Effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved complementary feeding on environmental enteric dysfunction in children in rural Zimbabwe: A  cluster-randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsOverall, we observed dynamic trends in EED but few effects of IYCF or WASH on biomarkers during the first 18 months after birth, suggesting that these interventions did not impact EED. Transformative WASH interventions are required to prevent or ameliorate EED in low-income settings. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ethan K. Gough Source Type: research

Severity Index for Suspected Arbovirus (SISA): Machine learning for accurate prediction of hospitalization in subjects suspected of arboviral infection
Conclusions/SignificanceBoth SISA and SISAL were able to predict arbovirus hospitalization with a high degree of accuracy in our dataset. These algorithms will need to be tested and validated on new data from future patients. Machine learning is a powerful prediction tool and provides an excellent option for new management tools and clinical assessment of arboviral infection. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rachel Sippy Source Type: research

A realistic two-strain model for MERS-CoV infection uncovers the high risk for epidemic propagation
by Tridip Sardar, Indrajit Ghosh, Xavier Rod ó, Joydev Chattopadhyay Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory illness with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 35,5%. The highest number of MERS-CoV cases are from Saudi-Arabia, the major worldwide hotspot for this disease. In the absence of neither effective treatment nor a re ady-to-use vaccine and with yet an incomplete understanding of its epidemiological cycle, prevention and containment measures can be derived from mathematical models of disease epidemiology. We constructed 2-strain models to predict past outbreaks in the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tridip Sardar Source Type: research

Rabies virus-neutralising antibodies in healthy, unvaccinated individuals: What do they mean for rabies epidemiology?
by Susannah Gold, Christl A. Donnelly, Pierre Nouvellet, Rosie Woodroffe Rabies has been a widely feared disease for thousands of years, with records of rabid dogs as early as ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian texts. The reputation of rabies as being inevitably fatal, together with its ability to affect all mammalian species, contributes to the fear surrounding this di sease. However, the widely held view that exposure to the rabies virus is always fatal has been repeatedly challenged. Although survival following clinical infection in humans has only been recorded on a handful of occasions, a number of studies have report...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Susannah Gold Source Type: research

Protective immunity elicited by the nematode-conserved As37 recombinant protein against < i > Ascaris suum < /i > infection
Conclusions/SignificanceAs37 is anA.suum expressed immunodominant antigen that elicited significant protective immunity in mice when formulated with AddaVax™. As37 is highly conserved in other STHs, but not in humans, suggesting it could be further developed as a pan-helminth vaccine against STH co-infections. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Leroy Versteeg Source Type: research

Time-resolved proteomic profile of < i > Amblyomma americanum < /i > tick saliva during feeding
We describe a systems biology approach to identify, by LC-MS/MS, saliva proteins (tick = 1182, rabbit = 335) thatA.americanum ticks likely inject into the host every 24 h during the first 8 days of feeding, and towards the end of feeding. Searching against entries in GenBank grouped tick and rabbit proteins into 27 and 25 functional categories. Aside from housekeeping-like proteins, majority of tick saliva proteins belong to the tick-specific (no homology to non-tick organisms: 32%), protease inhibitors (13%), proteases (8%), glycine-rich proteins (6%) and lipocalins (4%) categories. Global secretion dynamics analysis sugg...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tae Kwon Kim Source Type: research

A high infectious simian adenovirus type 23 vector based vaccine efficiently protects common marmosets against Zika virus infection
by Shengxue Luo, Wei Zhao, Xiaorui Ma, Panli Zhang, Bochao Liu, Ling Zhang, Wenjing Wang, Yuanzhan Wang, Yongshui Fu, Jean-Pierre Allain, Tingting Li, Chengyao Li Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in many countries or territories causing severe neurologic complications with potential fatal outcomes. The small primate common marmosets are susceptible to ZIKV, mimicking key features of human infection. Here, a novel simian adenovirus type 23 vector-based vaccine e xpressing ZIKV pre-membrane-envelope proteins (Sad23L-prM-E) was produced in high infectious titer. Due to determination of immunogenicity in mice, a single-dose of 3&...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shengxue Luo Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of genetic markers and nucleic acid techniques for the detection of < i > Leptospira < /i > in clinical samples: A meta-analysis
ConclusionThe diagnostic accuracies of the studies examined for each genetic marker showed a significant heterogeneity. ThesecY gene exhibited higher diagnostic accuracy measures compared with other genetic markers, such aslipL32,flaB, andrrs, but the difference was not significant. Thus, these genetic markers had no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for leptospirosis. Further research into these genetic markers is warranted. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jia-Yong Lam Source Type: research

