parasite nucleic acid in the vector population, is recommended for onchocerciasis surveillance in elimination settings. However, the sensitivity of MX for detecting onchocerciasis-positive communities has not previously been evaluated. MX may have additional applications for control programmes but its utility is restricted by a limited understanding of the relationship between MX results and human prevalence. MethodsWe conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the prevalence ofOnchocerca volvulus DNA in wil...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Joseph Pryce Source Type: research

Cytotoxin antibody-based colourimetric sensor for field-level differential detection of elapid among big four snake venom
by Sherin Kaul, L. Sai Keerthana, Pankaj Kumar, Komal Birader, Yathirajarao Tammineni, Deepali Rawat, Pankaj Suman Development of a rapid, on-site detection tool for snakebite is highly sought after, owing to its clinically and forensically relevant medicolegal significance. Polyvalent antivenom therapy in the management of such envenomation cases is finite due to its poor venom neutralization capabilities as well as diagnostic ramifications manifested as untoward immunological reactions. For precise molecular diagnosis of elapid venoms of the big four snakes, we have developed a lateral flow kit using a monoclonal antibo...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sherin Kaul Source Type: research

Live-imaging rate-of-kill compound profiling for Chagas disease drug discovery with a new automated high-content assay
by Nina Svensen, Susan Wyllie, David W. Gray, Manu De Rycker Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan intracellular parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, is a highly neglected tropical disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality in central and south America. Current treatments are inadequate, and recent clinical trials of drugs inhibiting CYP51 have failed, exposing a lack of understanding of how to translate laboratory findings to the clinic. Following these failures many new model systems have been developed, bothin vitro andin vivo, that provide improved understanding of the causes for clinical trial failures. Amongst the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nina Svensen Source Type: research

Regulation of innate immune responses in macrophages differentiated in the presence of vitamin D and infected with dengue virus 2
by Jorge Andr és Castillo, Diana M. Giraldo, Juan C. Hernandez, Jolanda M. Smit, Izabela A. Rodenhuis-Zybert, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima A dysregulated or exacerbated inflammatory response is thought to be the key driver of the pathogenesis of severe disease caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV). Compounds that restrict virus replication and modulate the inflammatory response could thus serve as promising therapeutics mi tigating the disease pathogenesis. We and others have previously shown that macrophages, which are important cellular targets for DENV replication, differentiated in the presence of bioactiv...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 11, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jorge Andr és Castillo Source Type: research

Dengue outbreaks in the COVID-19 era: Alarm raised for Asia
by Xinting Lu, Hilary Bambrick, Puntani Pongsumpun, Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara, Do Thi Thanh Toan, Wenbiao Hu (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 8, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xinting Lu Source Type: research

Passive case detection for canine visceral leishmaniasis control in urban Brazil: Determinants of population uptake
Conclusions/SignificanceTo support timely CVL management, passive case detection along with awareness activities aimed at dog owners should be encouraged in endemic areas. Screening sites should be prioritized in accessible zones, as well as in socio-economically disadvantage areas. In parallel, CVL active case detection should be continued as a surveillance tool to guide control actions. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 8, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jo ão Gabriel G. Luz Source Type: research

< i > Leishmania infantum < /i > xenodiagnosis from vertically infected dogs reveals significant skin tropism
Conclusions/SignificanceTogether, our data implicate skin parasite burden and earlier clinical status as stronger indicators of outward transmission potential than blood parasite burden. Our studies of a population of dogs without vector transmission highlights the need to consider canine vertical transmission in surveillance and prevention strategies. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Breanna M. Scorza Source Type: research

Investigation of neglected protists < i > Blastocystis < /i > sp. and < i > Dientamoeba fragilis < /i > in immunocompetent and immunodeficient diarrheal patients using both conventional and molecular methods
Conclusion and recommendationOur findings demonstrated thatBlastocystis sp. andD.fragilis are commonly present in immunocompetent and immunodeficient patients with diarrhea. This study is the first to use next generation sequencing to address the presence ofBlastocystis sp. mixed subtypes and intra-subtype variability in clinical samples in Turkey. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fakhriddin Sarzhanov Source Type: research

