Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Oman
by Seif S. Al-Abri, Roger Hewson, Hanan Al-Kindi, Idris Al-Abaidani, Amina Al-Jardani, Amal Al-Maani, Samira Almahrouqi, Barry Atkinson, Adil Al-Wahaibi, Bader Al-Rawahi, Shyam Bawikar, Nicholas J. Beeching BackgroundCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a serious disease with a high fatality rate reported in many countries. The first case of CCHF in Oman was detected in 1995 and serosurveys have suggested widespread infection of humans and livestock throughout the country. MethodologyCases of CCHF reported to the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Oman between 1995 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confir...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Seif S. Al-Abri Source Type: research

Application of a targeted-enrichment methodology for full-genome sequencing of Dengue 1-4, Chikungunya and Zika viruses directly from patient samples
In this study, we present a targeted-enrichment methodology to simultaneously sequence the complete viral genomes for each of these viruses directly from clinical samples. Additionally, we have also developed a customized computational tool (BaitMaker) to design these enrichment baits. This methodology is robust in its ability to capture diverse sequences and is amenable to large-scale epidemiological studies. We have applied this methodology to two large cohorts: a febrile study based in Colombo, Sri Lanka taken during the 2009 –2015 dengue epidemic (n = 170) and another taken during the 2016 outbreak of Zika virus ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Uma Sangumathi Kamaraj Source Type: research

Sustainable innovation in vector control requires strong partnerships with communities
by Frederic Bartumeus, Guilherme B. Costa, Roger Eritja, Ann H. Kelly, Marceline Finda, Javier Lezaun, Fredros Okumu, M. Megan Quinlan, Delphine C. Thizy, L éa Paré Toé, Megan Vaughan (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Frederic Bartumeus Source Type: research

Human liver flukes in China and ASEAN: Time to fight together
by Men-Bao Qian, Xiao-Nong Zhou (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Men-Bao Qian Source Type: research

Knowledge engagement in gene drive research for malaria control
by Sarah Hartley, Delphine Thizy, Katie Ledingham, Mamadou Coulibaly, Abdoulaye Diabat é, Bakara Dicko, Samba Diop, Jonathan Kayondo, Annet Namukwaya, Barry Nourou, Léa Paré Toé (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sarah Hartley Source Type: research

Trends in dengue research in the Philippines: A systematic review
by Kristal An Agrupis, Michelle Ylade, Josephine Aldaba, Anna Lena Lopez, Jacqueline Deen Dengue is an important public health problem in the Philippines. We sought to describe the trends in dengue research in the country. We searched four databases and identified published studies on dengue research in the Philippines during the past 60 years. We reviewed 135 eligible studies, of whic h 33% were descriptive epidemiologic studies or case series, 16% were entomologic or vector control studies, 12% were studies on dengue virology and serologic response, 10% were socio-behavioral and economics studies, 8% were clinical trial...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kristal An Agrupis Source Type: research

Guidance on stakeholder engagement practices to inform the development of area-wide vector control methods
by Delphine Thizy, Claudia Emerson, Johanna Gibbs, Sarah Hartley, Lydia Kapiriri, James Lavery, Jeantine Lunshof, Janine Ramsey, Julie Shapiro, Jerome Amir Singh, Lea Pare Toe, Isabelle Coche, Benjamin Robinson (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Delphine Thizy Source Type: research

Central nervous system melioidosis: A systematic review of individual participant data of case reports and case series
Conclusions/SignificanceThis study is the most extensive systematic review of case reports and case series of CNS melioidosis in all age groups. However, the results should be cautiously interpreted due to the missing data issue. The propensity of brainstem involvement which correlates with prominent cranial nerve deficits is the characteristic of CNS melioidosis especially encephalomyelitis type. The presenting features of fever and neurological deficits (especially cranial nerve palsies) along with the mononuclear CSF pleocytosis in a patient who lives in the endemic area and also has the risk factor for melioidosis shou...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Monton Wongwandee Source Type: research

Urban villages as transfer stations for dengue fever epidemic: A case study in the Guangzhou, China
ConclusionsUVs likely acted as special transfer stations, receiving and/or exporting DF cases during epidemics. This work increases our understanding of the influences of UVs on vector-borne diseases in highly urbanized areas, supplying valuable clues to local authorities making targeted interventions for the prevention and control of DF epidemics. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hongyan Ren Source Type: research