Risk map development for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Argentina
Conclusions/SignificanceThe predicted map should serve as a useful tool for guiding the identification of survey areas for the generation of baseline data, detecting hotspots of infection, planning and prioritizing areas for control interventions, and eventually performing post-implementation surveillance activities. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Eliana M. Alvarez Di Fino Source Type: research

An inter-laboratory trial as a tool to increase  rabies diagnostic capabilities of Sub-Saharan African Veterinary laboratories
by Morgane Gourlaouen, Ang élique Angot, Marzia Mancin, Charles Bebay, Baba Soumaré, Francesca Ellero, Barbara Zecchin, Stefania Leopardi, Cristian De Battisti, Calogero Terregino, Paola De Benedictis To achieve the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030, many African countries have agreed to list rabies as a priority zoonotic disease and to undertake both short and long-term control programs. Within this context, reliable local diagnosis is essential for the success of fi eld surveillance systems. However, a harmonized, sustainable and supportive diagnostic offer has yet to be achieved...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Morgane Gourlaouen Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of local necrosis induced by < i > Naja atra < /i > venom: Assessment of the neutralization ability of Taiwanese freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom in animal models
by Chien-Chun Liu, Yu-Shao Chou, Chun-Yu Chen, Kuei-Lin Liu, Guo-Jen Huang, Jau-Song Yu, Cho-Ju Wu, Geng-Wang Liaw, Cheng-Hsien Hsieh, Chun-Kuei ChenNaja atra envenomation is one of the most significant clinical snakebite concerns in Taiwan. Taiwanese freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV) is currently used clinically for the treatment of cobra snakebite, and has been shown to limit the mortality of cobra envenomation to less than 1%. However, more than half of victims (60%) require surgery because of local tissue necrosis, a major problem in patients with cobra envenomation. Although the importance of evaluating the neu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chien-Chun Liu Source Type: research

Exposure of < i > Anopheles < /i >  mosquitoes to trypanosomes reduces reproductive fitness and enhances susceptibility to < i > Plasmodium < /i >
by Constentin Dieme, Natalia Marta Zmarlak, Emma Brito-Fravallo, Christelle Travaill é, Adrien Pain, Floriane Cherrier, Corinne Genève, Estefania Calvo-Alvarez, Michelle M. Riehle, Kenneth D. Vernick, Brice Rotureau, Christian Mitri During a blood meal, femaleAnopheles mosquitoes are potentially exposed to diverse microbes in addition to the malaria parasite,Plasmodium. Human and animal African trypanosomiases are frequently co-endemic with malaria in Africa. It is not known whether exposure ofAnopheles to trypanosomes influences their fitness or ability to transmitPlasmodium. Using cell and molecular biolog...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Constentin Dieme Source Type: research

The Galabat-Metema cross-border onchocerciasis focus: The first coordinated interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Africa
by Moses N. Katabarwa, Isam M. A. Zarroug, Nebiyu Negussu, Nabil M. Aziz, Zerihun Tadesse, Wigdan A. Elmubark, Zainab Shumo, Kadu Meribo, Hashim Kamal, Aderajew Mohammed, Yewondwossen Bitew, Tewodros Seid, Firdaweke Bekele, Abebual Yilak, Tekola Endeshaw, Mohammed Hassen, Abate Tillahun, Fikresilasie Samuel, Henok Birhanu, Tadesse Asmare, Daniel Boakye, Sindew M. Feleke, Thomas Unnasch, Rory Post, Tarig Higazi, Emily Griswold, Charles Mackenzie, Frank Richards BackgroundOnchocerciasis transmission across international borders is not uncommon, yet a coordinated cross border stops mass drug administration (MDA) decision has ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Moses N. Katabarwa Source Type: research