The state of the leprosy epidemic in Yunnan, China 2011 –2020: A spatial and spatiotemporal analysis, highlighting areas for intervention
ConclusionThe number of leprosy cases in Yunnan decreased overall, although some high-NCDR regions remained. Geographic information system (GIS) analysis coupled with spatial analysis indicated regions with leprosy clusters. Continuous leprosy prevention and control strategies in Yunnan Province should be established, and interventions in high-risk regions should be prioritized and further strengthened. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xiaohua Chen Source Type: research

Risk factors for scabies, tungiasis, and tinea infections among schoolchildren in southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional Bayesian multilevel model
Conclusions/SignificanceWe observed high variation in skin problems at the classroom level, indicating the presence of shared risk factors in these locations. The findings suggest the need to improve children ’s personal hygiene via health education by schoolteachers and health workers. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hiwot Hailu Amare Source Type: research

Searching for a sign of exotic < i > Aedes albopictus < /i > (Culicidae) introduction in major international seaports on Kyushu Island, Japan
Conclusions/significanceThe present study found a sign ofAe.albopictus introduction from a temperate region of Asia through maritime freight container transportation. The genetically distinct group found in Fukuoka likely originated from a temperate region outside of Japan. Maritime container transportation may introduce to Japan mosquitoes with greater vector competence/insecticide resistance. This is the first study to describe the spatial population structure ofAe.albopictus in Japan using molecular techniques. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chao Yang Source Type: research

High-quality reference genome of < i > Fasciola gigantica < /i > : Insights into the genomic signatures of transposon-mediated evolution and specific parasitic adaption in tropical regions
by Xier Luo, Kuiqing Cui, Zhiqiang Wang, Zhipeng Li, Zhengjiao Wu, Weiyi Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Jue Ruan, Weiyu Zhang, Qingyou LiuFasciola gigantica andFasciola hepatica are causative pathogens offascioliasis, with the widest latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal distribution; however, among parasites, they have the largest sequenced genomes, hindering genomic research. In the present study, we used various sequencing and assembly technologies to generate a new high-qualityFasciola gigantica reference genome. We improved the integration of gene structure prediction, and identified two independent transposable element e...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xier Luo Source Type: research

Exposure, hazard, and vulnerability all contribute to < i > Schistosoma haematobium < /i > re-infection in northern Senegal
Conclusions/SignificanceOur findings underscore the linkages between social (exposure and vulnerability) and environmental (hazard) processes in the acquisition and accumulation ofS.haematobium infection. This approach highlights the importance of implementing both social and environmental interventions to complement mass drug administration. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Andrea J. Lund Source Type: research

Predictive markers for the early prognosis of dengue severity: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThe findings suggest that alterations of platelet count and AST level —in the first 72 hours of fever onset—are independent markers predicting the development of severe dengue. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tran Quang Thach Source Type: research

The invasive pathogen < i > Yersinia pestis < /i > disrupts host blood vasculature to spread and provoke hemorrhages
In this study, an innovative model ofin vivo infection was used to focus on the interaction betweenY.pestis and its host vascular system. In the draining lymph nodes and in secondary organs, bacteria provoked the porosity and disruption of blood vessels. Anin vitro model of endothelial barrier showed a role in this phenotype for the pYV/pCD1 plasmid that carries a Type Three Secretion System. This work supports that the pYV/pCD1 plasmid is responsible for the powerful tissue invasiveness capacity of the plague bacillus and the hemorrhagic features of plague. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Guillain Mikaty Source Type: research

Interaction of climate and socio-ecological environment drives the dengue outbreak in epidemic region of China
This study uses the geographical detector method to investigate the interactive effect of climate and socio-ecological factors on dengue incidence from two perspectives: ov er a long-time series and during outbreak periods; and surmised on the possibility of dengue outbreaks in the future. Results suggest that the temperature plays a dominant role in the long-time series of dengue transmission, while socio-ecological factors have great explanatory power for dengue outb reaks. The interactive effect of any two factors is greater than the impact of single factor on dengue transmission, and the interactions of pairs of climat...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chenlu Li Source Type: research

The extent of protective footwear use among school-age rural children at high risk for podoconiosis and socio-economic correlates: A household cross-sectional survey in Southern Ethiopia
This study is aimed at describing the extent of footwear use among school-age rural children susceptible to the disease and investigating associated socioeconomic factors. MethodsCross sectional surveys were conducted in 330 randomly selected households in Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. A household head and a child aged between 9 and 15 years were recruited from each household. Household heads provided socioeconomic data while children were asked about their footwear ownership and footwear use. ResultsNearly half (49.5%) of the children reported either walking barefoot or wearing under-protective footwear in a range of s...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abebayehu Tora Source Type: research