(De)glutamylation and cell death in < i > Leishmania < /i > parasites
by Louise Basmaciyan, Derrick R. Robinson, Nadine Azas, Magali Casanova Trypanosomatids are flagellated protozoan parasites that are very unusual in terms of cytoskeleton organization but also in terms of cell death. Most of the Trypanosomatid cytoskeleton consists of microtubules, forming different substructures including a subpellicular corset. Oddly, the actin netw ork appears structurally and functionally different from other eukaryotic actins. And Trypanosomatids have an apoptotic phenotype under cell death conditions, but the pathways involved are devoid of key mammal proteins such as caspases or death receptors, an...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Louise Basmaciyan Source Type: research

The arginine sensing and transport binding sites are distinct in the human pathogen < i > Leishmania < /i >
This study provides the first identification of an intra-molecular ligand of a sensor that acts during infection. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Harsh Pawar Source Type: research

Host immune responses induced by specific < i > Mycobacterium leprae < /i > antigens in an overnight whole-blood assay correlate with the diagnosis of paucibacillary leprosy patients in China
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the host markers induced by specificM.leprae antigens in an overnight WBA increase diagnostic and discriminatory value in PB patients with leprosy, with a particularly strong association with interleukin 8. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xiaohua Chen Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Brazil: Seasonal travelling waves and determinants of regional synchrony
This study offers a characterization of the spatial dynamics of dengue in Brazil and its drivers, which could inform intervention strategies against dengue and other arboviruses. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mikhail Churakov Source Type: research

The spatial epidemiology of leprosy in Kenya: A retrospective study
ConclusionLeprosy incidence exhibits geographical variation and there is need to institute tailored local control measures in these areas to reduce the burden of disability. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fatihiyya Wangara Source Type: research

Prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminth infections: A comparison between Negritos (indigenous) in inland jungle and those in resettlement at town peripheries
by Azdayanti Muslim, Sakinah Mohd Sofian, Syahrul Azlin Shaari, Boon-Peng Hoh, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim BackgroundFormerly known as the Malaysian hunter gatherers, the Negrito Orang Asli (OA) were heavily dependent on the forest for sustenance and early studies indicated high prevalence of intestinal parasitism. Initiation of a redevelopment program in the 1970s aimed to demarginalize the OA was expected to reduce soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Gradually, the OA were relocated to new resettlement areas at the peripheries. The aim of this study was to compare STH infections between Negritos who are still living in th...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Azdayanti Muslim Source Type: research

A highly expressed intestinal cysteine protease of < i > Ancylostoma ceylanicum < /i > protects vaccinated hamsters from hookworm infection
Conclusions/SignificanceThese findings indicate that rAceyCP1 is a promising vaccine candidate and validates a genomic/transcriptomic approach to human hookworm vaccine discovery. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jason B. Noon Source Type: research

Systematic sampling of adults as a sensitive means of detecting persistence of lymphatic filariasis following mass drug administration in Sri Lanka
ConclusionsCommunity based adult-TAS provided a reproducible measure of persistentW.bancrofti infection in a large evaluation unit in Sri Lanka that has low-level persistence of LF following multiple rounds of MDA. In addition, adult-TAS and MX results illustrate the focality of persistent LF in this setting. Adult-TAS may be more sensitive than school-TAS for this purpose. Adult-TAS and MX are potential options for post-MDA and post-validation surveillance programs to identify problem areas that require mop-up activities. Adult-TAS should also be useful for remapping areas with uncertain LF endemicity for possible inclusi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ramakrishna U. Rao Source Type: research

Inhibition of < i > Tityus serrulatus < /i > venom hyaluronidase affects venom biodistribution
ConclusionsBy comparing TsV biodistribution in the absence or presence of anti-hyaluronidase serum, the results obtained in the present work show that hyaluronidase has a key role not only in the venom spreading from the inoculation point to the bloodstream, but also in venom biodistribution from the bloodstream to target organs. Our findings demonstrate that hyaluronidase is indeed an important spreading factor of TsV and its inhibition can be used as a novel first-aid strategy in envenoming. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: B árbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes Source Type: research