Role of DNA-detection –based tools for monitoring the soil-transmitted helminth treatment response in drug-efficacy trials
by Javier Gandasegui, Mar ía Martínez-Valladares, Berta Grau-Pujol, Alejandro J. Krolewiecki, Rafael Balaña-Fouce, Woyneshet Gelaye, Lisette van Lieshout, Stella Kepha, Inácio Mandomando, José Muñoz, on behalf of the Stopping Transmission Of intestinal Parasites (STOP) project consortium (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Javier Gandasegui Source Type: research

Iron trafficking in patients with Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis
Conclusions/SignificanceIn monocytes/macrophages of PKDL cases, enhancement of the iron influx gateways (TfR, CD163, DMT-1 and Lcn-2) possibly accounted for the enhanced LIP. However, enhancement of the iron exporters (NRAMP-1 and Fpn-1) defied the classical Ferritinlow/Ferroportinhigh phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. The creation of such a pro-parasitic environment suggests incorporation of chemotherapeutic strategies wherein the availability of iron to the parasite can be restricted. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aishwarya Dighal Source Type: research

Genetic variation  in < i > Interleukin-32 < /i >  influence the immune response against New World < i > Leishmania < /i > species and susceptibility to American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis
by J éssica Cristina dos Santos, Valéria Bernadete Leite Quixabeira, Muriel Vilela Teodoro Silva, Michelle S. M. A. Damen, Kiki Schraa, Martin Jaeger, Marije Oosting, Samuel T. Keating, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Sebastião Alves Pinto, Fernanda Bugalho Duarte, Ledice Inácia de Araújo Pereira, Mihai G. Ne tea, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Leo A. B. Joosten Interleukin-32 is a novel inflammatory mediator that has been described to be important in the immunopathogenesis and control of infections caused byLeishmania parasites. By performing experiments with primary human cellsin vitro, we demonstr...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: J éssica Cristina dos Santos Source Type: research

“ < i > Buruli ulcer and leprosy < /i > , < i > they are intertwined < /i > ”: Patient experiences of integrated case management of skin neglected tropical diseases in Liberia
by Mateo Prochazka, Joseph Timothy, Rachel Pullan, Karsor Kollie, Emerson Rogers, Abednego Wright, Jennifer Palmer BackgroundSkin neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) such as Buruli ulcer (BU) and leprosy produce significant stigma and disability. Shared clinical presentations and needs for care present opportunities for integrated case management in co-endemic areas. As global policies are translated into local integrated services, there remains a need to monitor what new configurations of care emerge and how individuals experience them. MethodsTo explore patient experiences of integrated case management for skin NTDs, in 2...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mateo Prochazka Source Type: research

Impact of flavivirus vaccine-induced immunity on primary Zika virus antibody response in humans
ConclusionsOur data point to an important role of flavivirus-specific IgM during the transient early stages of infection, by contributing substantially to neutralization and by counteracting ADE. In addition, our results highlight structural differences between strains of Zika and dengue viruses that are used for analyzing infection-enhancement by cross-reactive antibodies. These findings underscore the possible impact of specific antibody patterns on flavivirus disease and vaccination efficacy. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stefan Malafa Source Type: research

< i > Aedes < /i > cadherin receptor that mediates < i > Bacillus thuringiensis < /i > Cry11A toxicity is essential for mosquito development
In this study, we modified the cadherin gene using ZFN and TALEN. Even though we obtained heterozygous deletions, no homozygous mutants were viable. Because ZFN and TALEN have lower off-targets than CRISPR/Cas9, we conclude the cadherin gene is essential forAedes development. In contrast, in lepidopteran insects loss of a homologous cadherin does not appear to be lethal, since homozygous mutants are viable. To analyze the role of AaeCad in vivo, we tagged this protein with EGFP using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated homologous recombination and obtained a homozygous AaeCad-EGFP line. Addition ofAedes Rad51 mRNA enhanced the rate of re...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jianwu Chen Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) in India, 2016-18, based on data from sentinel surveillance
Conclusions/SignificanceAbout one fifth suspected CRS patients were laboratory confirmed, indicating significance of rubella as a persistent public health problem in India. Continued surveillance will generate data to monitor the progress made by the rubella control program in the country. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Manoj Murhekar Source Type: research

Evidence of hybridization, mitochondrial introgression and biparental inheritance of the kDNA minicircles in < i > Trypanosoma cruzi I < /i >
Conclusions/significanceThe results suggest a reductive division, a natural hybridization, biparental inheritance of the minicircles in the hybrid and maxicircle introgression. The models including such phenomena and explaining the relationships between these three clones are discussed. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fanny Rusman Source Type: research