Serological response to nifurtimox in adult patients with chronic Chagas disease: An observational comparative study in Argentina
by David Vizcaya, Ulrike Grossmann, Frank Kleinjung, Ruiping Zhang, Kiliana Suzart-Woischnik, Sandra Seu, Teresa Ramirez, Leylen Colmegna, Oscar Ledesma Nifurtimox is indicated in Chagas disease but determining its effectiveness in chronic disease is hindered by the length of time needed to demonstrate negative serological conversion. We manually reviewed long-term follow-up data from hospital records of patients with chronic Chagas disease (N = 1 ,497) in Argentina diagnosed during 1967–1980. All patients were aged ≥18 years at diagnosis and were either treated with nifurtimox (n = 968) or received no antitrypan...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: David Vizcaya Source Type: research

Spatial metabolomics identifies localized chemical changes in heart tissue during chronic cardiac Chagas Disease
by Danya A. Dean, Gautham Gautham, Jair L. Siqueira-Neto, James H. McKerrow, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Laura-Isobel McCall Chagas disease (CD), caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, is one of nineteen neglected tropical diseases. CD is a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomines, but CD can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants,T.cruzi-contaminated food and drinks, and congenital transmission. While endemic to the Americas,T.cruzi infects 7 –8 million people worldwide and can induce severe cardiac symptoms including apical aneurysms, thromboembolisms and arrhythmias during the chroni...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Danya A. Dean Source Type: research

Efficacy of targeted indoor residual spraying with the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid-resistant < i > Aedes aegypti < /i >
ConclusionsChlorfenapyr represents a new option for TIRS control ofAe.aegypti in urban areas, providing a highly-effective time of protection against indoorAe.aegypti females of up to 7 months. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Azael Che-Mendoza Source Type: research

Species diversity and distribution of schistosome intermediate snail hosts in The Gambia
This study assessed the incidence, species diversity, distribution and infection status of schistosome intermediate snail hosts in the count ry. Malacological surveys were conducted in all 5 regions of The Gambia: Central River Region (CRR), Upper River Region (URR), Western Region (WR), Lower River Region (LRR) and North Bank Region (NBR). Sampling of snails was undertaken at 114 sites that included permanent water bodies such as stream s (bolongs), rice fields, irrigation canals and swamps; and temporal (seasonal) laterite pools. Ecological and physicochemical factors of sites were recorded. Snails were identified morpho...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ebrima Joof Source Type: research

Characterization of T cell responses to co-administered hookworm vaccine candidates Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 in healthy adults in Gabon
by Yoanne D. Mouwenda, Madeleine E. Betouke Ongwe, Friederike Sonnet, Koen A. Stam, Lucja A. Labuda, Sophie De Vries, Martin P. Grobusch, Frejus J. Zinsou, Yabo J. Honkpehedji, Jean-Claude Dejon Agobe, David J. Diemert, Remko van Leeuwen, Maria E. Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Peter G. Kremsner, Jeffrey M. Bethony, Simon P. Jochems, Ayola A. Adegnika, Marguerite Massinga Loembe, Maria Yazdanbakhsh Two hookworm vaccine candidates, Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, formulated with Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF) adjuvant, have been shown to be safe, well tolerated, and to induce antibody responses in a Phase 1 clinical trial (Clinicaltria...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 1, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yoanne D. Mouwenda Source Type: research

Prevalence and characteristics of malaria among COVID-19 individuals: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and analysis of case reports
ConclusionsAll individuals in malaria-endemic regions who are febrile or display symptoms of COVID-19 should be evaluated for malaria to avoid serious complications. Further prospective studies are required to investigate the burden and outcomes of COVID-19 in malaria-endemic regions. Prompt management is required to prevent serious outcomes in individuals co-infected with COVID-19 and malaria. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 1, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Polrat Wilairatana Source Type: research

Cross-sectional association of < i > Toxoplasma gondii < /i > exposure with BMI and diet in US adults
by Joel Cuffey, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Shuoli Zhao, Nicholas M. Fountain-JonesToxoplasmosis gondii exposure has been linked to increased impulsivity and risky behaviors, which has implications for eating behavior. Impulsivity and risk tolerance is known to be related with worse diets and a higher chance of obesity. There is little known, however, about the independent link betweenToxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) exposure and diet-related outcomes. Using linear and quantile regression, we estimated the relationship betweenT.gondii exposure and BMI, total energy intake (kcal), and diet quality as measured by the Health Eating I...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 1, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Joel Cuffey Source Type: research