The invasive giant African snail < i > Lissachatina fulica < /i > as natural intermediate host of < i > Aelurostrongylus abstrusus < /i > , < i > Angiostrongylus vasorum < /i > , < i > Troglostrongylus brevior < /i > , and < i > Crenosoma vulpis < /i > in Colombia
Conclusions/SignificanceThis epidemiological survey reports for first time the presence ofAel.abstrusus,T.brevior,C.vulpis andAng.vasorum inL.fulica in a number of regions of Colombia. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Felipe Penagos-Tabares Source Type: research

Genetic landscape and macro-evolution of co-circulating Coxsackieviruses A and Vaccine-derived Polioviruses in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2008-2013
This study was carried to i) investigate the circulation and genetic diversity of NPEV and polio vaccine isolates recovered from healthy children and Acute Flaccid Paralysis ( AFP) patients, ii) evaluate the occurrence of genetic recombination among EVs belonging to theEnterovirus C species (including PVs) and iii) identify the virological factors favoring multiple emergences of cVDPVs in DR Congo. The biological material considered in this study included i) a collection of 91 Sabin-like PVs, 54 cVDPVs and 150 NPEVs isolated from AFP patients between 2008 and 2012 in DR Congo and iii) a collection of 330 stool specimens co...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of < i > Burkholderia pseudomallei < /i > isolates in the environment near a patient ’s residence in Northeast Thailand
Conclusions/SignificanceDiverse genotypes ofB.pseudomallei were prevalent in the environment. However, the patient may have been infected with a low-density genotype. Intervention strategies for preventingB.pseudomallei infection are required. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rathanin Seng Source Type: research

Loss of cytoplasmic incompatibility in < i > Wolbachia < /i > -infected < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > under field conditions
by Perran A. Ross, Scott A. Ritchie, Jason K. Axford, Ary A. HoffmannWolbachia bacteria are now being introduced intoAedes aegypti mosquito populations for dengue control. WhenWolbachia infections are at a high frequency, they influence the local transmission of dengue by direct virus blocking as well as deleterious effects on vector mosquito populations. However, the effectiveness of this strategy could be influenced by environmental temperatures that decreaseWolbachia density, thereby reducing the ability ofWolbachia to invade and persist in the population and block viruses. We rearedwMel-infectedAe.aegypti larvae in the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Perran A. Ross Source Type: research

Combating infectious disease epidemics through China ’s Belt and Road Initiative
by Jin Chen, Robert Bergquist, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Jing-Bo Xue, Men-Bao Qian (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jin Chen Source Type: research

Epidemiological trend of chikungunya outbreak in Pakistan: 2016 –2018
by Nazish Badar, Muhammad Salman, Jamil Ansari, Aamer Ikram, Javaria Qazi, Muhammad Masroor Alam (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nazish Badar Source Type: research

Competence of non-human primates to transmit < i > Leishmania infantum < /i > to the invertebrate vector < i > Lutzomyia longipalpis < /i >
This study has implications for public health strategies and conservation medicine. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ayisa Rodrigues de Oliveira Source Type: research

Geographic shifts in < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > habitat suitability in Ecuador using larval surveillance data and ecological niche modeling: Implications of climate change for public health vector control
by Catherine A. Lippi, Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra, M. E. Franklin Baja ña Loor, Jose E. Dueñas Zambrano, Nelson A. Espinoza Lopez, Jason K. Blackburn, Sadie J. Ryan Arboviral disease transmission byAedes mosquitoes poses a major challenge to public health systems in Ecuador, where constraints on health services and resource allocation call for spatially informed management decisions. Employing a unique dataset of larval occurrence records provided by the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health, we used ecological niche models (ENMs) to estimate the current geographic distribution ofAedes aegypti in Ecuador, using mosquito...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Catherine A. Lippi Source Type: research

Human collectin-11 ( < i > COLEC11 < /i > ) and its synergic genetic interaction with < i > MASP2 < /i > are associated with the pathophysiology of Chagas Disease
In this study, collectin-11 plasma levels andCOLEC11 variants in exon 7 were assessed in a Brazilian cohort of 251 patients with chronic CD and 108 healthy controls. Gene-gene interactions betweenCOLEC11 andMASP2 variants were analyzed. Collectin-11 levels were significantly decreased in CD patients compared to controls (p (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Thaisa Lucas Sandri Source Type: research

Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission
by Anna S. Jaeger, Reyes A. Murrieta, Lea R. Goren, Chelsea M. Crooks, Ryan V. Moriarty, Andrea M. Weiler, Sierra Rybarczyk, Matthew R. Semler, Christopher Huffman, Andres Mejia, Heather A. Simmons, Michael Fritsch, Jorge E. Osorio, Jens C. Eickhoff, Shelby L. O ’Connor, Gregory D. Ebel, Thomas C. Friedrich, Matthew T. Aliota Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was first linked to birth defects during the American outbreak in 2015/2016. It has been proposed that mutations unique to the Asian/American-genotype explain, at least in part, the ability of Asian/American ZIKV to cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Re...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anna S. Jaeger Source Type: research

The case-area targeted rapid response strategy to control cholera in Haiti: a four-year implementation study
Conclusions/significanceThe implementation of a nationwide case-area targeted rapid response strategy to control cholera in Haiti was feasible albeit with certain obstacles. Such feedback from the field and ongoing impact studies will be very informative for actors and international donors involved in cholera control and elimination in Haiti and in other affected countries. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stanislas Rebaudet Source Type: research

Ecology and epidemiology of rabies in humans, domestic animals and wildlife in Namibia, 2011-2017
by Emmanuel H. Hikufe, Conrad M. Freuling, Rauna Athingo, Albertina Shilongo, Emmy-Else Ndevaetela, Maria Helao, Mathews Shiindi, Rainer Hassel, Alec Bishi, Siegfried Khaiseb, Juliet Kabajani, Jolandie van der Westhuizen, Gregorio Torres, Andrea Britton, Moetapele Letshwenyo, Karin Schwabenbauer, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Nicolai Denzin, Susanne Amler, Franz J. Conraths, Thomas M üller, Adrianatus Maseke Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that causes a heavy burden on societies. Namibia, a country in southern Africa, is aiming at controlling the disease in its main reservoir, the domestic dog. To facilitate the impleme...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Emmanuel H. Hikufe Source Type: research

Low population Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) seroprevalence in Udayapur district, Nepal, three years after a JE vaccination programme: A case for further catch up campaigns?
This study aimed to determine wheth er serum anti-JEV neutralisation titres are: 1. maintained over time since vaccination, 2. vary with historic local JE incidence, and 3. are associated with DENV neutralising antibody levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three districts of Nepal: Banke, Rupandehi and Udayapur. Udayapur di strict had been vaccinated against JE most recently (2009), but had been the focus of only one campaign, compared with two in Banke and three in Rupandehi. Participants answered a short questionnaire and serum was assayed for anti-JEV and anti-DENV IgM and IgG (by ELISA) and 50% plaque reduct...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lance Turtle Source Type: research

< i > Aedes aegypti < /i > HPX8C modulates immune responses against viral infection
by Ju-Mei Wang, Yang Cheng, Zuo-Kun Shi, Xiao-Feng Li, Long-Sheng Xing, Hong Jiang, Dan Wen, Yong-Qiang Deng, Ai-Hua Zheng, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhen Zou Mosquitoes act as vectors of numerous pathogens that cause human diseases. Dengue virus (DENV) transmitted by mosquito,Aedes aegypti, is responsible for dengue fever epidemics worldwide with a serious impact on human health. Currently, disease control mainly relies on vector targeted intervention strategies. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the innate immune response of mosquitoes against pathogens. In the present study, the expres...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ju-Mei Wang Source Type: research

Non-typhoid < i > Salmonella < /i > blood stream infection in Kuwait: Clinical and microbiological characteristics
by M. John Albert, Dieter Bulach, Wadha Alfouzan, Hidemasa Izumiya, Glen Garter, Khaled Alobaid, Fatemah Alatar, Abdul Rashid Sheikh, Laurent Poirel Non-typhoidSalmonella (NTS) bacteremia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is considered to be an emerging and neglected tropical disease in Africa. We studied this in two tertiary hospitals –Al Farwaniya and Al Amiri–in Kuwait, a subtropical country, from April 2013-May 2016. NTS bacteremia was present in 30 of 53,860 (0.75%) and 31 of 290,36 (1.33%) blood cultures in the two hospitals respectively. In Al Farwaniya hospital, one-third ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: M. John Albert Source Type: research