High cholera vaccination coverage following emergency campaign in Haiti: Results from a cluster survey in three rural Communes in the South Department, 2017
by Ashley Sharp, Alexandre Blake, J érôme Backx, Isabella Panunzi, Robert Barrais, Fabienne Nackers, Francisco Luquero, Yves Gaston Deslouches, Sandra Cohuet Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has increasingly been used as an outbreak control measure, but vaccine shortages limit its application. A two-dose OCV campaign targeting residents aged over 1 year was launched in three rural Communes of Southern Haiti during an outbreak following Hurricane Matthew in O ctober 2016. Door-to-door and fixed-site strategies were employed and mobile teams delivered vaccines to hard-to-reach communities. This was the first campaign...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ashley Sharp Source Type: research

Severe < i > Strongyloides stercoralis < /i > infection in kidney transplant recipients: A multicenter case-control study
Conclusions/SignificanceSevereS.stercoralis infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation. In endemic areas, such infection may occur late after transplantation, although it seems to be more severe when it occurs earlier after transplantation. Specific risk factors and clinical manifestations can identify patients at risk, who should receive prophylaxis or early treatment. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: L ísia Miglioli-Galvão Source Type: research

Reassessing therapeutic antibodies for neglected and tropical diseases
by Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Somei Kojima, Dee Carter, Hisafumi Okabe, Akihide Sato, Wataru Akahata, Timothy N. C. Wells, Kei Katsuno In the past two decades there has been a significant expansion in the number of new therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are approved by regulators. The discovery of these new medicines has been driven primarily by new approaches in inflammatory diseases and oncology, especially in immuno -oncology. Other recent successes have included new antibodies for use in viral diseases, including HIV. The perception of very high costs associated with mAbs has led to the assumption that the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen Source Type: research

Ruling out early trimester pregnancy when implementing community-based deworming programs
Conclusions/SignificanceTo identify women in early pregnancy when deworming programs are community-based, both the number and order of questions are important. The local context and cultural acceptability of different questions should inform this decision. When numbers are manageable and resources are available, pregnancy tests can be considered at different decision tree nodes to confirm pregnancy status. Trade-offs in terms of efficiency and misclassification rates will need to be considered to optimize deworming coverage in women of reproductive age. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kariane St-Denis Source Type: research

Determinants of intentions to prevent triatomine infestation based on the health belief model: An application in rural southern Ecuador
ConclusionThe findings supported the HBM as a way to predict intentions to prevent infestation of the home by triatomine bugs. The findings highlight that messages emphasizing self-efficacy in participating in surveillance systems and overcoming barriers to small-scale action that reduce likelihood of infestation, rather than a focus on risk, should be central messages when designing and implementing educational interventions for CD. The gap between behavioral intention and actual infestation reveals the need to assess home practices and their actual efficacy to fully enact and apply the HBM. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Benjamin R. Bates Source Type: research

What constitutes a neglected tropical disease?
by Peter J. Hotez, Serap Aksoy, Paul J. Brindley, Shaden Kamhawi The World Health Organization (WHO) currently classifies 20 diseases and conditions as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, since its inception in 2007,PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases has considered an expanded list that includes additional diseases with the chronic and/or debilitating, and poverty-promoting features of NTDs. Described here is an update of our current scope, which attempts to embrace all of the NTDs, and a discussion of the status of some of the more debated medical conditions in terms of whether or not they constitute an NTD. (Sour...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Peter J. Hotez Source Type: research

Post-elimination surveillance in formerly onchocerciasis endemic focus in Southern Mexico
Conclusions/SignificanceThese provide support to the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from Mexico. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nadia A. Fern ández-Santos Source Type: research

The detection of anti-dengue virus IgM in urine in participants enrolled in an acute febrile illness study in Puerto Rico
ConclusionWhile detection of urine anti-DENV IgM lacked adequate diagnostic sensitivity, it is a highly specific marker for laboratory-positive dengue, and its presence early in the clinical course may distinguish those with more severe disease. Further assessment of urine anti-DENV IgM by DPO is warranted to determine its utility as an early diagnostic (and possibly prognostic) marker for dengue. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elba Caraballo Source Type: research