Multiphase evaluation of portable medicines quality screening devices
by C éline Caillet, Serena Vickers, Stephen Zambrzycki, Nantasit Luangasanatip, Vayouly Vidhamaly, Kem Boutsamay, Phonepasith Boupha, Yoel Lubell, Facundo M. Fernández, Paul N. Newton (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C éline Caillet Source Type: research

Laboratory evaluation of twelve portable devices for medicine quality screening
ConclusionsThe twelve devices evaluated could detect medicines with the wrong or none of the APIs, consistent with falsified medicines, with high accuracy. However, API quantitation to detect formulations similar to those commonly found in substandards proved more difficult, requiring further technological innovation. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stephen C. Zambrzycki Source Type: research

Implementation of field detection devices for antimalarial quality screening in Lao PDR —A cost-effectiveness analysis
by Nantasit Luangasanatip, Panarasri Khonputsa, C éline Caillet, Serena Vickers, Stephen Zambrzycki, Facundo M. Fernández, Paul N. Newton, Yoel Lubell Substandard and falsified (SF) antimalarials have devastating consequences including increased morbidity, mortality and economic losses. Portable medicine quality screening devices are increasingly available, but whether their use for the detection of SF antimalarials is cost-effective is not know n. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of introducing such devices in post-market surveillance in pharmacies in Laos, conservatively focusing on their outcome in det...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nantasit Luangasanatip Source Type: research

A comparative field evaluation of six medicine quality screening devices in Laos
by C éline Caillet, Serena Vickers, Stephen Zambrzycki, Facundo M. Fernández, Vayouly Vidhamaly, Kem Boutsamay, Phonepasith Boupha, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Mavuto Mukaka, Paul N. Newton BackgroundMedicine quality screening devices hold great promise for post-market surveillance (PMS). However, there is little independent evidence on their field utility and usability to inform policy decisions. This pilot study in the Lao PDR tested six devices ’ utility and usability in detecting substandard and falsified (SF) medicines. Methodology/principal findingsObservational time and motion studies of the inspection...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: C éline Caillet Source Type: research

Scabies in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia: A narrative review
This article is a narrative review of scabies in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia, including clinical m anifestations of disease and current treatment options and guidelines. We discuss traditional approaches to prevention and control as well as suggestions for future interventions including revising Australian treatment guidelines to widen the use of oral ivermectin in high-risk groups or as a first- line treatment. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prudence Gramp Source Type: research

“ < i > We know about schistosomiasis but we know nothing about FGS < /i > ”: A qualitative assessment of knowledge gaps about female genital schistosomiasis among communities living in < i > Schistosoma haematobium < /i > endemic districts of Zanzibar and Northwestern Tanzania
Conclusion/SignificanceCommunity members living in two very different areas of Tanzania exhibited major, similar gaps in knowledge about FGS. Our data illustrate a critical need for the national control program to integrate public health education about FGS during the implementation of school- and community-based mass drug administration (MDA) and with improvement of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Humphrey D. Mazigo Source Type: research

Clinical profile and mortality in patients with < i > T < /i > . < i > cruzi < /i > /HIV co-infection from the multicenter data base of the “Network for healthcare and study of < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > /HIV co-infection and other immunosuppression conditions ”
by Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Christina Terra Gallafrio Novaes, Andr éa Silvestre de Sousa, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Rodrigo Carvalho Santana, Dalmo Correia, Cleudson Nery de Castro, Marilia Maria dos Santos Severo, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Marisa Liliana Fernandez, Fernando Salvador, Maria Jesús Pinazo, Valdes Roberto Bolella, Pedro Carvalho Furtad o, Marcelo Corti, Ana Yecê Neves Pinto, Alberto Fica, Israel Molina, Joaquim Gascon, Pedro Albajar Viñas, Juan Cortez-Escalante, Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr, Eros Antonio de Almeida ObjectiveChagas diseas...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda Source Type: research