A combination of incidence data and mobility proxies from social media predicts the intra-urban spread of dengue in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
by Aditya Lia Ramadona, Yesim Tozan, Lutfan Lazuardi, Joacim Rockl öv Only a few studies have investigated the potential of using geotagged social media data for predicting the patterns of spatio-temporal spread of vector-borne diseases. We herein demonstrated the role of human mobility in the intra-urban spread of dengue by weighting local incidence data with geo-t agged Twitter data as a proxy for human mobility across 45 neighborhoods in Yogyakarta city, Indonesia. To estimate the dengue virus importation pressure in each study neighborhood monthly, we developed an algorithm to estimate a dynamic mobility-weighted...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aditya Lia Ramadona Source Type: research

Clinical features and genetic background of the sympatric species < i > Paracoccidioides brasiliensis < /i > and < i > Paracoccidioides americana < /i >
ConclusionsP.brasiliensis andP.americana are sympatric and share similar clinical features and habitat, where they may compete for similar hosts. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Priscila Marques de Macedo Source Type: research

The gendered impact of Buruli ulcer on the household production of health and social support networks: Why decentralization favors women
ConclusionThis study illustrates the importance of decentralized treatment programs for NTDs such as BU. Such programs enable patients to remain in their homes while being treated, and do not displace women responsible for the welfare of the entire household. When women are displaced the well-being of the entire household is placed in jeopardy. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ines Elvire Agbo Source Type: research

Reversal of liver fibrosis after splenectomy in a patient with advanced schistosomiasis japonica: A case report with 4-year follow-up
by Langui Song, Beibei Zhang, Jiahua Liu, Min Wang, Xiaohe Ma, Lifu Wang, Xiaoying Wu, Zhongdao Wu, Tianping Wang (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Langui Song Source Type: research

Broken drug markets in infectious diseases: Opportunities outside the private sector?
by Jonathan D. Alpern, Stephen J. Dunlop, William M. Stauffer Author summary: A subset of anti-infective drugs are increasingly unavailable for patients in the United States due to pricing or withdrawal from the market. Timely market solutions are needed. We assert that solutions to ensure access to some essential anti-infective agents lie outside capital markets and that public-private partnerships may be the most viable solution. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jonathan D. Alpern Source Type: research

Challenges and opportunities for control and elimination of soil-transmitted helminth infection beyond 2020
by Matthew C. Freeman, Oladele Akogun, Vicente Belizario Jr., Simon J. Brooker, Theresa W. Gyorkos, Rubina Imtiaz, Alejandro Krolewiecki, Seung Lee, Sultani H. Matendechero, Rachel L. Pullan, J ürg Utzinger (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Matthew C. Freeman Source Type: research

Case report: A retrospective serological analysis indicating human exposure to tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes in Sonora, Mexico
by Edwin V ázquez-Guerrero, Norma P. Adan-Bante, Mónica C. Mercado-Uribe, César Hernández-Rodríguez, Lourdes Villa-Tanaca, Job E. Lopez, J. Antonio Ibarra (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Edwin V ázquez-Guerrero Source Type: research

Whole cell matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of < i > Leptospira < /i > spp. in Thailand and Lao PDR
This study used matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as rapid and accurate tool for the identification of leptospires. The whole cell protein spectra of 116Leptospira isolates including 15 referencesLeptospira spp. (pathogenic, n = 8; intermediate, n = 2; non-pathogenic, n = 5) and 101Leptospira spp. clinical isolates was created as an in-house MALDI-TOF MS database. Ninety-seven clinical isolates from Thailand and Laos was validated with these protein spectra and revealed 98.9% correct identification when compared with 16S rRNA gene sequences method. Moreover, MALDI-T...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 10, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Piengchan Sonthayanon Source Type: research

Efficacy of China-made praziquantel for treatment of Schistosomiasis haematobium in Africa: A randomized controlled trial
ConclusionThe efficacy of China-made praziquantel does not differ significantly from praziquantel made by Merck KGaA in Germany. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03133832 (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 10, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xin-Yao Wang Source Type: research