Male predominance in reported Visceral Leishmaniasis cases: Nature or nurture? A comparison of population-based with health facility-reported data
Conclusions/SignificanceOur population-based data show that male sex is a risk factor for VL, and not only as a socio-cultural determinant. Biological sex-related differences likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kristien Cloots Source Type: research

World neglected tropical diseases day
by Peter J. Hotez, Serap Aksoy, Paul J. Brindley, Shaden Kamhawi January 30, 2020 is the first-ever World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day (World NTD Day), a day when we celebrate the achievements made towards control of the world’s NTDs, yet recognize the daunting challenges we face in the control and elimination of these conditions. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Peter J. Hotez Source Type: research

Comparative specificity and sensitivity of NS1-based serological assays for the detection of flavivirus immune response
by Erick Mora-C árdenas, Chiara Aloise, Valentina Faoro, Nataša Knap Gašper, Miša Korva, Ilaria Caracciolo, Pierlanfranco D’Agaro, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, Alessandro Marcello Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens of increasing importance worldwide. The similarities of the initial clinical symptoms and the serological cross-reactivity of viral structural antigens make a laboratory diagnosis of flavivirus infection problematic. The main aim of the present study was the comparative specificity and sensitivity analysis of the non-structural protein NS1 as an antigen to d...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Erick Mora-C árdenas Source Type: research

< i > In vivo < /i > efficacy of the boron-pleuromutilin AN11251 against < i > Wolbachia < /i > of the rodent filarial nematode < i > Litomosoides sigmodontis < /i >
by Alexandra Ehrens, Christopher S. Lunde, Robert T. Jacobs, Dominique Struever, Marianne Koschel, Stefan J. Frohberger, Franziska Lenz, Martina Fendler, Joseph D. Turner, Stephen A. Ward, Mark J. Taylor, Yvonne R. Freund, Rianna Stefanakis, Eric Easom, Xianfeng Li, Jacob J. Plattner, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P. H übner The elimination of filarial diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis is hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal–adult worm killing–drug. In the present study, we tested thein vivo efficacy of AN11251, a boron-pleuromutilin that targets endosymbioticWolbachia bacteria from fil...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alexandra Ehrens Source Type: research

Silencing of RpATG8 impairs the biogenesis of maternal autophagosomes in vitellogenic oocytes, but does not interrupt follicular atresia in the insect vector < i > Rhodnius prolixus < /i >
by J éssica Pereira, Calebe Diogo, Ariene Fonseca, Larissa Bomfim, Pedro Cardoso, Anna Santos, Uilla Dittz, Kildare Miranda, Wanderley de Souza, Adriana Gioda, Enrique R. D. Calderon, Luciana Araripe, Rafaela Bruno, Isabela Ramos Follicular atresia is the mechanism by which the oocyte contents are degraded during oogenesis in response to stress conditions, allowing the energetic resources stored in the developing oocytes to be reallocated to optimize female fitness. Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation pathwa y where double-membrane vesicles are formed around target organelles leading to their degrada...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: J éssica Pereira Source Type: research

Prescription of concomitant medications in patients treated with Nifurtimox Eflornithine Combination Therapy (NECT) for < i > T < /i > . < i > b < /i > . < i > gambiense < /i > second stage sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Conclusions/SignificanceThe prescription of concomitant treatments was coherent with the clinical and safety profile of the patients. However, some prescription habits would need to be adapted in the future to the evolving available pharmacopoeia. A list of minimal essential medication that should be available at no cost to patients in treatment wards is proposed to help the different actors to plan, manage, and adequately fund drug supplies for advanced HAT infected patients. Trial registration numberThe initial study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00906880. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Andrea Kuemmerle Source Type: research

< i > Anisakis < /i >  Sensitization in the Croatian Fish Processing Workers: Behavioral Instead of Occupational Risk Factors?
by Ana Jeron čić, Diana Nonković, Anamarija Vrbatović, Jerko Hrabar, Ivana Bušelić, Victoria Martínez-Sernández, Santiago A. Lojo Rocamonde, Florencio M. Ubeira, Sonja Jaman, Esma Čečuk Jeličić, Marco Amati, Maria Angeles Gomez Morales, Boris Lukšić, Ivona Mladineo We undertook the first study systematically evaluating the risk ofAnisakis-sensitization in Croatian fish-processing workers and potential genetic susceptibility to anisakiasis. Anti-Anisakis IgE seroprevalence and risk factors for 600 employees of Croatian fish processing facilities and 466 blood donor controls, were asses...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ana Jeron čić Source Type: research