Hypoxic and nitrosative stress conditions modulate expression of myoglobin genes in a carcinogenic hepatobiliary trematode, < i > Clonorchis sinensis < /i >
In this study, the structural and expressional features of globin genes ident ified inClonorchis sinensis, a carcinogenic trematode parasite that invades the hypoxic biliary tracts of mammalian hosts, were investigated to gain insight into the molecules that enable oxygen metabolism. The number of globin paralogs substantially differed among parasitic platyhelminths, ranging from one to five genes, andthe C.sinensis genome encoded at least five globin genes. The expression of theseClonorchis genes, namedCsMb (CsMb1 —CsMb3),CsNgb, andCsGbX, according to their preferential similarity patterns toward respective globin s...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Seon-Hee Kim Source Type: research

The impact of mating and sugar feeding on blood-feeding physiology and behavior in the arbovirus vector mosquito < i > Aedes aegypti < /i >
Conclusions/SignificanceMating, MAG, and sugar feeding impact a mosquito ’s estimated ability to transmit pathogens through both direct and indirect effects on multiple aspects of mosquito biology. Our results highlight the need to consider natural mosquito ecology, including diet, when assessing their physiology and behavior in the laboratory. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 30, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Garrett P. League Source Type: research

Prevalence of diarrhoeal pathogens among children under five years of age with and without diarrhoea in Guinea-Bissau
by Sointu Mero, Suvi Timonen, Tinja L ääveri, Sandra Løfberg, Juha Kirveskari, Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Anu Kantele BackgroundChildhood diarrhoea, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income regions, remains scarcely studied in many countries, such as Guinea-Bissau. Stool sample drying enables later qPCR analyses of pathogens without concern about electricity shortages. MethodsDried stool samples of children under five years treated at the Bandim Health Centre in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau were screened by qPCR for nine enteric bacteria, five viruses, and four parasites. The findin...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sointu Mero Source Type: research

Role of T cells during the cerebral infection with < i > Trypanosoma brucei < /i >
by Gabriela C. Olivera, Leonie Vetter, Chiara Tesoriero, Federico Del Gallo, Gustav Hedberg, Juan Basile, Martin E. Rottenberg The infection byTrypanosoma brucei brucei (T.b.b.), a protozoan parasite, is characterized by an early-systemic stage followed by a late stage in which parasites invade the brain parenchyma in a T cell-dependent manner. Here we found that early after infection effector-memory T cells were predominant among brain T cells, whereas, during the encephalitic stage T cells acquired a tissue resident memory phenotype (TRM) and expressed PD1. Both CD4 and CD8 T cells were independently redundant for the ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gabriela C. Olivera Source Type: research

Multiple vector-borne pathogens of domestic animals in Egypt
by Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Nadia Amanzougaghene, Handi Dahmana, Meriem Louni, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) are considered emerging and re-emerging diseases that represent a global burden. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize vector-borne pathogens in different domestic animal hosts in Egypt. A total of 557 blood samples were collected from different animals using a convenience sampling strategy (203 dogs, 149 camels, 88 cattle, 26 buffaloes, 58 sheep and 33 goats). All samples were tested for multiple pathogens using quantitative PCR and standard PCR coupled with sequencing...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hend H. A. M. Abdullah Source Type: research

Autoimmunity to phosphatidylserine and anemia in African Trypanosome infections
by Juan Rivera-Correa, Joseph Verdi, Julian Sherman, Jeremy M. Sternberg, Jayne Raper, Ana Rodriguez Anemia caused by trypanosome infection is poorly understood. Autoimmunity duringTrypanosoma brucei infection was proposed to have a role during anemia, but the mechanisms involved during this pathology have not been elucidated. In mouse models and human patients infected with malaria parasites, atypical B-cells promote anemia through the secretion of autoimmune anti-phosphatidylserine (anti-PS) antibodies that bind to uninfected erythrocytes and facilitate their clearance. Using mouse models of two trypanosome infections,T...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Juan Rivera-Correa Source Type: research

Mining nematode protein secretomes to explain lifestyle and host specificity
by Lucienne Tritten, Cristina Ballesteros, Robin Beech, Timothy G. Geary, Yovany Moreno Parasitic nematodes are highly successful pathogens, inflicting disease on humans, animals and plants. Despite great differences in their life cycles, host preference and transmission modes, these parasites share a common capacity to manipulate their host’s immune system. This is at least partly achieved through the release of excretory/secretory proteins, the most well-characterized component of nematode secretomes, that are comprised of functionally diverse molecules. In this work, we analyzed published protein secretomes of pa...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 29, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lucienne Tritten Source Type: research