Strategies for tackling < i > Taenia solium < /i > taeniosis/cysticercosis: A systematic review and comparison of transmission models, including an assessment of the wider Taeniidae family transmission models
Conclusions/SignificanceGaps identified from examining the wider Taeniidae family models highlighted the potential role of FoI modelling to inform model parameterisation, as well as the need for spatial modelling and suitable structuring of interventions as key areas for futureT.solium model development. We conclude that working with field partners to address data gaps and conducting cross-model validation with baseline and longitudinal data will be critical to building consensus-led and epidemiological setting-appropriate intervention strategies to help fulfil the WHO targets. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 10, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Matthew A. Dixon Source Type: research

Relationship between toxoplasmosis and obsessive compulsive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that toxoplasmosis could be as an associated factor for OCD (OR = 1.96). However, further prospective investigations are highly recommended to illuminate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms ofT.gondii infection in OCD and to better investigate the relationship between OCD andT.gondii infection. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 10, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tooran Nayeri Chegeni Source Type: research

Estimating the current burden of Chagas disease in Mexico: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 2006 to 2017
Conclusions/SignificanceOur analysis suggests a disease burden forT.cruzi infection higher than previously recognized, highlighting the urgency of establishing Chagas disease surveillance and control as a key national public health priority in Mexico, to ensure that it does not remain a major barrier to the economic and social development of the country's most vulnerable populations. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 9, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Audrey Arnal Source Type: research

Improved estimates for extinction probabilities and times to extinction for populations of tsetse ( < i > Glossina < /i > spp)
by Damian Kajunguri, Elisha B. Are, John W. Hargrove A published study used a stochastic branching process to derive equations for the mean and variance of the probability of, and time to, extinction in population of tsetse flies (Glossina spp) as a function of adult and pupal mortality, and the probabilities that a female is inseminated by a fertile male. The original derivation was partially heuristic and provided no proofs for inductive results. We provide these proofs, together with a more compact way of reaching the same results. We also show that, while the published equations hold good for the case where tsetse pro...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 9, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Damian Kajunguri Source Type: research

Epidemiological features of a recent zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in Zagora province, southern Morocco
by Adil El Hamouchi, Othmane Daoui, Mouad Ait Kbaich, Idris Mhaidi, Sofia El Kacem, Ikram Guizani, M ’hammed Sarih, Meryem Lemrani BackgroundLeishmania major is an endemic vector-borne disease in Morocco that causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), especially in arid pre-Saharan regions where its unique vector and reservoir arePhlebotomus papatasi andMeriones shawi, respectively, and may cause epidemics. In late 2017, the Zagora province, an endemic focus for ZCL in southern Morocco, had CL outbreak. The main objective of our investigation was to analyze the epidemiological features of this latest ZCL outbreak...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 9, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Adil El Hamouchi Source Type: research

The role of perceptions and knowledge of leprosy in the elimination of leprosy: A baseline study in Fatehpur district, northern India
ConclusionThis study revealed poor knowledge regarding leprosy and high levels of stigma and fear and desire to keep social distance towards persons affected by leprosy. Community education that takes cultural beliefs, knowledge gaps and fears into consideration could improve knowledge, reduce misconceptions and positively influence the perception of leprosy. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 5, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anna T. van ‘t Noordende Source Type: research

Female genital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS: Reversing the neglect of girls and women
by Peter J. Hotez, Wendy Harrison, Alan Fenwick, Amaya L. Bustinduy, Camilla Ducker, Pamela Sabina Mbabazi, Dirk Engels, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Peter J. Hotez Source Type: research

The Role of Interleukin-1 cytokine family (IL-1 β, IL-37) and interleukin-12 cytokine family (IL-12, IL-35) in eumycetoma infection pathogenesis
by Amir Abushouk, Amre Nasr, Emad Masuadi, Gamal Allam, Emmanuel E. Siddig, Ahmed H. Fahal Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions, characterised by massive deformity and disability and can be fatal if untreated early and appropriately. Interleukins (IL) -35 and IL-37 are newly discovered cytokines that play an important role in suppres sing the immune system. However, the expression of these interleukins in patients withMadurella mycetomatis (M.mycetomatis) induced eumycetoma has not yet been explored. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of IL-1 family (IL-1...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Amir Abushouk Source Type: research