Molecular xenomonitoring as a post-MDA surveillance tool for global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: Field validation in an evaluation unit in India
This study validates a standard protocol for molecular xenomonitoring of infection in vectors (MX) at an EU as a complem entary tool for TAS to stop MDA and its utility for post-MDA or post-validation surveillance. MethodologyThe study was conducted in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India, which was found eligible for TAS after 15 annual rounds of MDA (4 with DEC alone and 11 with DEC plus albendazole). The district was divided into two EUs as per the TAS protocol and one EU was randomly selected for the study. A two-stage cluster design vector sampling, developed and validated at a sub-district level, was implemented in ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Swaminathan Subramanian Source Type: research

Outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis in pregnancy: A  retrospective cohort study from South Sudan
ConclusionThis is the largest cohort in the literature of VL in pregnancy. Our data suggest that good maternal survival rates are possible in resource-limited settings, despite the high incidence of complications. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Judith E. Pekelharing Source Type: research

Plasma metabolomics of the time resolved response to < i > Opisthorchis felineus < /i > infection in an animal model (golden hamster, < i > Mesocricetus auratus < /i > )
ConclusionsThe time resolved metabolic signature ofOpisthorchis infection in the hamster ’s plasma shows a coherent shift in amino acids and lipid metabolism. Our work provides insight into the metabolic basis of the host response on the helminth infection. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Daria Kokova Source Type: research

< i > Burkholderia pseudomallei < /i > invades the olfactory nerve and bulb after epithelial injury in mice and causes the formation of multinucleated giant glial cells < i > in vitro < /i >
by Heidi Walkden, Ali Delbaz, Lynn Nazareth, Michael Batzloff, Todd Shelper, Ifor R. Beacham, Anu Chacko, Megha Shah, Kenneth W. Beagley, Johana Tello Velasquez, James A. St John, Jenny A. K. Ekberg The infectious disease melioidosis is caused by the bacteriumBurkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is characterised by high mortality and morbidity and can involve the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously discovered thatB.pseudomallei can infect the CNS via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves in mice. We have shown that the nerve path is dependent on mouse strain, with outbred mice showing resistance to olfactory ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Heidi Walkden Source Type: research

Identification of trombiculid mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) on rodents from Chilo é Island and molecular evidence of infection with < i > Orientia < /i > species
Conclusions/SignificanceThis study firstly reports the presence of different rodent-associated chigger mites positive forOrientia sp., in a region endemic for scrub typhus in southern Chile.Herpetacarus and two other genera of mites were found with high infestation rates of rodents in sites previously identified as probable exposure of scrub typhus cases. A substantial percentage of mite pools were positive forOrientia DNA, suggesting that chigger mites serve as vectors and reservoirs of this emerging zoonosis in South America. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gerardo Acosta-Jamett Source Type: research

Heatwaves cause fluctuations in < i > w < /i > Mel < i > Wolbachia < /i > densities and frequencies in < i > Aedes aegypti < /i >
by Perran A. Ross, Jason K. Axford, Qiong Yang, Kyran M. Staunton, Scott A. Ritchie, Kelly M. Richardson, Ary A. HoffmannAedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with thewMel strain ofWolbachia are being released into natural mosquito populations in the tropics as a way of reducing dengue transmission. High temperatures adversely affectwMel, reducingWolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in some larval habitats that experience large temperature fluctuations. We monitored the impact of a 43.6 °C heatwave on thewMel infection in a natural population in Cairns, Australia, wherewMel was first released in 2011 and has p...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Perran A. Ross Source Type: research

Language and beliefs in relation to noma: a qualitative study, northwest Nigeria
ConclusionsCaretaker and practitioner perspectives enhance our understanding of the disease in this context and can be usedto improve treatment and prevention programs, and to better understand barriers to accessing health care. Differences in disease naming illustrate the difference in beliefs about the disease. This has an impact on health seeking behaviours, which for noma cases has important ramifications on outcomes, due to the rapid progression of the disease. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elise Farley Source Type: research

Implementation of a mass canine rabies vaccination campaign in both rural and urban regions in southern Malawi
This study describes a mass canine vaccination campaign covering rural and urban regions in southern Malawi. The campaign achieved an average vaccination coverage of 83.4% across 3 districts, and vaccinated over 89,000 dogs through a combi ned static point and door-to-door effort. A dog population of 107,574 dogs was estimated (dog:human ratio of 1:23). The canine population was found to be almost completely owned (99.2%) and mostly kept for security purposes (82.7%). The dogs were mainly adults, males, and not neutered. Regression an alysis identified education level and proportion of young dogs as the only factors influe...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carlos S ánchez-Soriano Source Type: research

Hyperendemic < i > Chlamydia trachomatis < /i > sexually transmitted infections among females represent a high burden of asymptomatic disease and health disparity among Pacific Islanders in Fiji
ConclusionsA disproportionately high burden ofC.trachomatis is present among young asymptomatic women in Fiji of iTaukei ethnicity despite the low number of lifetime partners. Syndromic management and lack of barrier contraceptives contribute to hyperendemic levels. Strategic STI education and screening of at-risk adolescents, young women, and their partner(s) with appropriate treatment are urgently needed to control the epidemic. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Virginia Svigals Source Type: research

Crystal violet structural analogues identified by in < i > silico < /i > drug repositioning present anti- < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > activity through inhibition of proline transporter TcAAAP069
Conclusions/SignificanceLoratadine, cyproheptadine and clofazimine inhibit TcAAAP069 proline transporter and also present trypanocidal effect against allT.cruzi life stages in strains from three different DTUs. These CV structural analogues could be a starting point to design therapeutic alternatives to treat Chagas disease by finding new indications for old drugs. This approach, called drug repurposing is a recommended strategy by the World Health Organization to treat neglected diseases, like Chagas disease, and combination therapy may improve the possibility of success of repositioned drugs. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Melisa Say é Source Type: research

Invasive plants facilitated by socioeconomic change harbor vectors of scrub typhus and spotted fever
Conclusions/SignificanceThis study highlights an important but largely neglected issue that socioeconomic change can have unexpected consequences for human health induced particularly by invasive plants, which could become a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases but usually are very hard to be eradicated. In the future, a more comprehensive approach that integrates socio-economics, land use, exotic species, and human health should be considered to fully understand potential emergence of vector-borne diseases. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chen-Yu Wei Source Type: research

Hepatitis E as a cause of adult hospitalization in Bangladesh: Results from an acute jaundice surveillance study in six tertiary hospitals, 2014-2017
This study confirms that hepatitis E is the leading cause of acute jaundice, leads to hospitalizations in all regions in Bangladesh, occurs throughout the year, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortal ity. Effective control measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HEV infections including improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and the introduction of HEV vaccine to high-risk groups. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Repon C. Paul Source Type: research

Rural populations exposed to Ebola Virus Disease respond positively to localised case handling: Evidence from Sierra Leone
by Esther Yei Mokuwa, Harro Maat At the height of the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in November 2014, a new decentralized approach to ending infection chains was adopted. This approach was based on building local, small-scale Community Care Centres (CCC) intended to serve as triage units for safe handling of patients waiting for test results, with subsequent transfer to Ebola Treatment Centers (ETC) for those who tested positive for Ebola. This paper deals with local response to the CCC, and explains, through qualitative analysis of focus group data sets, why this development was seen, locally, in a positive light. The r...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Esther Yei Mokuwa Source Type: research

Oropouche virus cases identified in Ecuador using an optimised qRT-PCR informed by metagenomic sequencing
We report the optimisation of an qRT-PCR assay for the Ecuadorian OROV lineage, which subsequently identified a further five cases in a cohort of 196 febrile patients. We isolated OROV via cell culture and developed an algorithmically-de signed primer set for whole-genome amplification of the virus. Metagenomic sequencing of the patient samples provided OROV genome coverage ranging from 68–99%. The additional cases formed a single phylogenetic cluster together with the initial case. OROV should be considered as a differential diag nosis for Ecuadorian patients with febrile illness to avoid mis-diagnosis with other ci...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Emma L. Wise Source Type: research